Article

Sexual Abuse in Sport: A Model to Prevent and Protect Athletes

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Abstract

Several studies clearly show that sexual abuse exists in sport. Currently, very few studies have examined the prevention and management of this problem in sports organisations. This article explores the measures used to prevent sexual abuse in sports organisations as well as the perceptions of the sports actors affected by these measures (parents, athletes, administrators and coaches). The results demonstrate that several factors affect the implementation of measures and the management of this problem in sports organisations. Moreover, few measures exist to prevent and manage cases of sexual abuse in these organisations, thus jeopardising the protection of athletes. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... Unfortunately, the literature reveals a history of ignorance and silence of sexual abuse in sport and governing agencies in sport rarely acknowledge or address sexual abuse (e.g., Parent and Hlimi, 2013;Brackenridge and Rhind, 2014;Kerr et al., 2014;Lang and Hartill, 2014;Mountjoy et al., 2016). Studies as well as sexual abuse cases reported in the media indicate that safeguarding measures in sports often fall short in protecting athletes (Parent and Demers, 2011;Mountjoy et al., 2016;Johansson and Lundqvist, 2017;Bjørnseth and Szabo, 2018;Kerr et al., 2020). In response to the many public scandals of sexual abuse in sport and 30 years of research emphasizing this as a prevalent problem in sport, safe sport policy and procedures have been developed (Rhind and Owusu-Sekyere, 2020). ...
... It has been found that few protection measures are evidence-based or built on theory, and they are rarely evaluated to determine whether the intended outcomes have been achieved (Parent and Hlimi, 2013;Hartill and O'Gorman, 2014;Lang and Hartill, 2014;Gurgis and Kerr, 2021). According to the literature, the implementation of policy has not kept pace with policy development, which created a problematic gap between policy and practice (Brackenridge, 2002;Parent and Demers, 2011;Donnelly et al., 2016;Rulofs et al., 2019;Kerr et al., 2020). ...
... The circumstances and state of the safeguarding of sport demonstrate a need to align research, policy, and practice for the development of safe sport measures. Parent and Demers (2011) suggest that such alignment could facilitate empirically informed measures and the development of a theoretical foundation to inform practice and to develop systemic, sustainable safe sport measures and a safe sport culture. Evaluation is an important step in the development of evidence-based policy and practice. ...
Article
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The sport movement must protect children and young athletes from all forms of abuse. However, research points to a disconnect between policy and implementation of policy against sexual abuse. No studies have investigated measures against sexual abuse in Swedish sport. The purpose of this study was to explore measures against sexual abuse in the 10 largest sports federations (SFs) for child and youth sport in Sweden. The study draws on interviews with representatives (n = 18) of the SFs and on a review of SFs' website content regarding sexual abuse and safe sport. Results show that the SFs have taken few or no measures against sexual abuse. Measures for safe sports vary in existence, development, and organization between the SFs, and many SFs are in the early stages of safe sport measures and practice. Although the SF representatives emphasize that sexual abuse is unacceptable, a conflict between making it visible or invisible emerges and creates a gap between policy and practice. Reproducing a culture of silence around sexual abuse in sports seems advantageously for SFs. Social and organizational factors that can debilitate safe sport measures and facilitate sexual abuse in sport are discussed.
... Consequently, a coach is in a position to easily exploit their relationship with an athlete, turning it into an abusive relationship (Parent, 2011). The power coaches possess over their athletes make the athletes especially vulnerable to abuse (Owton & Sparkes, 2017;Parent & Demers, 2011;Stirling & Kerr, 2009). ...
... In Stirling and Kerr (2009), the all-encompassing nature of elite sport is especially apparent in the power of the coach and specifically in the closeness of the coach and athlete and the coach's detailed knowledge of and involvement in many aspects of the athlete's life. As part of infiltrating numerous areas of the athlete's life, a coach often takes the place of or acts as a parental figure for the athlete (Brackenridge & Fasting, 2005;Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Gervis & Dunn, 2004;Owton & Sparkes, 2017;Parent & Demers, 2011;Smits et al., 2017;Stirling & Kerr, 2009, 2014Tofler et al., 1996). The athlete's coach will even sometimes adopt them (Tofler et al., 1996), which is an extreme case of a coach acting as a parental figure. ...
... In the elite sport world, performance, success, and winning are often the most important outcomes, regardless of the means used to achieve them, including problematic coaching practices (Gervis & Dunn, 2004;Stirling & Kerr, 2009). Abusive coaches of elite child athletes often prioritise performance over well-being (Gervis & Dunn, 2004;Parent & Demers, 2011;Stirling & Kerr, 2009). Such prioritising of winning above all else makes the child vulnerable to abuse by their coach (Kerr & Stirling, 2012). ...
Article
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Emotional abuse and sexual abuse are often co-occurring forms of child maltreatment that can have numerous negative effects on development. This narrative review synthesises research on emotional and sexual abuse of elite child athletes by their coaches to examine the dynamics and consequences of abuse in the elite sport context and to investigate characteristics of this context – in which the coach-athlete relationship is central – that make these athletes especially vulnerable to abuse. This paper contributes to the literature through using a developmental perspective to identify these characteristics, which are the intensity and one-dimensionality of child athletes’ experiences at the elite level. These characteristics are dangerous because they lead to the normalisation of the abuse and isolation of the still-developing athlete. Critical issues related to both emotional and sexual abuse of elite child athletes are also discussed, including internalisation and rationalisation of the abuse, disruption of identity, and dynamics surrounding disclosure.
... However, in most countries, research lacks an assessment of the efficacy and efficiency of the implemented safeguarding procedures (Hartill & O'Gorman, 2015). In Canada, more than 15 years after harassment policies were mandated in organised sport, some (regional) empirical studies were conducted (Donnelly et al., 2016;Parent & Demers, 2011;Parent, 2011). Parent and Demers (2011) conducted case studies on six provincial and local sport organisations in Quebec and discovered a lack of resources, of competence about safeguarding children and of explicit safeguarding actions. ...
... In Canada, more than 15 years after harassment policies were mandated in organised sport, some (regional) empirical studies were conducted (Donnelly et al., 2016;Parent & Demers, 2011;Parent, 2011). Parent and Demers (2011) conducted case studies on six provincial and local sport organisations in Quebec and discovered a lack of resources, of competence about safeguarding children and of explicit safeguarding actions. Moreover, they observed a negative picture of prevention and safeguarding policy in the sport organisations, based mainly on the idea that raising awareness about sexual violence, harassment and abuse might lead to malicious allegations against the coaches and staff. ...
... Only 19.5% of the NSFs established a work unit or committee to consult on the topic of prevention of sexual violence and support the commissioner's work, and only 14.6% provide financial resources specifically designated for the prevention of sexual violence. These findings reflect a lack of resources for prevention policy in sport organisation and correspond to the data reported from Canada (Parent & Demers, 2011) and the UK . ...
Article
A B S T R A C T This article analyses how national sport federations (NSF) in organised sport in Germany respond to sport-related political requirements to develop a comprehensive policy for the prevention of sexual violence. Referring to theoretical approaches of self-governance of organisations, data was collected from a quantitative online survey with all NSFs and qualitative interviews with their ‘commissioners for the prevention of sexualised violence’. Findings reveal the vital role of the position of commissioners and a high relevance of sociostructural capacities of the organisation for a comprehensive prevention policy. © 2019 Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand. Published by Elsevier
... Despite the varying definitions of child sexual abuse, several theoretical models have been advanced to explain this behavior (Parent, 2011). For instance, Marshall and Barbaree (1990) proposed the integrated theory of sexual offending, which posits that both situational and developmental factors influence a perpetrator's vulnerability to abuse. ...
... Hall and Hirschman (1992) suggested a quadripartite model of child sexual abuse, which included four motivational factors that work in isolation or tandem: (a) physiological sexual arousal, (b) cognitive motivation; (c) affective dysfunction; and (d), personality problems. Cense and Brackenridge (2001), developed a Temporal Model of Sexual Abuse with Children and Young Persons in Sport based on previous literature (Parent, 2011). This model suggests that a perpetrator must first have the motivation to abuse. ...
... Next, the perpetrator must overcome internal inhibitions and external barriers before starting to groom the victim. Finally, the perpetrator overcomes the victim's resistance which can be accomplished by exploiting the victim or the athlete-coach relationship (Parent, 2011). This model has been used in other child sexual abuse work (Parent, 2011) and we employ it in this research to understand how perpetrators use Snapchat to enact sexual abuse. ...
Article
Child sexual abuse is a pervasive problem that sport organizations must confront to protect the integrity of sport. While previous researchers have examined this topic, few have explored the role that technology plays. The authors address this gap by examining how coach perpetrators utilize Snapchat to facilitate sexual abuse, using Cense and Brackenridge's (2001) Temporal Model of Sexual Abuse with Children and Young Persons in Sport as a framework. Analysis of 99 media reports from 2013 to 2018 found that Snapchat provides motivation for coach perpetrators to sexually abuse that allowed them, in varied ways, to overcome internal inhibitions, external barriers, and break down victim resistance. The results indicate that youth sport organizations must develop clear policies that govern coach-athlete communication and relationships in the digital age. To further protect young athletes, youth sport organizations must develop programming to educate parents and athletes on these boundaries, to increase understanding about how sexual abuse and sexual maltreatment occur in virtual spaces. © 2019 Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand
... 10 In contrast, disabling environments that discourage athletes (Para and other) from participating and achieving in sport are poisoned by fear, distrust and severe power imbalances-the same values that underscore unhealthy interpersonal relationships and the cycle of interpersonal violence. [11][12][13][14][15] The ethical principles that govern the Paralympic Movement set a behaviour standard for all Para sport actors-athletes, teammates, coaches, parents and administrators, 16 where healthy interpersonal relationships are expected. ...
... [30][31][32] Recent safeguarding studies suggest that athletes with higher care needs may be at increased risk of non-accidental harms, compared with athletes with lower care needs. 26 27 This may be due to the inherent power imbalance that is introduced as sport actors (eg, athletes, teammates, coaches, parents and administrators) 16 assist Para athletes with activities of daily living (eg, transfers, hygiene, dressing, bathing and feeding) and other tasks. This power differential, where the Para athlete is subordinate, may set the stage for abusive relationships to develop when an otherwise innocuous power difference is exploited. ...
... 57 It is important for scientists to continue to explore exactly how peer aggression manifests itself among Para athletes at all levels, since navigating the bully-only, victim-only or bullyvictim roles appears to be commonplace in this group. 65 71-73 Priorities for future research This literature review offers a window into the characteristics of victims and instigators of non-accidental harms in Para sport, describes a limited range of abuse behaviours among Para sport actors (eg, athletes, teammates, coaches and administrators) 16 and highlights a potentially unique feature, the bully-victim role, within Para sport. Of course, complex ethical considerations make non-accidental harms research challenging, particularly when the data collection process can cause additional psychological harm to research participants. ...
