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Abstract

People often feel torn between what they want to do and what they believe they should do. As a result, they experience intrapersonal conflict. For example, people know that they should avoid credit card debt, but they want to splurge on just one more purchase. Following Loewenstein's (1996) temporal perspective to understanding internal conflict and inconsistency, we offer three studies that empirically demonstrate (1) a distinction between the want self and the should self, (2) that behavior is more closely linked to the want self, (3) that the want self is the self that is temporally inconsistent, and (4) that adopting a want versus should perspective can have a significant impact on actual behavior. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... People are constantly subject to conflicts that arise from the paradoxical relationship between what they want to do (i.e., want-self) and what they believe they should do (i.e., should-self; O'Connor et al., 2002). Brown (1957, p. 135) explains this intrapersonal conflict as such: ...
... O'Connor and her colleagues (2002) refer to this paradox stemming from the metaphor of multiple selves problem (Bahl & Milne, 2010;Schelling, 1984;Thaler, 1980). An individual's should-self is where decisions are made that are more rational, farsighted and objective, in contrast with the want-self, where decisions are more visceral (Loewenstein, 1996) and driven by emotion and impulse (O'Connor et al., 2002;Urminsky & Kivetz, 2011). In situations of choice conflict, choices represent important facets of the decision-maker such as her values and self-identity (Bodner & Prelec, 2003), thus helping to determine which of the should-or want-self will be prominent in the making of the conflicting decision. ...
... The above narratives are indicative of the intrapersonal conflict experienced by fantasy football players, resulting from the incompatible goals of the should-self and the want-self. An individual's should-self is where decisions are made that are more rational, farsighted and objective, in contrast with the want-self, where decisions are more visceral (Loewenstein, 1996) and driven by emotion and impulse (O'Connor et al., 2002;Urminsky & Kivetz, 2011). In Dan's case, his should-self suggests to select his fantasy players from his actual NFL team as an indication of attitudinal loyalty; however, his want-self wants to win the league maybe even at the cost of his behavioral loyalty by selecting players from the rival of his NFL team. ...
Article
Fantasy sport participation represents an increasingly popular consumer experience among the contemporary sport consumption alternatives. Previous work on fantasy sports draws attention to both its positive and negative effects on traditional sport consumption. This study investigates fantasy football participants’ perspectives, meanings, and experiences regarding their fantasy football and NFL consumption behavior. Employing a grounded theory methodology, the study draws on literatures spanning from sport consumption and fantasy sports to consumer co-creation and intrapersonal conflict, and combines them with data collection and analysis. The outcome is a new organizing framework that illustrates why there is conflict between fantasy and favorite team fandom and how fantasy sport participants cope with this conflict. First, the study illustrates that this conflict stems from the non-traditional co-creation opportunities inherent in the empowering fantasy sports experience, which leads to a psychological connection to the fantasy team and players through the feeling of self-achievement. Second, the study identifies various coping strategies that sport consumers employ to manage conflicts with player selection (i.e., safe selection, convergent selection, divergent selection, and impartial selection strategies) and rooting interests (i.e., balanced interest, principal interest-shift, temporal interest-shift, and benefit-seeking interest-shift strategies).
... This claim is consistent with work by Bazerman and his colleagues, who hypothesized two competing "selves" in decision making, a "want self" and a "should self" (Bazerman, Tenbrunsel, & Wade-Benzoni, 1998;O'Connor et al., 2002). These researchers extended the work of Schelling (1984) who described certain decision-making inconsistencies as a "multiple selves problem." ...
... In addition, as participants found the item more difficult to justify they stated a stronger preference to receive the cash value of the incentive rather than the incentive itself. These findings are consistent with research on competing internal preferences, where internal debates between a "want self" and a "should self" often lead to behavioral inconsistencies of just this type (Bazerman et al., 1998;O'Connor et al., 2002). This internal debate regarding justifiability concerns may cause people to state a preference for a cash incentive, not because it carries the most utility but because it is the choice people feel they should make. ...
... Evidence suggests these rejections stem from emotional responses, with acceptance stemming from goal maintenance (Sanfey, Rilling, Aronson, Nystrom, & Cohen, 2003).The implication is that poor offers are emotion inducing; they are painful in a sense (O'Connor, De Dreu, Schroth, Barry, Lituchy, & Razerman, 2002;Harlé & Sanfey, 2007;van't Wout, Kahn, Sanfey, & Aleman, 2006), and that this effect is robust (Bosman, Sonnemans, & Zeelenberg, 2001). This emotion seems to stem from anger rather than a sense of injustice (Pillutla & Murnighan, 1996) However, within this explanatory paradigm there is scope for participants to angrily reject unfair offers, while conforming to a fairness hypothesis, or to angrily punish unfair offers, under an envy hypothesis. ...
... This research adds to the neuroeconomics evidence presented in the introduction regarding the neurological correlates of economic decision making, and the dual demand theory between emotional rejections and cognitive acceptances (Sanfey et al., 2003;O'Connor et al.,2002;Koenings & Tranel, 2007). ...
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Guth, Schmittberger and Schwarze’s (1982) ultimatum game result is replicated with mean earnings of £59.98 (N = 51) S.D. = £11.45, from a possible £80, and a linear relationship between offer size and acceptance rate. Results indicate a significant interaction effect between offer size and response, F(3, 31) = 3.69, p < 0.05 on response time. Our novel adjustment introduced the proposer’s most ‘common offer’ to responders. Results were in accord with prior work (Knez & Camerer, 1995); social comparisons between the participant, and a hypothesised responder – the receiver of the ‘common offer’ – were made only at mid-range offers (£2), for which low common offers were accepted more from proposers making low common offers than high t(45) = 3.28, p< 0.05.
... Comparing Would and Should decisions for Self and Other was also of interest because research has identified such Would/Should discrepancies (also referred to as want/should discrepancies) in other decision contexts (Bazerman, Tenbrunsel, & Wade-Benzoni, 1998;O'Connor, De Dreu, Schroth, Barry, Lituchy, & Bazerman, 2002; for a review, see : Milkman, Rogers, & Bazerman, 2008). 'Want' or 'would' options are typically characterized as being subjected to current temptations and therefore leading to more present-focused decisions, whereas Should options lead to more long-term, rational decisions (Bazerman et al., 1998;Milkman et al., 2008). ...
... We also examined whether the Would/Should difference Bialaszek, Ostaszewski, and Zielonka (2018) observed replicated in decisions for the self as well as whether the framing extends to decisions for others as the previous research might suggest (Bialaszek et al., 2016;O'Connell et al., 2013). We therefore expected participants' discounting would be steeper for Would decisions than for Should decisions (Bialaszek et al., 2016;O'Connor et al., 2002;Milkman et al., 2008) for both Self and Other decision contexts. ...
Article
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Would you prefer $50 now or $100 in 6 months? What if you made this decision for someone else—would you be more impulsive or more self‐controlled? Some studies suggest we are more impulsive when deciding for ourselves, whereas others suggest the reverse. This might be because some researchers ask participants what they would do whereas others ask what they should do. We investigated the impact of should/would decision type on delay discounting rate in choices for the self and for another person. We also examined the effect of condition order. In Experiment 1 (using a student sample), discounting rates were affected by the combination of decision frame and condition order. Decision frame had a bigger effect on choices in the second condition, perhaps because instructions became clearer when they could be contrasted with the previous set. Experiment 2 (using a Mechanical Turk sample) investigated this possibility by including all possible frames at the beginning of the session; this produced a more consistent would/should difference for choices for the self, but an order effect remained. Experiment 3 isolated task order by having participants complete the same choice task twice. Decisions were significantly more self‐controlled for the second iteration. Together, these results suggest that people are more self‐controlled when making should decisions and (less consistently) decisions for others and that having recently made delay‐amount trade‐off decisions also promotes self‐control. Rates of unsystematic data were unexpectedly high in Experiment 2, particularly among nonmaster Turk workers and those located in India.
