Article

Extension of bitter gourd (Momordia charantia L.) storage life through the use of reduced temperature and polyethylene wraps

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Abstract

Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) fruits were stored individually wrapped in low density polyethylene (LDPE) film or unwrapped for up to 21 days at 5–7C, 20–22C and 28–30C, respectively. Assessment was done on several quality parameters including marketable quality. Storage offilm-wrapped fruit at 5–7C resulted in extension of shelf-life in excess of two weeks and delayed appearance of chilling injury symptoms. Additionally, film-wrapped fruits stored at 5–7C were still marketable after 21 days, had lowest fresh weight losses, less softening, reduced incidence of postharvest rots and minimal changes in vitamin C content and pH. Storage of individually wrapped fruits at reduced temperatures therefore offers an effective method of prolonging the shelf-life of bitter gourd.

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... Many researchers have worked on shelf life extension of bitter gourd (Mohammed and Wickham, 1993;Devi et al., 2019;Prajapati et al., 2021;Srilatha et al., 2021). Some researchers used polyethylene wraps to store individual fruits at chilled temperature (5-7 • C). ...
... Some researchers used polyethylene wraps to store individual fruits at chilled temperature (5-7 • C). The shelf life obtained in this study was up to 21 days (Mohammed and Wickham, 1993). Devi et al. (2019) used a combination of NaClO (25-500 ppm) and H 2 O 2 (1-5%) solution in modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) for the treatment of minimally processed bitter gourd to extend the shelf life up to 28 days. ...
... Samples stored at 4 • C showed the highest shelf life of 30 days and therefore data for all the parameters of these samples is only presented. Similar shelf life extension studies of whole or minimally processed cut bitter gourd were carried out by different researchers (Mohammed and Wickham, 1993;Preetha et al., 2015). Mohammed and Wickham (1993) preserved whole bitter gourds by individually wrapping the whole fruit with low density polyethylene (LDPE) and storing at low temperature (5-7 • C). ...
Article
Present work dealt with development of a combination process for prolonged extension of shelf life of whole as well as minimally processed bitter gourd samples. In this treatment, GRAS chemicals were used for extension of shelf life while radiation processing was optimized to use as a phytosanitary treatment. The whole process involved dipping the bitter gourd samples in sodium hypochlorite (200 ppm) at 52 °C for 10 min. (as disinfectant treatment) followed by potassium metabisulphite at optimal concentration (0.5%) for 10 min. at 26 ± 2 °C (as an antifungal treatment). Finally, the samples were exposed to low dose (1 kGy) gamma irradiation treatment as a phytosanitary measure. An extended shelf life of 30 days was obtained, while improving the microbiological quality and retaining the colour, textural and sensory qualities. Combination process significantly enhanced the total phenolic content in processed samples during the storage period as compared to unprocessed control. Antioxidant activities of processed samples in terms of FRAP and DPPH radical scavenging activity as well as the antimutagenic activity were also conserved in treated samples. Thus, the treatment developed enhanced the storage life of processed bitter gourd stored at 4 ± 2 °C while satisfying the phytosanitary requirement for export especially to the countries requiring longer voyage time.
... Increases in respiration and ethylene production rates during storage of mature fruits indicate a climacteric behavior (Kays and Hayes, 1978;Zheng, 1986). Mature bitter melon have high ethylene production rates compared to those of other ripening cucurbit fruits including melons, and ripening can be induced by applying ethylene (Kays and Hayes, 1978;Zheng, 1986) or storing at ambient temperatures (Mohammed and Wickham, 1993). Carotenoids increase greatly during the ripening process, with the fruit changing from green to yellow, and the seed cavity becoming bright red (Rodriguez et al., 1976). ...
... Pantastico et al. (1975) recommended storage at 2-3°C with high humidity and did not mention the chilling-sensitive nature of bitter melon. Recently, Mohammed and Wickham (1993) reported that bitter melon could be stored for 21 days at 5-7°C without chilling symptoms if the fruits were protected with polyethylene film wrap. The time and temperature conditions required to induce chilling injury in bitter melon are unclear, and recommended storage temperatures need to be more clearly defined. ...
... Changes in ethylene production and respiration rates coincided with visual chill-induced changes. Mohammed and Wickham (1993) reported that changes in bioelectrical resistance and electrolyte leakage preceded the onset of visible chilling injury symptoms in bitter melon. A greater number of fruits stored at 75°C ripened and split when transferred to 15°C as compared to fruits transferred from 10 and 125°C. ...
