Article

Zest and work

Authors:
  • Stanford University Graduate School of Business
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Abstract

Zest is a positive trait reflecting a person's approach to life with anticipation, energy, and excitement. In the present study, 9803 currently employed adult respondents to an Internet site completed measures of dispositional zest, orientation to work as a calling, and satisfaction with work and life in general. Across all occupations, zest predicted the stance that work was a calling (r = .39), as well as work satisfaction (r = .46) and general life satisfaction (r = .53). Zest deserves further attention from organizational scholars, especially how it can be encouraged in the workplace. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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... Many researchers have pointed out work motivation as a crucial factor contributing to well-being (Gillespie, 2009;Grant & Shin, 2011;Nie, Chua, Yeung, Ryan, & Chan, 2015;Peterson, Park, Hall, & Seligman, 2009;Stajkovic & Luthans, 2003). Indeed, Gillespie (2009), Kanfer (2009, Nie et al. (2015), and Peterson et al. (2009) have maintained the perspective that the work motivation has positive impacts on well-being. ...
... Many researchers have pointed out work motivation as a crucial factor contributing to well-being (Gillespie, 2009;Grant & Shin, 2011;Nie, Chua, Yeung, Ryan, & Chan, 2015;Peterson, Park, Hall, & Seligman, 2009;Stajkovic & Luthans, 2003). Indeed, Gillespie (2009), Kanfer (2009, Nie et al. (2015), and Peterson et al. (2009) have maintained the perspective that the work motivation has positive impacts on well-being. Based upon these relevant works, we can expect that elementary school teachers' work motivation also leads to their well-being. ...
... As such, we try to introduce teachers' perception of principal leadership as a variable mediating the relationship between work motivation and well-being. More specifically, teachers with high work motivation are expected to perceive principal leadership highly and seek help from a principal, considering the energetic and passionate aspects of work motivation (Bohns & Flynn, 2010;Grant & Shin, 2011;Park et al., 2004;Peterson et al., 2009). At the same time, teachers highly perceiving principal leadership tend to feel more well-being, owing to a respect consisting of perceived status and liking and a prosocial motivation meaning leader's desire to protect and promote the well-being of members (Grant & Berg, 2011;Grant & Shin, 2011;Huo & Binning, 2008;Huo, Binning, & Molina, 2010;Park et al., 2004;Peterson et al., 2009). ...
Article
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This research intends to examine the mediating effects of elementary school teachers’ perception of principal leadership and work stress on the relationship between work motivation and well-being. For this purpose, the present study sampled 400 elementary school teachers from the Seoul metropolitan area in South Korea. Subsequently, the participants answered four scales to measure work motivation, perception of principal leadership, work stress, and well-being. The 324 data finally collected consist of 276 females and 48 males. The research results are as follows. First, four variables had significant correlations with each other, positively or negatively. Second, there was no significant mediating effect of principal leadership on work motivation and well-being. Third, teachers’ work stress had a partial mediating effect on the relationship between work motivation and well-being. Fourth, principal leadership and work stress had a sequentially partial mediating effect on work motivation and well-being. This paper discusses these findings and then suggests the directions for future research.
... As mentioned earlier, calling orientation is associated with work-related and life-related well-being. Individuals with callings are more satisfied with their jobs and life, and they put in more effort and time at work, regardless of whether or not it is compensated, than those with job or career orientations (Peterson, Park, Hall, & Seligman, 2009;Wrzesniewski et al., 1997). They tend to endorse higher levels of job satisfaction, work meaning, life meaning, zest, life satisfaction (e.g., Dobrow & Tosti-Kharas, 2011;Duffy & Dik, 2013;Duffy, England, Douglass, Autin, & Allan, 2017;Peterson et al., 2009), cope better with stress and have lower depression (e.g., Treadgold, 1999). ...
... Individuals with callings are more satisfied with their jobs and life, and they put in more effort and time at work, regardless of whether or not it is compensated, than those with job or career orientations (Peterson, Park, Hall, & Seligman, 2009;Wrzesniewski et al., 1997). They tend to endorse higher levels of job satisfaction, work meaning, life meaning, zest, life satisfaction (e.g., Dobrow & Tosti-Kharas, 2011;Duffy & Dik, 2013;Duffy, England, Douglass, Autin, & Allan, 2017;Peterson et al., 2009), cope better with stress and have lower depression (e.g., Treadgold, 1999). Besides quantitative studies, several qualitative studies have also confirmed that individuals with a sense of calling often report high levels of fulfilment and happiness (Duffy, Foley, et al., 2012;Hernandez, Foley, & Beitin, 2011). ...
... Flourishing was positively linked to calling orientation and negatively to job orientation. These findings support the results of previous research with Croatian primary school teachers (Jurčec, 2014;Jurčec & Rijavec, 2015;Miljković et al., 2016) and other professions worldwide showing positive relationship between calling orientation and well-being (Duffy, Allan, Autin, & Bott, 2013;Duffy & Sedlacek, 2010;Peterson et al., 2009;Wrzesniewski et al., 1997) and negative relationship between job orientation and well-being (Wrzesniewski et al., 1997). Career orientation was not related to teachers' well-being. ...