... Also, conflict is commonly referred to as being either intrapersonal and/or interpersonal, with interpersonal conflicts occurring between individuals or groups (Barki & Hartwick, 2004). Intrapersonal conflicts on the other hand are conflicts that occur within a person and can be related to, for example: moral issues, feelings of inferiority, or motivation, creating a tension between what a person wants to do and their beliefs on what they should do (O'Connor et al., 2002;Tymofieva, 2016). While intra-and interpersonal conflicts here are discussed as separate constructs, it is important to note that interpersonal conflicts, more often than not have an internal root (O'Connor et al., 2002). ...
... Intrapersonal conflicts on the other hand are conflicts that occur within a person and can be related to, for example: moral issues, feelings of inferiority, or motivation, creating a tension between what a person wants to do and their beliefs on what they should do (O'Connor et al., 2002;Tymofieva, 2016). While intra-and interpersonal conflicts here are discussed as separate constructs, it is important to note that interpersonal conflicts, more often than not have an internal root (O'Connor et al., 2002). ...
... Want preferences, that is, the choice of hedonic products or experiences, are motivated by emotions. Wants have to do with a desire for fun and enjoyment now (O'Connor et al., 2002;Riediger and Freund, 2008). ...
Article
Purpose – This paper examines how social marketing communication messages influence physical activity attitudes when a health organization is revealed as the message source. Design/methodology/approach – This paper examines how social marketing communication messages influence physical activity attitudes when a health organization is revealed as the message source. Findings – Results from three studies using experimentally manipulated messages (Studies 1 and 3) and real TV commercials (Study 2) suggest that work-framed social marketing communication messages may be more effective than fun-framed messages when the sponsoring health organization is disclosed, versus not disclosed in the ad. Research limitations/implications – This research extends the literature on source-effects on message effectiveness by suggesting that the type of message sponsor (i.e. a health organization) may influence attitudes toward the physical activity promoted in the message content. Practical implications – The results suggest that health organizations may be able to maximize communication effectiveness by employing work – rather than fun-framed messages, when it is evident that the message source is a health organization. When individuals are unaware that a health organization is the message source or when a non-health organization is the message source, fun-framed messages may be as effective for encouraging physical activity. Social implications – This research may assist health organizations to make the best use of their limited resources by providing guidance for the development of social marketing communication messages that encourage people to be physically active. Originality/value – Although source effects on marketing message effectiveness have been well established in the marketing literature, this study is the first to suggest that a health-organization message source interacts with work- versus fun-framed message content to impact the persuasiveness of messages designed to encourage physical activity.
... For the emotional perspective in experiments, seePillutla and Murnghan (1996);O'Connor et al. (2002); Sanfey et al. (2003);Xiao and Houser (2005);Van't Wout et al. (2006). Emotion, or better, fellow-feeling, underlies Adam Smith's concepts of beneficence and injustice, arising not from a utilitarian analysis, but from our rule-following adaptation to learning from our social experience: "it is altogether absurd and unintelligible to suppose that the first perceptions of right and wrong can be derived from reason, even in those particular cases upon the experience of which the general rules are formed. ...
Article
One robust result in experimental economics is the failure to observe equilibrium play in the ultimatum game. A heretofore unnoticed feature of the game is that neither player voluntarily chooses to play the game. Motivated by Adam Smith’s proposition that beneficence—like that of non‐ equilibrium play in the ultimatum game—cannot be extorted by force, we offer the responder the opportunity to opt out of the game for a mere $1 payoff for both players. We observe high rates of equilibrium play with highly unequal splits when responders choose to play such ultimatum games with both fixed and variable sums.
... In other words, Chinese students did not consider their personal interest as a major internal drive for long-term goal striving, whereas they emphasized self-confidence about their ability toward goal achievement. As many goals require engagement in unpleasant or boring activities, individuals may experience an intrapsychic conflict between what they should be doing (persist) and what they want to do (something else) (O'Connor et al., 2002). Chinese adolescents are well aware of their duty to do well in school, and researchers have found that youths who placed more importance on their family obligations tended to possess a higher level of academic motivation than their peers (Fuligni & Tseng, 1999). ...
Article
Long-term goal striving has been recognized as an important stage in goal achievement. Compared with the development of measurements of goal setting, researchers tended to measure goal striving in different manners. This study examined the conceptual structure of goal striving and validated a new scale to operationalize the construct within academic learning contexts. A 25-item scale was validated with 522 Chinese university students to assess its factor structure, reliability, gender invariance, criterion-related validity, and incremental validity. Confirmatory factor analysis results supported both the first-order and second-order model. Overall, the scale showed good reliability, validity, and invariance across gender. We suggested that this new scale could be used as an effective measure to assess the level of goal striving among university students in a Chinese context.
... At the same time, less powerful actors are more likely to develop adaptive preferences as a means of compromise rather than resistance or an attempt to achieve what they genuinely want (Shin, 2010). The concept of adaptive preferences calls for integrating psychological dynamics (Verma & Ramzi, 2005;O'Connor et al., 2002) 3 because the drive of adaptive preference is desire for psychological comfort. Integrating psychological dynamics helps in the development of a sophisticated understanding of why conflicting interests can end up happily resolved or why actors do not take action to protect their interests. ...
Article
This study looks at how adaptive preferences develop in participatory governance characterised by the trans-sectoral mobility of key actors in the context of a transport planning project in Seoul. The mayor of the city, who used to be an influential civil society figure, and his former colleagues, moved from the civil society sector to government. Based on participant observation in one such negotiation and at public hearings, in-depth interviews with key members, and archival analysis, this research argues that first, trans-sectoral mobilities and increased opportunities for participation enabled opponents of the light rail to see the problem of limited access to information and lack of knowledge transfer. The opponents faced constraints of transparency; a condition that the Seoul government argued was inevitable due to the need for confidential information and lack of expertise on the part of opponents of the plan. Second, at the same time, opponents developed an adaptive preference for dropping opposition to the plan based on a long-term political opportunity structure, as well as political support towards the mayor, in the context of the domain of national politics. By examining how they develop such adaptive preferences despite expanded opportunities for participation, this research contributes to the debate on the dynamics of participatory governance.
... The first key intuition captured by our utility function is that political identity injunctivenorms enter into the function separately from personal policy preferences and other identitybased injunctive-norms, and so, if political identity norms are incongruent with these other preferences/norms, utility maximization involves a trade-off. Next, the norm literature demonstrates that norm sensitivity varies with context (Oakes et al. 1991;Ybarra and Trafimow 1998;O'Connor et al. 2002;. For example, a right-wing individual who would benefit from increased social welfare spending is more likely to vote for a right-wing candidate that opposes an increase when reminded of the norms of their ideological identity by the political discourse of an election campaign. ...
Article
Voters are often observed voting “against their interests”. We argue this is because voters don’t just ask themselves “which party best represents my policy preferences?” but also ask “how is someone like me supposed to vote?” Voters don’t just consider their personal preferences. They also consider the expectations of the salient groups with which they identify. These expectations are social norms, shared beliefs about what constitutes appropriate behavior for members of the identity group, and individuals’ choices reflect trade-offs between personal interests and adherence to norms. We illustrate this claim with survey experiments on representative samples of the US and British populations examining the group identity component of ideological self-placement and documenting norms that discourage voting against one's group and encourage support for the policies normatively associated with one’s group. We directly measure these norms and show that they influence real-stakes voting behavior when group identity is salient.
... For example, Kehr (2004aKehr ( , 2004b) finds that conflict between managers' implicit and explicit motives (e.g., discrepancies between implicit and explicit power motives) leads to lowered effort and self-regulatory behaviors. Another class of common intrapersonal conflict is perceived discrepancy between our inner angels and demonswhat we should and want to do (Milkman, Rogers, & Bazerman, 2008;O'Connor et al., 2002) which can be the consequence of prior interpersonal conflict. On the positive side, several researchers have shown that goal congruence (i.e., fit between a person's goals and his or her personality) as well as goal coherence (i.e., fit between different goals and their underlying motives) can foster well-being and goal-related performance (Durik & Harackiewicz, 2003;Sheldon & Kasser, 1995). ...