Article
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Objective Para athletes reap significant health benefits from sport but are vulnerable to non-accidental harms. Little is known about the types and impacts of non-accidental harms Para athletes face. In this literature review, we summarise current knowledge and suggest priorities for future research related to non-accidental harms in Para athletes. Design Six electronic databases were searched between August and September 2017. 2245 articles were identified in the initial title/abstract review, and 202 records were selected for full-text review following preliminary screening. Two independent examiners evaluated each full text, and eight citations were selected based on inclusion/exclusion criteria. Data sources MEDLINE, Embase, PsycInfo, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Scopus and Academic Search Premier. Eligibility criteria for selecting studies Inclusion criteria: (A) human participants; (B) written in English; (C) descriptive, cohort and case series, case–control, qualitative, mixed methods studies and all clinical trials; and (D) data pertain to harassment/abuse of youth, recreational, collegiate, national-level and/or elite-level athletes with a physical and/or intellectual impairment. Results Most studies focused on young, visually impaired athletes and approximately half of all studies described high rates of bullying and its social implications. One study confirmed remarkably high rates of psychological, physical and sexual harms in Para athletes, compared with able-bodied peers. Conclusions Bullying in young, visually impaired athletes is described most commonly in the available literature. Due to the limited amount of data, the prevalence of non-accidental harms in Para athletes remains unclear and information on trends over time is similarly unavailable.
... Just as violent exists on the field as normalized behavior, when violence such as emotional and sexual abuse occurs at the hands of coaches and other authoritative sports figures, it too becomes normalized and disregarded (Brackenridge, 2002). These supervisory figures are given immense power over the children they train and place performance above the well-being of the athlete (Parent & Demers, 2011). Beyond their power, coaches and other sports leaders are often viewed as parental figures. ...
... Beyond their power, coaches and other sports leaders are often viewed as parental figures. They are rarely questioned by the athlete or their parents, and, in the case of abuse, this often contributes to the likelihood the abuse will remain unreported (Parent & Demers, 2011;Stirling & Kerr, 2009). In an environment with few protections for the athlete and moral praise of its coaches and leaders, it is conducive to an adult seeking to take advantage of the situation to perpetrate sexual abuse (Brackenridge, 2002;Parent & Demers, 2011). ...
... They are rarely questioned by the athlete or their parents, and, in the case of abuse, this often contributes to the likelihood the abuse will remain unreported (Parent & Demers, 2011;Stirling & Kerr, 2009). In an environment with few protections for the athlete and moral praise of its coaches and leaders, it is conducive to an adult seeking to take advantage of the situation to perpetrate sexual abuse (Brackenridge, 2002;Parent & Demers, 2011). Not fitting the public's view of a stereotypical monster or pedophile, these well-respected and trusted individuals are able to perpetrate sexual abuse while systematically preventing disclosure and developing a network that will conceal their behavior (Brackenridge, 2002;Hartill, 2013). ...
Article
Larry Nassar, a once world renowned Olympic doctor, was arrested and charged with child abuse and child pornography in 2016, becoming one of the most prolific abusers in history. The current paper examines Nassar’s abuse through the lens of Routine Activities Theory. Drawing from the complete transcripts of 172 victim impact statements read at his trial, a formula for Nassar’s systematic abuse was developed. This content analysis illustrates the perceived depths of his motivation, the suitability of his targets, and egregious lack of capable guardians for these victims. Recommendations for additional training to recognize and report abuse, harsher penalties for those who do not report, a shift in the athletic culture of silence, and progress towards a society where victims are believed are presented within.
... Although sports personnel at all levels appeared committed to improving child protection policy and practice, they also appeared to lack the confidence, knowledge or organizational systems for doing this effectively. Similarly, in their work in Quebec Canada, Parent and Demers (2011) indicated that the participant stakeholders greatly trivialized the impacts and the effectiveness of sexual abuse prevention. Although they considered it important to try to prevent this problem, the coaches, parents and administrators appeared afraid that prevention would arouse fear within the organization and that members would think that measures were being implemented because sexual abuse existed in their organization. ...
... The same applies to parents and even athletes. For example, previous research has time and time again pointed to universal education (a process whereby the information is available to everybody) and awareness strategies (Parent & Demers, 2011) as important pillars in the prevention of harassment and abuse. But if the relevant informative literature is not directly accessible at any given moment to those of concern, then immediately we see how the first obstacle of implementation arises. ...
Article
Rationale/purpose While the International Olympic Committee has issued several guidelines and recommendations on the protection of athletes from harassment and abuse in sports, there exists very little research which documents the extent to which these recommendations are actually implemented in sports organizations across Europe and most importantly, the efficacy of such measures. Findings Based on the results, a set of evidence-based guidelines for promoting compliance with the existing policies and measures of harassment and abuse are recommended, which include an Observatory of Harassment and Abuse in Sports, the ISO accreditation for all sports organizations, and a European Mobile phone application. Practical implications With these findings, this study offers a standardized method of implementation of policies, which will enable future pan-European assessments of efficacy, thus narrowing the current gap in knowledge. Research contribution This is the first study to recommend a remedy to the obstacles – identified in previous research – which hamper the implementation of Universal policies on harassment and abuse in sports.
... Therefore, individuals are also influenced by context. Context can result from situational components arising from the immediate environment, the broader organizational culture, and in large part, a leader's influence (Oldham & Cummings, 1996;Shalley, Zhou, & Oldham, 2004). Researchers examining leader influence have noted its impact on individual performance (Bass, 1996;Lowe et al., 1996;Walumbwa et al., 2011;Yukl, 1999), motivation (Bass, 1996;Yukl, 1999), and turnover (Graen et al., 1982;Tepper, 2000). ...
... Paradoxically, the abusive leadership meant to motivate student-athletes to higher performance levels is actually associated with lower levels of performance. Therefore, sports organizations and administrators should work to create an environment that provides effective leadership by monitoring coaches who engage in abusive leadership, utilizing sport-specific codes of conduct, space or occasions to discuss issues of abusive leadership, training and providing information for coaches and athletes on these issues, and rules which govern acceptable behavior of coaches (Parent & Demers, 2011;Parent & Fortier, 2018). ...
Article
The aim of this study was to increase our understanding of the harm of abusive leadership on followers’ performance. Student-athletes (N = 145) at a US institution completed surveys. The authors used hierarchical regression analysis and an independent samples t-test to assess the hypotheses. Consistent with core self-evaluations theory, results revealed that core self-evaluations moderate the negative relationship between abusive leader behavior and student-athlete performance, such that the negative relationship is weakened for those with higher, rather than lower, levels of core self-evaluations. Results further indicated that women student-athletes are likely to have lower levels of core self-evaluations than are men, thus highlighting the potential increased impact that abusive leadership may have on women and their performance. Implications of these findings for research, theory and practice on abusive leadership and performance are discussed.
... Fundamental governance processes (i.e., appointment procedures, board member background and experience, member values, etc.) must also change Rall & Orué, 2020), which means the involvement of other influential stakeholders. Higher education and athletic department administrators must shift institutional oversight structures toward shared responsibility (e.g., academic senate and student committees, third-party advocacy groups) and value transparency for any substantive change to occur (Parent & Demers, 2011;Sartore-Baldwin et al., 2017). ...
... Institutional leadership and stakeholders must confront the pull of ethical fading and the devastating effect it can have on enabling sexual abuse. Simply put, avoiding discussions about sexual abuse does not prevent future abuse-a statement that is self-evident but often counter to the logic of stakeholders at the nexus of athletics and higher education (Cooky, 2012;Parent & Demers, 2011). The negative implications of a strong, agreeable organizational culture may present moral hazards that scholars in higher education have yet to explore in detail, especially in athletics. ...
Article
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The authors aim to further theoretical conceptualizations of sexual abuse in college sport by providing a wider framework to better identify and combat abuse within organizations. Building on the Toxic Triangle of Destructive Leadership, the authors offer an analysis of destructive leadership from an organizational perspective that reconceptualizes destructive leadership as a group and organizational phenomena by centering governing board actions in previous cases of abuse. Through analysis of the NCAA governance structure and the governance structure of higher education at large, the authors provide rationale for advancing governing boards as a sport governing body and demonstrate how governing boards are inseparable from the governance structure of the NCAA. In analyzing the literature on organizational responses to sexual abuse in intercollegiate athletics, the authors posit a new framework to better identify, prevent, and combat abuse in sport and call for enhanced proactivity from institutional leadership to address sexual abuse.
... Sport organization staff, volunteers, and administration should also have a base level of knowledge to be able to appropriately respond to the signs of and disclosure of abuse. At the parent and athlete level, this gap in knowledge can partially be traced to few public resources in this area (Brackenridge et al., 2004;Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Parent & Demers, 2011). ...
... The literature points to the lack of standardized athlete protection mechanisms across sport organizations (Brackenridge et al., 2008;Parent, 2011). While a standard level of care for all children and athletes is of primary importance (Brackenridge et al., 2010;United Nations Children's Fund, 2008), it is critical that policies and procedures are modified to specifically serve their specific environments and that leaders in athlete protection provide tools for WSPAJ Vol. 28, No. 1, 2020 sport organizations to create policies in line with best practices (Brackenridge et al., 2004;Parent & Demers, 2011). Keeping in mind the pillars to facilitate the successful implementation of sport safeguards (International Safeguarding Children in Sport Working Group, 2016), NGBs are able to tailor the baseline requirements in the Center's MAAPP to their sport, so long as they meet the minimum requirements set out by the Center. ...
Article
While society at large recognizes the many benefits of sport, it is important to also recognize and prevent factors that can lead to an abusive environment. This paper seeks to combine the current research on abuse in the sport environment with the work of the U.S. Center for SafeSport. The inclusion of risk factors unique to sport and evidence-informed practices provides framing for the scope and response to sexual abuse in sport organizations in the United States. The paper then explores the creation and mission of the U.S. Center for SafeSport, including the role of education in prevention and of policy, procedures, audit, and compliance as important aspects of a comprehensive safeguarding strategy. This paper provides preliminary data on the reach of the Center, established in 2017. This data captures the scope of education and training and the increase in reports to the Center from within the U.S. Olympic and Paralympic Movement.
... Mountjoy et ses collaborateurs mentionnent que l'intérêt médiatique pour les athlètes, l'intensité de la pratique sportive, la relocalisation des jeunes à l'extérieur du milieu familial en raison des centres d'entraînement centralisés, des pratiques qui « nécessitent » la prise de mesures physiques, ainsi que la pratique d'initiations sportives et de bizutage sont des facteurs de risque organisationnels importants de la violence envers les jeunes athlètes [11]. [8,58,90,[109][110][111][112][113][114]. Dans une étude ayant porté sur la prévention des abus sexuels dans les organisations sportives québécoises, Parent et Demers mentionnent un certain nombre de facteurs de risque : vision négative de la prévention, manque de formation et d'information du personnel, des bénévoles, des parents, des entraîneurs et des athlètes sur ces questions, manque de règles claires sur les limites de la relation entraîneur-athlète, faible leadership de l'organisation sportive dans le dossier, peu de filtrage à l'embauche, peu de règles sur la gestion du comportement des entraîneurs, absence ou incompréhension des mesures de gestion des cas, et manque de coordination entre les différentes instances impliquées dans la problématique [114]. ...
