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How Many Americans Attend Worship Each Week? An Alternative Approach to Measurement

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Abstract

Opinion polls indicate that over 40 percent of Americans attend worship services each week. However, attendance counts in several North American counties and Roman Catholic dioceses suggest that worship attendance may be much lower. In this article a new measurement strategy is used to estimate total weekly worship attendance. First, using a variety of resources we develop an estimate of the total number of religious congregations in the United States by religious family. Contrary to many published sources, the total number of congregations is estimated at just over 330,000. Second, using known population values and sample-based attendance counts we develop estimates of average weekly worship attendance for religious congregations by religious family. The resulting totals suggest that fewer than 22 percent of Americans attend worship services each week. This lower level of attendance provides further evidence that Americans tend to overreport worship participation and are less religiously active than the polls show.

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... Using an alternative counting method, Chaves (1993, 1998) pointed out that the real attendance rate is only half as claimed by survey respondents. They have also found that the size of religious gatherings is often smaller than registered or claimed by the organizations (Hadaway and Marler 2005). With an overwhelmingly moralistic cultural atmosphere and the foundational role of religion in organizing communal life and shaping neighborhood structures in the United States, asking whether one attends a church or synagogue can be tantamount to questioning his/her personal integrity or loyalty to an ethnic group. ...
... It has long been recognized by scholars that the self-reported religious attendance rate in the United States is unreliable and must have been inflated by some underlying mechanisms. Comparing attendance count and the number of religious congregations in America, Hadaway and Marler (2005) found fewer than 22 percent of Americans weekly attend services, although more than 40 percent claimed so (Hadaway, Marler, and Chaves 1998). The similar overreporting behavior exists in many Muslim countries, and is associated with the importance of religious identity (Brenner 2011). ...
... The contribution of NSUM is not only its technical reliability; several researchers have come up with other innovative methods of gauging accurate information on religious behaviors, such as asking the respondent's time-use allocation, comparing known congregation sizes, etc. (Brenner 2011;Hadaway and Marler 2005). More importantly, NSUM answers to the question of the very nature of religious identity: What makes a person a believer of X religion? ...
Article
Getting accurate information on religious demographics from survey-based self-reports presents a difficult task, suffering from the biases of social desirability, personal safety concerns, and the ambiguous definitions of religious identity. An estimation strategy based on the enumeration of social network ties, the network scale-up method (NSUM), has recently been employed to estimate the sizes of hidden populations in criminology and public health, but has not been utilized in the study of religion. In this study, we argue for the advantages of NSUM in overcoming the biases associated with self-reports, and lay out a practical guide for the scholars of religion to the design and calculation of NSUM. We used a recent survey of Chinese international students to illustrate the use of NSUM and estimate the percentage of Buddhists (4.3%) and Christians (8.6%) in this population. We recommend interested scholars to adopt NSUM for its reliability, easy implementation, and more importantly--the affinity between the sociological perspective on religion and the socially-oriented assumption of NSUM.
... Using an alternative counting method, Chaves (1993, 1998) pointed out that the real attendance rate is only half as claimed by survey respondents. They have also found that the size of religious gatherings is often smaller than registered or claimed by the organizations (Hadaway and Marler 2005). With an overwhelmingly moralistic cultural atmosphere and the foundational role of religion in organizing communal life and shaping neighborhood structures in the United States, asking whether one attends a church or synagogue can be tantamount to questioning his/her personal integrity or loyalty to an ethnic group. ...
... It has long been recognized by scholars that the self-reported religious attendance rate in the United States is unreliable and must have been inflated by some underlying mechanisms. Comparing attendance count and the number of religious congregations in America, Hadaway and Marler (2005) found fewer than 22 percent of Americans weekly attend services, although more than 40 percent claimed so (Hadaway, Marler, and Chaves 1998). The similar overreporting behavior exists in many Muslim countries, and is associated with the importance of religious identity (Brenner 2011). ...
... The contribution of NSUM is not only its technical reliability; several researchers have come up with other innovative methods of gauging accurate information on religious behaviors, such as asking the respondent's time-use allocation, comparing known congregation sizes, etc. (Brenner 2011;Hadaway and Marler 2005). More importantly, NSUM answers to the question of the very nature of religious identity: What makes a person a believer of X religion? ...
Article
Getting accurate information on religious demographics from survey-based self-reports presents a difficult task, suffering from the biases of social desirability, personal safety concerns, and the ambiguous definitions of religious identity. An estimation strategy based on the enumeration of social network ties, the network scale-up method (NSUM), has recently been employed to estimate the sizes of hidden populations in criminology and public health, but has not been utilized in the study of religion. In this study, we argue for the advantages of NSUM in overcoming the biases associated with self-reports, and lay out a practical guide for the scholars of religion to the design and calculation of NSUM. We used a recent survey of Chinese international students to illustrate the use of NSUM and estimate the percentage of Buddhists (4.3%) and Christians (8.6%) in this population. We recommend interested scholars to adopt NSUM for its reliability, easy implementation, and more importantly--the affinity between the sociological perspective on religion and the socially-oriented assumption of NSUM.
... Using an alternative counting method, Chaves (1993, 1998) pointed out that the real attendance rate is only half as claimed by survey respondents. They have also found that the size of religious gatherings is often smaller than registered or claimed by the organizations (Hadaway and Marler 2005). With an overwhelmingly moralistic cultural atmosphere and the foundational role of religion in organizing communal life and shaping neighborhood structures in the United States, asking whether one attends a church or synagogue can be tantamount to questioning his/her personal integrity or loyalty to an ethnic group. ...
... It has long been recognized by scholars that the self-reported religious attendance rate in the United States is unreliable and must have been inflated by some underlying mechanisms. Comparing attendance count and the number of religious congregations in America, Hadaway and Marler (2005) found fewer than 22 percent of Americans weekly attend services, although more than 40 percent claimed so (Hadaway, Marler, and Chaves 1998). The similar overreporting behavior exists in many Muslim countries, and is associated with the importance of religious identity (Brenner 2011). ...
... The contribution of NSUM is not only its technical reliability; several researchers have come up with other innovative methods of gauging accurate information on religious behaviors, such as asking the respondent's time-use allocation, comparing known congregation sizes, etc. (Brenner 2011;Hadaway and Marler 2005). More importantly, NSUM answers to the question of the very nature of religious identity: What makes a person a believer of X religion? ...
Article
Getting accurate information on religious demographics from survey-based self-reports presents a difficult task, suffering from the biases of social desirability, personal safety concerns, and the ambiguous definitions of religious identity. An estimation strategy based on the enumeration of social network ties, the network scale-up method (NSUM), has recently been employed to estimate the sizes of hidden populations in criminology and public health, but has not been utilized in the study of religion. In this study, we argue for the advantages of NSUM in overcoming the biases associated with self-reports, and lay out a practical guide for the scholars of religion to the design and calculation of NSUM. We used a recent survey of Chinese international students to illustrate the use of NSUM and estimate the percentage of Buddhists (4.3%) and Christians (8.6%) in this population. We recommend interested scholars to adopt NSUM for its reliability, easy implementation, and more importantly--the affinity between the sociological perspective on religion and the socially-oriented assumption of NSUM.
... First, the selfreported measures of religiosity may be biased by misclassification due to socially desirable reporting (19). For example, objective measures of church attendance in the United States have suggested that the actual percentage of weekly church attendance may be only half of what people report in surveys (20). Second, people's religious beliefs and behaviors may be differently motivated (e.g., fear of vengeful god vs. love of merciful god), which may partly determine the mental health correlates of religiosity, but the current measures did not query people's religious beliefs in detail (21,22). ...
Article
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Several studies have associated religiosity with better mental health, but these studies have only partially addressed the problem of confounding. The current study pooled data from multiple cohort studies with siblings to examine whether associations between religiosity and mental health are confounded by familial factors (i.e., shared family background and siblings' shared genetics). Data were collected between 1982 and 2017. Mental health was assessed with self-reported psychological distress (including depressive symptoms) and psychological wellbeing. Religious attendance was associated with lower psychological distress (B=-0.14 standard-deviation difference between weekly vs never attendance, CI=-0.19, -0.09; n=24,598 pairs) and this was attenuated by almost half in the sibling analysis (B=-0.08, CI=-0.13, -0.04). Religious attendance was also related to higher wellbeing (B=0.29, CI=0.09, 0.50; n=3,728 pairs) and this estimate remained unchanged in sibling analysis. Results were similar for religiousness. The findings suggest that previous longitudinal studies may have overestimated the association between religiosity and psychological distress, as the sibling estimate was only one-third of the previously reported meta-analytic association (standardized correlation -0.03 vs -0.08).
... While diaries can be used to carry out extremely accurate studies on the average intensity with which a given activity is performed, standardized surveys provide very imprecise information (Kan and Pudney 2008;Scappini 2021). This problem is exacerbated when the question refers to a moral dimension like religious behaviour (Presser and Stinson 1998;Hadaway and Marler 2005;Rossi and Scappini 2014). Finally, direct measurement should provide even more precise information than the diary method by eliminating distortion due to self-selection of the sample (Ellison 1992; Rossi and Scappini 2012) and possible ambiguity in the reading of the reported activities. ...