Article
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The term self-permission refers to a belief about the self that a person can hold, to a stronger or weaker extent. Self-permission, in short, is the answer an individual gives oneself when asking about their perceived allowance to reach overarching long-term objectives, such as having a fulfilling career or enjoying a lasting and gratifying relationship. At a broader level, the question is whether a person allows him or herself to lead a happy and rewarding life. This paper describes the concept of self-permission, explores its nomological network and possible antecedents and consequences, proposes a corresponding self-permission scale (SPS), and suggests a study for assessing 1) the psychometric properties of that scale, 2) its relationship with conjectured adjacent constructs, and 3) its relationship with psychological functioning. Considering how important it seems to be to most individuals to make the best out of their lives and to live up to a deeply felt sense of purpose, a better understanding of self-permission could significantly benefit the psychological well-being of many people who do not allow themselves to thrive.
... To this effect, Duclos et al. (2014) found that people's beliefs about the efficacy of donating time (or money) to repair bruised self-esteem can mediate the effect of ego-threats on prosocial behavior. Similarly, people's beliefs about how happy they will feel from certain decisions in economic games has been shown to predict whether they will act generously in these games (Haselhuhn and Mellers 2005;Mellers et al. 2010;O'Connor et al. 2002). ...
Article
Full-text available
This research examines the interplay of self-construal orientation and victim group-membership on prosocial behavior. Whereas consumers primed with an independent self-construal demonstrate similar propensities to help needy in-group and out-group others, an interdependent orientation fosters stronger commitments to aid in-group than out-group members. This interaction holds in both individualistic (i.e., the United States) and collectivistic (i.e., China) nations and seems driven by a belief system. For interdependents, the prospect of helping needy in-group (relative to out-group) members heightens the belief that helping others contributes to their own personal happiness, which in turn increases their propensity to act benevolently. Such in-group/out-group distinctions do not seem to operate among independents. The article concludes by discussing the theoretical implications of our findings for the cross-cultural, intergroup-relations, and prosocial literatures before deriving insights for practice.
... This could be because 'it's not cool' is no longer a concern of our predominantly older participants or 'it's not cool' is more of a rational, subjective judgement not necessarily associated with emotion and thus devoid of influence at the time of decision (Loewenstein, 1996). Loewenstein (1996) and others have argued for more recognition and use of the emotional load experienced at the time of decision (Bazerman, Tenbrunsel, & Wade-Benzoni, 1998;Loewenstein, 1996;O'Connor et al., 2002). ...
Article
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Introduction: In March 2011, the New Zealand government committed to the goal of reducing the prevalence of current smokers to less than 5% by 2025. Smoking prevalence is significantly higher for Māori and Pacific peoples. To ensure a proportionately larger decrease in smoking prevalence for Māori and Pacific peoples by 2025, more effective strategies for prompting cessation among these groups are needed. Aim: This study aimed to identify what motivates Māori and Pacific people to quit smoking so that communications and mass media quit campaigns can be more effective at triggering quitting among them. Method: A qualitative approach utilising focus groups (N = 168) was used to ask participants to rank reasons why people say they should quit smoking (the ‘talk’) which we compared with participants’ reasons for actually quitting (the ‘walk’). The results were plotted on a scatter graph using a method devised by the authors. Results: Health, children and pregnancy were perceived to be strong motivating reasons to quit and they were frequently cited as triggering past quit attempts. Cost was plotted high for Pacific but low for Māori especially for talk. ‘It stinks’ was cited as triggering past quit attempts, but was not perceived as a reason to quit. Conclusion: Emotionally important reasons and more immediate reasons for quitting are likely to be more effective at prompting Māori and Pacific peoples to stop smoking.
... Thus, a decision is formed in the "fast, intuitive, automatic, emotional, effortless and implicit" ("want") thinking system rather than in the "slow, conscious, effortful, explicit and logical" ("should") one (Bazerman, Tenbrunsel and Wade-Benzoni 1998;Milkman, Chugh and Bazerman 2009). The same person may thus arrive at different conclusions based on the same set of objective facts for a given decision situation depending on whether the "want" or the "should" mode is active (O'Connor et al. 2002). The "want" mode has been suggested to be the main driver of human behavior (Epstein 1994;Finucane et al. 2000). ...
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We synthesize and discuss the available knowledge on the role of human cognition biases for sustainability and sustainable behavior. Human cognition biases are defined as any deviation in decision making from the standard framework of rational choice. We distinguish between biases in individual decision making and biases in group decision making, and highlight the relevance of each for sustainable behavior. We find that while both categories contribute to unsustainable behavior, human cognition biases in group settings are central to understanding many of the current sustainability issues. Moreover, we argue that the effects of group-related biases may outweigh those on the individual level in driving unsustainable behavior, and that biases that have been discussed under various labels in the literature can be interpreted as manifestations of human cognition biases in group settings.
... Many decisions prompt people to balance what they would like to do against what they should do [13]. In the purchasing domain, this often means integrating preferences and price considerations, with prices limiting preferences' free rein. ...
Article
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Even the simplest choices can prompt decision-makers to balance their preferences against other, more pragmatic considerations like price. Thus, discerning people's preferences from their decisions creates theoretical, empirical, and practical challenges. The current paper addresses these challenges by highlighting some specific circumstances in which the amount of time that people spend examining potential purchase items (i.e., viewing time) can in fact reveal their preferences. Our model builds from the gazing literature, in a purchasing context, to propose that the informational value of viewing time depends on prices. Consistent with the model's predictions, four studies show that when prices are absent or moderate, viewing time provides a signal that is consistent with a person's preferences and purchase intentions. When prices are extreme or consistent with a person's preferences, however, viewing time is a less reliable predictor of either. Thus, our model highlights a price-contingent "viewing bias," shedding theoretical, empirical, and practical light on the psychology of preferences and visual attention, and identifying a readily observable signal of preference.
... Because our knowledge of the role emotions play in negotiations is still rather limited, ambivalent views and concepts can be found throughout literature (Allred, Mallozzi et al. 1997;Kumar 1997; Barry and Fulmer 2005). However, despite the still general view that the effect of emotions, if considered at all, is negative (Kumar 1997;Adler, Rosen et al. 1998;Schroth, Bain--Chekal et al. 2005), some researchers have started to contemplate that emotions as well as cognitive processes may influence the negotiation process as a whole both positively and negatively (O'Connor, De Dreu et al. 2002;Schroth, Bain--Chekal et al. 2005). There is evidence, for example, that emotions actually are evoked by specific trigger phrases or words and that certain pieces of information are encoded in and transmitted by emotions (Adler, Rosen et al. 1998;Schroth, Bain--Chekal et al. 2005). ...
... The "want" self is refl ected in behaviors that are emotional, impulsive, and "hot headed", whereas the "should" self is refl ected in behaviors that are rational, deliberate, and "cool headed". Because of the emotion-laden nature of the "want" self, visceral factors (e.g., hunger, fatigue, anger, physical pain) have a considerable impact on behavior (Loewenstein, 1996;O'Connor, De Dreu, Schroth, Barry, Lituchy, & Bazerman, 2002). When visceral factors are aroused at the time of action, they can make individuals focus on short-term self-interests rather than long-term self-or other-interests, thus leading to unethical behavior (Loewenstein, 1996;Tenbrunsel et al., 2010). ...
... In many domains, individuals experience internal conflicts such as the want-should conflict (Bazerman, Tenbrunsel, & Wade-Benzoni, 1998;Milkman, Rogers, & Bazerman, 2008;O'Connor et al., 2002). For example, many people want to diet but frequently deviate from their diets. ...
