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Rice Starch Molecular Size and its Relationship with Amylose Content


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The composition and starch molecular structure of eight rice varieties were studied. Waxy and non-waxy (long-, medium-, and short-grain) rice varieties from California and Texas were used. The amylose contents were measured using the Concanavalin A method and were found to be related to the type of rice: waxy ≈ 1.0%, short and medium grain 8.7–15.4%, and long grain 17.1–19.9%. The weight-average molar masses (Mw) of the starches varied from 0.52 to 1.96×108 g/mol. As would be expected, a higher Mw of rice starch correlated to lower amylose content. The range of Mw of amylopectin was 0.82 to 2.50 ×108 g/mol, and there was also a negative correlation of amylopectin Mw with amylose content. Amylose Mw ranged from 2.20 to 8.31×105 g/mol. After debranching the amylopectin with isoamylase, the weight-average degree of polymerization (DPw) for the long-chain fraction correlated positively with a higher amylose content. California and Texas varieties were significantly different in their amylose content, starch Mw (short- and medium-grain only), and amylopectin Mw (p < 0.05).
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In Myoung Park
Ana Maria Ibáñez
Charles F. Shoemaker
Department of Food Science
& Technology,
University of California,
Davis, CA, USA
Rice Starch Molecular Size and its Relationship with
Amylose Content
The composition and starch molecular structure of eight rice varieties were studied.
Waxy and non-waxy (long-, medium-, and short-grain) rice varieties from California
and Texas were used. The amylose contents were measured using the Concanavalin A
method and were found to be related to the type of rice: waxy <1.0%, short and me-
dium grain 8.7–15.4%, and long grain 17.1–19.9%. The weight-average molar masses
(Mw) of the starches varied from 0.52 to 1.966108g/mol. As would be expected, a
higher Mwof rice starch correlated to lower amylose content. The range of Mwof
amylopectin was 0.82 to 2.50 6108g/mol, and there was also a negative correlation of
amylopectin Mwwith amylose content. Amylose Mwranged from 2.20 to 8.316105g/
mol. After debranching the amylopectin with isoamylase, the weight-average degree
of polymerization (DPw) for the long-chain fraction correlated positively with a
higher amylose content. California and Texas varieties were significantly different in
their amylose content, starch Mw(short- and medium-grain only), and amylopectin
Keyword: Starch structure; Amylose content; Weight-average molar mass; z-Average
radius of gyration; Amylopectin branch chain length distribution
1 Introduction
Starch, the major storage polysaccharide, is a polymeric
mixture of predominantly linear (a-1?4) amylose and
highly branched amylopectin (a-1?6) glucan molecules
[1]. The ratio of amylose to amylopectin and the branching
properties of the amylopectin molecules of a rice starch
can affect the physical, textural, and pasting properties
during the cooking of rice and rice starch [2–5]. Rice
starches contain varied amylose contents; waxy, 0–2%
and non-waxy, 5–33% [2], and the molar masses of amy-
lopectins are about 100 times higher than those of amy-
lose [6–9]. The rice starch granule is one of the smallest
starch granules (2–5 mm diameter). The fine size and
unique white color of rice starch has led to its application
as a cosmetic powder, laundry stiffening agent, paper
coating powder, sugar coating in confectionery applica-
tions, and alternative ingredient for fats. In addition, rice
starch has various applications in food industries as an
allergy-free ingredient [2, 6, 10].
Static multi-angle laser light scattering (MALLS) in con-
junction with high-performance size-exclusion chroma-
tography (HPSEC) can be used to determine the molar
mass and mean square radius of gyration of polymers in
solution without the need for calibration standards [11].
This system has been used to measure starch weight-
average molar mass (Mw) [12–17], amylose Mw[18, 19]
and amylopectin Mw[12, 17, 20] from different cereal
sources. Furthermore, this method has been applied to
determine the weight-average degree of polymerization
(DPw) of the side chains of amylopectin [14, 15, 21, 22].
High-performance anion-exchange chromatography
equipped with a pulsed amperometric detector (HPAEC-
PAD) has been also used for effective separation of low
DP chains, but its sensitivity falls off with chains above a
DP of 80 [23].
This study focused on enhancing knowledge of rice
starch structure by studying a set of diverse rice types
from two growing locations, California (CA) and Texas
(TX). The following properties were investigated 1) chem-
ical composition of rice flour and starch, 2) the molar
mass and size of starch, amylopectin and amylose, and 3)
the DP of amylopectin branches.
2 Materials and Methods
2.1 Materials
One waxy rice (Calmochi 101) and seven non-waxy rices
(Bengal, Cocodrie, Koshihikari, L-205, M-202, M-401, S-
102) were studied. They were cultivated in two regions of
the United States, CA and TX during the 2003 cropping
year. The CA rice was provided by the California Coop-
Correspondence: In Myoung Park, Food Science & Technology
Department, University of California, Davis, CA 95616, USA.
Phone:11-530-752-7347, Fax: 11-530-752-4759, e-mail;
Starch/Stärke 59 (2007) 69–77 69
©2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Research Paper
DOI 10.1002/star.200600568
70 I. M. Park et al. Starch/Stärke 59 (2007) 69–77
erative Rice Experimental Station, Biggs, CA, and the
Texas rice was provided by the USDA-ARS Rice Quality
Laboratory, Beaumont, TX. The TX paddy rices were
shipped to the California Cooperative Rice Experimental
Station. The CA and TX paddy rice were shelled using a
McGill Sheller (Houston, TX, USA) and then immediately
milled using a Yamamoto VP31T whitener (Yamamoto
Corp., Ltd., Yamagata, Japan), registering about 30 on a
Kett whiteness meter (C-300–3, Kett Electric Lab, Tokyo,
Japan) for short-, medium- and long-grain types and 40
for the waxy type. The outcome of the final whiteness was
different according to variety because long, medium and
short grains have a naturally higher appearance of white-
ness than the waxy type grain. The milled rice was ground
to rice flour using a UDY Cyclotec Cyclone mill (Tecator,
Höganäs, Sweden) with 0.5 mm mesh screen.