Article
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Background Among the modern Western countries where the issue of religiosity has been studied, the United States and Italy offer the only examples of empirically verified periods when religious practice was consolidated or even revived to some extent. A recent study, however, shows that the nature of religious exceptionalism in the United States does not constitute a real counterexample. This leaves Italy as the only country that might provide evidence of the falseness of the assumption that the secularization process is inescapable. Purpose This study seeks to enhance our knowledge about the case of Italy, where the many surveys conducted over the years have produced a wide variety of often divergent results, prompting a fervent debate among scholars. Several authors argue that the level of participation remained almost constant from 1980 to 1990. Others, on the contrary, claim that the level of participation increased between 1980 and 2000. This paper contributes to this path of study, aiming to shed light on the development of religiosity in Italy between 1910 and 2013. Methods Different data sets—time use surveys, ‘stylized surveys’, direct surveys and other kind of data—and an innovative method will be used to develop the reasoning and trace the trend of secularization. Results As will be shown, there are discontinuities in the pattern of religious practice over time. These fractures were due to attrition caused in turn by factors related to economic phenomena like migration and political/ideological subcultures, which temporarily changed the level of religious practice and, at least for a time, counterbalanced the long-term trend away from religious practice. Conclusions and Implications The trends presented suggest that secularization in Italy developed without any discontinuity, leading to confirmation that modernization and religious action ‘counteracted’ each other in an extremely regular manner. Therefore, according to the current state of knowledge, no documented modern Western country constitutes a counterexample to the secularization thesis. It can thus be claimed that modernization and secularization are inextricably linked processes.
... L'attrazione che le mega-chiese esercitano, spostando verso di loro milioni di persone dalle chiese tradizionali dipende, in prima istanza, dai loro leader, spesso ex-pastori di matrice protestante che si sono "messi in proprio", reiventando il loro stile comunicativo, l' organizzazione del rito, i contenuti della predicazione, le forme di partecipazione e, soprattutto, esaltando il loro potere carismatico. L' esercizio del carisma come moderna impresa religiosa tende, dagli USA (Hadaway & Marler, 2005;Barna, 2006), dove ha iniziato a prendere forma, ad alcuni Paesi dell' America Latina, dell' Africa sub-sahariana e dell' Asia (e più recentemente del Vecchio Continente: dalla Francia all'Ucraina) a concepire lo spazio rituale come luogo di grandi dimensioni adeguate per un grande spettacolo di massa. La preferenza per un modello spaziale per il culto come un auditorio è congeniale per combinare spettacolo e liturgia, intrattenimento e preghiera, partecipazione di massa e emozioni individuali, un momentaneo spazio d'intensità spirituale sospeso nelle anonime aree suburbane, delle grandi metropoli (da Houston a Seul, da Lagos ad Accra, da San Paolo a Santiago del Cile), un luogo in un nonluogo (Augé, 1992). ...
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Ya desde hace algunos años, varios estudiosos han destacado que las sociedades industriales han sido sustituidas por aquellas “del riesgo global” (Beck, 1998), es decir sociedades caracterizadas por la producción y difusión de riesgos, principalmente de tipo manufacturado4, que no están “restringidos espacial, temporal o socialmente” (Giddens, 2014, p. 124). En esta situación, entonces, como sostiene Giddens (2014, p. 124), la “gestión del riesgo es el rasgo principal del orden global”, en el sentido que esta tarea se convierte en una de las más importantes, entre las que gobiernos y ciudadanos deben (o, mejor dicho, deberían) de realizar dentro de las sociedades globalizadas contemporáneas. Tomando como punto de partida las tendencias arriba mencionadas, el presente número de la revista Comparative Cultural Studies – European and Latin American Perspectives, titulado “Religiones y riesgos globales. Resistencias y reconfiguraciones del factor religioso en la época de la COVID 19”, se enfoca en el tema de la relación entre religión y COVID 19. Más específicamente, la pregunta general a partir de la cual se desprenden las reflexiones que presentaremos a continuación es: ¿Cuáles han sido las respuestas adoptadas por las religiones institucionales, las religiosidades individuales y las populares, para enfrentarse a los problemas generados por la pandemia de la COVID 19?
... L'attrazione che le mega-chiese esercitano, spostando verso di loro milioni di persone dalle chiese tradizionali dipende, in prima istanza, dai loro leader, spesso ex-pastori di matrice protestante che si sono "messi in proprio", reiventando il loro stile comunicativo, l' organizzazione del rito, i contenuti della predicazione, le forme di partecipazione e, soprattutto, esaltando il loro potere carismatico. L' esercizio del carisma come moderna impresa religiosa tende, dagli USA (Hadaway & Marler, 2005;Barna, 2006), dove ha iniziato a prendere forma, ad alcuni Paesi dell' America Latina, dell' Africa sub-sahariana e dell' Asia (e più recentemente del Vecchio Continente: dalla Francia all'Ucraina) a concepire lo spazio rituale come luogo di grandi dimensioni adeguate per un grande spettacolo di massa. La preferenza per un modello spaziale per il culto come un auditorio è congeniale per combinare spettacolo e liturgia, intrattenimento e preghiera, partecipazione di massa e emozioni individuali, un momentaneo spazio d'intensità spirituale sospeso nelle anonime aree suburbane, delle grandi metropoli (da Houston a Seul, da Lagos ad Accra, da San Paolo a Santiago del Cile), un luogo in un nonluogo (Augé, 1992). ...
Article
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What effect has the pandemic on Mega-churches? The forced closure or drastic reduction of those present admitted to religious services has in fact called into question both the regime of truth that many of these churches follow, from the theological and spiritual point of view, and the drama-liturgy of hand-to-hand combat between the transmormative force of the Spirit and the prince of all evils, Satan. In this way, Mega-churches moved from the mass event experienced in large auditoriums to an online service, on a domestic scale, for many anonymous and distant faithful, to which a consoling message can be conveyed in a phase of inconvenience and suffering in their daily life. The epidemic has stolen the scene from the great performers of the Mega-churches and from those who, enthusiastic, took their seats in the stalls or moved freely possessed by spirits waiting to be freed, actively participating in the deliverance’s rite. These faithful, probably, now watching from a distance at home, in front of their computer screen, another scene, less involving and, above all, without the parrhesia of the regime of truth, which materialized in the ritual space. The epidemic represents a double contingency for the Mega-churches: on the one hand, it weakens the theological vision of a God who can do everything and of the Spirit who blows triumphantly and defeats all evil, on the other, it dematerializes the presence of the enemy who becomes invisible and intrusive, no longer physically dominable, from which no charismatic leader is more able to delivere the faithful.
... The 'immune cell' of faith is its social structure-the faith-forming entity, usually called congregations. These 331,000 US entities (Hadaway & Marler, 2005) are a complex network of hundreds of formal and informal relationships. Some networks are built of common theology, training and credentialing leaders, while others focus on an activity, like providing food. ...
Article
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This article describes how faith communities often function like an organic social immune system during times of crisis, particularly our current COVID-19 pandemic. We share the strengths of faith communities pertaining to healthcare and public health, as well as name the religious health assets with which faith communities and other health partnerships have to work. These religious health assets have helped the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), as well as World Health Organization (WHO) and the National Academies of Science (NAS), imagine substantive and sustained partnerships in diverse contexts across many presenting conditions. We share how COVID-19 has affected these faith assets and offer a case study in how the Leading Causes of Life (LCL) and Positive Deviance (PD) frameworks have been implemented in faith partnerships to impact health and racial disparities in the past and now, during the pandemic. We offer recommendations on how the CDC might frame a comprehensive recovery strategy, including faith-based assets in an appropriate and sustained manner to move us towards health and well-being, focusing on leadership capacity of both faith and health domains. Finally, we suggest what not to do as part of a COVID-19 response and recovery in these partnerships.
... One of the likely errors could be the chances of incurring "Social Desirability Bias" in items related to 'religiosity' because the respondent may fear that they may be a source of social displeasure due to their beliefs or honest admission in front of researchers and even in their own eyes. Resultantly, they may have exaggerated their religious leanings in line with the results of an earlier study, in which respondents exaggerated their turnout at religious services to a higher degree in self-reported measures against physical counts in churches (Hadaway & Marler, 2005). The third limitation concerns the questionnaire which was adapted from different established and published sources to determine respondents' preference, however in most cases, complete instruments were not adopted to keep it brief and manageable to be filled in a reasonable time for the respondents. ...
Article
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The paper examines the relationship between leaders' trustworthiness and followers' job satisfaction mediated by the level of communication satisfaction and moderation by the strength of faith of followers. Humans tend to pursue similarity, alignment, and lucidity both in their organizational life and their relationship with God. As with faith, the choice of trusting a leader involves a decision to take the risk in the surrendering of one's control. Trustworthiness in the eyes of followers comes through the display of fairness and transparency by the leaders in meeting their practical demands in an environment of open communication and willingness to share information. The leader-follower relationship is further augmented by the underlying culture. The study was conducted among organizational Management cadre (General Managers, Deputy General Managers, Sr. Managers, and Managers) and employees of few factories and the executive students of some of the Universities of Islamabad/Rawalpindi offering evening programs. The study found that an enhanced level of job satisfaction is achieved when leaders are trustworthy in an environment of open communication and followers have strong faith.