Article
Full-text available
Developing fruits of Momordica charantia, known as bitter melon, bitter gourd or balsam pear, were harvested at horticultural maturity and stored up to 14 days in humidified air at different temperatures. Respiration rates of fruits at 20 and 10 °C were approximately 40 and 15 μl CO2 g−1 h−1, respectively. Ethylene production rates at these temperatures were 0.1–0.3 nl g−1 h−1. Fruits stored for >8 days at 7.5 °C showed severe chilling symptoms (decay, pitting and discoloration) and typical chill-induced respiratory and ethylene production increases after transfer to 15 °C. Fruit quality was best maintained if bitter melon were stored at 10 and 12.5 °C. Fruits at 15 °C continued to develop, showing undesirable changes including seed development, loss of green color, and fruit splitting. Immature fruit maintained postharvest quality better than fruit harvested at the fully developed green stage. Bitter melon stored at 15 °C in controlled atmospheres (21, 5 or 2.5% O2 in combination with 0, 2.5, 5 or 10% CO2) were not different in quality from air-stored fruits at 2 weeks. Fruits stored 3 weeks in 2.5 or 5% CO2 in combination with 2.5% O2 showed greater retention of green color and had less decay and splitting than air-stored fruit.
... Hence the physiological loss in the weight of the crop is equivalent to the loss of water vapour from the surface of the crop and loss of carbon during respiration of the crop [29]. Similar results were reported by [31] for bitter gourd wrapped with LDPE packaging and stored at different temperatures. ...
... The reduction in rmness at higher storage temperatures was due to the breakdown of insoluble protopectin into soluble pectin and cellular disintegration [36]. [31] also reported a loss in rmness of bitter gourd during storage due to shrinkage of the product caused by water loss. ...
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The performance of a liquid-cooled thermoelectric refrigeration (LCTR) system for the storage of summer fruits and vegetables, viz., bitter gourd, okra, mango, and papaya indicated impressive results for physiological loss in weight, firmness and colour values, and overall acceptability of the crop. The LCTR system significantly reduced (p < 0.0001) the physiological loss in weight (PLW) of bitter gourd, okra, mango, and papaya to 11.51%, 10.99%, 12.29%, and 19.17%, respectively, compared to conventional ambient storage of the crop. A lesser change in colour was observed for the crop subjected to LCTR, recording 14.04, 11.46, 16.41, and 23.68 for bitter gourd, okra, mango, and papaya, respectively. All the crops witnessed a nonsignificant effect (p < 0.0001) on the quality attributes of the crop stored in LCTR and a vapour compression refrigeration system. LCTR enabled a pronounced increment in the shelf life of bitter gourd, okra, mango, and papaya by 7, 8, 10, and 13 days, respectively, compared to the storage at ambient conditions. The system is economical, has a higher coefficient of performance (0.85) compared to the coefficient of performance (COP) of the existing thermoelectric refrigeration system, and maintains the freshness and quality of perishable agricultural produce during marketing and transportation.
... Further research is needed to explore the functional properties of wild bitter gourd (WBG) and evaluate its absolute potency. Freshly harvested BG has shown an extended shelf life of a week upon reduced temperature and polyethylene wraps as reported by (MOHAMMED and WICKHAM 1993) [19] . The U.N. General Assembly's 74th session declared 2021 the 'International Year of Fruits and Vegetables (IYFV)' which aims to educate the public about nutritional and health benefits of eating fruit and vegetables (FAO, 2019) [7] . ...
... Further research is needed to explore the functional properties of wild bitter gourd (WBG) and evaluate its absolute potency. Freshly harvested BG has shown an extended shelf life of a week upon reduced temperature and polyethylene wraps as reported by (MOHAMMED and WICKHAM 1993) [19] . The U.N. General Assembly's 74th session declared 2021 the 'International Year of Fruits and Vegetables (IYFV)' which aims to educate the public about nutritional and health benefits of eating fruit and vegetables (FAO, 2019) [7] . ...
... Bitter gourd extracts are also used for the treatment of ulcer, malaria, pain and hypertension (Grover & Yadav, 2004). Bitter gourd is also very perishable as like other fresh fruits and vegetables due its high moisture content (89-93%), which leads to rapid biochemical changes resulting in yellowing and microbial spoilage (Mohammed & Wickham, 1993). Many food preservation methods can be adopted for storage like canning, freezing and controlled atmosphere storage but all these methods are expensive and the hot air drying method is the best method for preservation (Kalra, Pruthi, Tiotia, & Raina, 1983). ...
... Hence, the physiological loss in the weight of the crop is equivalent to the loss of water vapour from the surface of the crop and loss of carbon during respiration of the crop [32]. Similar results were reported by Mohammed and Wickham [34] for bitter gourd wrapped with LDPE packaging and stored at different temperatures. ...