2.2 Starch isolation
Starch was isolated from milled rice using pronase (alka-
line protease; 45,000 U/g, Calbiochem, San Diego, CA,
USA) from Streptomyces griceus based on the method of
Biliaderis and Juliano [8]. One hundred grams of milled
rice were soaked in three times their volume of water for
3 h. The samples were then blended for 3 min in a food
processor. This dispersion was then passed through 100,
200 and 400 mesh screens consecutively and then the
collected wet-milled flour was centrifuged and the super-
natant was discarded. Next, the flour was treated with five
times its volume of 0.2% pronase in 0.03 M phosphate
buffer, pH 7.4, at 377C with 0.02% sodium azide. After
24 h, the dispersion was centrifuged. A fresh pronase so-
lution was then added, and the suspension was incu-
bated for another 24 h and centrifuged. Next, the non-
starch lipids were removed from the recovered starch by
treating the wet isolate twice with five times its volume of
water-saturated 1-butanol (WSB: 36% water: 64% buta-
nol) for a total incubation time of 24 h. The starch granules
were recovered by centrifugation at 2,0006gfor 10 min.
After washing with water, the final sample was freeze-
dried and sieved with a 100 mesh screen. Freeze-dried
rice starches were spread out on an aluminum plate and
equilibrated to ambient relative humidity (<50% RH) for
two weeks then stored in plastic bottles at room temper-
2.3 Determination of amylose content
The amylose content of the isolated rice starches was
determined using an amylose/amylopectin assay kit
(Megazyme, Wicklow, Ireland) based on the Con A meth-
od [24].
2.4 Starch and amylopectin sample preparation
Samples for the HPSEC analysis were prepared following
the method used by Yokoyama et al. [16], except for the
final sample concentration selected as 0.4% (w/w).
Starch was added to the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/
50 mM LiBr solvent and then heated at 957C for 15 min, in
a Reactitherm stirring heating module (Pierce Chemical
Co., Rockford, IL, USA). After heating, the samples were
cooled and continuously stirred overnight and then cen-
trifuged for 10 min at 10,000 rpm (13,5006g) (Eppendorf,
model 5415C, Westbury, NY, USA) and filtered through a
1.2 mm nylon syringe membrane filter (Scientific Resour-
ces Inc., North Brunswick, NJ, USA) prior to analysis.
2.5 Fractionation of amylopectin
Amylopectin from isolated starch was fractionated using
a size-exclusion chromatography column (2.5 cm
6100 cm) with Sepharose CL-2B (exclusion range Mr
16105–261071, Pharmacia, Piscataway, NJ, USA) fol-
lowing the method of Han and Hamaker [25]. Starch
samples were prepared by first dispersing in DMSO
(concurrently with heating) and then recovered by pre-
cipitation by the addition of ethanol [26]. Rice starches
(25–28 mg) samples were weighed and solubilized in 1 mL
DMSO for 15 min at 957C. After cooling the samples, 6 mL
of ethanol was added to precipitate the starch. The mix-
tures were centrifuged at 2,0006gfor 5 min and the
supernatant was discarded. The sample tubes were
turned upside down on tissue paper for draining for
10 min. The precipitates were then redissolved in 7.5 mL
deionized distilled water and boiled for 15 min with stir-
ring. After filtering the sample solution through 0.45 mm
nylon membrane filter (Millipore, Bedford, MA, USA), the
sample solution was loaded to a column at a flow rate of
0.4 mL/min in descending mode, and 3 mL fractions were
collected. Aliquots from the fractionation (0.5mL) were
diluted in distilled water to 2.5 mL, and then 0.2 mL of
0.025 M potassium iodide/iodine solution was added.
The elution profiles were analyzed for blue value with
iodine solution at 630 nm. Amylopectin fractions were
collected, freeze-dried and later used for the measure-
ment of amylopectin Mw.
2.6 Enzymatic debranching of amylopectin and
sample preparation for HPSEC
Rice starches were debranched using a modified method
based on that of Bradbury and Bello [9], and Ward et al.
[27]. The starch samples were prepared by dissolving
50 mg of starch in 5 mL of distilled water and heated at
©2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Starch/Stärke 59 (2007) 69–77 Rice Starch Molecular Size and Amylose Content 71
957C for 15min. The tubes were then placed in a water
bath at 457C to cool down. After cooling to 457C, 5 mL of
40 mM acetate buffer (pH 3.8) and 25 mL of the iso-
amylase from Pseudomonas amyloderamosa (59,000 U/
mg, Hayashibara Biochemical Labs, Okayama, Japan)
was added to each tube for debranching. After 24 h, the
enzyme reaction was stopped by heating the tubes at
1007C for 10 min. The debranched solution was cen-
trifuged and the supernatant was filtered through a
0.45 mm nylon syringe membrane filter (Scientific
Resources Inc., North Brunswick, NJ, USA). The filtrate
was then injected into the HPSEC system. The chroma-
togram was analyzed for Mw’s of amylose and the amylo-
pectin branches.