... 103). One such attendance study was conducted by Hadaway and Marler (2005). By using a variety of resources, they were able to estimate the total number of congregations in the United States. ...
Article
Prompted by the scarcity of studies on the attitudes of people towards pet (companion) animals in most Arab countries and inspired by their previous research on the attitudes towards animals in Palestine and Norway, the researchers conducted this study to measure the attitudes of university students in Oman with reference to religious observance. A total of 217 students at Sultan Qaboos University in Oman responded to the Pet Attitude Scale ( PAS ) combined with questions regarding religious observance. The findings revealed somewhat less positive attitudes toward companion animals among the Omani students than the Palestinian students. Despite the general high degree of religious observance among Omani students, the study showed no significant correlation between religiosity and attitudes towards animals among Omani students. Some difficulties connected with the use of self-report questionnaires and the possibilities to investigate attitudes versus actual behavior are also discussed.
... The YRC survey provides detail on how young people spent a substantial proportion of their free time through questions on how they spent the previous Sunday. Spencer sought unprompted RELIGIOSITY, SECULAR PARTICIPATION, AND CULTURAL SOCIALIZATION 11 report of church attendance to compare with a later explicit question, aware of the concerns regarding social desirability bias later confirmed by Hadaway and Marler (2005). Accordingly, following a screening question to identify age, respondents were asked: ...
Article
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The nature of secularization is of enduring interest in the social science of religion. Numerous recent papers have established downward cohort trends as characterizing religious change. We examine potential mechanisms by assessing cultural participation and secular engagement during the formative period of one cohort. We provide estimates of active and nominal religiosity, nonreligion and religious belief for those born between 1933 and 1942, using multiple surveys fielded between 1957 and 2018. We model the association between religiosity and secular cultural and social participation for this cohort in 1957, then examine how cultural socialization in childhood relates to religiosity in their later adulthood using surveys fielded between 2005 and 2007. Increased secular competition is found to be associated with less active religiosity. These trends were underpinned by an ethic of increasing autonomy for the young. We conclude by affirming the link between increasing secular competition, long‐run modernization, and changing cultural socialization.
... Examining the associations between FQOL and both religiosity/spirituality and social relationships extends this line of research to additional malleable factors that may shape FQOL. Given the ubiquity of congregations within the United States (Hadaway & Marler, 2005) and the availability of potential social relationships in any community, these factors represent promising avenues for supporting families impacted by ID. ...
Article
All families, including those impacted by disability, desire and deserve opportunities for high quality of life. This study focused on family quality of life (FQOL) among 529 parents with children or adults with intellectual disability (ID). Parents reported moderate to high levels of FQOL satisfaction, with some variability across domains. We conducted hierarchical linear regression analyses to examine associations among FQOL and: (1) individual and family demographic factors, (2) religiosity/spirituality factors, and (3) relationship factors. Findings highlighted the significance of both informal (i.e., family, friends) and formal (i.e., professional) social relationships, as well as the relevance of spirituality/religiosity, as factors contributing to FQOL. We offer recommendations for research and practice aimed at enhancing FQOL of parents with children and adults who have ID.
... Third, socioreligious researchers have also reported that there is a tendency among survey and poll participants to over-report their attendance to religious services and therefore somewhat inflate the survey data relative to what might actually be taking place in a congregation (Hadaway & Marler, 2005;Voas, 2007). Moreover, quantifying religious participation and practices has its challenges. ...
Thesis
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Problem: Personal observations and anecdotal accounts attest that some of the young people in U.S. Latino churches are developing as leaders within their congregations. This seems to come as a result of the organic or less-formalized leadership development dynamics and practices present within Latino congregations, where leaders often develop by being actively involved in leadership actions without necessarily first following a curriculum of study, completing a training program, or fulfilling a set of theological education requirements. In this way, many are acquiring roles and responsibilities by which they actively contribute towards local congregational and community life, and by which they develop as leaders through hands-on experiences. This less formalized leadership development dynamic in Latino congregations has yet to be empirically studied, as a means to further understand and learn from this unique characteristic that can be helpful to the church at large in our search for how to develop the next generation of leaders. Thus, there is a need to identify, describe, and empirically analyze some of the specific phenomena involved in these observed dynamics within Latino congregations that seem to be contributing towards youths’ leadership development. Method Therefore, this descriptive and explanatory ex post facto study examined key congregational practices within Latino churches and the level of participation young people have in these as a means of analyzing the association of both with leadership development. The study drew on existing data collected through the Chicago Latino Congregational Study – Youth Survey (CLCS–YS) of 63 randomly sampled Latino congregations in different Christian denominations: Catholic, Evangelical, Mainline, and Pentecostal. The sample population consisted of 307 Latino youth ages 13 to 19. After examining the 104 questionnaire items of the CLCS–YS for applicability, 23 were selected to analyze youth’s religious participation, social service involvement, and engagement in leadership tasks, while controlling for demographic characteristics. Aspects of Positive Youth Development (PYD) theory pertaining to youth leadership development provided a means to select and create the variables studied, which were derived from socioreligious descriptions of Latino congregations that are linked to the aforementioned organic leadership dynamics. Results The data analysis revealed that youth in Chicago Latino congregations have a high aggregate score for both Religious Participation and Engagement in Leadership Tasks, and both scores increase with their age. Although their aggregate score for Social Service Involvement was found to be low, the frequencies of the reported habits, actions, and behaviors regarding Social Service Involvement indicate that a high percentage of youth are involved in volunteering or social service in and out of their local congregation. A significant relationship was also found between youths’ level of Religious Participation and their level of Social Service Involvement and Engagement in Leadership Tasks, with both scores increasing as their scores in Religious Participation increased. The results of the individual survey frequencies served to create a contextual description of socioreligious phenomena present in Chicago Latino congregations, as well as a wider reference into the religious habits of Latino youth. The findings support the observations and anecdotal accounts regarding the level of engagement youth have with organic dynamics for leadership development in Latino congregations. Based on PYD theory, the study also provided a proposed set of variables and measurements by which to approach future studies on this topic. Youth congregants are involved in hands-on experiences such as social service projects and exercising leaderships tasks, and they are also engaging very frequently with their supportive religious community. These are all characteristics of ecological contributing contexts which PYD postulates can potentially contribute towards the leadership development of youth, and their continued contribution as leaders in adulthood (Avolio & Vogelgesang, 2011; Murphy & Reichard, 2011).
... For example, educated American society is among the most churched and religious of developed nations in the world, and it may have become more so over the course of the education revolution. Just after the end of the American Revolution in 1776, an estimated 17% of the total population adhered to a religion, but by end of the twentieth century church membership had grown to 60%, and a full 90% of Americans claim to believe in a God, and currently almost 40% of Americans attend weekly religious services (Hadaway and Marler 2005;Finke and Stark 1992;Froese and Bader 2010;Presser and Chaves 2007). ...
Article
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A persistent sociological thesis posits that the spread of formal education causes an inevitable decline in religion as a social institution and diminishes adherence to religious beliefs in postindustrial society. Now that worldwide advanced education is a central agent in developing and disseminating Western rationality emphasizing science as the ultimate truth claim about a humanly constructed society and the natural world this seems an ever more relevant thesis. Yet in the face of a robust “education revolution,” religion and spirituality endure, and in certain respects thrive, thus creating a sociological paradox: How can both expanding education and mass religion coexist? The solution proposed here is that instead of educational development setting the conditions for the decline and eventual death of religion, the two institutions have been, and continue to be, more compatible and even surprisingly symbiotic than is often assumed. This contributes to a culture of mass education and mass religion that is unique in the history of human society, exemplified by the heavily educated and churched United States. After a brief review of the empirical trends behind the paradox, a new confluence of streams of research on compatible worldviews, overlapping ideologies, and their enactments in educational and religious social movements illustrates the plausibility of an affinity argument and its impact on theory about post-secular society.
... Lastly, the DUREL and PTGI are selfreport measures which may limit the validity of the data based on participant response biases, such as social desirability. For instance, one study found that Americans may exaggerate church attendance when completing the DU-REL (Hadaway & Marler, 2005). The results of this study suggest that incorporating a spiritual and or religious framework into treatment may benefit a select group of veterans and therefore needs to be further studied. ...
Article
Veterans who have experienced interpersonal trauma (IPT) are at heightened risk for developing posttraumatic stress disorder (Suris & Lind, 2008). The current study contributed to the limited research on posttraumatic growth (PTG) in this population, and specifically evaluated whether religiosity predicted PTG in 22 veterans receiving treatment at a Veterans Affairs (VA) mental health clinic in Southern California. Veterans completed pre- and posttreatment assessments measuring sociodemographic characteristics, religiosity, and posttraumatic growth. Results indicated that although religiosity and PTG at pretreatment were not significantly related, higher pretreatment levels of religiosity predicted increased pre- to posttreatment PTG. In addition, posttreatment religiosity and PTG were positively correlated. These results suggest that religiosity may facilitate PTG within the therapeutic context, providing an additional avenue to improve treatment outcomes for veterans with IPT-related posttraumatic distress.