... [8,58,90,[109][110][111][112][113][114]. Dans une étude ayant porté sur la prévention des abus sexuels dans les organisations sportives québécoises, Parent et Demers mentionnent un certain nombre de facteurs de risque : vision négative de la prévention, manque de formation et d'information du personnel, des bénévoles, des parents, des entraîneurs et des athlètes sur ces questions, manque de règles claires sur les limites de la relation entraîneur-athlète, faible leadership de l'organisation sportive dans le dossier, peu de filtrage à l'embauche, peu de règles sur la gestion du comportement des entraîneurs, absence ou incompréhension des mesures de gestion des cas, et manque de coordination entre les différentes instances impliquées dans la problématique [114]. Les règles du jeu de certains sports qui acceptent les contacts brutaux entre les joueurs (ex. ...
... , harm (Nichols and Taylor 2010;Parent and Demers 2011) and injury (Pakzad-Vaezi and Singhal 2011;Finch, Kemp, and Clapperton 2015) to their constituents and community stakeholders. ...
... Increasingly state and national governing bodies are introducing regulations around safe guarding individuals (particularly children and vulnerable groups) from harm. In countries such as Australia, Scotland and Canada, recent policies have introduced the need for background checks of all volunteers for criminal history to 'ensure all coaches and volunteers have completed the appropriate police, working with children checks' (Participant 42, CEO, Australian NSO) (Nichols and Taylor 2010;Parent and Demers 2011). Furthermore, there is increasingly research and implementation of strategies regarding injury prevention which relates to the health and safety standards context (Swan et al. 2009). ...
Article
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Community sport organisations face increasing pressure from stakeholders to devote resources to activities that help them appear as being socially responsible actors in society. This study extends the concept of social responsibility from the corporate sport domain to investigate the relative importance of social responsibilities for community sport clubs. Items were developed from the Global Reporting Initiative and International Standards Organisation guidance on socially responsible organisations. A three-wave Delphi study was conducted internationally with 33 sport management academics and 23 national sport organisation managers. This study found that community sport clubs are primarily responsible for enhancing sport participation, creating a safe and inclusive environment, and ensuring the club is economically and legally sound. It is concluded that for sport clubs to be socially responsible organisations, their focus should be on fulfilling obligations that meaningfully impact their community, before devoting scarce resources to activities beyond their immediate capacity.
... . Complementing the above, several studies (e.g. Bisgaard & Støckel, 2019;Bjørnseth & Szabo, 2018;Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Hartill, 2017;Parent & Demers, 2011) have further detailed risk and protective factors, as well as the meticulous ways in which grooming may unfold for children and young people within sport. Amongst others, significant power imbalances between victim and perpetrator, as well as lack of awareness concerning what constitutes sexual abuse, are important risk factors at the individual level (Bjørnseth & Szabo, 2018;Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Vertommen et al., 2016). ...
... Amongst others, significant power imbalances between victim and perpetrator, as well as lack of awareness concerning what constitutes sexual abuse, are important risk factors at the individual level (Bjørnseth & Szabo, 2018;Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Vertommen et al., 2016). At the organisational level, negative views of protection, lack of resources, and lack of pre-employment screening are also noteworthy risk factors (Parent & Demers, 2011). ...
Article
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Abuse and interpersonal violence threaten participant safety and trust in sport. Many political and project activities have sought to promote safeguarding policies within national sporting structures. Despite this, implementation of safe sport policy measures has been lacklustre, and policy guidance is often disparate and sometimes contradictory. Against this background, the Council of Europe initiated the development of a safeguarding in sport self-assessment tool to assist national sport authorities in this crucial area. This tool addresses some of the gaps within safe sport policy guidance by summarising current good practices and offering policy guidance and legitimation. In the following Innovations article, we present our work developing the safeguarding self-assessment tool for national sport organisations in collaboration with the Council of Europe.
... There are challenges to implementing prevention efforts in institutions. Lack of personnel and resources to provide educational programs for staff is frequently mentioned ( Parent and Demers, 2011;Read, 2013;Wiersma and Sherman, 2005;Wurtele, 2012a). Another potential problem is reticence on the part of employees to address the subject. ...
... Another potential problem is reticence on the part of employees to address the subject. Agency administrators are sometimes con- cerned that promoting prevention may arouse fear within the organization, possibly leading members to worry that measures are being implemented because sexual abuse exists in their organization ( Parent and Demers, 2011). Staff members might also become fearful of false allegations due to heightened sensitivity and monitoring by parents, co-workers, and supervisors about engaging in various forms of nonsexual physical contact, E-communication, and social media with students (Andrzejewski and Davis, 2008;Preston, 2011;Vamos, 2001). ...
Chapter
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Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) are global public health problems. Both forms of sexual exploitation extract a considerable toll on victims and society, and are egregious violations of children's fundamental rights to freedom from violence and exploitation. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of commercial and non-commercial forms of sexual exploitation of youth. It covers definitions, examines the scope and consequences of the problem, reviews characteristics of victims and offenders, and describes a public health approach to primary prevention targeting children, families, youth-serving organizations, society, and cyberspace.
... Another similar definition was provided by Mountjoy et al. (2016): "Any conduct of a sexual nature, whether non-contact, contact or penetrative, where consent is coerced/manipulated or is not or cannot be given" (p.3). Research indicates that sexual harassment and sexual abuse are major problems in sport that need to be tackled through means of prevention and athlete education (Alexander, Stafford, & Lewis, 2011;Brackenridge, 2001;Brackenridge & Rhind, 2014;Parent & Demers, 2011). The bulk of research on sexual harassment and abuse in sports has focused on the coach-athlete relationship (Brake, 2011;Johansson, Kenttä, & Andersen, 2016;Sellers, 2012), especially in female athletes (Brackenridge & Fasting, 2005;Fasting, Brackenridge, & Knorre, 2010;Fasting, Brackenridge, & Sundgot-Borgen, 2003, 2004. ...
Article
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Sexual violence against children in sports receives little research attention. The aim of this Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses-based systematic literature review was to synthesize the up-to-date knowledge and identify the already known and the still unknown information in this area. The literature search yielded seven eligible studies for inclusion. Their key outcomes suggest that sexual violence against children in sports is prevalent. Girls are more often the victims than boys, but gender appears to mediate the disclosure. Minority groups are at higher risk for sexual violence, and athletes at higher levels of competition seem to be more vulnerable for grooming. While the coach is often seen as the perpetrator, new research suggests that peer-athletes may precede the coach. Disclosure is a problem, due to personal and interpersonal concerns, which deters scholastic research in this area. In the final section of the review, a “what we know” and “what we need to know” list of highlights is offered as the concluding summary of the review. These factual points could raise the awareness of parents and/or guardians about the vulnerability of their children to sexual abuse if they are involved in sports. They could also attract the attention of the policy makers to the urgent need of developing and implementing preventive measures to make sports and exercise environments pleasurable and safe for children.
... Several researchers also report factors associated with the prevention and management of violence in sports organizations (Cense & Brackenridge, 2001;Hartill & Lang, 2014;Hartill & Prescott, 2007;Lang & Hartill, 2015;Malkin, Johnston, & Brackenridge, 2000;Parent, 2011Parent, , 2012Parent & Demers, 2011;Parent et al., 2016). These studies address the issues of inadequate monitoring of staff as well as an absence of background checks of potential staff members during recruitment, underutilization of national and sport-specific codes of ethics and conduct, and the relative absence of space or occasions to discuss issues of violence. ...
Article
The problem of violence against athletes is of growing concern. However, the scientific literature in this field tends to be specific to certain forms of violence and does not always provide a clear portrayal of the problem. To better understand issues concerning violence against athletes in sport and to identify needs in this area of research, we must look at violence in a more inclusive way and see violence against athlete as a global problem. This article presents a comprehensive overview of the problem of interpersonal violence against athletes in the sport context. We discuss definitions of violence in sport through the lens of athletes’ victimization. We also look at the various manifestations of interpersonal violence against athletes, the perpetrators involved, the factors associated to the risk of victimization, and the possible consequences of this violence on the mental and physical health of athletes. Finally, future directions for research on this topic are discussed.
... Successfully addressing CSA prevention in youth-serving organizations requires consideration of the risks at each of the various ecological levels (e.g., individual; relationships; organizations; community; society) (Rogers et al. 2010). However, a number of CSA prevention models have highlighted the importance of a focus on situational prevention factors as a critical component in the amelioration of organizational CSA (Kaufman et al. 2018;Parent and Demers 2011;). The following discussion briefly describes the 'Situational Prevention Approach' (SPA) and the process of tailoring prevention responses to address critical risks of CSA in YSOs (Kaufman et al. 2010(Kaufman et al. , 2018. ...
Chapter
This chapter highlights methodological and practical issues in data integrity and the role of data in a public health model. It considers definitional issues of child maltreatment and how this influences measurement of the incidence/prevalence of maltreatment by the inclusion or omission of individuals from databases. This chapter considers the challenges of administrative data, mortality data and child death reviews and using cross-sectional national studies, survey data. It discusses the strengths and limitations of use of administrative data sets (for example child protection, and health datasets) – in isolation as single sources of information and by linking these datasets to identify and measure associations with known and potentially unknown risk indicators.
... There can be a dark side and/or a break-down in exchanges within these relationships, leading to intentional and/ or unintentional forms of athlete maltreatment (see Kavanagh, Brown, & Jones, 2017). Research into maltreatment of athletes indicates that they have been subjected to sexual abuse (Owton & Sparkes, 2015;Parent & Demers, 2011), physical abuse (Kerr, 2014;McPherson et al., 2017;Timpka et al., 2014) and emotional abuse (Stirling, 2013;Stirling & Kerr, 2007;Stirling & Kerr, 2013;Stirling & Kerr, 2014). Stirling and Kerr (2014) and Kavanagh et al. (2017) suggested that of the range of abusive practices, emotional abuse remains unrecognised as the most common form of abuse to which athletes are exposed. ...
Article
The purpose of this study was to extend understanding of how athletes and coaches in a women’s cycling talent development and selection program negotiate and normalise athlete abuse in the media. A thematic analysis of six online cycling magazine articles and their representations of the Australian women’s elite cycling development camp was analysed to explore athletic abuse and the (re)production of coaching practices using Bourdieusian theory. The findings revealed a link between the expression of coaching practice and the maltreatment of athletes. Analysis of these articles also revealed that athletes were complicit in the normalisation of coaching practices through the misrecognition of social power embedded in the coaching intervention. The representations of athletes within the articles contributed narratives related to the reproduction and proliferation of abusive coaching practices. This study extends understanding of how taken for granted and power laden aspects of coaching practices can be presented in the media and highlights the implications for coaches, athletes and the general public that consume online cycling media content.