2.7 High-performance size-exclusion
The HPSEC system consisted of an HP 1050 pump and
auto-injector (Hewlett Packard, Valley Forge, PA, USA)
fitted with a 100 mL injection loop. The system also
employed a MALLS detector (Dawn DSP-F, Wyatt Tech.,
Santa Barbara, CA, USA) with a He-Ne laser source (l=
632.8 nm), a K-5 flow cell, and a differential refractometer
detector (RI) (model ERC-7512, ERMA Inc., Tokyo,
2.7.1 Determination of Mwof starch and
For starch and amylopectin samples, a Plgel Mixed-A
(Polymer Labs., Amherst, MA, USA) column was used
with DMSO (HPLC grade, Sigma Chemical Co., St. Louis,
MO, USA) with 50 mM LiBr (Fisher Scientific, Fair Lawn,
NJ, USA) as a mobile phase with a flow rate of 0.4mL/
min. A column bank of four Styragel columns (Styragel
two-HMW 7, HMW 6E and HMW 2; Waters Co., Milford,
MA, USA) was also used for comparing the resolution with
that of the Plgel Mixed-A column. The Plgel Mixed-A and
Styragel HMW columns had high-porosity 10 mm frits and
20 mm particles which were designed to minimize poly-
mer shear effects. A refractive index value of 1.4785 and a
dn/dcvalue of 0.066 for starch in DMSO/50 mM LiBr so-
lution were used for the molecular weight calculations.
2.7.2 Determination of Mwof amylose and the
debranched amylopectin
For the determination of the Mwof amylose and the amy-
lopectin branches, four aqueous SEC columns (Ultra-
hydrogel 120, 250, 500 and 1000; Waters Co., Milford,
MA, USA) with a guard column (Ultrahydrogel, 7567.5,
Millipore Co., USA) were used. The mobile phase was
0.1 M aqueous sodium nitrate with 0.02% sodium azide,
as a preservative, with a 0.6mL/min flow rate. A refractive
index of 1.3340 set at a dn/dcvalue of 0.160 was used for
the analysis of starch in H2O/NaNO3. The columns were
maintained at 407C with a column heater for both the
organic solvent and aqueous SEC experiments.
2.8 Data treatment
The data analysis methods were those used by Yokoyama
et al. [16]. Astra software (Version 4.7.07, Wyatt Technol-
ogy, Santa Barbara, CA, USA) was used for data analysis.
The Mwand z-average radius of gyration (Rz) for starch
and AP samples was calculated using the second-order
Berry method [7]. The Mwof amylose and the amylopectin
branches were analyzed using the first-order Debye
method [28].
2.9 Statistical analysis
Data were statistically analyzed by the general linear
models procedure (GLM), the difference between the
means of the samples were analyzed by the least signifi-
cant difference (LSD) test, at a probability level of 0.05,
and Pearson correlation coefficient, with the Statistical
Analysis System software (version 8., SAS Institute Inc.,
Cary , NC, USA).
3 Results and Discussion
3.1 Amylose content of rice starch
After analyzing the amylose content with the Con A
method, long-grain rice varieties were found to contain
17.1–19.9% amylose, while short- and medium-grain
varieties contained 8.7–15.4%, and the waxy rice con-
tained an average of 1.0%. The M-401, medium-grain
variety grown in CA, showed an unexpected low value of
amylose of 8.7%.
3.2 Starch Mw
The purified starches were analyzed by HPSEC-MALLS
to determine weight-average values of their molar mas-
ses (Mw) and z-average radius of gyration (Rz). SEC col-
umns with large packaging particles (20 mm) and large
pore sized frits (10 mm) were used to minimize shear deg-
radation of the amylopectins which have high molar
©2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
72 I. M. Park et al. Starch/Stärke 59 (2007) 69–77
Initial SEC chromatographs with the four Waters Styragel
HMW columns using DMSO/LiBr did not provide resolu-
tion of amylopectin and amylose (Fig. 1). The lowest Mw’s
observed from the light scattering analysis of the latter
part of the chromatograph were considerably higher than
that expected for amylose. For the long-grain variety of
Cocodrie from CA, the lowest Mwwas 1006106g/mol in
the SEC chromatogram. This was considerably higher
than previously reported values of amyloses that have
ranged from 16105to 36106g/mol [29]. As there was no
resolution of amylopectin from amylose; this would sug-
gest that the apparent high Mwvalues for the lower Mw
species of amylose may have been for a mixture of amy-
lopectin and amylose. In order to measure the Mw’s of the
amylopectins and amyloses of the rice varieties, fraction-
ation of these two components was necessary before Mw
analysis using SEC-MALLS.
For the measurement of the Mwof the rice starches, one
Plgel Mixed-A column SEC analysis with DMSO/LiBr as
the mobile phase was used to save time and solvent. This
single column provided overall measurements of Mwof
the starches which were in agreement with the four col-
umn bank. The average starch Mw’s of the long, medium/
short, and waxy rice starches were 0.786108, 1.186108,
and 1.876108g/mol, respectively. Average Rzvalues
were 189nm, 207 nm, and 224 nm, respectively for the
same grain types (Tab. 1). The Berry second-order fitting
method was used for calculating the starch Mwbecause a
small change in the slope has a dramatic effect on the
value of the y-intercept of the large polymers [16, 17, 22].
Previous studies have reported a wide range of Mwfrom
different grain sources; waxy maize was 6.5 or 596107g/
mol depending on dispersing conditions or 206107g/
mol, Mwof potato starches ranged from 2.6 to 0.26107or
5.46107g/mol, and wheat starch showed an Mwof
7.16107g/mol with different sample preparation steps
and different solvent systems by an HPSEC system [12,
13, 30].
As was expected, there was a negative correlation be-
tween the amylose content and the Mwof the rice starch-
es. The starch Mwdecreased as the amylose content
Fig. 1. SEC-chromatograph of CA-Bengal starch with
four columns showing the lack of resolution between
amylopectin and amylose. The mass was detected with
an RI detector or the molar mass was detected with a
MALLS detector.
Tab. 1. Weight-average molar mass (Mw) and z-average radius of gyration (Rz) of starch, amylopectin and amylose.