... The first is the "strategic responding" (Wittenbrink & Schwarz, 2007, p.2) problem: participants might not always be honest when asked directly about their feelings, beliefs, and desires. Indeed, people also often misreport their behavior: for example, sociologists have consistently found that American Christians overreport their religious activity, such as religious service attendance (Brenner, 2011; Brenner, this volume;Hadaway & Marler, 2005). The standard interpretation of such trends is that people bias their responses in socially-desirable Jonathan Jong, PhD., is a ...
Chapter
Well-formed questionnaires are very useful tools in a researcher’s repertoire. At the same time, however, researchers have long acknowledged the limitations of such direct or explicit measures. The authors begin this chapter with a brief overview of the limitations of self-report measures of religiosity. They then describe and review a number of indirect or implicit measures of religiosity that have been designed specifically to circumvent these limitations. Finally, they conclude with recommendations for how these implicit or indirect measures of religiosity may be adapted for use by social scientists to supplement more traditional measures of religiosity.
... The FBCO field exhibits substantial religious diversity among its member institutions, (Bagby, 2011) and Hadaway and Marler (2005). 7 Estimates based on data from the National Congregations Study . ...
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Muslim Americans often encounter discriminatory practices similar to those experienced by other minority groups living in the U.S. Such practices range from mass incarceration and anti-immigration efforts to racial and religious profiling. In response, a growing number of Muslim American leaders are organizing their communities and collaborating with non-Muslims to address these issues through civic participation and political action. At the same time, several foundations throughout the country have begun asking how to promote civic engagement among Muslim Americans. Although little is known about Muslim American civic engagement and its outcomes, data from a national study indicates that faith-based community organizing is becoming a viable pathway for Muslim communities to (1) strengthen themselves internally by developing civic leaders and mobilizing everyday Muslim Americans to address issues affecting their community and (2) strengthen their external ties by bridging religious and social differences and by promoting policies that also benefit non-Muslims.
... Another strength was that the scale taps faith commitments along with identity, social, communicational, and cosmological dimensions. The inclusion of faith dimensions recognizes the 20-40% of U.S. and Canadian populations attending church regularly (Hadaway & Marler, 2005;Lindsay, 2008) and who appear to connect religious belief with close relating. Even still, some research contexts may not be suitable for use of the CCC-22, in which case the Marital VOWS Scale may be a feasible alternative. ...
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Christian approaches to close relationships in North America have been understood in covenantal terms between married persons, dating couples, and close friends, and have been contrasted with contractual or ego-based ones. Covenantal approaches value the dyad, interdependence, faith community involvement, and communication strategies to engender long-term commitment whereas contractual approaches value self, independence, negotiation for personal needs, and freedom to exit relationships when costs outweigh benefits. The authors gathered survey data among 713 subjects over three studies in order to develop a 22-item scale to measure covenantal and contractual worldview dimensions in close relationships. Scale items were examined for inter-item reliability, factor structure, evidence for construct validity, and predictive power of relational satisfaction. The resulting Contract-Covenant Continuum showed good reliability and multi-dimensionality. Evidence was also gathered to support concurrent, construct, and criterion validity as well as the scale's capacity to predict relational satisfaction and equity.
... Based on current data from the U.S. Census Bureau [7] that is the equivalent of approximately 116-million people having contact with FBOs each week. Even if estimates of worship attendance are inflated, as some have suggested [8], the expansive platform offered by faith-based organizations (FBOs) for promoting PA has led to much speculation about the public health impact that could be realized if efforts to partner with FBOs are successful. As their administrative and spiritual leaders, clergy are positioned to be a chief ally in efforts to promote PA through FBOs. ...
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A key public health goal in the U.S. is to increase the number of people that engage in regular physical activity. Faith-based organizations are prominent in many communities, making them a viable partner in pursuit of this goal. As leaders of FBOs, clergy are uniquely positioned to promote physical activity to a large segment of the U.S. population. The purpose of this study was to examine factors associated with physical activity promotion among clergy. A convenience sample of clergy (N = 497) from the largest denominations in Pennsylvania completed web-based questionnaires about their physical activity promotion practices. Multiple logistic regression was used to calculate odds ratios of clergy promoting physical activity. Forty-five percent of clergy reported that they had promoted physical activity to their congregation during sermons and 14% reported promoting physical activity during one-on-one counseling. Notable findings were that clergy who were female, reported fewer chronic diseases, had more health-related education, and were meeting physical activity recommendations were more likely to promote physical activity. The results of this study indicate that gender, health status, health-related education, and engaging in regular physical activity may be important influences on whether clergy promote physical activity to their congregations. More research is needed to better understand additional characteristics of clergy who engage in physical activity promotion, as well as whether changes in physical activity behavior would lead to changes in physical activity promotion practices among clergy.
... Sociologists call this propensity to inflate self-reported behavior social desirability bias. Research using alternate measures that focus more on actual or sampled congregational head counts has found that regular church attendance is more likely 20% to 22% (Hadaway and Marler 2005;Hadaway, Marler, and Chavez 1998). ...
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This study was designed to provide Rosedale Bible college, a Conservative Mennonite Conference school in Ohio, with critical information to increase its understanding of the educational choices of emerging adults from its sponsoring denomination and the way those choices correlate with church involvement and volunteerism later in life. The study also offers a glimpse into the educational and religious context of these young adults and the denomination they were part of as youth. A 16-question survey was distributed to 1,068 individuals ages 26-32 who attended one of the denomination’s churches when in high school. The survey queried respondents on personal data, educational choices, church involvement, and volunteerism. A total of 240 valid surveys were received, including 47 respondents who had attended the denomination’s college. Through cross tabulation and testing for statistical significance, the research found that attendance at the denomination’s college was moderately related to greater regular church attendance compared to those who did not attend the college. In addition, attendance at the college was moderately related to a lower likelihood of regular civic volunteerism. Research also found a strong relationship between a secular education and a lower likelihood of regular church attendance later in life, compared to those who participated in formal religious educational experiences as young people.
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An overview of definitions of religion and magic is followed by an outline of the main questions (inequality, cohesion, rationalization) and major scientific research programmes (historical materialism, structural functionalism, interpretative individualism, and rational choice and market-theory) in which the history of the scientific debate and the state of the art is delineated. Then, research on actual themes since the nineteen sixties is presented, viz. the evolution of the gods, secularization & unchurching, and new religious movements. How progress can be realised in the sociology of religion is discussed in the concluding section.
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Anime (Japanese animated movies) have penetrated the world with an ease of dissemination facilitated by the Internet. The stories, though quite broadly themed, have a predominance of images that promote a warm relationship with the Other. Many stories allow the human characters involved to cross the boundary between this world and the land of the spirits: the unconscious. The fear of the unconscious has been gently eased within the youthful audience captivated by anime. Stories have the ability to heal, and it is my contention that these stories have played a significant role in helping young people to accept others of differing gender identities and various orientations, and have seeded the ground for an acceptance of the unconscious. They make possible a relatedness to the dragon, a relationship that for thousands of years has been characterized by fear and repression. What fairy tales carried for many centuries, these animated films are developing and adapting the fairy tale message to our times and the new possibilities of our nature. They heal our relationship with the Other, with the alien, and with the beyond.
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Background The addition of concert instrumentation to contemporary religious services has exposed attendees to increased noise levels, which may contribute to noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Many smart device noise level measurement applications (apps) have been developed to assist in evaluation of noise exposure. However, there have been no published studies on noise exposure in American places of worship. Objective We evaluated noise exposure in several different types of places of worship in Washtenaw County, Michigan, United States as well as the accuracy of smart device noise level measurement apps. Methods Noise levels were measured at 26 services in 20 different places of worship using a combination of Spark 706RC dosimeters and iPod Touches running the US National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) Sound Level Meter app. Dosimeters were programmed to measure according to the exposure limits recommended by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for community noise and NIOSH for occupational noise. Relevant details on \ the services that could impact audience exposure to noise were recorded. Results The mean equivalent continuous average exposure (LEQ) level was significantly higher in audience measurements of Non-denominational places of worship in comparison to all other places (p = 0.004). Audience and podium LEQ levels were significantly higher if there were three or more vocal ensemble members (p = 0.001). No significant differences were noted between dosimeter and iPod LEQ levels. Roughly 35% of EPA measurements in the audience, 39% of EPA measurements at the podium, and 8% of NIOSH measurements at the podium exceeded the recommended exposure limits. Conclusions A significant portion of measured services exceeded recommended noise exposure limits. The current results may support the need for additional noise exposure screening and potential noise reduction interventions in places of worship.