... There is much agreement about what kinds of measures should be adopted by CYSOs to minimize risk and ensure appropriate responses. This is evident in approaches and organizational tools proposed by the Centers for Disease Control (Saul & Audage, 2007) and by other leading scholars (Wurtele, 2012(Wurtele, , 2014, which are substantially supported in other approaches and analyses (Parent & Demers, 2011;Valentine et al., 2016;Walsh et al., 2013). These models have subtle differences but all have a common fundamental basis, which emphasize the necessity for seven key prevention dimensions like those articulated in extensive detail by Wurtele (2012Wurtele ( , 2014 as further discussed elsewhere (Mathews, 2017). ...
Article
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The Australian Royal Commission Into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse has identified multiple systemic failures to protect children in government and non-government organizations providing educational, religious, welfare, sporting, cultural, arts and recreational activities. Its recommendations for reform will aim to ensure organizations adopt more effective and ethical measures to prevent, identify and respond to child sexual abuse. However, apart from the question of what measures institutions should adopt, an under-explored question is how to implement and regulate those measures. Major challenges confronting reform include the diversity of organizations providing services to children; organizational resistance; and the need for effective oversight. Failure to adopt theoretically sound strategies to overcome implementation barriers will jeopardize reform and compromise reduction of institutional child sexual abuse. This article first explains the nature of the Royal Commission, and focuses on key findings from case studies and data analysis. It then analyzes public health theory and regulatory theory to present a novel analysis of theoretically justified approaches to the implementation of measures to prevent, identify and respond to CSA, while isolating challenges to implementation. The article reviews literature on challenges to reform and compliance, and on prevention of institutional CSA and situational crime prevention, to identify measures which have attracted emerging consensus as recommended practice. Finally, it applies its novel integration of regulatory theory and public health theory to the context of CSA in institutional contexts, to develop a theoretical basis for a model of implementation and regulation, and to indicate the nature and functions of a regulatory body for this context.
... There is now a general consensus about the types of strategies that should be adopted by YSOs to minimize risk and ensure appropriate safety responses. This is evident in approaches and organizational tools proposed by the CDC (Saul & Audage, 2007), the Australian Childhood Foundation (Tucci, Mitchell, Holmes, Hemsworth, & Hemsworth, 2015), by leading scholars (Kaufman, Erooga, et al., 2018;Kaufman, Erooga, Higgins, & Zatkin, 2018;Kaufman, 2010;Kenny & Wurtele, 2012;Leclerc & Cale, 2015;Wurtele, 2012), and by strategies that have been adopted in other areas of intervention with children (Parent & Demers, 2011;Walsh et al., 2013). Of note is the fact that the CDC has recently secured funding to update its 2007 publication on prevention in YSOs to better reflect prevention directions for enhancing safety in YSOs. ...
Article
Evidence suggests that tens of millions of children and adolescents are involved in youth-serving organizations (YSOs) outside of their homes on a daily basis. Children’s involvement with YSOs clearly offers a broad array of emotional, social, and personal development benefits. This involvement can, however, also be associated with a variety of safety risks, including the potential for child sexual abuse (CSA) victimization and the myriad short- and long-term consequences to its victims and their families. Recognizing the significance of CSA within YSOs, the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse funded a comprehensive review of the literature on risk and protective factors related to CSA in institutions. This yielded more than 400 primarily research articles from the United States, United Kingdom, and Australia, examining institutional CSA victims, perpetrators, and settings. Findings were provided regarding six specific types of institutional settings, including faith-based, early childhood education, childcare and schools, health care, out-of-home/foster care, and sport. This article is based on the findings of Kaufman and Erooga’s comprehensive literature review and Royal Commission findings. It provides a brief review of critical risks associated with CSA victims, perpetrators, and organizational settings, as well as highlights risks particular to specific types of YSOs and risks that are present across these organizations. Optimal prevention directions and strategies are outlined in response to identified patterns of organizational risk. Recommendations for YSO policy enhancements are also provided to complement the article’s prevention focus. Finally, suggestions are offered for future research directions to foster the development of an evidence-based foundation for work in this area.
... Several authors have proposed that child protection policies in sport are designed for and by the organisations. Researchers have revealed that sport organisations' polies are driven more by a motivation to mitigate the risks to the sport organisation than to a commitment and duty of care to the welfare of young people (Parent & Demers, 2011;Hartill & Lang, 2014;Hartill & O'Gorman, 2015). The view that raising awareness of interpersonal violence will lead to a flood of complaints and malicious or false allegations against those in positions of power in the sport organisation is pervasive (Brackenridge, 2001;Hartill & Lang, 2014;Lang & Hartill, 2015). ...
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... Specific attention is drawn to measures and policies to prevent minors' sexual abuse in sport (Bates, Army, 2015, Parent, Demers, 2010. ...
Conference Paper
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The research topic refers to issues regarding child's abuse and violence in sports. The article argues that discourse can be viewed as a tool to protect minors' against sexual violence in sports. The research materials included international and national legislation, academic papers on the mentioned challenge, mass media coverage of the cases under study, examples of practical toolkits that are designed for those who engage in child protection. Comparative analysis of various types of texts and the language they use confirmed the hypothesis and laid to the conclusion on social importance of discourse studies within the context under study. The analysis paves the way to further consideration of methodology and materials to identify and produce discoursive models that would meet the societal agenda on child's protection from violence and abuse.
... A coach's domination of an athlete combined with authoritarian behaviour often results in a relationship of unbalanced power that can lead to an abuse of such power, putting the athlete at risk for sexual abuse and harassment (Sand, Fasting, Chroni, & Knorre, 2011). The prevalence of such behaviour by coaches has strengthened the discourse around the prevention and protection of athletes in sports (Parent & Demers, 2011) as well as the safeguarding of athletes against sexual abuse and harassment (Laing & Hartill, 2015). ...
Article
The current study assessed the perceptions of acceptable sexual behaviour of coaches and the occurrence of sexual harassment among female student in India. A sample of 180 Indian female student-athletes at intercollegiate and inter-university levels with male coaches participated in this study. A questionnaire on sport-specific Touch and Behaviour versus Unwanted Intimacy from coaches (Vanden Auweele et al., 2008), consisting of 41 items on a 5-point rating scale was used. The participants were asked to indicate the acceptability of specific coaching behaviour as well as the occurrence of the behaviour represented in each item. The acceptability of the behaviour was determined by means and standard deviations, while the occurrence was determined by frequencies. Factor analysis was performed to determine the structure of the coaches’ behaviour and athletes’ acceptability thereof, which yielded four factors. Cronbach’s alpha was used to determine the internal consistency of the extracted items on each factor. Two factors, namely, unwanted sexual behaviour and inappropriate verbal and physical sexual behaviour, were regarded by athletes as very serious and unacceptable coach behaviour, while a third factor represented context-dependent suspicious behaviour (a grey area in which athletes differ in their opinion) and was perceived to be serious and unacceptable. A fourth factor represented acceptable behaviour. The occurrence of very serious and unacceptable behaviour was reported by 31% of the female athletes.
... Nevertheless, it is imperative to develop the concept and practice of integrity in sport to include the recognition of personal integrity, in addition to organizational integrity and procedural integrity in sport (Gardiner, Parry, and Robinson 2017). Issues such as sexism, heterosexism, privacy violations, and inappropriate physical and sexual behaviour are frequently missing in integrity policies and discussions, both in sport organizations (Parent and Demers 2011) and in sport education (Taylor and Hardin 2017). ...
Article
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Introduction: Positive ethics is a trending topic in sports. However, a gap exists when sexuality and gender issues are concerned. This study aimed to explore the concept of sexual integrity as an opportunity for the development of a positive ethics approach of sexuality and gender in sport contexts. Materials and methods: To obtain consensus on definition, operationalization, and competences, a Delphi study was conducted among 77 stakeholders divided into panels of youth coaches, physical education (PE) teachers, athletes, and PE students. Results: Consensus was reached on a definition and operationalization of sexual integrity in sport contexts, defining it as the conscious, respectful, and responsible handling of one’s own and other people’s body, opinions, relationships, and behaviour with regard to sexuality and gender, with the aim of contributing to the pleasure, development, resilience, and safety of (young) people in sports. Core competences for sexual integrity were highlighted, not only for coaches and PE teachers, but also for youngsters to develop. Discussion: This study presents a definition, an operationalization, and a number of competences for sexual integrity. With these, an essential connection with a positive ethical climate is proposed for the benefit of coaches, PE teachers, and youngsters as actors. The operationalization and concrete list of competences will aid the development of future prevention policies regarding sexual and gender-based violence, with an important opportunity for programme designers and policy makers to optimize training programmes. Further research is required to include sport federations’ perspectives and to develop and implement programmes addressing sexual integrity for the benefit of coaches, PE teachers, and youngsters.
... Support from the organisation's leadership is essential for the success of safeguarding programmes. 46 Policies don't change culture -they can collect dust on the shelf; however, when athlete welfare becomes a leadership priority; you see and feel the action as a survivor. (Sheldon Kennedy) ...
Article
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Sport, as a microcosm of society, is not immune to the abuse of its stakeholders. Attention to abuse in sport has recently become a priority for sport organisations following several high-profile cases of athlete abuse from different sports around the world. Resulting from this increased awareness, many sport organisations have commenced work in the field of athlete safeguarding including the development of policy, educational programmes, reporting pathways, investigation mechanisms and research initiatives. One mechanism adopted by many sport organisations to support their safeguarding efforts is the engagement of survivors of abuse in sport: typically, as guest speakers at conferences or educational events. Unfortunately, many sport organisations do not have the knowledge or trauma-informed expertise to engage survivors safely and effectively; and in doing so, may unintentionally retraumatise the survivor if erroneous methods of engagement are employed. For some survivors, this experience may compound the original harms, and thus it also represents an area of vulnerability for the organising entity. The purpose of this paper is to explore the rationale for partnering with survivors of abuse in sport in safeguarding initiatives and to propose a living conceptual framework to support effective and safe survivor engagement in safeguarding initiatives. We will explore the underpinning scientific background, as well as the ’why’, and ’how’ of survivor engagement to inform sport organisations, research scientists, policymakers, conference organisers, safeguarding officers, sport medicine clinicians and survivors themselves
... Several authors have highlighted the effects of the performance-focused culture in sport on the occurrence and perpetuation of violence, namely that athlete welfare is relegated to a priority below performance success. For example, Parent and Demers (2011) found that the topic of sexual abuse was a low priority in some Canadian sport organisations because of fears of unfounded allegations and false accusations, a lack of leadership, training, and resources. In their interviews with safeguarding lead officers in the U.K., Hartill and Lang (2014) reported that these welfare officers continued to face resistance or inertia from sport administrators in supporting child protection work. ...