Rice variety Location Grain
Starch Amylopectin Amylose
Rz’ [nm] Mw
Rz[nm] Mw
Cocodrie CA L 0.59 60.01 177 61.1 1.19 60.07 252 66.2 3.96 60.98 33.4 60.50
Cocodrie TX L 0.52 60.02 177 61.0 1.12 60.01 258 68.8 2.78 60.30 33.3 60.20
L-205 CA L 1.00 60.03 194 60.9 0.82 60.22 184 613.2 5.88 60.25 36.1 61.20
L-205 TX L 0.99 60.03 209 60.2 1.24 60.56 224 68.6 3.00 60.55 32.2 60.80
Bengal CA M 1.15 60.03 210 61.7 1.65 60.35 281 623.2 3.59 60.14 34.6 61.20
Bengal TX M 1.46 60.05 209 63.3 2.32 60.44 311 612.1 3.51 60.42 34.4 61.30
M-202 CA M 1.01 60.07 202 60.5 1.45 60.15 254 60.6 3.44 60.88 35.6 60.57
M-202 TX M 1.08 60.05 198 63.9 1.64 60.15 251 61.5 3.35 60.53 35.3 60.35
M-401 CA M 1.35 60.11 215 61.4 2.13 60.50 270 61.1 4.31 60.53 36.5 60.49
M-401 TX M 1.23 60.03 207 61.5 2.05 60.08 292 64.2 4.27 60.53 33.1 61.48
Koshihikari CA S 1.05 60.03 200 63.3 1.26 60.02 240 64.3 4.16 60.01 34.7 61.78
Koshihikari TX S 1.12 60.06 206 61.5 2.04 60.17 283 612.0 3.09 60.01 33.9 62.25
S-102 CA S 1.05 60.00 205 61.1 1.65 60.22 260 61.4 3.85 60.05 34.1 63.35
S-102 TX S 1.28 60.04 216 62.0 1.73 60.11 269 63.5 3.80 60.89 32.1 63.80
Calmochi-101 CA W 1.85 60.09 222 61.5 2.50 60.37 319 610.1 N/S N/S
Calmochi-101 TX W 1.89 60.00 225 60.0 2.44 60.45 304 64.2 N/S N/S
1Average from at least two replicates 6standard deviation of each sample.
©2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Starch/Stärke 59 (2007) 69–77 Rice Starch Molecular Size and Amylose Content 73
increased (r=20.924). Waxy rice contained 2% or less
amylose, and had the largest Mw’s of starch. Long-grain
rice had the highest amylose content and showed smal-
lest Mw. When the Mws of starches of short and medium
grains were statistically analyzed, the Mw’s of the TX vari-
eties were higher than those of the corresponding CA
varieties, however, the waxy and long-grain rice varieties
showed no significant difference in starch Mwbetween
growth locations (p,0.05).
3.3 Amylopectin Mw
Failing adequate SEC resolution, fractionation of amylo-
pectin from amylose was necessary before measure-
ments of the Mwof the amylopectins with SEC-MALLS
system. Fractionation of the rice starch samples was
conducted with gel permeation chromatography (GPC)
with Sepharose CL-2B. A chromatograph of normal rice
starch (Cocodrie-CA, 18.6% amylose) showed two peaks
(Fig. 2a), amylopectin (peak 1) and amylose (peak 2). In
contrast, a chromatograph for a waxy rice starch (Cal-
mochi-CA, 1.0% amylose, Fig. 2b) showed only one
peak, which corresponded to the same elution volume as
the first peak for the normal rice starch. The first fractions,
peak 1, for all the rice varieties were collected and freeze-
dried for HPSEC-MALLS analysis of the Mwand Rz. The
recovery of the peak 2 fractions provided an insufficient
amount of sample for HPSEC analysis.
From HPSEC-MALLS analysis, the average Mwvalues of
peak 1, amylopectin, were found to be 1.10 6108g/mol,
1.81 6108g/mol and 2.47 6108g/mol for the long-, short/
medium-, and waxy grain samples, respectively (Tab. 2).
The average Rzvalues were 229nm, 271nm and 311nm,
respectively for the same samples. There was a negative
correlation between amylose content and amylopectin Mw
(r=20.819). As amylose content increased the amylo-
pectin Mwdecreased. Waxy rice varieties showed the
highest Mwand long-grain varieties showed the smallest
Mw. This relationship is similar to the correlation found be-
tween the starch Mwand amylose content. Yoo and Jane
[17] reported similar results, they found an Mwof amylo-
pectin from waxy maize (8.36108g/mol) and waxy wheat
(5.26108g/mol) which was higher than that of normal
maize (4.96108g/mol) and wheat (3.16108g/mol).
There was a correlation between the Rzand Mwof amy-
lopectin (Fig. 3; slope = 0.393, r= 0.906). The value of the
slope 0.393 suggested that the shape of the dispersed
species was between a highly compact spherical and
branched form. Wyatt [11] stated that a slope less than
0.33 indicates a compact homogeneous spherical mole-
cule; whereas a slope less than 0.50 indicates a species
of a branched molecule.
Fig. 2. Sepharose CL-2B gel permeation profiles of rice
starches for (a) normal rice starches (Cocodrie-CA) (b)
waxy rice starches (Calmochi-CA).
Peak 1; amylopectin, Peak 2; amylose fraction.
Tab. 2. Amylose content of rice starches.
Rice variety Location Grain
content [%]
of % AM2
Cocodrie CA L 18.6 60.44
Cocodrie TX L 19.9 60.63
L-205 CA L 17.1 60.53
L-205 TX L 17.6 60.85 18.3
Bengal CA M 13.8 61.50
Bengal TX M 11.0 60.85
M-202 CA M 14.2 60.65
M-202 TX M 15.4 60.29
M-401 CA M 8.7 60.29
M-401 TX M 10.4 60.29 12.3
Koshihikari CA S 14.6 60.35
Koshihikari TX S 12.6 60.30
S-102 CA S 15.8 60.35
S-102 TX S 13.1 6.0.21 14.0
Calmochi-101 CA W 1.0 60.28
Calmochi-101 TX W 0.9 60.03 1.0
1Determined by Concanavalin A method (Gibson et al.