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Bu bölümün videosu için tıklayınız: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RCLjVpHqNjI&t=651s Türkiye’de sekülerleşme teorisi ile ilgili iddia sahibi olanların önemli bir bölümü, derslerinde, akademik üretimlerinde, gazetelerin yorum sayfalarında, katıldıkları televizyon programlarında, davetli oldukları konferanslarda ve hatta sosyal medya hesaplarında ünlü din sosyoloğu Peter Berger’e atıfla sekülerleşme teorisinin çöktüğünü iddia etmektedir. Bahsi geçen bu kitle genellikle şu yaklaşımı benimsemektedir: “Daha önce sekülerleşme teorisini savunan Peter Berger artık fikrini değiştirmiştir, o nedenle sekülerleşme tezi çökmüştür ve dolayısıyla Türkiye’deki dönüşüm sekülerleşme teorisi ile açıklanamaz.” Bu iddia Türkiye’de sıklıkla kullanılmasına rağmen, detaylara inilmediği için Berger’in hangi verilere dayanarak fikrini değiştirdiğini ve modernleştiği halde dindarlaşan hangi toplumlardan bahsettiğini anlamak mümkün görünmemektedir. Bu makalenin yazılmasının sebebi de Berger’in geniş bir kitle tarafından kabul edilen fikirlerini/iddialarını sekülerleşme teorisi bağlamında değerlendirmek ve hem Berger’in hem de “teori çöktü” iddiası için onu referans gösterenlerin yaptıkları açık yöntemsel sorunları tartışmaktır. O nedenle, bu çalışma sekülerleşme kavramını ve sekülerleşme teorisinin ne olduğunu kısaca açıkladıktan sonra, Berger’in teorideki ve yöntemdeki açmazlarını yine Berger’in en çok atıf alan eserlerindeki 10 iddiası üzerinden okuyucuya sunmaktadır. Çalışmanın ulaştığı 4 ana sonuç şunlardır: 1. Berger, iddialarını kanıtlarla desteklememektedir. Türkiye’de en çok atıf alan 4 temel yazısında, herhangi bir kanıt ya da veri ortaya koymamaktadır. 2. Berger’in Türkiye, Amerika Birleşik Devletleri, Latin Amerika, Avrupa ülkeleri ve İsrail ile ilgili iddialarının kısa bir araştırma yapılınca yanlışlandığı görülmektedir. 3. Berger bir toplumun sekülerleşip sekülerleşmediğini, olması gerektiği gibi o toplumu kendi tarihi ile kıyaslayarak değil, başka toplumlarla kıyaslayarak ölçmeye çalışmaktadır. Böylece Berger, sekülerleşme tartışmalarının üzerine oturduğu temel yöntemlerden birini yok saymayı seçmiş görünmektedir. 4. Berger, ömrünün son dönemlerinde, sebebi bu çalışmanın sınırlarının ötesinde olan, akademiden uzak bir üslubu benimsemiştir. Ancak ne yazık ki onun akademik hassasiyetlerinin azalması, onun iddialarını sorgulamaksızın kabul eden geniş bir akademisyen kitlesinin oluşmasını engelleyememiştir.
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The Internet Archive curated a 90-terabyte sub-collection of captures from the US government's public website domain (‘.gov’). Such archives provide largely untapped resources for measuring attributes, behaviors and outcomes relevant to political science research. This study leverages this archive to measure a novel dimension of federal legislators' religiosity: their proportional use of religious rhetoric on official congressional websites (2006–2012). This scalable, time-variant measure improves upon more costly, time-invariant conventional approaches to measuring legislator attributes. The authors demonstrate the validity of this method for measuring legislators' public-facing religiosity and discuss the contributions and limitations of using archived Internet data for scientific analysis. This research makes three applied methodological contributions: (1) it develops a new measure for legislator religiosity, (2) it models an improved, more comprehensive approach to analyzing congressional communications and (3) it demonstrates the unprecedented potential that archived Internet data offer to researchers seeking to develop meaningful, cost-effective approaches to analyzing political phenomena.
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Huskinson explains the problematic nature of the term “creationist,” and lays out its varieties of meaning to different groups at different times. Most importantly, this chapter uses primary source materials to demonstrate how far American creationism succeeds in its social function—the policing of “orthodox” boundaries—and explains why those outside the evangelical market have difficulty perceiving this function at work. Huskinson provides a detailed account of the social identity of creation science proponents and how they themselves perceive the world outside of their community. By examining the insular environment of creation science proponents, this chapter offers an explanation for the continued efficacy of American creationism as a social function within the evangelical market. It sets out the internal consistency of the creation science approach, refuting popular notions regarding the motives of the creation science leadership, and offers a compelling explanation for the persistence of creation science.
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By examining the financial health of anti-evolution organisations, Huskinson makes literal use of the market model of evangelicalism by determining the financial success of different organisational strategies. The chapter demonstrates that this “sector” of the evangelical market has been steadily consolidating towards fewer, larger organisations, and with geographically focused results towards the south-eastern United States. Huskinson considers multiple contributing factors to the diminishing returns of anti-evolution movements, including the accelerated rate of secularisation of the United States in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries, the cumulative effect of judicial decisions unfavourable to the promotion of creation science in the public sphere, and the difficulty of policing the consumption of “deviant” information in a technological age of open access to information. Arguing from financial datasets, this chapter examines unique fundraising strategies, as well as the financial considerations regarding new creation science theme attractions.
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The aim of this study is to investigate students' attitudes toward disabled people in Palestine as compared to the attitudes of their peers in Norway. The instrument used is the Multidimensional Attitudes Scale toward Persons with Disability (MAS); a self-report multidimensional inventory consisting of 34 items, that measures affects, cognition, and behavior toward the physically disabled people. A total of 100 students from Palestine participated in this study, in addition to a comparison group of 104 students from Norway. Despite the researchers' impression that the Palestinian society is ridden with some prejudices concerning various forms of disability and that many of them associate disability with qader (destiny), the study shows relatively high positive attitudes toward the disabled from both Norwegian and Palestinian students. Some minor differences can be seen between men and women in the Palestinian population and between the Norwegian and Palestinian populations as a whole. As very few studies have been made in the region on this topic further research is recommended.
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Religions of modernity: Christians, Conformists, and Lays types-We present the original data, collected from a representative sample of 2.138 adults from Italian population, which were administered the 18 items of a "Religion-Spirituality" scale. Results show the presence of a widespread moderate religious sensibility, generally based on moral Christian values, but also with spiritualistic and animistic and sometimes almost spiritistic connotations; while a real participation in Church activities and cults is pretty low. There are three Religious Types: A) "Catholics" (45.0%), who believe strongly in God, praying and attending functions with some regularity; very attached to family and children, have an attitude of solidarity towards neighbour; they are related to traditional culture and distrustful towards immigrants; they tend to be conformists and relatively superstitious; they are conscientious, concerned about the risks that life presents, and a little 'suffering'; they are more often women, married with children, older and culturally low. B) "Conformists" (31.6%), which generally adhere to the values of Christianity, but without activism; they are intent mainly to their daily chores, sociable but a little suspicious towards others; they tend to give greater importance to effective concreteness and success; they are relatively young and educated, but also married and with children; C) "Lays" (23.4%), almost without interest for the topic of divinity, since relatively more independent, individualistic and introverted of all; they are also those who sympathize more with immigrants, with a special curiosity about culture and news; they are not fearful of life; they travel more and are the only ones to express some interest in politics; they are relatively younger and educated, more often unmarried and without children.-KEY WORDS-Religion, Spirituality, Secularization, Christians, Catholics, Conformists, Lays. RIASSUNTO-Il lavoro presenta dati originali, raccolti presso un campione rappresentativo della popola-zione italiana composto da 2.138 adulti, cui sono stati somministrati, tra l'altro, i 18 item di una scala di "Religiosità-Spiritualità". Dai risultati emerge la presenza di una diffusa religiosità moderata, fondata sui va-lori genericamente morali del cristianesimo, ma anche con connotazioni spiritualiste ed animiste talvolta quasi spiritiste; mentre una vera e propria partecipazione alla Chiesa in senso confessionale e dottrinale è piuttosto contenuta. Si rilevano tre Tipi Religiosi: A) "Cattolici" (45.0%), che credono fortemente in Dio, pregano abbastanza spesso e frequentano con una certa regolarità le funzioni; molto legati alla famiglia e ai figli, hanno un atteggiamento solidaristico verso il prossimo, sono legati alla cultura tradizionale e diffidenti verso gli immigrati; tendenzialmente conformisti e relativamente superstiziosi, sono preoccupati dei rischi che la vita presenta, coscienziosi e un po' sofferenti; sono maggiormente donne, sposati, con figli, di età più avanzata e di cultura più bassa; B) "Conformisti" (31.6%), che aderiscono genericamente ai valori del cri-stianesimo, ma senza particolare attivismo; intenti soprattutto alle loro faccende quotidiane, socievoli ma un po' diffidenti verso gli altri, tendono a dare maggiore importanza alla concretezza fattiva e al successo; sono relativamente giovani e istruiti, ma anche sposati e con figli; C) "Laici" (23.4%), quasi senza interesse per il tema della divinità; dal carattere relativamente più indipendente, individualista e introverso di tutti, sono anche quelli che simpatizzano di più con gli immigrati; con una speciale curiosità per la cultura e per le no-vità, sono i meno timorosi della vita, quelli che viaggiano di più e gli unici a manifestare un certo interesse per la politica; sono i relativamente più giovani e istruiti, più spesso celibi e senza figli.-PAROLE CHIAVE: Religione, Spiritualità, Secolarizzazione, Cristiani, Cattolici, Conformisti, Laici. La religiosità nella ricerca psicologica Esiste da tempo una letteratura scientifica in-ternazionale molto ampia e qualificata in tema di psicologia della religione. Lo straordinario rilievo di tale settore disciplinare deriva principalmente dal fatto che la questione della religiosità viene definita in modi assai vari dagli studiosi, senza che sia pos-sibile separare con chiarezza, l'una dall'altra, le molteplici e complesse questioni che attengono a concetti apparentemente disparati, ma di fatto in larga parte coincidenti o complementari quanto meno dal punto di vista psicologico, i quali si rife-riscono ai molti costrutti definibili come:
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Purpose A reluctance of social studies teachers to address religious matters prevents students from understanding the intersection of two important American institutions: slavery and Christianity. The continuing importance of religion in American life and the tension centered around race relations in this country make instruction in the connections between these two institutions invaluable. Evidence for the rich spiritual experience of enslaved African Americans is both ample and easily accessed; conversely, the misuse of Christianity by the oppressors and the biblical support for abolition commonly referenced during that period can be easily explored. The paper aims to discuss these issues. Design/methodology/approach In addition to these historical matters, modern results of the intersection of slavery and religion prove beneficial for study. While slavery itself is an irredeemable wound on American history, one that has repercussions even to this day, the encouraging impact of Christianity in the lives of enslaved African American and their progeny is worth noting. Findings Finally, this topic lends itself to progressive and engaging learning activities that are cooperative, project-based and authentic. Originality/value The teaching of history, which wrongly has a reputation for being lifeless and dull, can be improved and energized with this content of two topics still vital in America today: race and religion.