Article
Deception is pervasive in negotiations. Negotiations are characterized by information asymmetries, and negotiators often have both opportunities and incentives to mislead their counterparts. Effective negotiators need to contend with the risk of being deceived, to effectively respond when they identify deception, and to manage the temptation to use deception themselves. In our review of deception research, we integrate emotion research. Emotions are both an antecedent and a consequence of deception, and we introduce the Emotion Deception Model (EDM) to represent these relationships. Our model broadens our understanding of deception in negotiations and accounts for the important role of emotions in the deception decision process.
... Actors might simultaneously exhibit multiple, potentially incompatible interests (e.g. an employee's interest in higher earnings and more leisure time) (Rahim 2000). In any specific situation, some needs become dominant, whereas others are suppressed temporarily, only to resurface once the situation has changed (Alderfer 1973;O'Connor et al. 2002). ...
Article
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Purpose – Biculturals are portrayed as “ideal” boundary spanners and conflict mediators in MNC who switch between or transcend multiple cultural and/or organizational. The paper aims to critically analyze the assumptions behind this positive view on dual identity in MNC and provide an alternative conceptualization re-positioning dual identity as a situated and potentially contested process. Design/methodology/approach – The paper theoretically juxtaposes existing concepts of dual identity in the international business literature with recent advances in research on identity in organization studies and psychology as well as critical perspectives on identity. Findings – A situated approach to biculturalism provides for a greater variety of identity management strategies corresponding to the metaphors of “surfer”, “soldier”, “struggler”, and “strategist” alike, depending on the identity repertoire available, the perceived situation at hand and the interactive processes of identity construction unfolding. From this perspective, the conflict potential associated with dual identity in MNC does not automatically dissolve as suggested by the literature so far, but depending on the situated enactment of dual identity might actually increase, intensify or even re-direct the lines of conflict. Research implications and limitations – The paper develops a comprehensive concept of situated bicultural identity processes in organizational contexts, which can serve as a guiding framework of further empirical research on biculturalism in MNC and also provides initial discussions about suitable hypotheses development in this area. Originality/value – The international business literature so far is dominated by a limited understanding of biculturalism in MNC, strongly influenced by the concept of frame switching in cross-cultural psychology. The paper introduces an alternative concept of biculturalism as a situated process, which can serve as a framework for further and more varied research on biculturalist identity negotiation in MNC.
... (15 August 2005). 9 For the emotional perspective in experiments, see Pillutla and Murnghan (1996);O'Connor et al. (2002);Sanfey et al. (2003); Xiao and Houser (2005); Van't Wout et al. (2006). Emotion, or better, fellow-feeling, underlies Adam Smith's concepts of beneficence and injustice, arising not from a utilitarian analysis, but from our rule-following adaptation to learning from our social experience: "it is altogether absurd and unintelligible to suppose that the first perceptions of right and wrong can be derived from reason, even in those particular cases upon the experience of which the general rules are formed. ...
... The article by Nazarov [43] summarizes the methods for the causality of factors in socio-economic processes and provides an example of the use of fuzzy control technologies for the construction of economic and mathematical models. We considered the materials of these studies when selecting variables and calibrating them [44][45][46]. ...
Article
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Many countries have been experiencing a crisis in their pension systems for fiscal and demographic reasons. Voluntary pension funds are a way out of the crisis. The depth of the problem lies in the study of social and economic-mathematical aspects in making economic decisions on implementing voluntary contributions. The authors studied sustainable development, considering the assessment of the causal relationship between factors in the development of voluntary pension insurance in the Republic of Kazakhstan. The article analyzes pension system models and studies the experience of the OECD countries. The results of the analysis highlight the most important factors affecting the development of pension systems with an emphasis on voluntary pension insurance mechanisms. The authors propose a conservative, economic, extended economic, and extended intermediate solution for building a set of cause-and-effect models for the development of voluntary pension insurance in the Republic of Kazakhstan based on a survey of a representative sample of citizens in the Republic of Kazakhstan using the QCA method.
... The often proposed typology of conflict stretches these definitions further based on the level of analysis, starting intrapersonal conflict which mostly looks at a single individual's behavior and decision making (O'Connor, De Dreu and Schroth, 2002;Stenseng, 2008;Haig, 2006;Cox, 2003). Interpersonal conflict is the second form that implies the interactions between two individuals often by mutual dislike, personal clash, personality differences, personal or family problems, substance abuse while many external factors may also contribute (Blake and Mouton, 1964;Nistorescu, 2006;Fisher, 2000;Wilmot and Hocker, 2001). ...
Article
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Conflict management has become a key factor for mergers and acquisitions in the contemporary global economy. Although firms may do well in general in terms of financial due diligence, the human factor in mergers still remain as a primary source of conflict, impacting firms at all levels significantly. Following an extensive review of the literature and previous research, this paper unfolds a series of relevant theories that deal with the sources, course, and outcomes of the conflict at organizational settings during mergers and acquisitions. Through the use of the comparative method with a small-N sample and secondary data for triangulation, this study describes a preliminary typology for successful or failed mergers notably focusing on industry-specific causes and outcomes of the conflict, and potential strategies to be developed by firms’ management. While industry-specific complexity, incompatible business culture and interests, unpreparedness and lack of planning and prior competition between firms have explanatory power over the failure of investigated firms notably playing a role in the organizational integration and cohesion between parties; compatible mutual interests, well-prepared organizational integration processes and synergy-creating [mostly vertical] business models that represent strategic and effective HRM and management practices appear to be more successful.
... Many goals require engagement in activities that feel unpleasant, effortful, challenging, or boring. During such activities, a person may experience an intrapsychic conflict between what he or she should be doing (persist), and what he or she wants to do (something else) (Bazerman, Tenbrunsel, & Wade-Benzoni, 1998;O'Connor et al., 2002). From an individual-difference perspective, the ability to resolve this conflict in the interest of one's goals is a relatively stable trait. ...
Article
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We investigated the self‐regulatory strategies people spontaneously use in their everyday lives to regulate their persistence during aversive activities. In pilot studies (pooled N = 794), we identified self‐regulatory strategies from self‐reports and generated hypotheses about individual differences in trait self‐control predicting their use. Next, deploying ambulatory assessment (N = 264, 1940 reports of aversive/challenging activities), we investigated predictors of the strategies' self‐reported use and effectiveness (trait self‐control and demand types). The popularity of strategies varied across demands. In addition, people higher in trait self‐control were more likely to focus on the positive consequences of a given activity, set goals, and use emotion regulation. Focusing on positive consequences, focusing on negative consequences (of not performing the activity), thinking of the near finish, and emotion regulation increased perceived self‐regulatory success across demands, whereas distracting oneself from the aversive activity decreased it. None of these strategies, however, accounted for the beneficial effects of trait self‐control on perceived self‐regulatory success. Hence, trait self‐control and strategy use appear to represent separate routes to good self‐regulation. By considering trait‐ and process‐approaches these findings promote a more comprehensive understanding of self‐regulatory success and failure during people's daily attempts to regulate their persistence. © 2018 European Association of Personality Psychology
... Consequently, prioritizing conflict consideration can be particularly detrimental because parties do not consider all trade-off opportunities in a comprehensive, unbiased way and may thus overlook mutually beneficial and transformative solutions. O'Connor et al. (2002) showed that responders in a simulatedultimatum game rejected more bids (i.e., forewent favorable solutions in an intrapersonal conflict) when instructed to focus on the present interpersonal conflict compared with the FIGURE 2 | Prioritized consideration of interdependent conflicts. We propose that parties prioritize present interpersonal conflicts (first priority) over intrapersonal conflicts (second priority) and future interpersonal conflicts (third priority). ...