2Average for each grain type with at least three repli-
cates 6standard deviation of each sample.
©2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
74 I. M. Park et al. Starch/Stärke 59 (2007) 69–77
Fig. 3. Relationships between the weight-average molar
mass (Mw) and z-average radius of gyration (Rz) of rice
starch amylopectins.
As for the starch Mw, the amylopectin Mwof short and
medium grains were statistically higher in the TX varieties
than in the CA varieties. Comparing the Mwof starch with
amylopectin shows the Mwof amylopectin is larger than
the Mwof starch as would be expected, except for the
L-205 variety grown in CA.
3.4 Amylose Mw
The fractionation of amylose from amylopectin was per-
formed by hydrolyzing the amylopectin at its branch
points with isoamylase, and then using aqueous HPSEC
analysis. Isoamylase hydrolyzes amylopectin and amy-
lose molecules at their a-(1?6) branch points, which
produces a lower Mwdistribution of linear chains. An iso-
amylase treated sample from a non-waxy rice starch
(Cocodrie-CA, 18.6% amylose) showed three peaks
(Fig. 4b); the first (FAm) was the amylose and the second
and third (F1 and F2 is assigned for second peaks, F3 is
assigned for third peak) were the amylopectin branches;
the same treatment of a waxy rice starch (Calmochi-CA,
1.0% amylose) showed only the second and third peaks
(Fig. 4a).
The Mw’s of the first peaks range from 2.786105to
5.886105g/mol among the rice varieties (Tab. 2). Takeda
et al. [31] reported that from rice starch the amylose
weight-average DPwwas 2750–3320. Suortti et al. [29]
reported the range of amylose Mwwas 0.5 to 3.06106g/
mol from various starch sources with a post-column
iodine addition detector that selectively detected amy-
lose from laser light scattering. Radosta et al. [18] report-
ed Mwof amylose as 0.1 to 366106g/mol, using a
HPSEC-MALLS system. This would suggest that peak 1
Fig. 4. The detailed RI-Chromatograms of amylopectin
fractions using isoamylase treated rice starch from (a)
Waxy (Calmochi) (b) Long-grain type (Cocodrie) grown in
CA. FAm, amylose fraction; F1 Long branch chain of
amylopectin; F2, Short branch fraction; and F3, oligo-
saccharide fraction.
was amylose from the rice starches and the Mwof these
amyloses spanned a narrower range than previous
reported amylose Mwvalues. We can hypothesize that a
25–50% number fraction of a-(1?6) branches in the
amylose molecule of rice starch can reduce the Mwof
debranched amylose compared to native amylose, a
mixture of linear and branched amylose.
There was an apparent trend of higher amylose Mw’s of
CA rice varieties compared to the corresponding TX vari-
eties but the difference was not significant. This study
also showed that the Mwof amylose was not significantly
related with amylose content (p,0.05). The results are in
good agreement with previous studies showing that dif-
ferences in molecular structure of amylose exist in differ-
ent botanical sources whereas the structure of amylose
from same botanical origin showed no significant differ-
ence [31–34].
3.5 A comparison of the Mwfrom the direct
measurement of whole starch and
calculated value of the amylopectin and
amylose fractions
In order to compare the analysis of the Mwof the starches
and those of the fractionated components, the Mwof
amylopectins and amyloses mixtures was estimated by
©2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
Starch/Stärke 59 (2007) 69–77 Rice Starch Molecular Size and Amylose Content 75
using the fractionated Mw’s (Tab. 1) and amounts of each
fraction in the various rice varieties (Tab. 2). The Mwis
defined as:
In this case Mwcan be calculated by
Mw¼ð100 AmÞMAp
where Am is the percent amylose (Tab. 1) and MwAp and
MwAm are the molar masses of amylopectin and amylose,
respectively, of the rice varieties.
The measured Mws of the starches by HPSEC-MALLS
were lower than the calculated values corresponding to
the AP/AM fractions with one exception for the L-205
from CA (Tab. 3). However, the differences are within the
range of reported values for Mw’s of starches.
3.6 Isoamylase treated debranched-
The analysis of the DPwof the amylopectin branches was
made from the SEC-MALLS chromatographs of the de-
branched starches (Fig. 4). There was a small RI peak and
large LS peak (not shown) for amylose containing sam-
ples as the first fraction to be eluted. The branches
appeared as the second and third peak. The first of these
two was separated into two fractions for further analysis.
The largest Mwfraction (F1) was defined from the begin-
ning of the elution point 32.5mL to 35.5 mL which corre-
sponded to an inflection of the multicomponent peak. The
location of the inflection point of the shoulder was
assumed constant at 35.5 mL for all samples. The second
fraction (F2) was taken from 35.5 mL to the minimum point
of the later two components, 38.5 mL. The third fraction
(F3) was defined from this minimum point 38.5 mL to
41 mL which corresponded to the third peak (Fig. 4). From
the light scattering analysis for FAm (amylose peak), F1,
F2, and F3, the DPwlimits of each fraction were 18518–
303, 303–36, 36–7, and 7–1, respectively. The DPwvalues
of 7 and 1 were determined by extrapolating the light
scattering Mwdata to lower Mwas light scattering is not
accurate in this range.
The average DPw’s of F1 fractions were 76, 68 and 60 for
long, medium/short, and waxy, respectively (Tab. 4). The
correlation coefficient between the amylose content and
the Mwor DPwof F1 was 0.942, which is consistent with
previous studies [21, 34]. This suggests that the average
chains in this fraction of amylopectin branches from rice
varieties of high amylose contents have longer amylo-
Tab. 3. Weight-average molar masses of the rice vari-
eties from direct measurement of rice starch and
the predicted values from a mixture of amylo-
pectin and amylose.