Article
Full-text available
The performance of a liquid-cooled thermoelectric refrigeration (LCTR) system for the storage of summer fruits and vegetables, viz., bitter gourd, okra, mango, and papaya, indicated notable results for physiological loss in weight, firmness, and colour values and overall acceptability of the crop. The LCTR system significantly reduced (p < 0.0001) the physiological loss in weight (PLW) of bitter gourd, okra, mango, and papaya to 11.51%, 10.99%, 12.29%, and 19.17%, respectively, compared to conventional ambient storage of the crop. A lesser change in colour was observed for the crop subjected to LCTR, recording 14.04, 11.46, 16.41, and 23.68 for bitter gourd, okra, mango, and papaya, respectively. All the crops witnessed no significant effect (p < 0.0001) on the quality attributes of the crop stored in LCTR and a vapour compression refrigeration system. LCTR enabled a pronounced increment in the shelf life of bitter gourd, okra, mango, and papaya by 7, 8, 10, and 13 days, respectively, compared to storage at ambient conditions. The invention provides a mobile thermoelectric refrigeration system useful for marketing fruits and vegetables efficiently. The system is economical, has a higher coefficient of performance (0.85) compared to the coefficient of performance (COP) of the existing thermoelectric refrigeration system, and maintains the freshness and quality of perishable agricultural produce during marketing and transportation.
... Even under ambient conditions (23-30°C, 45-75% RH), low-density polyethylene with pinholes lengthens the storage period up to 4 days. Chakraborty et al. (Chakraborty et al., 1991) revealed no shrinkage and lessened yellowing by dipping the pointed gourd into potassium metabisulphite (KMS) solution (1,900 mg/L) for 10 min, whereas (Mohammed and Wickham, 1993) tested sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) solution for 45 min at 10°C to remove field heat and surface pathogen in pointed gourd (Sharma and Shrivastava, 2017). reported that blanching (100°C for 4 min) followed by solar cabinet drying (54 ± 5°C) with KMS (0.5%) contributed to a good rehydration ratio as well as good sensory acceptance of pointed gourd. ...
Article
Full-text available
The efficiency of modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) in combination with postharvest treatment on the shelf-life, physiochemical attributes, color, and nutrition of pointed gourd was studied after storing in refrigerated (low temperature, LT) and ambient (room temperature, RT) conditions. Fresh pointed gourd fruits were dipped in NaOCl solution (0.01% w/v) and potassium metabisulphite (KMS) (0.05% w/v), blanched (100°C for 4 min), and then packed in perforated and non-perforated polythene and polypropylene packets of each type and brown paper bags as MAP before storing at LT and RT. Physiochemical attributes, color, and nutrition were measured until the marketable level of acceptance (up to shelf-life) after storage and compared with the untreated and unpacked samples (control). The results showed profound differences among the treatment variables in all the studied dependent parameters regarding the LT and RT storage conditions. Among the treatments, perforated and non-perforated polyethylene (NPE) and polypropylene (NPP) packaging performed well to retain a considerable amount of ascorbic acid, β-carotene, and greenish color (lower L*, high h*) in pointed gourd treated with NaOCl (0.01%) and KMS (0.05%) after storing at LT and RT. Furthermore, the principal component analysis suggested that five major quality attributes (L*, C*, h*, shelf-life, and ascorbic acid) were influenced remarkably in terms of non-perforated polyethylene packaging in combination with KMS treatment both in LT and RT storage conditions. However, perforated polythene and polypropylene in combination with NaOCl responded well in RT but only for the shortest storage life. Thus, a non-perforated polythene package with KMS treatment would be the best solution for retaining market quality acceptance with green color up to the extended shelf-life of 23 and 10 days, respectively, in the refrigerator (LT) and in ambient (RT) storage conditions.
... Previous studies were focused more on the method of low temperature storage in postharvest handing of bitter melon, however, serious chilling injury (CI) symptoms which included brown or black surface discoloration, surface pitting and high levels of decay were occurred below 10 • C to 12.5 • C (Pantastico et al., 1975;Mohammed and Wickham, 1993;Zong et al., 1993). Moreover, bitter melon is usually stored and sold at room temperature in China which limits the strategy of controlling temperature as well. ...
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Young immature bitter melons were fumigated with 1-MCP at different concentrations (0.5, 5.0 or 50.0 μl l−1) for 12 h, then stored at 20 °C and 85-90% relative humidity (RH) to investigate postharvest quality and physiology. According to the visual appearance of bitter melon, we determined the effective concentration of 1-MCP was 5.0 μl l−1. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the application of 1-MCP inhibited ethylene production and thereby improved fruit quality of bitter melon as reflected from ascorbic acid (AsA) and soluble protein content. In addition, 1-MCP maintained antioxidant enzymes activities such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase (POD) of bitter melon at initial stage but suppressed at the subsequent shelf life. Our results suggested that the use of 1-MCP was an effective method to retain postharvest physiology and quality of bitter melon.