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Transformative and mutually beneficial solutions require decision-makers to reconcile present- and future interests (i.e., intrapersonal conflicts over time) and to align them with those of other decision-makers (i.e., interpersonal conflicts between people). Despite the natural co-occurrence of intrapersonal and interpersonal conflicts in the transformation toward sustainability, both types of conflicts have been studied predominantly in isolation. In this conceptual article, we breathe new life into the traditional dialogue between individual decision-making- and negotiation research and address critical psychological barriers to the transformation toward sustainability. In particular, we argue that research on intrapersonal and interpersonal conflicts should be tightly integrated to provide a richer understanding of the interplay between these conflicts. We propose a novel, unifying framework of interdependent conflicts that systematically structures this interplay, and we analyze how complex interdependencies between the social (i.e., conflict between decision-makers) and temporal (i.e., conflict within a decision-maker) dimensions pose fundamental psychological barriers to mutually beneficial solutions. Since challenges to conflict resolution in the transformation toward sustainability emerge not only between individual decision-makers but also frequently between groups of decision-makers, we scale the framework up to the level of social groups and thereby provide an interdependent-conflicts perspective on the interplay between intra- and intergenerational conflicts. Overall, we propose simple, testable propositions, identify intervention approaches, and apply them to transition management. By analyzing the challenges faced by negotiating parties during interdependent conflicts and highlighting potential intervention approaches, we contribute to the transformation toward sustainability. Finally, we discuss implications of the framework and point to avenues for future research.
... Yet, this demand for positive self-image can be challenged by the fact that most people sometimes behave in ways that they would like to think they did not. The discrepancy between what people do and how they would like to see themselves may create intra-personal conflicts (Conen et al., 1957;Bazerman et al., 1998;O'Connor et al., 2002). One way to restore consistency between positive self-image and past image-threatening actions is through motivated memory. ...
... Yet, this demand for positive self-image can be challenged by the fact that most people sometimes behave in ways that they would like to think they did not. This discrepancy between what we do and how we would like to see ourselves may create intra-personal conflicts (Conen et al., 1957;Bazerman et al., 1998;O'Connor et al., 2002). One way to restore consistency between positive self-image and past actions that threaten this image is through motivated memory. ...
... Many goals require engagement in activities that feel unpleasant, effortful, challenging, or boring. During such activities, a person may experience an intrapsychic conflict between what he or she should be doing (persist) and what he or she wants to do (something else) (Bazerman, Tenbrunsel, & Wade-Benzoni, 1998;O'Connor et al., 2002). From an individual-difference perspective, the ability to resolve this conflict in the interest of one's goals is a Note. ...
Preprint
We investigated the self-regulatory strategies people spontaneously use in their everyday lives to regulate their persistence during aversive activities. In pilot studies (pooled N = 794), we identified self-regulatory strategies from self-reports and generated hypotheses about individual differences in trait self-control predicting their use. Next, deploying ambulatory assessment (N = 264, 1940 reports of aversive/challenging activities), we investigated predictors of the strategies’ self-reported use and effectiveness (trait self-control, demand types). The popularity of strategies varied across demands. In addition, people higher in trait self-control were more likely to focus on the positive consequences of a given activity, set goals, and use emotion regulation. Focusing on positive consequences, focusing on negative consequences (of not performing the activity), thinking of the near finish, and emotion regulation increased perceived self-regulatory success across demands, whereas distracting oneself from the aversive activity decreased it. None of these strategies, however, accounted for the beneficial effects of trait self-control on perceived self-regulatory success. Hence, trait self-control and strategy use appear to represent separate routes to good self-regulation. By considering trait- and process-approaches, these findings promote a more comprehensive understanding of self-regulatory success and failure during people’s daily attempts to regulate their persistence.
... When making trade-offs between personal preferences and the norms of an identity, or between the norms of two identities, the salience of the individual's identification with each group and of the relevant norms are important factors that shape the influence of the norm. Norm and identity salience have been shown to vary with context (Oakes et al. 1991;O'Connor et al. 2002;West and Iyengar 2020;Ybarra and Trafimow 1998). For example, ideological identity norms are likely to be more important factors shaping decisions during an election year than a non-election year. ...
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When deciding whether to support a political candidate, policy or cause, individuals are observed to prioritize the expression of their political identities. They even knowingly incur personal costs (a lower wage, strained family relations) to do so. We argue that viewing political identities as social identities that impart norms on who or what one ought to support can help explain such costly political expression. Through population-based survey experiments, we show that individuals are aware of the norms attached to their political identities; will knowingly choose norm-compliance at personal cost; and that this costly political identity expression varies with norm salience and strength. Our results imply that as political identities strengthen, group norm compliance will increase, even at a cost, rendering compromise between political groups less likely.
... Yet, this demand for positive self-image can be challenged by the fact that most people sometimes behave in ways that they would like to think they did not. The discrepancy between what people do and how they would like to see themselves may create intra-personal conflicts (Conen et al., 1957;Bazerman et al., 1998;O'Connor et al., 2002). One way to restore consistency between positive self-image and past image-threatening actions is through motivated memory. ...
Thesis
This thesis investigates whether individuals use their memory as a self-deceptive strategy to sustain motivated beliefs. It tests experimentally the existence and strength of memory manipulation in three economically relevant contexts: social interactions, individual performance and unethical decisions.Chapter one investigates whether people retrieve their memory self-servingly in social encounters. Do individuals forget the consequences of their actions on others? If so, does it depend on the nature (e.g. selfish or altruistic) of the action? Our results identify a causal effect of the responsibility of pro-social decisions on selective recalls. In contrast, there is no clear evidence of biased memory errors. Chapter two disentangles between two driving forces that have been proposed as explanations of memory failures for self-relevant information: self-enhancement and mood-congruency. We provide a controlled environment where the two theories predict different outcomes. Our results provide support for the existence and relative dominance of self-enhancing memory over mood-congruent memory and thereby underline the importance of motivational factors in the formation of optimistic beliefs about the self.Chapter three investigates the relative role of affect and strategic reasoning in motivated memory, with an application in the domain of unethical behavior. We study whether individuals manipulate the memory of past dishonest choices, and whether they use their memory as an instrument to justify future decisions. We find that hedonic considerations are not sufficient to trigger memory manipulation. When forgetting serves as a justification to not engage in future morally responsible behavior, however, individuals do motivate their memory.Together, these results show that memory errors in economic contexts can result from cognitive impairment but also from memory distortion motivated by the willingness to protect one's self-image and future choices.
... Yet, this demand for positive self-image can be challenged by the fact that most people sometimes behave in ways that they would like to think they did not. The discrepancy between what people do and how they would like to see themselves may create intra-personal conflicts (Conen et al., 1957;Bazerman et al., 1998;O'Connor et al., 2002). One way to restore consistency between positive self-image and past image-threatening actions is through motivated memory. ...
Article
The memory people have of their past behavior is one of the main sources of information about themselves. To study whether people retrieve their memory self-servingly in social encounters, we designed an experiment in which participants play binary dictator games and then have to recall the amounts allocated to the receivers. We find evidence of motivated memory through selective recalls: dictators remember more their altruistic than their selfish choices. A causal effect of the responsibility of decisions is identified, as the recall asymmetry disappears when options are selected randomly by the computer program. Incentivizing memory accuracy increases the percentage of dictators' correct recalls only when they behaved altruistically. In contrast, there is no clear evidence of motivated memory through biased memory errors, i.e., overly optimistic recalls: dictators recall selectively but do not bias the direction and magnitude of these recalls in a self-serving way.
... The decision to choose smaller, earlier payoffs can be labeled as a "want," whereas the choice of larger but delayed option is the "should" choice (Bazerman et al., 1998). A study by O'Connor et al. (2002) shows that the "want" self is more affect-driven and the "should" self is more rational when making intertemporal decisions. ...