Rice Variety Location MwStarcha
AP and AMb
Cocodrie CA 59.0 96.9
TX 52.0 89.8
L-205 CA 100.0 68.1
TX 99.0 102.2
Bengal CA 115.0 142.3
TX 146.0 206.5
M-202 CA 101.0 124.5
TX 108.0 138.8
M-401 CA 135.0 194.5
TX 123.0 183.7
Koshihikari CA 105.0 107.7
TX 112.0 178.3
S-102 CA 105.0 139.0
TX 128.0 150.4
Calmochi-101 CA 185.0 250.0
TX 189.0 244.0
aThe measured value of Mwof the starch from Tab. 2
bThe calculated value of Mwfrom the Mw’s of amylo-
pectin (AP) and amylose (AM) values
from Tab. 2 using Mw¼ð100 AmÞMAp
pectin branches than the amylopectin branches of low
amylose rice varieties. From the DPwvalues, the F1
could be categorized into three groups; waxy, short and
medium, and long grain (p,0.05), which are the same
groups as those for the amylose content and the starch
Mwand AP Mw. The average DPwof F2 were within the
same range of 20–22 (Tab. 4), which did not show any
significant differences among grain types and growing
locations (p,0.05) as well as no relationship with
amylose content. The F2 chains are believed to be
confined within a single cluster. The similarity of the F2
DPwvalues among all the rice varieties suggests that
the structure of single clusters among the varieties were
similar. The mass of the F1 fractions was 16–18% and
F2 was 82–84%, and did not vary among varieties and
locations (Tab. 4). The F2 branches make up the double
helices within cluster, which are regularly packed into
crystalline structure and would relate to crystalline
thickness [3, 35].
As the amylose content increased, the F1 DPwof the
debranched amylopectin increased as well, and the Mw
amylopectin decreased.
©2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim
76 I. M. Park et al. Starch/Stärke 59 (2007) 69–77
Tab. 4. Distribution of mass concentration, molar percentage and branch chain weight molar mass (Mw) and degree of
polymerization (DPw) of isoamylase treated rice starch.
Rice variety Location Grain
Mass concentration Molar percentage F12F23
F11F2’ F1 F2
Cocodrie CA L 0.947 4.367 17.8 82.2 1.27 60.10578 35.02 60.00 22
Cocodrie TX L 0.957 4.682 17.0 83.0 1.24 60.12 77 34.22 60.01 21
L-205 CA L 0.938 4.455 17.4 82.6 1.16 60.08 72 34.32 6001 21
L-205 TX L 0.938 4.357 17.7 82.3 1.25 60.10 77 76 34.29 60.00 22 21
Bengal CA M 0.989 4.525 17.9 82.1 1.10 60.10 68 33.82 60.01 21
Bengal TX M 0.975 4.677 17.3 82.7 1.06 60.08 65 33.78 60.01 21
M-202 CA M 0.981 4.894 16.7 83.3 1.19 60.10 74 34.75 60.01 21
M-202 TX M 1.087 4.876 18.2 81.8 1.13 60.11 70 34.35 60.02 21
M-401 CA M 0.999 4.813 17.2 82.8 1.06 60.03 65 32.32 60.05 20
M-401 TX M 0.990 4.792 17.1 82.9 1.01 60.07 62 67 33.45 60.00 21 21
Koshihikari CA S 0.976 4.835 16.8 83.2 1.14 60.11 71 35.42 60.03 22
Koshihikari TX S 0.997 4.856 17.0 83.0 1.06 60.07 65 33.31 60.02 21
S-102 CA S 0.985 4.767 17.1 82.9 1.18 60.09 73 35.02 60.00 22
S-102 TX S 0.955 4.544 17.4 82.6 1.11 60.10 69 68 33.54 60.01 21 21
Calmochi-101 CA W 1.133 5.167 18.0 82.0 0.95 60.04 59 32.82 60.01 20
Calmochi-101 TX W 1.136 5.098 18.2 81.8 0.98 60.04 60 60 33.45 60.01 21 20
1mass concentration of F1[61024g]; 2mass concentration of F2[61024g]: Each value was calculated.
2First fraction of isoamylase treated amylopectin [Mw:6104].
3Second fraction of isoamylase treated amylopectin [Mw:6102].
4Degree of polymerization.
5Average from each grain type with at least two replicates of each sample 6standard deviation of each sample.
4 Conclusions
The short- and medium-grain rices, which were grown in
CA contained a higher level of amylose than those grown
in TX, comparing the different cultivation locations (CA
and TX). Also, those samples grown in CA had a lower
starch Mwand amylopectin Mwin short- and medium-
grain varieties than those samples grown in TX (p,0.05).
The combined information above gives insight into rice
starch crystalline structure. As amylose content
increased, chain length and F1 (DPw) of debranched
amylopectin was higher, on the contrary Mwof starch and
amylopectin decreased. This study showed that samples
with higher amylose contents had larger amounts of long
chains of amylopectin compared to the low amylose or
waxy samples. Also, higher amylose content rice starch
samples contained longer branches of amylopectin.
Based on our study, the different amount and size of long-
branch chain of amylopectin had an influence on com-
pactness of starch structure. Furthermore it may also
have an effect on the Mwof the rice starch and AP. From
this study, the amylose content was closely correlated to
the DPwof long-branch chain fraction (F1) of amylopectin,
Mwof starch and AP but not Mwof amylose and short-
branch chain fraction (F2) of amylopectin.
We gratefully acknowledge the financial support from The
Rice Foundation. We also give thanks to the Dr. K.