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Reserve studies are a facilities maintenance planning tool created by the common interest development industry in the United States that could be a useful tool for heritage site managers to financially plan for maintenance and repairs. Unexpected building related costs can be a threat to the financial stability of religious organizations and other types of nonprofits housed in historic buildings because these organizations require lead time to raise funds. Reserve studies could be a useful tool for site managers to financially prepare plan for repairs and generate realistic reserves to cover future expenditures. Reserve study reports include a physical assessment of an organization’s facilities and a funding plan to provide income to a reserve fund to offset maintenance and repair expenditures for a minimum of twenty years. This thesis explores the potential for reserve studies to help religious organizations and other nonprofits housed in historic buildings accurately estimate and provide for facilities maintenance to become more financially sustainable organizations. Evidence for this thesis was sourced from interviews with five stewards of religious buildings of differing ages that are at various stages of implementing recommendations made by reserve studies. Comparing the experience of stewards of recently constructed buildings to historic buildings explores the effect of building age on the use of reserve studies.
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Bu kitabın hikâyesi Uluslararası Din Sosyolojisi Sempozyumu’na dayanmaktadır. Bu sempozyumda yer alan iki oturum Türkiye’nin farklı üniversitelerinden akademisyenlerin farklı bakış açıları ve iddialar ile bir araya gelip “sekülerleşme” kavramı etrafında yaptıkları sunumlara ayrılmıştı. Sunumların gördüğü ilgi, yazarların farklı bakış açıları ve yer yer birbirlerine yönelttikleri eleştiriler, tartışmanın daha geniş bir boyutta yapılmasını zorunlu kıldı. Bu kitap da bu tartışmaları kalıcı hale getirmek ve geniş kitleler ile paylaşmak için hazırlandı. Kitap konuya ilgi duyanlar için önemli bir kaynak olma potansiyeli taşımaktadır. Türkiye’nin farklı üniversitelerinde yer alan Besim Dellaloğlu, Halil Aydınalp, Kemal Ataman, M. Ai Kirman, İlkay Şahin, Osman Zahid Çifçi, Behram Hasanov, Ekber Şah Ahmadi, Volkan Ertit, Ömer Faruk Darende ve Hasan Sarı gibi akademisyenlerin “sekülerleşme” konusu ile ilgili olarak çalışmalarını bir araya getirdikleri bu eser farklı bakış açılarının ve yaklaşımların okuyucuya toplu halde sunulmasına olanak sağlamıştır. Sekülerleşme tartışmalarını beslemesi dileği ile…
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The survey’s aim is to address whether or not the practice of placing Norwegian Social Work students over six consecutive years in the Balata Refugee Camp in Nablus, Palestine, has had any impact on the attitudes toward women among the population in the camp. To achieve this, two groups, one experimental and one control, of a total 261 respondents, have been exposed to the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) that is translated from English to Arabic for this purpose. Another research was to see if there are statistical differences between male and female respondents, and if there is an association between education level, socio-economic status, age, religious affiliation, and total AWS scores. The findings suggest that the students have had no impact on attitudes toward women within the camp population. However, a significant positive correlation exists between positive and egalitarian attitudes toward women and level of education.
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The survey’s aim is to address whether or not the practice of placing Norwegian Social Work students over six consecutive years in the Balata Refugee Camp in Nablus, Palestine, has had any impact on the attitudes toward women among the population in the camp. To achieve this, two groups, one experimental and one control, of a total 261 respondents, have been exposed to the Attitudes Toward Women Scale (AWS) that is translated from English to Arabic for this purpose. Another research aim was to see if there are statistical differences between male and female respondents, and if there is an association between education level, socio-economic status, age, religious affiliation, and total AWS scores. The findings suggest that the students have had no impact on attitudes toward women within the camp population. However, a significant positive correlation exists between positive and egalitarian attitudes toward women and level of education.
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The aim of this article is to present the controversial features of the secularization thesis about Chinese religions performed via analyzing the newly published Chinese religious policy named The Several Opinions on Further Governance of Commercial Problems in Buddhism and Taoism. This article proposes a complex hypothesis: (1) though the public influence of religion has acquired momentum of expansion in China, the growth and expansion of Chinese religions accompanied the decline of private religiosity; (2) Chinese religions possess controversial features of secularization: though they experience the reduction of their power, range of control, and prestige, meanwhile they embrace the increase in numbers of members, intensity, frequency, and importance of public life; (3) Nonreligious factors play an important role in promoting the growth of Chinese religions temporarily, while religious factors will be responsible for resurgence of Chinese religions chronically. This paper is the first in a series to apply the secularization thesis to Chinese religions.
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Inspired by recent studies of the relationship between religiosity and norms of civic participation in the West, the authors examined four areas of possible correlation between similar norms and values in contemporary Russian society: authoritarianism, charitable giving, volunteering, and support for NGOs. The authors obtained survey responses from 1,500 randomly selected Russian citizens from 105 urban and rural locations in 43 regions across the Russian Federation. Results emphasize that in Russia, as in much of the developed world, active religious attendance matters and that the impact of such behavior in Russia is generally prosocial, not authoritarian, and possibly driven by the moral discourses found in religious communities. Results also suggest that the impact of religiosity in Russia is diminished by the relatively small segment of the population that claims regular religious attendance. Together these results highlight the importance of further studies of pious Russians’ behavior and beliefs.
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How to define and measure secularization is among the most fervent discussions in the literature on the sociology of religion. The perception of secularization only in terms of change in the social prestige and influence of religion has confined the discussion on secularization to a narrower perspective, both theoretically and empirically. This paper argues that the supernatural realm (of which religion is a part), rather than religion itself, should be at the center of discussions on secularization. Since the term “supernatural realm” is used as an all-embracing concept, the decline in the social prestige and influence of religion-like structures, folk beliefs, magic and so forth are also considered part of the discussions on secularization. This is because Abrahamic or official religions are not the only supernatural entities that have noticeable effects on the daily lives of individuals. The paper also maintains that to hold a discussion on secularization in a comprehensive manner, academic works require “a defined period of time and place” rather a single timeframe because secularization is not the description of a situation but the definition of a process. If secularization is defined as such, the frequency of prayers, the rates of going to church, or changes in the number of believers will not be primal in measuring secularization because of how the supernatural reflects itself on daily practices might be different in different societies or belief systems. Thus, the definition put forward in this paper, based on the supernatural realm, will enhance the understanding not only of radical secularization processes in modern Western Europe (and its offshoots) but also of the secularization processes of modernizing non-Western countries.
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Studies show that Christian youth in the United States are dropping out of church because they are disillusioned with organized religion, not because they have lost faith in God. Scholars propose that these youth are approaching spirituality in individualistic ways and finding God on their own instead of in buildings designated as church. This research on Christian Hardcore punk rock problematizes the idea that the youth who leave conventional churches necessarily turn into spiritual individualists. Drawing on qualitative research at live music shows in secular venues, Christian rock festivals, and a subcultural ministries conference, this article shows that some youth are collectively reimagining and being church in and through music that both opposes mainstream Christianity and blurs religious and nonreligious boundaries. This article also offers a new approach to the study of youth and religious participation in an age in which mainstream religious practices are far less authoritative and meaningful to youth than these alternative cultural expressions are.
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Researchers have attempted to estimate the number of congregations in the United States using counts provided by denominations, existing media (newspapers, phone books, websites, etc.), and calculations using congregational surveys. Hadaway and Marler (2005) took the third approach, basing their estimate on the 1998 National Congregations Study (NCS), a representative sample of U.S. congregations, and select official denominational statistics. Since publishing their estimate of 331,000 congregations in 1998, two subsequent waves of the NCS have been conducted. Using the same approach, I estimate the number of congregations in 1998, 2006, and 2012. I conclude that congregations probably became more numerous, likely due to growth among nondenominational Protestants and the extraordinarily low death rate of congregations. But I also consider alternative interpretations of the data.