Article
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Purpose: When facing important decisions, people often ask themselves “What should I choose?” This question may involve intertemporal and risky decisions. The aim of our study was to test a potential discrepancy between the normative and descriptive perspective, that is, between “What should you choose?” and “What do you choose?”. Methodology: In this study we assessed the rate of delay and probability discounting of 236 participants. The design was a 2 (“choose”/“should choose”) × 2 (small/large) × 5 (delays or probabilities) factorial design in delay and probability discounting. Findings: People are less impulsive when taking the normative perspective than when they take the descriptive one. This phenomenon occurs in relation to large payoffs. However taking the normative rather than descriptive perspective makes no difference in risky decisions. Research limitations: In further research it would be beneficial to study real outcomes as choice consequences and to control for variables that might moderate the impact of our manipulation, such as addictions. Implications: The manipulation with the perspective may be applied not only in financial decision making. Our results may find a practical implementation to help impulsive people make more sensible decisions. Originality: We demonstrated the internal conflict between the descriptive and normative mode in delay discounting decision making.
Article
Moral problems often prompt emotional responses that invoke intuitive judgments of right and wrong. While emotions inform judgment across many domains, they can also lead to ethical failures that could be avoided by using a more deliberative, analytical decision-making process. In this article, we describe joint evaluation as an effective tool to help decision makers manage their emotional assessments of morality.
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Purpose – The purpose of this article is to study how two different managerial environments of the state-controlled economy in Belarus – “private small business management” and “state or privatized large enterprise management” – influence middle managers' implementation of decisions. Two kinds of data are analyzed: “should” option or presented data, and “would” option or managers' preferred in reality option of activity. Design/methodology/approach – The research was completed in two stages: survey research based on open-ended questions and face-to-face structured interviews based on the principle of controllable projection. A total of 193 decisions are analyzed. Findings – Managers of large and state enterprises should present an appearance of active tactics, but in reality they would prefer tactics of delay or no-action. Managers of small private businesses should present all varieties of tactics except a tactic of inaction. In reality, they would prefer to act directly, or less often, to wait or not act at all. Research limitations/implications – The effect of other organizational factors than the size and form of ownership should be subjects of future research. The comparison of decision implementation tactics of mid-level managers in large and small organizations, in state-owned and private companies in countries with different economies should also be studied. Practical implications – The findings of this paper have managerial implications for companies willing to open subsidiaries or establish partnership with enterprises from countries with a state-controlled economy. Originality/value – The paper is original research that proves the influence of the business environment and characteristics of a company on a middle manager's behavior.
Article
This paper explores the biased perceptions that people hold of their own ethicality. We argue that the temporal trichotomy of prediction, action and recollection is central to these misperceptions: People predict that they will behave more ethically than they actually do, and when evaluating past (un)ethical behavior, they believe they behaved more ethically than they actually did. We use the “want/should” theoretical framework to explain the bounded ethicality that arises from these temporal inconsistencies, positing that the “should” self dominates during the prediction and recollection phases but that the “want” self is dominant during the critical action phase. We draw on the research on behavioral forecasting, ethical fading, and cognitive distortions to gain insight into the forces driving these faulty perceptions and, noting how these misperceptions can lead to continued unethical behavior, we provide recommendations for how to reduce them. We also include a call for future research to better understand this phenomenon.
Article
Objectif Infirmant l’hypothèse voulant que le psychopathe ne possède pas le discernement moral requis pour penser ses actions à la lumière de certaines raisons morales, plusieurs études suggèrent chez ce dernier la présence d’un décalage entre ce qu’il évalue, juge ou reconnaît et ce qu’il choisit effectivement de faire. Or, si les théories de la motivation morale destinées à rendre compte de cet écart privilégient généralement des positions soit rationalistes, soit émotivistes, de récents travaux en philosophie expérimentale ainsi qu’en psychologie morale tendent à accorder une place de plus en plus centrale à la notion d’identité morale, laquelle constituerait une source supplémentaire – et in fine véritablement déterminante – de motivation morale puisant dans des normes non pas objectives et impersonnelles, mais bien subjectives et personnelles. Méthode Après avoir montré que nos raisonnements moraux et nos affects ne sont en eux-mêmes pas suffisants pour éclairer l’origine – et la variabilité intra- et interindividuelle – de nos décisions morales, nous présentons la conception personnologique du soi moral (moral self) et le rapport normatif à soi qu’elle suppose. Nous discutons ensuite la nature de la relation entre personnalité psychopathique et identité morale. Résultat Il ressort de certaines recherches menées auprès d’adultes que les différences en termes de capacités de jugement moral ne prédisent en aucun cas les niveaux de traits psychopathiques relevés. Les sujets caractérisés par un fonctionnement de type psychopathique n’intègreraient en revanche que de façon minimale – et anecdotique – des traits moraux à leur conception d’eux-mêmes. Ils parviendraient difficilement à se percevoir ou à se concevoir comme des agents moraux façonnés et définis par une série d’engagements éthiques. Discussion L’influence motivationnelle du soi moral sur nos choix moraux repose sur un processus auto-référentiel qui s’apparente à une réflexion de troisième ordre consistant à questionner le genre de personne que je veux être et que j’ai à être ; à évaluer le degré de conformité de mes désirs momentanés avec ce que je désire désirer sur le plan moral. Ce qui présume, nous le verrons, une sorte de détachement vis-à-vis de l’actuel, pour identifier – et ainsi s’identifier à – des résolutions morales passées. Conclusion Nous finissons par défendre la thèse selon laquelle la psychopathie pourrait, dans certains cas au moins, résulter d’une incapacité à voyager mentalement dans le temps compromettant la distanciation ou le désengagement vis-à-vis d’un désir présent pour le plonger dans l’espace concurrentiel d’exigences normatives antérieurement (auto)contractées. Mais une telle inefficacité temporelle perturbe également, et corrélativement, les mouvements d’identification à des engagements moraux particuliers, paralyse les élans prospectifs venant projeter la personne que nous serons à l’issue de tel ou tel choix, et neutralise en outre la mise en récit de soi permettant de tisser et de structurer notre identité morale en nous assignant des dispositions ou des tendances morales auxquelles nous nous référons ultimement lorsqu’il s’agit de prendre des décisions chargées d’enjeux moraux.
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Many everyday dilemmas reflect a conflict between two moral motivations: the desire to adhere to universal principles (integrity) and the desire to improve the welfare of specific individuals in need (benevolence). In this article, we bridge research on moral judgment and trust to introduce a framework that establishes three central distinctions between benevolence and integrity: (1) the degree to which they rely on impartiality, (2) the degree to which they are tied to emotion versus reason, and (3) the degree to which they can be evaluated in isolation. We use this framework to explain existing findings and generate novel predictions about the resolution and judgment of benevolence–integrity dilemmas. Though ethical dilemmas have long been a focus of moral psychology research, recent research has relied on dramatic dilemmas that involve conflicts of utilitarianism and deontology and has failed to represent the ordinary, yet psychologically taxing dilemmas that we frequently face in everyday life. The present article fills this gap, thereby deepening our understanding of moral judgment and decision making and providing practical insights on how decision makers resolve moral conflict.
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An exceptionally robust result in experimental economics is the failure to observe equilibrium (subgame perfect) play in the ultimatum game. A heretofore unnoticed feature of the game is that neither player voluntarily chooses to play. Motivated by Adam Smith's proposition that beneficence—like that of non-equilibrium play in the ultimatum game—cannot be extorted by force, we offer the responder the opportunity to opt out of the game for a mere $1 payoff for both players. We observe far higher rates of equilibrium play, including highly unequal splits, than heretofore reported in binary choice versions of the game.
Article
This paper provides a rationale for educational psychologists (EPs) to consider the concept of disaffection systemically. In order to understand how contextual and interactional factors initiate or maintain disaffection it may be useful for EPs to draw upon self-determination theory (SDT). This theory emphasises how contextual factors determine the extent to which a student’s psychological needs – for autonomy, competence and relatedness – are met. It is hypothesised that students are more likely to disengage from school if this context does not meet these psychological needs. SDT may, therefore, assist EPs in understanding disaffection and suggest constructive changes to the student’s environment. In view of this, two approaches are suggested concerning the role of EPs: (1) the use of person-centred thinking, with students and teachers, to enhance student perceptions of autonomy, competence and relatedness; (2) the use of effective consultation to engage teachers in the process of systemic change.