McKenzie and Ms A. Noble, the California Rice Experi-
mental Station, and the USDA-ARS Rice Quality Labora-
tory, Beaumont, TX, for providing the rice samples and
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... The glucose monomers in both polymers are linked in an α-1,4 linkage, whereas the branches of amylopectin are linked to the backbone via an α-1,6 linkage (Eliasson, 2004). For terrestrial source starches, the typical molecular weight (Mw) of amylose was reported to be smaller than that of amylopectin (10 5 -10 6 g/mol compared to 10 7 -10 8 g/mol, respectively), while the reported molecular weights of both polymers are affected by starch source, starch extraction method and determination method (BeMiller & Whistle, 2009;Bertoft, 2017;Eliasson, 2004;Park et al., 2007;Zhong et al., 2006). ...
... In the differential weight fraction chromatograms of U. ohnoi starch and rice starch, one can observe an approximately bi-modal distribution, with a major population having a lower Mw, and another relatively small population with a higher Mw. Typically the Mw of amylose is smaller than that of amylopectin (Park et al., 2007;Zhong et al., 2006). Hence, we hypothesized that within each starch type, the lower MW population is amylose, and the higher Mw is the amylopectin. ...
... Our results are generally in agreement with previous studies reporting two sub-populations upon SEC separation of starch, with the Mw distribution depending on grain variety (Aberle et al., 1994;Bello-Pérez et al., 1998;Bidzińska et al., 2015;Jin & Xu, 2020;Liping et al., 2021;Park et al., 2007;Zhong et al., 2006). ...
Edible green marine macroalgae, especially species of Ulva, can accumulate starch up to 30% of their dry weight; however, its physicochemical, functional, and digestibility properties are still unknown. In this study, we characterized molecular mass distribution, amylose-amylopectin ratio, crystallinity, hydration capacity, viscoelastic and pasting properties, and the digestibility of starch extracted from Ulva ohnoi and compared it to rice and potato starches. Ulva starch had a higher amylose content than rice and potato starches (55.0%, 34.5% and 24.3%, respectively). Ulva starch exhibited higher hydration capacity than rice starch (25.7gwater/gstarch(gwatergstarch) and 10.3gwater/gstarch respectively), while potato starch exhibited the highest hydration capacity, of 41 gwater/gstarch(gwatergstarch), probably mainly due to presence of phosphate groups. Ulva starch had the lowest mass-average molecular weight ((1.17x10⁶ g/mol), compared to rice (4.40x10⁶ g/mol) and potato (5.80x10⁶ g/mol) starches. Ulva starch exhibited the highest G' and viscosity setback ratio after cooling-induced gelation following gelatinization, probably thanks to its uniquely high amylose content, which led to higher tendency for physical crosslinking by retrogradation. This may also explain the fact that Ulva starch exhibited somewhat lower digestibility after retrogradation, compared to rice and potato starches, which would be advantageous for forming resistant starch serving as a dietary fiber, and lowering glycemic index. The superior gel properties on the one hand and lower digestibility, which would be helpful in tackling obesity & diabetes, on the other hand, make ulva starch a unique and promising new functional food ingredient.
... The amylose content of starch was determined using a colorimetric amylose content assay (Knutson and Grove, 1994). The amylose content was analyzed using the GPC-RI-MALLs system developed by Park et al. (2007). Glutenins and gliadins were extracted and quantitated subsequently from two biological r e p li c a t e s b y r e v e r s e -p h a s e u l t r a -p e r f o r m a n c e l i q u id chromatography (RP-UPLC) according to a method described by Han et al. (2015), and the sample size was modified in minor ways according to the protein concentration of waxy maize grain. ...
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... The quality of wheat-based food products depends on the ratio of amylose to amylopectin because this determines the physiochemical, functional and structural properties of wheat. 1,2 The amylopectin molecules are highly branched and are connected by ⊍-(1,6)-linkages, whereas the amylose molecules are linear debranched and are connected by ⊍-(1,4)linkages. ...
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Background Wheat is an essential source of starch. The GBSS or waxy genes are responsible for synthesizing amylose in cereals. This study identified a novel Wx-A1 null mutant line from an EMS-mutagenized population of common wheat cv. SM126 using sodium dodecyl sulfonate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and agarose gel analyses. Results The alignment of the Wx-A1 gene sequences from the mutant and parental SM126 lines showed only one single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) causing the appearance of a premature stop codon and Wx-A1 inactivation. The lack of Wx-A1 protein resulted in a decreased of amylose, total starch, and resistant starch. The starch morphology assessment revealed that starch from mutant seeds was more wrinkled, increasing its susceptibility to digestion. Regarding the starch thermodynamic properties, the gelatinization temperature was remarkably reduced in the mutant compared with that in the parental line SM126. The digestibility of native, gelatinized, and retrograded starches was analyzed for the mutant M4-627 and parental SM126 line. In the M4-627 line, rapidly digestible starch (RDS) contents were increased, whereas resistant starch (RS) was decreased in the three types of starch. Conclusion Waxy protein is essential for starch synthesis. The thermodynamic characteristics were declined in the Wx-A1 mutant line. The digestibility properties of starch were also affected. Therefore, the partial waxy mutant M3-627 might play a significant role in food improvement. Furthermore, it might be used to produce high-quality noodles. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Quinoa starch has an average molar mass of 11.3 × 106 g/mol, i.e. more than wheat starch and lower than rice and waxy maize starch (Park, Ibáñez, & Shoemaker, 2007). With a minimum degree of polymerization of 4,600 glucose units, maximum of 161,000 and 70,000 average weights, it is a highly branched structure. ...