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This paper examines the overreporting of attendance at a large evangelical church using a poll of church members conducted during the seven days following a specific Sunday morning worship service. It provides a direct (temporal and individual) test of the connection between self reported church attendance and actual, observed attendance. Overreporting was found for worship attendance even when the attendance rate was adjusted by removing non-worship events. More importantly, by comparing poll responses to attendance records kept by the church, it was possible to determine both the rate of Sunday school attendance overreporting and which adult members misreported their attendance. Most of those who said they attended Sunday school, but who in fact did not, were active church members who claim to attend church “every week.”.
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The proportion of Americans who reported no religious preference doubled from 7 percent to 14 percent in the 1990s. This dramatic change may have resulted from demographic shifts, increasing religious skepticism, or the mix of politics and reli- gion that characterized the 1990s. One demographic factor is the succession of generations; the percentage of adults who had been raised with no religion in- creased from 2 percent to 6 percent. Delayed marriage and parenthood also contrib- uted to the increase. Religious skepticism proved to be an unlikely explanation: Most people with no preference hold conventional religious beliefs, despite their alien- ation from organized religion. In fact, these "unchurched believers" made up most of the increase in the "no religion" preferences. Politics, too, was a significant factor. The increase in "no religion" responses was confined to political moderates and liberals; the religious preferences of political conservatives did not change. This political part of the increase in "nones" can be viewed as a symbolic statement against the Religious Right.
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This research note demonstrates that, on average, the poorer the quality of a survey the more it over-samples religious respondents because religious respondents are easier to contact and more cooperate. Thus, much of the gap between survey reports of church attendance and "actual church attendance" is caused by sampling problems in the surveys used. This research note summarizes one argument in a master's thesis (Woodberry 1998) that demonstrates that much of the rest of the gap is caused by data selection, problems in counts, and methods of calculating weekly church attendance from questions about average church attendance. This translation problem also plagues research comparing time use data with survey reports of attendance.
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Previous research has suggested that vote overreporting derives from the respondent's wish to appear to engage in socially desirable behavior. Further, it suggests that the only respondent characteristic that is strongly related to overreporting is race; measures of socioeconomic status and of general political attitudes are said to be at most weakly related to the tendency to exaggerate voting. These earlier conclusions are incorrect. We measure the extent of overreporting for the population "at risk" of overreporting voting: those who did not actually vote. Respondents most inclined to overreport their voting are those who are highly educated, those most supportive of the regime norm of voting, and those to whom the norm of voting is most salient--the same characteristics that are related to the probability that a person actually votes. Blacks are only slightly more likely to overreport voting than whites. The pattern of relations between education and vote overreporting is opposite what would be found if those who falsely reported voting fit the typical image of the uneducated, uninvolved, "acquiescent" respondent who is concerned primarily with pleasing the interviewer. The effects of respondent characteristics with regard to the propensity of nonvoters to report that they voted are examined here by analyzing the vote validation studies conducted by the University of Michigan Survey Research Center in 1964, 1976, and 1980.
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Survey questions often probe respondents for quantitative facts about events in their past: "During the last 2 weeks, on days when you drank liquor, about how many drinks did you have?" "During the past 12 months, how many visits did you make to a dentist?" "When did you last work at a full-time job?" are all examples from national surveys. Although questions like these make an implicit demand to remember and enumerate specific autobiographical episodes, respondents frequently have trouble complying because of limits on their ability to recall. In these situations, respondents resort to inferences that use partial information from memory to construct a numeric answer. Results from cognitive psychology can be useful in understanding and investigating these phenomena. In particular, cognitive research can help in identifying situations that inhibit or facilitate recall and can reveal inferences that affect the accuracy of respondents' answers.
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Estimates of church attendance rates in the United States differ by the measure used: Headcount approaches generate rates about half those of survey-based approaches. Based on a series of experiments conducted on the 1996 General Social Survey (GSS) and a review of other studies and experiments, these differences in church attendance rates seem to result from several factors. First, because of both cognitive processes and social desirability effects, standard survey items yield overreports. Second, people often define "attending religious services" more broadly than what is tallied by headcounts. Finally, headcounts and survey-based estimates yield different results because of various other factors, such as the difficulty headcounts have in separating adult attendance from total attendance, and their frequent exclusion of non-weekend services.
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Macy's work offers a potential solution to the paradox of voter turnout. The stochastic learning theory of voter turnout (Kanazawa 1998) posits that citizens perceive a correlation between their behavior (voting versus abstention) and the outcome of collective action (win versus loss for their candidate), and that they interpret the outcome as a reinforcer or a punisher. The theory can solve the paradox of voter turnout because now p, the probability that one's vote is or appears decisive, equals approximately .500 in the calculus-of-voting model (instead of p 0). I use General Social Survey data to test the theory. The empirical results indicate that citizens make their turnout decisions according to the "Win-Stay, Lose-Shift" pattern predicted by the stochastic learning theory, especially if there are no strong third-party candidates.
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The National Congregations Study (NCS) was conducted in conjunction with the 1998 General Social Survey (GSS). The 1998 GSS asked respondents who attend religious services to name their religious congregation, thus generating a nationally representative sample of religious congregations. Data about these congregations were collected via a one-hour interview with one key informant -- a minister, priest, rabbi, or other staff person or leader -- from 1236 congregations. Information was gathered about multiple aspects of congregations' social composition, structure, activities, and programming. This article describes NCS methodology and presents selected univariate results in four areas: denominational ties, size, political activities, and worship practices.
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Hadaway, Marler, and Chaves (1993) have recently argued that U.S. weekly church attendance is about one-half the rate that is commonly accepted. Regarding Catholics, their result was based on head-count data from only 18 dioceses. The present paper is based on data from a total of 48 Catholic dioceses containing approximately 38% of U.S. Catholics. The results are the same: The weekly attendance rate in this expanded set of dioceses is 26.7%. These results lend further empirical support to the notion that church attendance rates based on self-reports are substantially inflated.
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One of the most widely debated issues in contemporary sociology has been how to interpret patterns of family change in the United States during the past four decades. Much of these debates focus on a thesis advanced by a number of scholars and political activists-that such features of family structure as high divorce rates and an increasing proportion of single-parent families have led to the decline of the family. Although past research has examined the causes and historical trends involved in family change, scholars have neglected important questions about family attitudes that have been raised in recent debates. Have levels of public concern with family decline increased over time? If so, what are the sources of these attitudes? And have changing levels of public concern with family decline led to the emergence of a new political cleavage? This study applies a theory of religious influence to answer these questions. Results show that public concern with family decline increased steadily after 1980, leading to a new and increasingly large cleavage in presidential elections. The analyses also find that high levels of concern with family decline are concentrated among evangelical Protestants who attend church regularly. In addition to extending sociological research on family change in new and fruitful directions, these results bear productively on theory and research in political sociology and the sociology of religion. I discuss their relevance to long-standing debates over political trends among evangelical Protestants and the influence of Christian Right movement organizations.
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Recent research on Protestants and Catholics in the United States has shown that estimates of worship attendance based on individual survey reports yield significantly higher totals than the attendance numbers reported by the churches. This paper provides additional evidence on the discrepancy using data for the Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.) for 1990, 1993, and 1996. In each year estimates of church attendance based on individual survey responses are higher than independent estimates based on congregational reports. Further analyses examine additional questions on church absences and the toe of time on Sundays to evaluate alternative measurement strategies. The results suggest that more accurate estimates of church attendance are possible using surveys but that entirely valid estimates are unlikely, as long as social desirability influences self reports.
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Characterizations of religious life in the United States typically reference poll data on church attendance. Consistently high levels of participation reported in these data suggest an exceptionally religious population, little affected by secularizing trends. This picture of vitality, however, contradicts other empirical evidence indicating declining strength among many religious institutions. Using a variety of data sources and data collection procedures, we estimate that church attendance rates for Protestants and Catholics are, in fact, approximately one-half the generally accepted levels.
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Compared to conventional interviewer-administered questions about attendance at religious services, self-administered items and time-use items should minimize social desirability pressures. In fact, they each reduce claims of weekly religious attendance by about one-third. This difference in measurement approach does not generally affect associations between attendance and demographic characteristics. It does, however, alter the observed trend in religious attendance over time: In contrast to the almost constant attendance rate recorded by conventional interviewer-administered items, approaches minimizing social desirability bias reveal that weekly attendance has declined continuously over the past three decades. These results provide support for the hypothesis that America has become more secularized, and they demonstrate the role of mode of administration in reducing measurement error.
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This article presents selected results of the study on 22 major Orthodox (Eastern Christian) Churches in the United States. This research was sponsored by the Association of Statisticians of American Religious Bodies as a part of the nationwide “Religious Congregations Membership Study: 2000.” The data were obtained directly from the headquarters of different Orthodox Churches in North America through personal visits and by interviewing the church’s leaders—the bishops or the chancellors.