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... In addition, their physical impairments make them frequent victims of bullying 105 . Para athletes may have additional personal care needs that at times require active, hands-on participation of coaching personnel, medical staff, and teammates 106 . These factors, combined with often limited social support, increase the vulnerability of para athletes to all types of abuse. ...
Article
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: Sports participation can improve gait, muscle strength, and functional abilities in patients with a wide variety of disabilities. Para athletes are also at substantial risk for injury during sports participation. ➤: Ambulant athletes with cerebral palsy are at risk for soft-tissue injuries about the knee as well as foot and ankle injuries. Wheelchair athletes are at risk for osteoporotic fractures and shoulder girdle injuries. Limb-deficient athletes are prone to low back pain and overuse injuries of the contralateral extremity. ➤: Para athletes are vulnerable to abuse during sports participation, and physicians should promptly report any possible abuse or mistreatment. ➤: Orthopaedic surgeons should understand disability and sport-specific risk factors for injury in para athletes in order to initiate early management and injury prevention protocols.
... In this category, 2 recommendations are presented. Demers (2011) andSyahirah et. al. (2020) concluded in their study that there is little pre-employment and pre-recruiting screening in the sports world. ...
Article
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Objective-This article attempts to discuss an ongoing sexual harassment deterrent initiative in safeguarding the well-being of sports practitioners in Malaysia. Methodology/Technique-The primary data used in this article is taken from a focus group session which consisted of a total of 35 participants. The main objective of this article is to discuss the results, specifically the recommendations made by focus group participants which consisted of government officers, members of NGOs, sports experts, and sports practitioners. The focus group participants firstly pinpointed the inadequacy of current deterrent mechanisms that have failed to protect Malaysian athletes from sexual harassment such that more often than not many cases have been unreported or have simply been dismissed altogether. Following this, suggestions and recommendations were put forward by the focus group participants to improve on the mechanisms that would ensure a safe and supportive environment for all Malaysians in sport in order to eliminate all forms of sexual harassment, abuse, and exploitation. Finding-Taking into consideration the suggestions and recommendations put forth by the focus group this paper suggests a 4Ps framework in order to eliminate all forms of sexual harassment and abuse in sport.
... The most effective and important tool in children's social, mental, physical and moral development is sports (Brackenridge, Kay & Rhind, 2012;Brackenridge & Rhind, 2014;Mountjoy et al., 2016;Parasız, Şahin & Çelik, 2015). However, alongside all the individual and social benefits that sport offers, it also appears to foster opportunities for abuse due to its unique nature (Farstad, 2007;Parent & Demers, 2011). In a sports environment, children and young athletes can be subjected to words and behaviors that may disrupt their mental health and development whether through their trainers, coaches or managers, either willingly or unwittingly (Brackenridge & Telfer, 2010;Brackenridge et al., 2012;Halıcı, Parasız & Şahin, 2019;Mountjoy et al., 2016;Rhind, McDermott, Lambert & Koleva, 2015). ...
... Although there is a substantial number of potential stressors to be experienced by the young elite athlete in a competitive setting academic research has tended to focus on a limited range often prioritising the relationship with coaches (Kristiansen and Roberts, 2010;Kristiansen and Stensrud, 2020;Smith et al., 2007) and parents (O'Rourke et al., 2011). The increasing importance of media stress for young athletes is less well researched (Parent and Demers, 2011). An exception is the research by Kristiansen and Lines (2014) that focused on the negative aspects of media stressors resulting from athletes' interactions with journalists or athletes' exposure to published media reports. ...
... Others also indicate young age (Cense and Brackenridge, 2001), being a girl or participating in elite sport as risk factors (Alexander et al., 2011;Leahy et al., 2002;Vertommen et al., 2016). Relational and organizational factors have also been linked to the occurrence of sexual violence in a sport context (Parent & Fortier, 2018), including power inequalities in relationships with athletes (Mountjoy et al., 2016;Owton and Sparkes, 2017;Stirling and Kerr, 2009), situations where young people are left unsupervised with a possible perpetrator (Cense and Brackenridge, 2001;Stirling and Kerr, 2009) as well as the lack of prevention in sport organizations (Lang and Hartill, 2016;Mathews, 2017;Parent & Demers, 2011;Parent & El Hlimi, 2013). At the socio-cultural level, tolerance and normalization of violence are also important factors to consider in explaining the violence experienced by young individuals in a sport context (Parent & Fortier, 2018). ...
Article
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In research, various reasons have been proposed to be able to understand the occurrence of sexual violence in sport. This article examines the relationships between conformity to the sport ethic norms and sexual violence among young athletes, according to sex and type of sport (individual and team). Athletes (N=1140) from Quebec, Canada aged 13 to 18 years responded to an online questionnaire, which included two validated tools: a measure of conformity to the sport ethic norms (i.e. striving for distinction, self-sacrifice and refusing to accept limits) and a measure of experiences of sexual violence (i.e. by teammates and coaches). Relationships between variables were examined using logistic regression analysis. The results show that increasing conformity to the striving for distinction norm contributes to an increase in the probability of being victim of sexual violence from teammates. Conformity to this norm is also associated with sexual violence by the coach, depending on the type of sport. Finally, increasing conformity to the norm of self-sacrifice increases the likelihood of experiencing sexual violence from the coach in individual sport. These results may lead to the establishment of collective actions to influence conformity to the sport ethic norms and may pave the way for other studies to examine the factors influencing sexual violence, since the phenomenon is multifactorial and little of the variance is explain by sport ethic.
... A central part of their response has been the development of guidelines to regulate situations and behaviours that can be experienced as abusive, intrusive or degrading (Lang and Hartill, 2015). Such guidelines are most often part of broader policy responses designed to combat SHA in sport, which is also the case in Norway, the empirical context of the present study. 1 Within the academic literature on preventing SHA in sport, codes of practice are commonly viewed as a promising tool for crafting safer and more inclusive sport spaces (Donnelly et al., 2016;Kerr et al., 2014;Parent and Demers, 2011;Rulofs et al., 2019). At the same time, scholars caution that also warranted and well-intended policies can have unintended and undesirable outcomes (Waddington and Smith, 2009). ...
Article
This article explores an important measure in current prevention policies in sport: guidelines against sexual harassment and abuse. Because little is known about how people involved in sport understand and relate to such guidelines, it fills a gap in current research on sexual harassment and abuse prevention in sport. We draw on ‘video elicitation’ focus group interviews with sport students in Norway. Our analysis is guided by Norbert Elias's sociology of knowledge and particularly his concept of ‘degrees of involvement and detachment’. First, we found that the students had limited knowledge about the sexual harassment and abuse guidelines. Second, we saw how their discussions alternated between different positions when reflecting upon the guidelines’ usefulness. From a relatively detached position, the students supported the general idea of guidelines. From the more involved position they voiced concern related to conduct regulations that conflicted with valued aspects of sport practice and mentioned problematic aspects of sport culture that the guidelines do not target. In a blend of involvement and detachment, the students drew on their sport experiences to reflect critically on both the potentials and limitations of the sexual harassment and abuse guidelines. Finally, we draw some implications of the analysis for the improvement of prevention work.
... Umso deutlicher ist herauszustellen, dass die Erwachsenen, insbesondere andere Lehrkräfte, in den Wahrnehmungen der Befragten nicht besonders häufig mit Handlungen unterstützt haben. Dies mag erschrecken, weil es schutzbedürftige Kinder in einer Ohnmacht lässt, zeigt aber zugleich die Schwierigkeiten beim Umgang mit sexualisierten Grenzverletzungen auf, die nach wie vor ein Tabuthema darstellen (Parent & Demers, 2011). Für den Umgang mit sexualisierten Grenzverletzungen sind leicht zugängliche Informationen sowie ein klares und transparentes Beschwerdemanagementsystem erforderlich (Bezirksregierung Arnsberg, 2012). ...
Article
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Zusammenfassung Sowohl für den Leistungs- als auch für den Breitensport haben Studien bereits Vorfälle sexualisierter Gewalt untersucht und für den Sport allgemein ein spezifisches Risikopotenzial festgestellt. Für den Sportunterricht in der Schule stellen jedoch insbesondere sexualisierte Grenzverletzungen noch ein Forschungsdesiderat dar. Anhand retrospektiver Leitfadeninterviews mit 64 ehemaligen Schüler*innen wird exploriert, welche Formen und Konstellationen sexualisierter Grenzverletzungen im Sportunterricht der Befragten durch Lehrkräfte aufgetreten sind und wie mit diesen Vorfällen umgegangen wurde. Als Ergebnisse berichteten die Befragten sexualisierte Grenzverletzungen in verschiedensten Formen, u.a. unerwünschte Berührungen, unangenehme körperliche Nähe, unangekündigtes Betreten der Umkleideräume oder auch unangemessene verbale Grenzüberschreitungen durch die Sportlehrkraft. Die betroffenen Schüler*innen befanden sich oftmals in Konstellationen ausschließlich weiblicher Gruppen oder auch speziell von der Lehrkraft ausgewählter Schülerinnen. Im Umgang mit Vorfällen fällt insbesondere ein Mangel an standardisierten Präventionsstrukturen in Bezug auf sexualisierte Grenzverletzungen im Sportunterricht auf. Außerdem beschrieben die Betroffenen oftmals ein mangelndes Bewusstsein für das Auftreten sexualisierter Grenzverletzungen. Deduzierte Möglichkeiten zur Optimierung dieser Problematik könnten eine Thematisierung sexualisierter Grenzverletzungen mit einer offenen Kommunikationskultur im Setting Schule, feste Ansprechpartner*innen für die Schüler*innen sowie eine Standardisierung der Interventionsmaßnahmen bei auftretenden Vorfällen sein, aber auch Sensibilisierungsmaßnahmen in der Aus- und Weiterbildung von Sportlehrkräften scheinen erforderlich.
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Violence against children, including childhood sexual abuse (CSA) and exploitation, is a serious public health problem of global magnitude. Children are at risk of being sexually exploited and abused by adults in residential care, youth-serving organisations (YSOs), and while using information and communication technologies (ICTs), including the internet and smartphones. This chapter reviews current prevention efforts and provide direction for future initiatives to prevent the sexual exploitation of children and youth. It briefly describes international primary prevention strategies using an ecological framework targeting many segments of society, including children, parents/caretakers, youth-serving organisations, society and cyberspace. The societal risk factors that support and possibly condone the sexual exploitation of youth include strategies such as public awareness campaigns, statewide planning and programming, and media campaigns. School-based empowerment programmes help children avoid sexual victimisation by teaching them personal safety knowledge and skills through group-based instruction, usually conducted in schools.