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Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is known as superfood. It is an annual herbaceous crop from the family Chenopodiaceae, the same as of spinach and beets. More content of fibers in quinoa can enhance digestibility by assisting the absorption of the other nutritional components present in quinoa in large intestine. In quinoa seeds, the major antinutritional factors are saponins, phytic acid, tannins, trypsin inhibitor, nitrates, and oxalates. Some functional properties of quinoa have been described such as oil and water absorption, foaming stability, emulsion stability and capacity, viscosity, gelation, water holding capacity, water imbibing capacity and others. Grains must undergo some industrial processing for de-hulling or removal of the outer layer of grain to facilitate the removal of antinutrients present in the outer layer of quinoa seeds and to improve its sensory quality. The application of heat to quinoa seeds resulted in reduced antinutritional factors.
Multiple scales of starch structure are introduced from micro to macro in detail. First, the fine molecular structures of rice starch are illustrated including the wholebranched rice starch molecular structure and debranched rice starch molecular structure. And then the rice starch structure at 2–100 mm scale as well as the growth rings, blocklets, and amorphous and crystalline lamellae are described. After that, the physicochemical properties of rice starch with different amylose contents, such as gelatinization, retrogradation, swelling and pasting properties, and digestion are discussed.
Background There is increasing interest in utilization of jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.) starch in applications fields. Jackfruit has potentials as a source of commercially available starches since it is widely cultivated in Asia, Americas and Caribbean with minimal input costs. As the major component of jackfruit seeds (60–80%, dry matter basis) that accounts for 8–15% of the fruit weight, jackfruit starch is considered as cheap and sustainable carbohydrate source. Jackfruit starch (JS) has great potential for various applications due to the unique structural and functional features. Scope and approach This review aims to highlight the composition, multiscale structure, functional properties, modifications, as well as potential applications of jackfruit starch. In addition, a relationship between functional properties and structure of jackfruit starch is discussed. To expand its potential utilization, future research interests on jackfruit starch are also proposed. Key findings and conclusion JS has high amylose content (22.10–38.34%) makes the JS as a kind of a potential resistant and low digestible starch. JS shows smaller granule size, swelling power and solubility with a round, bell or oval shape. The extraction methods resulted in different components, some properties of JS. The polymorph of JS is A-type. The proportions of short chain are higher than that of cereal starch. JS shows unique structure with high short chains correlated with pasting viscosity. Jackfruit starch has been used as natural source of resistant starch or thicker, gelling agents and stabilizer in food products.
Rice protein is an important source of nutrition and energy for 50% of the world's population, for whom rice has long been a staple diet. The protein content of rice, at approximately 7%, is relatively low compared with that of other cereal grains. However, because of the huge quantity of rice produced worldwide (approximately 400 million metric tons annually), the amount of rice protein potentially available is considerable. On the other hand, rice protein has a significant influence on the structural, functional, and nutritional properties of rice. It is a major factor in determining the texture (e.g., stickiness), pasting capacity, and sensory characteristics of rice. In recent years, rice protein has been recognized to be uniquely nutritious and hypoallergenic, which makes rice increasingly popular for use in foods all over the world. Extensive research has been conducted on rice proteins because scientists recognize the importance of protein for the understanding and utilization of rice. However, only limited efforts have been made to keep up with and summarize the information on rice proteins in the literature. Earlier reviews on the subject include those of Houston (1972), Lasztity (1984), and Hamaker (1994). Of particular significance was the review by Juliano (1985) in the second edition of this book, a revision of his work (Juliano, 1972) in the first edition. A lot more research has been done since, particularly on the characterization of rice proteins, processing of rice protein products, and development of better-quality rice proteins. This chapter is an update of information in the literature on the chemistry and technology of rice proteins. It is an overview covering materials from sources old and new, but the emphasis is on studies reported since Juliano's review (Juliano, 1985).
The emphasis of this review is on starch structure and its biosynthesis. Improvements in understanding have been brought about during the last decade through the development of new physicochemical and biological techniques, leading to real scientific progress. All this literature needs to be kept inside the general literature about biopolymers, despite some confusing results or discrepancies arising from the biological variability of starch. However, a coherent picture of starch over all the different structural levels can be presented, in order to obtain some generalizations about its structure. In this review we will focus first on our present understanding of the structures of amylose and amylopectin and their organization within the granule, and we will then give insights on the biosynthetic mechanisms explaining the biogenesis of starch in plants.
Normally the reliable determination of the molecular mass of amylose is a very tedious procedure requiring several days of sample preparation to remove contaminating amylopectin. In the method presented the detection of amylose is based on its selective detection by post-column colourization after size-separation chromatographic separation. The quantification of amylose is based on totally linear synthetic amylose thus targeting the analysis on the most important quality of amylose, long linear chains. The molecular mass of amylose, which was the main target could be analyzed by very simple sample preparation.
Native A (wheat and waxy rice), B (potato), and C (cassava and sweet potato) types of starches were each debranched with isoamylase, and separated into amylose and amylopectin fractions by HPLC on size exclusion columns coupled on-line to multi-angle-laser-light-scattering and differential refractometer detectors. The absolute molecular weights of amyloses and chain length distributions of amylopectins were determined simultaneously, and pre-isolation of the amylopectin was not necessary. The molecular weights of debranched amylose from starches that have not been fractionated to separate amylose and amylopectin are significantly higher than published values for the undebranched fractionated amylose. The polymodal profiles of the refractive index chromatograms showed the complexity of the amylopectin structure of starches. The chain length distribution of amylopectin depends critically on the method for analysing the broad chromatogram when determined by either noting the minima/inflections or deconvoluting the overlapping amylopectin fraction into numerous normal/Gaussian distributions. Although the results from the former (conventional) method of analysis were comparable with the literature values, they did not appear to be as sensitive a technique for detecting differences as the multiple Gaussian approach. Overall, the study suggested that the amylopectin chain units might be more complex than originally envisaged and that different degrees of chain packing for the molecules can be inferred from this multiple component analysis.