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One interpretation for the common survey finding that the background characteristics of vote overreporters resemble those of actual voters is that misreporters usually vote. This hypothesis—that misreporters regularly voted in earlier elections—is tested with data from the 1972–74–76 Michigan Election Panel. It receives no support: the 1972 and 1974 validated turnout of the 1976 misreporters was very low. Moreover, misreporting was a fairly stable respondent characteristic: misreporting about an election in one interview was correlated with misreporting about the remaining elections in each of the other two interviews. A comparison of regressions predicting turnout using the validated reports versus the self-reports shows that the respondent errors can distort conclusions about the correlates of voting. For example, controlling for three other variables, education was related to self-reported voting but not to validated voting. Here, as well as in surveys of other socially desirable or undesirable issues, respondent self-reports may bias survey data in favor of commonsense models of the world.
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Results from two studies confirm recent findings that (1) survey respondents often use nonepisodic processes to answer frequency questions about autobiographical events, and (2) task conditions, such as the number of events to be reported and the time used in response formulation, affect the processes used. Results suggest that cognitive mechanisms other than episode omission and episode telescoping contribute to response errors. It appears that new methodological approaches, such as directly or indirectly manipulating the response formulation process, may be useful in attempts to improve the accuracy of behavioral frequency reports in surveys.
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For many years experimental observations have raised questions about the rationality of economic agents--for example, the Allais Paradox or the Equity Premium Puzzle. The problem is a narrow notion of rationality that disregards fear. This article extends the notion of rationality with new axioms of choice under uncertainty and the decision criteria they imply (Chichilnisky, G., 1996a. An axiomatic approach to sustainable development. Social Choice andWelfare 13, 257-321; Chichilnisky, G., 2000. An axiomatic approach to choice under uncertainty with Catastrophic risks. Resource and Energy Economics; Chichilnisky, G., 2002. Catastrophical Risk. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics, vol. 1. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chicester). In the absence of catastrophes, the old and the new approach coincide, and both lead to standard expected utility. A sharp difference emerges when facing rare events with important consequences, or catastrophes. Theorem 1 establishes that a classic axiom of choice under uncertainty - Arrow's Monotone Continuity axiom, or its relatives introduced by DeGroot, Villegas, Hernstein and Milnor - postulate rational behavior that is [`]insensitive' to rare events as defined in (Chichilnisky, G., 1996a. An axiomatic approach to sustainable development. Social Choice andWelfare 13, 257-321; Chichilnisky, G., 2000. An axiomatic approach to choice under uncertainty with Catastrophic risks. Resource and Energy Economics; Chichilnisky, G., 2002. Catastrophical Risk. Encyclopedia of Environmetrics, vol. 1. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd., Chicester). Theorem 2 replaces this axiom with another that allows extreme responses to extreme events, and characterizes the implied decision criteria as a combination of expected utility with extremal responses. Theorems 1 and 2 offer a new understanding of rationality consistent with previously unexplained observations about decisions involving rare and catastrophic events, decisions involving fear, the Equity Premium Puzzle, [`]jump di
National Directory of Churches, Synagogues, and Other Houses of Worship
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Melton, J. Gordon 1994. National Directory of Churches, Synagogues, and Other Houses of Worship. Detroit, MI: Gale Research, Inc.
census of synagogues In American Jewish Year Book Who overreports voting?
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Schwartz, J., J. Scheckner, and L. Kotler-Berkowitz. 2002. 2001 census of synagogues. In American Jewish Year Book 2002. New York: American Jewish Committee. Silver, B. D., B. A. Anderson, and P. R. Abramson. 1986. Who overreports voting? American Political Science Review 80:613–24.
The American religious identity survey
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Kosmin, B. A., E. Mayer, and A. Keysar. 2001. The American religious identity survey. New York: City University of New York.
Did you really go to church this week? Behind the poll data
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Hadaway, C. K. and P. L. Marler. 1998. Did you really go to church this week? Behind the poll data. Christian Century 115:472–75.
Faith communities today: A report on religion in the United States today America's religious congregations: Measuring their contributions to society
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Roozen, D. A. and C. S. Dudley. 2001. Faith communities today: A report on religion in the United States today. Hartford, CT: Hartford Seminary. Saxon-Harrold, S., S. Wiener, M. McCormack, and M. Weber. 2000. America's religious congregations: Measuring their contributions to society. Washington, DC: Independent Sector.
General Social Surveys
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Davis, J. A., T. W. Smith, and P. V. Marsden. 2003. General Social Surveys, 1972–2002: Machine readable data file. Chicago, IL: National Opinion Research Center [producer]. Storrs, CT: Roper Center for Public Opinion Research [distributor].
Do that many people really attend worship services? Emerging Trends 16(5):1, 3. ——. 2002. Many say religion increasing influence, but churchgoing flat
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Princeton Religion Research Center. 1994. Do that many people really attend worship services? Emerging Trends 16(5):1, 3. ——. 2002. Many say religion increasing influence, but churchgoing flat. Emerging Trends 24(1):1–2.
Vicars inflate attendance figures
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Morgan, Christopher. 1997. Vicars inflate attendance figures. Times (June 1, 1997): 1-2.
The diminishing divide: Religion's changing role in American politics
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Kohut, A., J. C. Green, S. Keeter, and R. Toth. 2000. The diminishing divide: Religion's changing role in American politics. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.
Yearbook of American and Canadian churches But I meant to go " part 2: A PC(USA) postscript. Monday Morning
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Lindner, E., ed. 2002. Yearbook of American and Canadian churches, 2002. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press. Marcum, J. P. 1994. " But I meant to go " part 2: A PC(USA) postscript. Monday Morning (May 2):16–17.
Public gives organized religion its lowest rating. Gallup Poll Tuesday Briefing
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Gallup, G. H. 2003. Public gives organized religion its lowest rating. Gallup Poll Tuesday Briefing. January 7, 2003.
U.S. Congregational Life Survey
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Woolever, Cynthia and Deborah Bruce. 2001. U.S. Congregational Life Survey. Louisville, KY: Research Services, Presbyterian Church (U.S.A.).
But I meant to go' part 2: A PC(USA) postscript. Monday Morning Measuring church attendance: A further look
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Marcum, John P. 1994. 'But I meant to go' part 2: A PC(USA) postscript. Monday Morning (May 2, 1994): 16-17. 1999. Measuring church attendance: A further look. Review of Religious Research 41: 121-129.
census of synagogues. American Jewish Year Book
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Schwartz, Jim, Jeffrey Scheckner and Laurence Kotler-Berkowitz. 2002. 2001 census of synagogues. American Jewish Year Book 2002. New York, NY: American Jewish Committee.
Social trends in the U.S.: Evidence from sample surveys What does family mean?
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s (2000) analysis, "seculars" refer to respondents who claimed to be atheists or agnostic and who claimed "no [religious] preference
  • In Kohut
In Kohut et al.'s (2000) analysis, "seculars" refer to respondents who claimed to be atheists or agnostic and who claimed "no [religious] preference." In 1965, the proportion was 9.7%, and in 1996, it was 16.3%. Similarly, Hout and Fischer (2002) find that the percent of American adults claiming "no religious preference" has doubled in the last decade from 7 to 14%.
Faith Communities Today: A Report on Religion in the United States Today
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Roozen, David A. and Carl S. Dudley. 2001. Faith Communities Today: A Report on Religion in the United States Today. Hartford, CT: Hartford Seminary.
Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches
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Lindner, Eileen (ed.) 2002. Yearbook of American and Canadian Churches, 2002. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press.
How good are telephone listings for sampling congregations? Unpublished paper
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Becker, Penny Edgell and Mark Chaves. 2000. How good are telephone listings for sampling congregations? Unpublished paper. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University.
America's Religious Congregations: Measuring Their Contributions to Society
  • Susan Saxon-Harrold
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  • Michael Mccormack
  • Michelle Weber
Saxon-Harrold, Susan, Susan Wiener, Michael McCormack and Michelle Weber. 2000. America's Religious Congregations: Measuring Their Contributions to Society. Washington, DC: Independent Sector.
26 The proportions of Americans who identify with religious groups included in the general religious tradition category were obtained by averaging results from the American Religious Identity Survey (ARIS) and the NORC General Social Survey
26 The proportions of Americans who identify with religious groups included in the general religious tradition category were obtained by averaging results from the American Religious Identity Survey (ARIS) and the NORC General Social Survey (1998 and 2000 editions of the GSS) (Davis, Smith and Marsden 2003).
  • James A Davis
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  • Marsden
Davis, James A. Tom W. Smith and Peter V. Marsden. 2003. General Social Surveys, 1972-2002: Machine Readable Data File. Chicago, IL: National Opinion Research Center [producer].
Did you really go to church this week? Behind the poll data
  • C Hadaway
  • Penny Long Kirk
  • Marler
Hadaway, C. Kirk and Penny Long Marler. 1998. Did you really go to church this week? Behind the poll data. The Christian Century 115 (May 6, 1998): 472-475.
The Diminishing Divide: Religion's Changing Role in American Politics
  • Andrew Kohut
  • John C Green
  • Scott Keeter
  • Robert Toth
Kohut, Andrew, John C. Green, Scott Keeter, and Robert Toth. 2000. The Diminishing Divide: Religion's Changing Role in American Politics. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press.