Article
This article draws on a report prepared for the Australian Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse (Palmer et al., 2016) to develop a more comprehensive analysis of the role that organizational culture plays in child sexual abuse in institutional contexts, where institutional contexts are taken to be formal organizations that include children among their members (referred to here as "youth-serving organizations"). We begin by integrating five strains of theory and research on organizational culture from organizational sociology and management theory into a unified framework for analysis. We then elaborate the main paths through which organizational culture can influence child sexual abuse in youth-serving organizations. We then use our unified analytic framework and our understanding of the main paths through which organizational culture can influence child sexual abuse in youth-serving organizations to analyze the role that organizational culture plays in the perpetration, detection, and response to child sexual abuse in youth-serving organizations. We selectively illustrate our analysis with case materials compiled by the Royal Commission into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse and reports of child sexual abuse published in a variety of other sources. We conclude with a brief discussion of the policy implications of our analysis.
Article
Sexual violence (SV) remains at epidemic proportions in the U.S. and growing evidence demonstrates that youth and adults engaged in sport are at increased risk of victimization and perpetration of SV. Unfortunately, sport SV prevention strategies are rarely built on theory or theoretically grounded evidence, despite demonstrated effectiveness of such approaches. This study aimed to answer to questions: 1) Which theories are relevant to the development of effective SV prevention strategies in sport?; and 2) How has theory been incorporated into existing SV prevention literature on sport safety? A scoping review of the literature plus expert input identified 29 theories pertinent to SV prevention in sport. A systemized review of the literature regarding SV prevention in sport resulted in the identification and characterization of 41 published articles. Authors then examined theory’s role in prevention literature. This study identified 29 theories pertinent to SV prevention in sports and applicable across the behavioral spectrum. Most theories were rooted in the Behavioral (41%), Situational (24%) or Social/Attitudinal (21%) areas. Less common were theories grounded in Feminist (14%) domains. Theories were predominantly focused at the individual (42%), organizational (29%), and interpersonal (18%) ecological levels. Of the 41 sport prevention articles, 33 (83%) referred to a theory either explicitly or implicitly. Though most theories have been incorporated into prevention efforts, closer examination indicates that the majority were descriptive, unlikely to use a sophisticated methodology (10%; e.g., experimental, quasi-experimental), and rarely intended to assess a specific prevention program/strategy or policy (21%). Strong theoretical foundations are available for SV prevention research focused on sports, and their application appears to show value across the developmental spectrum of athletes. There remains a need for greater focus on theory-driven research intended to develop prevention strategies and policies designed to enhance athlete safety.
Article
Organisations funded by Sport England or UK Sport must work towards achieving standards for safeguarding and protecting children in sport as set by the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children's Child Protection in Sport Unit (CPSU) and encourage a culture of listening to children. The present research was commissioned by the NSPCC CPSU to understand the practices of UK sports clubs regarding this objective. An electronic questionnaire was distributed through the national governing bodies of sport working with the CPSU. Some 64 clubs/squads representing 6,000+ juniors (under 18 years) responded. Quantitative data were analysed using simple statistics and qualitative data were themed utilising Foucault's theory of power and following Braun and Clark's six‐phase guide. Discourse, hierarchical judgement and docility were considered with reference to formal management and cultural environments. Semantic and latent themes were explored. The themes identified were: expectation awareness, reframing voice and preserving discourse. Clubs recognise the value of listening to children. However, existing power relations valorise adult knowledge fields over the experiences of juniors. Technology could provide an effective solution as it is remote, potentially anonymous and culturally accessible. As power is a productive force, problematisation of organisational culture could centralise children's voices and limit/prevent abuse.
Article
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A perspective on child, childhood and children's rights are important issues, highly valued in all historical eras all over the world. Each of this questions was trying to address a child and her/his needs from the perspective of different pedagogical approaches, institutions and legislative documents. Recognition of children's rights has been very well studied in the field of school pedagogy. However, the open question remains how the children's rights has been changing and enforcing in an extracurricular activities, which have a significant impact on child's development and socialization. This study aims to present a comparative theoretical analysis of recognition, enforcing and abusing of children's rights in the extracurricular sports activities. Findings highlighted the importance of the education about children's rights, professional ethics, and the need for changes in pedagogical approach of the development of young talented athletes.
Book
This Element describes child sexual abuse and the formal organizations in which it can occur, reviews extant perspectives on child abuse, and explains how an organization theory approach can advance understanding of this phenomenon. It then elaborates the main paths through which organizational structures can influence child sexual abuse in organizations and analyze how these structures operate through these paths to impact the perpetration, detection, and response to abuse. The analysis is illustrated throughout with reports of child sexual abuse published in a variety of sources. The Element concludes with a brief discussion of the policy implications of this analysis.
Chapter
This chapter first focuses on major challenges confronting child and youth-serving organisations and high-risk settings. It then discusses the nature, key findings and major recommendations of Australia’s Royal Commission Into Institutional Responses to Child Sexual Abuse, a landmark public inquiry into institutional sexual abuse, including a special focus on the Roman Catholic Church. The chapter then focuses on several recent examples of progress in responses to major problems presented by child sexual abuse in institutional and non-institutional settings. Developments from Australia in particular, but also from other countries, will show how new public health law responses, including through civil law, and with various emphases on primary prevention and secondary prevention, can create frameworks for enhanced prevention, identification, and response to cases of child sexual abuse. Some of these responses, such as redress schemes, reportable conduct schemes and child safe standards legislation, have specific application to institutional settings. Other responses, such as the abolition of statutes of limitation for civil claims for injuries caused by sexual abuse, and other kinds of legislative reporting duties, have broader application across society, as they apply to sexual abuse in all settings, whether within institutions, families, private settings, or other community settings. These responses are of broad application regarding prevention of child sexual abuse, early identification of child sexual offending, and ensuring appropriate responses once it is known or suspected. They are particularly relevant when dealing with high risk institutional settings and prolific individual offenders, both of which present especially urgent examples of the need for an appropriate societal approach to child sexual abuse informed by public health and social justice.
Article
Athletes who make it to the upper echelons of professional ice hockey in North America are indoctrinated into the beliefs, norms, and rituals of the sport from an early age. These practices are often highly restrictive, and can eventually lead to reduced autonomy and eventual commoditization—defined as the extraction of economic and performance value to the point where athletes become indistinct and interchangeable. Using the commoditization framework developed by Hirschman and Hill (2000 Hirschman, E. C. , and R. P.Hill . 2000. “On Human Commoditization and Resistance: A Model Based upon Buchenwald Concentration Camp.” Psychology and Marketing 17 (6): 469–491. doi:10.1002/(sici)1520-6793(200006)17:6 < 469::aid-mar3 > 3.0.co;2-3.[Crossref], [Web of Science ®] , [Google Scholar]), we analyse how these processes de-humanize, control, and silence athletes and the role that institutions play in its enactment. Through an examination of these processes, this paper substantiates the concept of athlete commoditization and explores the influence of cultural and technological changes on our future conceptualization of the construct.
Article
The objective of the current systematic review was to investigate the organisational factors that enable and motivate non-accidental violence towards athletes in the sport context. The authors identified and reviewed 43 qualitative studies investigating psychological, physical, and sexual abuse of athletes, and developed a framework of organisational factors (i.e., structural, social, and stress factors) related to non-accidental violence. Athletes were the key informants, yet some studies included athletes’ entourages. The authors independently coded the findings sections of the primary research, using the developed framework. Organisational tolerance for abuse and conformity to dominant values within sports were related to all three types of non-accidental violence. Power imbalance appeared as a relevant factor in both psychological and sexual abuse, while isolation was also relevant in sexual abuse. Believing that non-accidental violence had instrumental effects appeared related to both psychological and physical abuse, whereas a winner-take-all reward system was related to physical abuse. Based on this systematic review, the authors proposed an integrated perspective of the organisational factors driving non-accidental violence in sport and conclude by proposing a whole-of-system approach to the prevention and management of non-accidental violence. © 2019 Sport Management Association of Australia and New Zealand
Chapter
Children and young people are served by a wide range of organisations. Internally, attention has turned to the harms that have occurred in these organisations that should have prioritised the safety and wellbeing the children and young people it serves. In this chapter, we identify some of the risk factors associated with sexual abuse of children in youth-serving organizations, focusing on faith-based settings, early childhood education and schools, health care, out-of-home care, and youth sports. We outline key tenets of a situational prevention approach that identifies and safety risks to minimise or interrupt grooming behaviour, and help organizations focus their attention on ways of improving the safety of the organizational environment they provide for the young people they serve.
Research
Rapport scientifique commandité par la “Commission indépendante sur les abus sexuels dans l'Église” (CIASE), mise en place le 13 novembre 2018 par Jean-Marc Sauvé, vice-président honoraire du Conseil d’État, à la demande de la Conférence des Évêques de France (CEF) et de la Conférence des religieux et religieuses de France (CORREF).
Technical Report
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The purpose of this research was to establish a means of differentiating between types of institutions in terms of level of risk of child sexual abuse according to the characteristics of the institution and the kinds of activities that it organises. It draws on the existing research concerning risk factors in relation to child sexual abuse and examines how these risk factors might operate cumulatively in the context of institutions. It examines to what extent various risk factors might be clustered more within some institutions or activities than other institutions or activities. Some of the groundwork for this has been laid by the research literature on situational risk. This research report goes beyond this, however, to explore how the existing body of research on individualised risk factors for victimisation and for offending might be applied to the task of identifying greater or lesser risks of child sexual abuse in institutional contexts. In considering these issues, a distinction is drawn, where appropriate, between adult–child abuse and child-to-child abuse since the way in which the risk factors for each are clustered in institutions is, to some extent, different. Research questions The research questions are as follows: 1. What are the essential components in an effective typology of risk of child sexual abuse in institutional settings? 2. How should these components be represented in a typology (single-risk continuum; low–high; two-dimensional quadrant approach; other) 3. How should the components be measured and applied in institutions within the Royal Commission’s Terms of Reference? These questions are answered by seeking to identify which institutions and activities may constitute more risky environments for child sexual abuse than others. This involves working out, as far as possible, where individual vulnerabilities may be clustered (for example, services for abused or neglected children). This includes discerning where there is heightened situational risk and vulnerability risk, where propensity risk might be disproportionately clustered, and where institutional risk creates a culture in which, even if child sexual abuse is disclosed, it is unlikely to lead to a strong disciplinary response.
Article
As one of the most widely celebrated documentaries about female athletes to date, The Heart of the Game remains an important text to examine for the ways it represents female athletic experience and encourages audiences to consider gender issues in sport. Such an investigation is particularly apt, given how sports documentaries authenticate particular viewpoints while being understood by audiences as historical reflections of reality. Although the film is praiseworthy for exposing the cultural construction of gender as well as some ways gender ideologies hamper female athletic success, this essay argues that The Heart of the Game’s progressive agenda is ultimately undercut by its simultaneous reproduction of gender and racial ideologies that actually marginalize women and girls in sport.