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One of the main and most challenging tasks of managers is to judge their own actions and, even more, the actions of others. There are different biases that might affect the accuracy of their ethical judgment. Two of the most common biases studied are the group affiliation bias and the want/should conflict. In the present study by empirical means, we analyzed these biases in the ethical judgment of managers. Examining answers of 153 effective respondents, we found significant differences in some of the four categories of ethical decision making studied, especially in the use of working time, money management and the use of corporate assets. We also explored some demographic characteristics of the managers, finding gender and level of study as the most relevant ones which play an important role on how they assess their own past and future behavior and the behavior of others. Although, we obtained somehow mixed results, they show that there seems to be a tendency within managers, to judge harder moral behavior of others compared to the judgment of their own ethical behavior Furthermore, managers judge others, contrary to expected, harder if they know them than if they do not.
Article
Encouraging consumers to select meals in advance rather than at mealtime has been proposed as a strategy to promote healthier eating decisions, taking advantage of the improved self-control that is thought to accompany decisions about the future. In two field studies at an employee cafeteria and a third in a university setting, we examine how time delays between placing a lunch order and picking it up affect the healthfulness of that lunch. The first study, a secondary data analysis, finds that longer delays between placing an order and picking up the meal are associated with reductions in calorie content. The second study tests the causality of this relationship by exogenously restricting some lunch orders to be substantially delayed, leading to a marginally significant (approximately 5%) reduction in calories among delayed orders. The third study compares orders for truly immediate consumption versus orders placed in advance and demonstrates a significant (100 calorie, or approximately 10%) reduction in lunch calories. We discuss evidence regarding possible theoretical mechanisms underlying this effect, as well as practical implications of our findings.
Book
Global interests are at stake at the treaty table. But personalities on either side can create difficulties apart from the issues. A skilled negotiator needs to be able to defuse the tensions and misperceptions that can derail progress. But there are few resources that offer a combination of psychological knowledge with the skills of persuasion. Now, a unique collaboration between experts in cognitive psychotherapy and political science, Psychological Processes in International Negotiations provides such a resource. Drawing on a wide range of theory and data, from neuroscientific findings and historical events to Albert Ellis' rational-emotive model of behavior to attachment and meta-cognitive functions, the book explains how the negotiation process works, under both adverse and optimum conditions. The authors identify psychological elements (in participants and in negotiators themselves) that have the greatest effect on negotiation outcomes, including group identity and groupthink, egocentrism, emotional awareness and competence, and the various interpersonal and communication skills, as well as steps readers can take to improve their performance. With this book, negotiators have the tools to come to clear judgments and creative, non-aggressive solutions. Highlights of the coverage: Cognition and emotion in the context of negotiation. Characteristics/traits of successful, proactive negotiators. Cognitive views of war and international crisis. Meta-communications and the working relationship. Emotive keys to coping with stalemates. Summaries of a 15-session cognitive/emotional training program for negotiators, and the proposed European Cognitive School of International Negotiation. "Practical guide" sections linking theoretical and practical material. This synthesis of scientific insights and real-world applications makes Psychological Processes in International Negotiations necessary reading for negotiators, mediators, and conflict managers, psychologists, and psychotherapists, as well as for students and researchers in this field. The authors' premise is clear: peace and stability create winners on all sides. © 2008 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. All rights reserved.
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Despite much research on the determinants of trust among strangers, its mechanisms are understood only rudimentarily. Recently, it has been proposed that people trust strangers because they believe they should, thus complying with an injunctive norm even if it conflicts with their preferences. However, given the boldness of this claim and in light of independent arguments and earlier findings that suggest otherwise, the hypothesis requires critical scrutiny. Thus, we tested whether the decision to trust (in the trust game) is indeed more strongly driven by what people think they should entrust rather than what they want to entrust in two studies. We consistently found a stronger influence of ‘want’ than of ‘should’ on trust decisions even when controlling for the fairness aspect inherent in the trust game. Thus, our findings speak against a predominant role of injunctive norms for trust behavior and confirm that the latter is mostly driven by preferences.
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In this paper I want to begin with the neoclassical supply and demand model of markets (SDM), whose static equilibrium consequences predicted outcomes far more accurately than were anticipated in laboratory experimental tests of the theory actuated by Jevons (1862, 1871; Smith, 1962). The observed predictive accuracy of SDM was not anticipated because complete information on supply and demand was widely believed, thought and taught to be a necessary condition for finding equilibrium. 1 Jevons' model required him to have complete information in any particular market, as he only articulated a model of market optimal outcomes, and no model of how individual actors might discover those outcomes. Only private information on their own unit values (costs) was provided to the subject-agents in the experiments; yet 1 Walras (1969) had an exogenous mechanism for finding equilibrium, but it performed very poorly in experimental tests. Bronfman et al. (1996)
Chapter
Following Nick Baigent’s argument that one must go “behind the veil of preference” (Baigent, Jpn Econ Rev 46(1):88–101, 1995) to be able to develop a satisfactory theory of rational behaviour, we propose to analyse potential intrapersonal conflicts caused by different reasons, goals or motivations to choose one option over another, which may make the development of a coherent preference impossible. We do this by presenting an extensive, but certainly not exhaustive overview of psychological research on intrapersonal conflict, its influence on preference reversal (and hence on incoherent behaviour), on psychological well-being and on motivational and behavioural changes over time. We then briefly describe our own theory of choice under conflicting motivations (Arlegi and Teschl, Working Papers of the Department of Economics DT 1208, Public University of Navarre, 2012), which is a first attempt at putting psychological insights into intrapersonal conflict into an axiomatic economic context.
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"In this paper I want to begin with the neoclassical supply and demand model of markets (SDM), whose static equilibrium consequences predicted outcomes far more accurately than were anticipated in laboratory experimental tests of the theory actuated by Jevons (1862, 1871; Smith, 1962). The observed predictive accuracy of SDM was not anticipated because complete information on supply and demand was widely believed, thought and taught to be a necessary condition for finding equilibrium. 1 Jevons’ model required him to have complete information in any particular market, as he only articulated a model of market optimal outcomes, and no model of how individual actors might discover those outcomes. Only private information on their own unit values (costs) was provided to the subject-agents in the experiments; yet convergence was rapid. Market participants functioning under principles of motion, known to no one, were finding the equilibrium by means that were no part of the theory, nor any part of their own intentions and awareness."
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We provide a conceptual review of the available knowledge on the role of human cognition biases for sustainability and sustainable behavior. Human cognition biases are defined as any deviation in decision making from the standard framework of rational choice. We distinguish between biases in individual decision making and biases in group decision making, and highlight the relevance of each for sustainable behavior. We find that while both categories may contribute to unsustainable behavior, human cognition biases in group settings might be central to understanding many of the current sustainability issues. Moreover, we argue that the effects of group-related biases may outweigh those on the individual level in driving unsustainable behavior, and that biases that have been discussed under various labels in the literature can be interpreted as manifestations of human cognition biases in group settings.
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Are people intuitively generous or stingy? Does reflection make people more willing to give generous amounts to charity? Findings across the literature are mixed, with many studies finding no clear relationship between reflection and charitable giving (e.g., Hauge, Brekke, & Johansson, 2016; Tinghög et al., 2016), while others find that reflection negatively affects giving (e.g., Small, Loewenstein, & Slovic, 2007), and still others find that reflection is positively associated with giving (e.g., Lohse, Goeschl, & Diederich, 2014). I demonstrate that reflection consistently increases costly giving to charity. In Study 1, people were initially reluctant to give costly amounts of money to charity, but those who reflected about the decision were more willing to give. In Studies 2-3, I isolated the role of costly stakes by randomly assigning people to either an uncostly donation ($0.40) or costly donation condition (e.g., $100), and randomly assigning them to decide under time pressure or after reflecting. Reflection increased their willingness to give costly amounts, but did not influence their willingness to give uncostly amounts. Similarly, the relationship between decision time and giving was positive when the stakes were costly but was relatively flat when the stakes were uncostly (Study 4).