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When seedlings of Phaseolus vulgaris L. vv. Canadian Wonder are chilled at 5°C (45% relative humidity) (RH), the primary leaves lose fresh weitht, produce ethylene at an increased rate when transferred to 25°C and leak electrolytes at an increased rate when placed in water. Similar changes result from chilling excised leaves at 5°C 20% RH. However, chilling only leads to increased rates of electrolyte leakage in partially dehydrated leaves. Chilling alone or water deficits alone (up to 30% fresh weight loss) do not lead to increased leakage. In contrast fresh weight loss alone does lead to an increased rate of ethylene production. Although a similar potential for increased ethylene production at 25°C initially results from partial dehydration in both chilled and non-chilled leaves, this potential is maintained for longer at 5°C than at 25°C.
Article
Fungicide-treated mature green and pink tomatoes were individually shrink-wrapped with plastic films and stored at 13°C and 18°C. Shrink-wrapped pink tomatoes lost less water than unwrapped tomatoes, but there were no significant shelf-life or quality differences. The shelf-life of mature green tomatoes at 18°C, however, was increased 10 days by shrink-wrapping. Color development of wrapped mature green tomatoes at 18°C was delayed. Wrapped fruit at both temperatures were firmer than the controls. Titratable acidities and soluble solids of wrapped fruit were lower than those of the unwrapped fruit at 13°C, while no significant changes were observed in citric acid or monosaccharide concentrations. The differences in titratable acidities and soluble solids in the wrapped and unwrapped fruit stored at 18°C were not significant.
Article
Honeydew muskmelons (Cucumis melo L.) were individually wrapped with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) shrink film and stored at 2.5° or 7.5 °C for 21 days and examined, then held an additional 2 or 3 days at 20°C and examined again. Nonwrapped melons were the control. The concentration of CO2 in the cavity of wrapped melons stored 21 days was 5.6% at 2.5°C, 9.1% at 7.5°C, but only 1.1% and 1.5% in the nonwrapped held at 2.5°C or 7.5°C, respectively. Wrapped fruit ripened slower than nonwrapped fruit during storage and subsequent holding at 20°C, after which time 70% of the wrapped melons were rated eating ripe, but 62% of the controls were overripe. Wrapped melons exhibited 30% less chilling injury (CI) symptoms than nonwrapped fruit stored at 2.5°C. The CI symptoms ranged from reddish-brown to dark-brown surface discolorations and sometimes included dry sunken areas of skin. Fresh weight loss was about 1 % in wrapped melons, but 5% in nonwrapped fruit, regardless of storage temperature. Decay incidence was about equal in wrapped and nonwrapped melons after storage at 2.5°C, but was greater for wrapped than nonwrapped melons after storage at 7.5°C. Soluble solids content was about 12.5% in wrapped and nonwrapped melons stored at either temperature.
Article
Daminozide [butanedioc acid mono-(2-2-dimethylhydrazide)] applied in the field reduced the electrical impedance of McIntosh apple fruit at harvest and after storage. Vacuum infiltration with calcium chloride (CaCl2) increased the impedance whether fruit were treated with daminozide or not.
Relationship of netted muskmelon fruit water loss to postharvest storage life Electrical impedance of daminozide and calcium-treated McIntosh apples
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Hypobaric storage of vegetables Individual seal-packaging of fruit in plastic film Introduction to the diagnosis of plant diseases The United Kingdom market for fresh exotic fruit. Overseas Dev
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Impact of postharvest handling procedures on soft rot decay of bell peppers A. C. 1991. A color atlas of postharvest diseases and disorders of fruits and vegetables Significant studentized ranges for five percent and one percent level new multiple-range test
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SHERMAN, M. and ALLEN, J.J. 1983. Impact of postharvest handling procedures on soft rot decay of bell peppers. Proc. Fla. State Hort. SOC. SNOWDON, A. C. 1991. A color atlas of postharvest diseases and disorders of fruits and vegetables, Vol. 2, Vegetables. Wolfe Scientific, 416 pp. STEEL, G.D.R. and TORRIE, H.J. 1960. Significant studentized ranges for five percent and one percent level new multiple-range test. In Principles and Procedures of Statistics. A Biometrical Approach, pp. 586-587, McGraw-Hill, New York. Trinidad and Togago Export Development Corp., 1992. Quarterly Report Jan-March, 16 pp.
Ascorbic acid determination by the indophenol method. CSIRO Food 946-949. a new postharvest technique
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KEFFORD, J. F. 1957. Ascorbic acid determination by the indophenol method. CSIRO Food. Pres. Quart. 17 (3), 42-43. 946-949. a new postharvest technique. Hortscience 20, 32-37. IICA Publ. ISBN 92-9039-013-1, 37 pp.
Studies on the constituent of , L. IV. Characterization of bitter glycosides, momordicosides. K and K
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