Article
Inspired by the #MeToo movement, women worldwide are coming forward to publicly share their accounts of sexual violence. These harmful experiences have been reported in a range of domains, including sport. As such, providing safe sport experiences for athletes is at the forefront of current discussions for all stakeholders in the sport environment, particularly coaches. Thus, the purpose of this research was to explore coaches’ perspectives of the #MeToo movement in sport and its influence on coaches’ practices and relationships with athletes. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 12 Canadian coaches, including male ( n = 7) and female coaches ( n = 5) from a variety of sports and competition environments. The study highlights that coaches expressed strong support for the #MeToo movement, while also noting an associated fear of false accusation. Coaches reflected on how the movement has impacted their coaching practices and relations with athletes and expressed a desire for greater professional development in this area. Implications include a need for greater coach education on safe touch, appropriate boundaries in the coach–athlete relationship, and clarifications regarding the process of investigating athletes’ accusations of sexual violence in order to alleviate coaches’ fears of being falsely accused.
Article
Sporting environments provide contexts in which a range of abuses of children has occurred. While there is an increasing awareness of the need to improve child protection in sport, the extent to which listening to children's voices can support this has yet to be explored. This paper reports on research commissioned by the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children's Child Protection in Sport Unit to understand the way in which the expression of children's voices is facilitated in sport. Thirty‐four national governing bodies of sport in the UK responded to an electronic questionnaire exploring expression of children's voices in their organisations. Findings indicate that challenges concern: children's perceived lack of interest; confidence in self‐expression; time, resources and logistics; organisational culture and attitudinal change. ‘Good practice’ was identified in: formal structural communications; tailoring contributions to interests and strengths; use of primary research; and sharing ideas remotely. The projected value of listening to children's voices includes understanding children's perspectives and identification of potential concerns. The expression of children's voices is of value to national governing bodies in sport and there is potential for this to prevent elements of abuse in sport. Key Practitioner Messages • National governing bodies of sport believe that the expression of children's voices in sport can positively inform child protection practice. • Material and cultural limitations can prevent the expression of children's voices. • There is potential for an embedded expression of children's voices that could support intervention prior to abuse occurring.
Article
Full-text available
Extrafamilial sexual abuse experiences of young adolescents (ages 10-14), particularly young teen boys, are not well studied. This retrospective chart review study compared psychosocial correlates and victimization experiences between young adolescent girls (n = 226) and boys (n = 64) referred to a hospital child advocacy center. Several differences in risk behaviors and abuse experiences were found: Girls were more likely to have run away, to be truant from school, to report substance use, to have multiple perpetrators, and to have physical findings from the abuse. Boys were more likely to have a diagnosis of attention deficit disorder and to report anal penetration, and rarely disclosed abuse at the time of the incident. Peers were girls' most common choice for disclosing abuse, whereas boys confided most often in their mothers or other adults. These findings suggest sexually abused young adolescent girls and boys need distinct, developmentally appropriate screening and care in school and health care settings.
Article
The purpose of this study was to determine (a) the ability of extrafamilial sexual abuse categorization schemes previously derived by qualitative methods to predict characteristics of the abuse in female children and (b) the prognostic ability of the emergent categorization scheme to predict differential risk of abuse based on age of the child. Three hundred sixty incidents of extrafamilial sexual abuse in Diana Russell's (1983) community prevalence study of female child sexual abuse comprised the sample. The findings of this analysis highlight the pervasiveness of the threat of extrafamilial child sexual abuse to female children.
Article
The coach-athlete relationship is often one of the most important and influential relationships experienced by a young athlete.1 While coaches may have many positive influences on young athletes, emerging literature also indicates problems of abuse. In fact, recent research indicates that athletes are not immune from experiences of physical, sexual and emotional abuse.2 Furthermore, the power of the coach is thought to be a contributing risk factor in abusive relationships.3 The purpose of this study therefore was to investigate abused athletes' perceptions of the coach-athlete relationship. More specifically, we were interested in abused athletes' perceptions of the power held by the coach, and the influence of this power on an athlete's experience of abuse. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with nine previously abused athletes; four retired elite female gymnasts and five retired elite female swimmers. Consistent with previous research, the participants reflected upon the significant power held by the coach over the athlete. The findings contributed to existing literature by revealing specific ways in which the coach's power influenced the athletes' experiences of abuse and their ability to report incidences of maltreatment. These findings are discussed and recommendations are made for abuse prevention and future research.
Article
In common with most sport organizations, the English Football Association has come relatively recently to the issue of child protection. Abuses of various kinds have been known about in the sport for many years but, until the late 1990s, very little systematic work was undertaken to address them. The launch of a Child Protection Strategy by the English FA in May 2000 reflected recognition by those in authority within the sport that child abuse and protection were properly the subject of football policy and should become embedded in all aspects of the affiliated game. In addition to adopting child protection, the then-Chief Executive Officer of the FA made a commitment to evidence-based policy in his strategic plan for the game. In line with this commitment, the FA commissioned a 5 year study of the impact of child protection on the game, the first year of which constituted an audit of the state of child protection in the affiliated game. Data were collected through 11 internet surveys, 32 club case studies, over 200 interviews with various stakeholders and an analysis of 132 case files for child abuse referrals. This paper sets out the context of child protection in sport more generally and the background to the FA’s child protection research project in particular. It also presents selected first year results for key stakeholder groups.
Article
We explore the role of programs for prevention for sexual harassment and abuse in sport in Canada, specifically in the Province of Quebec, by first describing the international sport context of sexual harassment and abuse and then considering the needs of disabled and gay athletes. We have found that there is little scientific literature on sexual harassment and abuse that focuses on the vulnerabilities of, or specific prevention measures for, disabled or LGBT athletes. Such gaps in the literature make it difficult to evaluate the full effectiveness of sexual harassment and abuse intervention programs. To highlight this issue, we describe some of the prevention programs in use in Canada, specifically in the Province of Quebec, and locate program gaps around athletes identified as vulnerable in both the international and Canadian contexts. Finally, we conclude by pressing the need for research and policy advocacy to close the prevention program gaps and to ensure protection is offered to all athletes, not just “mainstream” athletes
Article
As sport is a highly child-populated domain, the establishment of child-protection measures to reduce the potential for child maltreatment in sport is critical. Concern for the protection of children in sport has a history that is as old as modern sport itself; however, it is only recently that concern has been established about children's experiences of relational forms of abuse and neglect in this domain. The purpose of this article, therefore, is to review current developments in sport with respect to child-protection policy, education, and research. It is the authors' supposition that an athlete-centered philosophy of sport is perhaps the best way to address the protection of children in sport. The philosophy of an athlete-centered sport model is described, and through the integration of an athlete-centered approach to sport, recommendations are made for future implementation of child-protection measures.
Article
New National Standards for Child Protection in Sport require state-funded sport organizations in England to record and monitor allegations of abuse, yet very few sport organizations have robust case-recording and management systems in place. Those that do have found the task of collecting and managing data very challenging. The management and research functions of data systems for abuse allegations are explored with reference to sample data from a study of extant referrals to the Football Association. A preliminary template for the analysis was generated using variables from previous inductive studies. Data for an initial set of 50 variables were extracted from 132 case files and entered into the database. The resultant descriptive data were subjected to visual inspection against a set of concerns from the literature about, for example, false allegations, perpetrator roles and location of abuse. Fears of false allegations of abuse against coaches and other authority figures were shown to be unfounded. However, the case-recording system utilized yielded very few usable data, underlining the need for a functional recording system based on a more tightly specified data-recording method. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
Although child abuse by family members has received considerable scientific and professional attention, knowledge on the impact of abuse committed by perpetrators in (nonfamilial) community organizations and institutions is lacking. We present a conceptual framework derived from child abuse studies, the authors’ collective clinical experience with adult survivors of nonfamilial abuse, and two independent panels of abuse survivors, practitioners, and researchers familiar with the impact of such abuse. The framework identifies abuse-related factors that contribute to harmful outcomes, and dimensions of harm associated with such acts. Implications of the conceptual framework are discussed in relation to professional education and practice guidelines, policy and prevention initiatives, and research needs.
Article
Analysis of two Canadian data bases on investigations of suspected child sexual show that less than 3% of child protection investigations and less than 4% of police investigations involve allegations made against school or recreational personnel. An empirical review of the effectiveness of sexual abuse prevention strategies targeting these settings concludes that strategies such as limiting children's community activities or limiting staff student interactions are more likely to increase risk of victimization. Many screening techniques are also considered problematic because they have limited effectiveness and may create false expectations of safety. Sexual abuse prevention education programs show promise to the extent that they support child disclosures. Improving reporting and investigation procedures remains the most promising area for protecting children in the community, although staff resistance to child centered protocols may be an obstacle in some jurisdictions.
Article
Methodologies for measuring the implementation of social inclusion and ethics in sport frequently draw on social marketing techniques or stage models of health behaviour change. This paper illustrates how a composite model of cultural change in sport can be used to monitor progress and trace resistance to ethics and social inclusion work in sport. The Scottish research was commissioned by sportscotland to assess how their child protection programme had impacted on a selection of Scottish governing bodies of sport. Fifteen sports were identified by the funder to take part in the research, of which 12 agreed to participate. Telephone and face-to-face interviews were held with key stakeholders at national and club level and supplementary focus groups were held with a small number of club level child protection officers. The results indicate a spread of responses in the different organisations with the following distribution: leaders (5), sceptics (2), followers (4) and resisters (1). These results are discussed in relation to the general cultural shift from ‘permissive’ to ‘prescriptive’ in the agencies responsible for overseeing Scottish child protection in sport.
Article
Child protection is a relatively new topic in sport about which there was no professional education until the mid-1990s. This paper presents the findings from a study of delegates attending twelve, regional, one-day National Coaching Foundation courses for policy makers in sport during 1997 and 1998 (n= 235). The course was designed to give delegates a basic awareness of the different forms of child abuse and protection and was intended to help them develop appropriate policies and procedures for child protection. Results point to a serious training gap around child protection in sport: whereas sports personnel, at both junior and senior levels, are committed to improving child protection policy and practice they appear to lack the confidence, knowledge or organisational systems for doing this effectively.