Article
Purpose This study aims to offer insights regarding the impact of emotional conflict on innovation behavior. This study also explores the boundary conditions by examining the moderating effects of leader-member exchange (LMX) and team-member exchange (TMX) on the relationship between emotional conflict and innovation behavior. Design/methodology/approach This study used a questionnaire survey to collect data in China. Hypotheses were tested using hierarchical regression analysis. To test for inverted U-shaped relationship between emotional conflict and innovation behavior, the authors computed the squared term for emotional conflict. To investigate moderating roles of LMX and TMX, the authors carried out an interaction term between the main effect variables (emotional conflict and emotional conflict²) and the moderating variables (LMX and TMX). Findings The empirical findings indicated that emotional conflict had an inverted U-shaped relationship with innovation behavior. Furthermore, LMX and TMX moderated the inverted U-shaped relationship between the emotional conflict and innovation behavior in such a way that the inverted U-shaped relationship was flatter in high-quality LMX and TMX than in low-quality LMX and TMX. That is to say, LMX and TMX may dampen the positive effects of lower levels of emotional conflict on innovation behavior; yet, it may also weaken the negative effects of higher levels of emotional conflict on innovation behavior. Research limitations/implications This research can be extended in several ways. First, future research can investigate the impact mechanism of emotional conflict on innovation behavior. Second, future research can analyze other types of moderators at different levels. The last but not the least, future research can test the results using heterogeneous samples. Despite these potential limitations, this study provides an elaborate understanding of the conflict–creativity relationship by outlining the inverted U-shaped relationship between emotional conflict and innovation behavior under the LMX and TMX contexts, which can make important contributions to the conflict management literature. Practical implications The findings of this study offer some guidance on how to stimulate innovation behavior through emotional conflict. It suggests that managers should maintain the emotional conflict at the moderate level. Furthermore, managers can strengthen the LMX and TMX to avoid the negative effects of high levels of emotional conflict, and several practices are provided as well. Originality/value This study develops an exhaustive understanding of the conflict–creativity relationship by figuring the curvilinear relationship between emotional conflict and innovation behavior, which is the response to the call of Posthuma to focus on the outcomes of conflict management. The findings further provide an empirical evidence of the conceptual argument that the consequences of conflict depend on the situational context by pointing out the important contingency factors of LMX and TMX.
Chapter
This chapter reviews the recent flurry of research on people's predictions of their feelings and choices. Specifically, it addresses the research on people's predictions when they are in an affectively unaroused "cold" state about what they would feel and choose in affectively arousing "hot" situations. It also indicates that, whereas people in a cold state tend to overestimate the influence of affective situations on the intensity and duration of their feelings, people underestimate the influence of affective situations on their choices and preferences. Then, it discusses the different ways in which affective arousal influences feelings versus choice and suggests that predicted feelings and choices are subject to different constraints and moderators. In particular, it postulates that because choices are intuitively more stable and correspond more with dispositions than with feelings, people are more reluctant to predict changing choices than to predict changing feelings. Furthermore, three important questions for future research are considered, after which some practical suggestions for research on the interplay among thoughts, feelings, and behavior over time are raised. © 2006 by Lawrence J. Sanna and Edward C. Chang. All rights reserved.
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The field of organizational behavior includes the study of how individuals organize and manage conflict among themselves. Less visible has been the study of conflicts occurring within individuals. We propose that one form of intrapersonal conflict is the result of tension between what people want to do versus what they think they should do. We argue that this want/should distinction helps to explain the "multiple-selves" phenomenon and a recently discovered group of preference reversals noted in behavioral decision and organizational behavior research. We develop ct history of knowledge on intrapersonal conflict, discuss how conflicts between what one wants to do and what one should do result in inconsistent behavior, connect this pattern of inconsistency to recent literature on joint versus separate preference reversals, and outline prescriptions for the management of intrapersonal conflict.
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The economic theory of the consumer is a combination of positive and normative theories. Since it is based on a rational maximizing model it describes how consumers should choose, but it is alleged to also describe how they do choose. This paper argues that in certain well-defined situations many consumers act in a manner that is inconsistent with economic theory. In these situations economic theory will make systematic errors in predicting behavior. Kanneman and Tversey's prospect theory is proposed as the basis for an alternative descriptive theory. Topics discussed are: undeweighting of opportunity costs, failure to ignore sunk costs, scarch behavior choosing not to choose and regret, and precommitment and self-control.
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Sumario: Economic reasoning and the ethics of policy -- command and control -- The intimate contest for self-command -- Ethics, law, and the exercise of self-command --- The life you save may be your own -- Strategic relationships in dying -- Economics and criminal enterprise -- What is the business of organized crime -- Strategic analysis and social problems -- What is game theory? -- A framework for the evaluation of arms proposals -- The strategy of inflicting costs -- Who will have the bomb? -- Thinking about nuclear terrorism -- The mind as a consuming organ
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There are many experimental studies of bargaining behavior, but suprisingly enough nearly no attempt has been made to investigate the so-called ultimatum bargaining behavior experimentally. The special property of ultimatum bargaining games is that on every stage of the bargaining process only one player has to decide and that before the last stage the set of outcomes is already restricted to only two results. To make the ultimatum aspect obvious we concentrated on situations with two players and two stages. In the ‘easy games’ a given amount c has to be distributed among the two players, whereas in the ‘complicated games’ the players have to allocate a bundle of black and white chips with different values for both players. We performed two main experiments for easy games as well as for complicated games. By a special experiment it was investigated how the demands of subjects as player 1 are related to their acceptance decisions as player 2.
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This study explores the ways in which information about other individual's action affects one's own behavior in a dictator game. The experimental design discriminates behaviorally between three possible effects of recipient's within-game reputation on the dictator's decision: Reputation causing indirect reciprocity, social influence, and identification. The separation of motives is an important step in trying to understand how impulses towards selfish or generous behavior arise. The statistical analysis of experimental data reveals that the reputation effects have a stronger impact on dictators' actions than the social influence and identification.
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The topic of affect has been described as an important, but underexplored area of the social psychology of negotiation. In this paper we seek to advance thinking about affective processes in two-party negotiation through an integration and conceptual extension of existing research. We briefly review conceptualizations and operationalizations of affect, and highlight findings relevant to the social-cognitive underpinnings of negotiation. A dynamic model of affect in two-party negotiation analyzes the role of moods and emotions that bargainers bring to and evolve within the negotiation encounter. The model illustrates how affect states influence (and in some cases are influenced by) one's decision to negotiate, selection of an opponent, formulation of expectations and offers, choice of tactics used within bargaining, economic and social-cognitive outcomes, and proclivity to comply with settlement terms. We develop specific research propositions that describe these influences and discuss their implications for broader questions about the role of affect in bargaining.
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This paper explores the consequences of cognitive dissonance, coupled with time-inconsistent preferences, in an intertemporal decision problem with two distinct goals: acting decisively on early information (vision) and adjusting flexibly to late information (flexibility). The decision maker considered here is capable of manipulating information to serve her self-interests, but a tradeoff between distorted beliefs and distorted actions constrains the extent of information manipulation. Building on this tradeoff, the present model provides a unified framework to account for the conformity bias (excessive reliance on precedents) and the confirmatory bias (excessive attachment to initial perceptions).
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This paper explores the consequences of cognitive dissonance, coupled with time-inconsistent preferences, in an intertemporal decision problem with two distinct goals: acting decisively on early information (vision) and adjusting flexibly to late information (flexibility). The decision maker considered here is capable of manipulating information to serve her self-interests, but a tradeoff between distorted beliefs and distorted actions constrains the extent of information manipulation. Building on this tradeoff, the present model provides a unified framework to account for the conformity bias (excessive reliance on precedents) and the confirmatory bias (excessive attachment to initial perceptions).
The ego and the id The standard edition of the complete psychological works of Sigmund Freud Immune neglect: a source of durability bias in affective forecasting
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