Article
Recent revelations of sexual misconduct by sports coaches have challenged long-held beliefs in the educational value of sport, yet there is very little knowledge about the dynamics of sexual exploitation in sport upon which to base improvements in the practice of sports coaching or teaching. Earlier inductive research by Brackenridge (1996, 1997a, 1997b) in Britain established a set of hypothesised risk factors for sexual abuse in sport which have subsequently been reinforced by the results of survey research on elite athletes in Canada (Kirby and Greaves 1996). However, risk analysis for sexual abuse in sport has not yet been framed within a temporal or developmental sequence, nor sufficiently differentiated between elite and recreational levels of sport, or between coach-initiated and peer-initiated abuse. This paper reports selected findings from a Dutch qualitative study (Cense 1997) of 14 athletes who have survived sexual abuse in sport. The aim of the study was to identify risk factors that influence sexual abuse and harassment and to analyse which risks might be diminished through a prevention policy implemented by sport organisations. The Dutch study reinforces the earlier risk factor analyses but extends them by putting forward a preliminary temporal model of risk in sport that integrates offender behaviour with athlete and situational factors. On the basis of this model, suggestions are made to assist early diagnosis and prevention of sexual harassment and abuse by authority figures in sport.
Article
The sporting culture, with omnipotent coaches, fierce competition for recognition and funding, and ‘win at all cost’ ethos, creates an environment conducive to sexual exploitation of athletes. Recent increased public awareness and the development of child protection policies in sport have led to the questioning of previously accepted coach-athlete relationships. This study is an exploratory investigation into male swimming coaches’ perceptions of appropriateness of coach-athlete sexual relationships. Sexual relationships with athletes under the age of 16 were unanimously considered totally inappropriate. With regard to sexual relationships with athletes above the age of consent for heterosexual sex, opinions ranged from “totally inappropriate” to “it’s a question of civil liberties.” These results are discussed in relation to how coaches have adapted their own behaviours in the face of public scrutiny but are still reluctant to restrict the rights of their fellow coaches.
Article
There is both growing concern about ethical standards in sport and also rapid expansion in the number of local and national schemes designed to encourage youth sports development. Child abuse in youth sport has become a ‘moral panic’ in British society but there is evidence of a child protection policy vacuum between national and club level. Sport club child protection schemes are rarely informed by the work of their respective national governing bodies but there is an almost complete absence of empirical data with which to support or challenge claims about child safety in voluntary sector sports clubs. The research reported addresses this knowledge gap. It was designed to explore the extent to which one English midlands county had made provision for child protection and to assess the main issues confronting the county in its efforts to enhance child protection in voluntary sport. Voluntary sector junior sports clubs (N = 396) were sent a postal survey; 129 responded. 19 junior sports focus groups and selected county officers and staff were invited to participate in group or individual interviews during the second half of 1999 (prior to the establishment of the NSPCC/Sport England Child Protection in Sport Unit). This paper reports the survey and interview data from the voluntary clubs. Results show an extremely varied pattern of awareness of the main child protection issues in the various sports clubs. One common theme emerged, however: there was a clear misapprehension that children are safest amongst those whom they know best and most at risk from those currently outside their sports clubs. This view is firmly contradicted by research statistics on sources of child abuse. The paper argues that the unwillingness of club personnel to challenge their own assumptions is causally linked to a culture of complacency about child protection in voluntary sport.
Article
Public policy responses to child sexual abuse are dominated by interventions designed to take effect only after offenders have already begun offending, and after children have already been sexually abused. Comparatively little attention has been given to alternative prevention strategies - particularly to those aimed at preventing sexual abuse before it might otherwise occur. Considerable knowledge has been accumulated on the characteristics, modus operandi and persistence of offenders, the characteristics, circumstances and outcomes for victims, and the physical and social settings in which sexual abuse occurs, but little work has been done to systematically apply this knowledge to prevention.
Article
Child protection (CP) has risen to the top of the UK sports policy agenda in the past four years and the Football Association has invested in this major strategy as part of its commitment to “use the power of football to build a better future” (FA, 2000a). Evidencing the impact of child protection is, however, a complex task, exacerbated by the dearth of measurement tools that exist for this purpose in sport. This article presents a new model of ‘Activation States’ that has been designed and used to measure shifts in football culture as child protection has begun to impact upon the sport. The model is used to map changes over time related to the knowledge, feelings, actions and discourses of key stakeholders in football. The research for which the model was designed is a longitudinal study, commissioned by the English Football (soccer) Association, on the impact of the organisation’s child protection strategy on the culture of soccer. Sample data from the project are used to illustrate the model and to examine its potential and limitations as a tool for measuring impacts in child protection and other social inclusion themes.
Article
This paper reports on the first national survey of adults concerning a history of childhood sexual abuse. Victimization was reported by 27% of the women and 16% of the men. Higher rates of abuse were found among men who grew up in unhappy families, lived for some period with only their mothers, who were currently residing in the West and who came from English or Scandinavian heritage. Higher rates of abuse were found among women who grew up in unhappy families, lived for some period without one of their natural parents, received inadequate sex education, were currently residing in the West or who were born after 1925.
Article
The Haddon matrix, developed by Haddon and Robert Brenner, emphasizes the effects of influences of driver, vehicle, and environmental factors before, during, and after collisions to minimize injuries and their severity
Article
Successful injury control measures (stoplights, sprinkler systems, electrical insulation, evacuation) have long been commonplace. However, progress in injury control has been hampered by the failure to recognize that injuries cannot occur without the action of specific agents analogous to those of the infectious diseases and likewise transmitted by vehicles and vectors. These agents are the several forms of injury. Varying and interacting with the characteristics of the host and the environment, they constitute the classic epidemiologic triads that determine injury distributions, none of which are random. The injury-disease dichotomy, a universal in most of the world's major languages, may have resulted from the fact that at least some of the causes of injuries (for example, wild animals or falling trees) are more identifiable and proximate than the causes of diseases. The etiology of injuries suggests that for epidemiologic and public health purposes, the term injury should probably be defined so as to encompass those kinds of damage to the body that are produced by energy exchanges and that are manifested within 48 hours, or usually within considerably shorter periods. Strategies for injury control can be extended to the control of other pathological conditions. The active-passive distinction (the dimension expressing the extent to which control measures require people to do something) has a direct bearing on the success of public health programs, because passive approaches have historically had a far better record of success than active ones. Ten basic strategies have been identified that provide options for reducing the damage to people (and property) caused by all kinds of environmental hazards.
Article
To assess the incidence and nature of concerns about sexual abuse, with particular reference to erroneous concerns of sexual abuse made by children. A review of case notes of all child sexual abuse reports to the Denver Department of Social Services over 12 months. Cases were put into four groups: substantiated, not sexual abuse, inconclusive and erroneous accounts by children. 551 cases were reviewed. Forty-three percent were substantiated, 21% were inconclusive and 34% were not considered to be abuse cases. There were 14 (2.5%) erroneous concerns emanating from children. They comprised three cases of allegations made in collusion with a parent, three cases where an innocent event was misinterpreted as sexual abuse and eight cases (1.5%) of false allegations of sexual abuse. Erroneous concern of sexual abuse from children are uncommon. The four categories of concern in this study, in contrast to the simple classification of substantiated and unsubstantiated, provide a means of encouraging open minded assessments of the typical concerns which a child protection agency receives.
Article
Self-disclosure by victims of child sexual abuse (CSA) is critical to initiate legal and therapeutic intervention. Unfortunately, research indicates that lengthy delays in disclosure and even nondisclosure are common. A comprehensive review of the clinical and research literature on CSA and an overview of related bodies of literature was conducted. Areas addressed include the context of sexual abuse as it relates to disclosure, the context and elements of children's disclosures, motivational factors inhibiting disclosure, and models of the disclosure process. Ancillary and analogue research on secrecy and disclosure are also reviewed. Implications for future research and practice are discussed.
Article
Sexual abuse is a profound stressor that complicates the development and health of adolescents, yet its prevalence has been difficult to estimate among adolescents in school populations. This study explored the prevalence of both incest and nonfamily abuse in 2 cohorts of adolescents in Minnesota in the 1990s (1992: N = 77374; 1998: N = 81247). Findings indicate that sexual abuse was reported by both boys and girls and among students of all ethnic groups. Approximately 10% of adolescents reported sexual abuse in each cohort, with girls 5 times more likely to report abuse than boys. Ethnic variation was minor, with African American, Native American, and Hispanic teens slightly more likely to report abuse than White or Asian American youth. School nurses should routinely assess for a history of sexual abuse in adolescents and should be prepared to provide support and referral for abused students and their families.
Article
The 1998 Canadian Incidence Study of Reported Child Abuse and Neglect (CIS-98) is the first national study to document the rate of intentionally false allegations of abuse and neglect investigated by child welfare services in Canada. This paper provides a detailed summary of the characteristics associated with intentionally false reports of child abuse and neglect within the context of parental separation. A multistage sampling design was used, first to select a representative sample of 51 child welfare service areas across Canada. Child maltreatment investigations conducted in the selected sites during the months of October-December 1998 were tracked, yielding a final sample of 7,672 child maltreatment investigations reported to child welfare authorities because of suspected child abuse or neglect. Consistent with other national studies of reported child maltreatment, CIS-98 data indicate that more than one-third of maltreatment investigations are unsubstantiated, but only 4% of all cases are considered to be intentionally fabricated. Within the subsample of cases wherein a custody or access dispute has occurred, the rate of intentionally false allegations is higher: 12%. Results of this analysis show that neglect is the most common form of intentionally fabricated maltreatment, while anonymous reporters and noncustodial parents (usually fathers) most frequently make intentionally false reports. Of the intentionally false allegations of maltreatment tracked by the CIS-98, custodial parents (usually mothers) and children were least likely to fabricate reports of abuse or neglect. While the CIS-98 documents that the rate of intentionally false allegations is relatively low, these results raise important clinical and legal issues, which require further consideration.
The Dutch program against sexual harassment in sports
  • M Weber
  • Ap
  • P Moget
Weber M, deBruin AP, Moget P. 2006. The Dutch program against sexual harassment in sports, 1996-2006. Paper presented at the NOC*NSF.
Cadre de financement et de responsabilité en matière de sport: Critères d'admissibilité s'appliquant aux organismes nationaux de sport
  • Sport-Canada
Sport-Canada. 2002. Cadre de financement et de responsabilité en matière de sport: Critères d'admissibilité s'appliquant aux organismes nationaux de sport.
Burden or Benefit? An Evaluation of Sportscotland's Child Protection Programme with Governing Bodies of Sport
  • C Brackenridge
Brackenridge C. 2001. Spoilsports: Understanding and Preventing Sexual Exploitation in Sport. Routledge: London, New York Brackenridge C. 2004. Burden or Benefit? An Evaluation of Sportscotland's Child Protection Programme with Governing Bodies of Sport. Sportscotland: Edinburgh.
Le sport et l'activité physique pour l'avenir de la jeunesse québécoise! Sports
  • Corporationsports-Québec
CorporationSports-Québec. 2005. Le sport et l'activité physique pour l'avenir de la jeunesse québécoise! Sports-Québec: Québec.
The prevalence of sexual abuse among adolescents in school
  • Saewyc
  • Brackenridge
Gender Differences in Extrafamilial Sexual Abuse Experiences Among Young Teens
  • Edinburgh