... For the most part, research on passion supports the value of these cultural messages, noting passion's many positive downstream consequences (Duckworth, 2016). Passionate people enjoy greater well-being: They report lower stress and depression (Treadgold, 1999;Zigarmi, Nimon, Houson, Witt, & Diehl, 2009) and greater life and work satisfaction (Burke & Fiksenbaum, 2009;Duffy, Allan, Autin, & Bott, 2013;Peterson, Park, Hall, & Seligman, 2009;Wrzesniewski, McCauley, Rozin, & Schwartz, 1997). Passion does not only benefit individuals, it is also in organizations' interest to hire those driven by passion. ...
... They introduce the idea of passion exploitation, and demonstrate its unique legitimizing logic. Our studies also complement research on passion that has largely focused on positive consequences of the pursuit of passion (e.g., Burke & Fiksenbaum, 2009;Duffy et al., 2013;Peterson et al., 2009;Treadgold, 1999;Wrzesniewski et al., 1997) and passionate workers' own attitudes toward their work (e.g., Bunderson & Thompson, 2009;Wrzesniewski et al., 1997). More generally, by demonstrating the unique mechanisms via which people legitimize questionable worker treatment, the present research provides a model that can help understand how contemporary forms of exploitation are legitimized. ...
... First, (a) the current findings extend past research that has focused on investigating passionate workers' work-related preferences and behaviors (e.g., Bunderson & Thompson, 2009;Wrzesniewski et al., 1997) and positive consequences of pursuing passion in work and life (e.g., Duffy et al., 2013;Peterson et al., 2009;Wrzesniewski et al., 1997). The present findings contribute to this literature by exploring how expectations about passionate workers' preferences and behaviors relate to how we treat the very workers. ...
Article
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The pursuit of passion in one's work is touted in contemporary discourse. Although passion may indeed be beneficial in many ways, we suggest that the modern cultural emphasis may also serve to facilitate the legitimization of unfair and demeaning management practices-a phenomenon we term the legitimization of passion exploitation. Across 7 studies and a meta-analysis, we show that people do in fact deem poor worker treatment (e.g., asking employees to do demeaning tasks that are irrelevant to their job description, asking employees to work extra hours without pay) as more legitimate when workers are presumed to be "passionate" about their work. Of importance, we demonstrate 2 mediating mechanisms by which this process of legitimization occurs: (a) assumptions that passionate workers would have volunteered for this work if given the chance (Studies 1, 3, 5, 6, and 8), and (b) beliefs that, for passionate workers, work itself is its own reward (Studies 3, 4, 5, 6, and 8). We also find support for the reverse direction of the legitimization process, in which people attribute passion to an exploited (vs. nonexploited) worker (Study 7). Finally, and consistent with the notion that this process is connected to justice motives, a test of moderated mediation shows this is most pronounced for participants high in belief in a just world (Study 8). Taken together, these studies suggest that although passion may seem like a positive attribute to assume in others, it can also license poor and exploitative worker treatment.
... Individuals who are high in zest are always energetic, approach life with excitement, and do things wholeheartedly (Peterson & Seligman, 2004;Rashid et al., 2013). In the literature, zest consistently shows significant correlations with one's satisfaction toward life and its different aspects, such as school and work (Niemiec, 2013;Peterson, Park, Hall, & Seligman, 2009;Weber & Ruch, 2012). Various explanations can be put forward to account for such links. ...
... Weber and Ruch (2012) proposed that zest could keep children feeling excited about their school experiences. Peterson et al. (2009) found that individuals high in zest are more likely to view work as meaningful and fulfilling. Gander, Proyer, Ruch, and Wyss (2012) found that zest was correlated with active coping behaviors in the workplace. ...
Article
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Research Findings: This study investigated the relationships of preservice teachers’ year of study in the teacher education program, creativity, zest, and self-efficacy in managing children’s behaviors to self-efficacy in creating child-centered learning environments. Data were collected from 275 Hong Kong preservice teachers via self-reported questionnaires. Results showed that creativity had a direct positive linkage with self-efficacy in creating child-centered learning environments. Zest was associated with self-efficacy in creating child-centered learning environments, however, indirectly through self-efficacy in managing children’s behaviors. Year of study was unrelated to both self-efficacies. Practice or Policy: Preservice teachers’ creativity and zest can be conceptualized as personal resources for creating child-centered environments. Teacher education programs should therefore incorporate components of fostering pre-service teachers’ own creativity and zest.
... Seligman, 2009;Wrzesniewski, McCauley, Rozin, & Schwartz, 1997).Although there is increasingly more focus and empirical evidence on the benefits of perceiving a calling, the vast majority of calling research has been conducted among North Americans who are predominately White and employed (Duffy & Dik, 2013). Little is known about how a sense of calling is understood and associated with well-being among Eastern cultural groups. ...
... According to these results, perceiving a calling was positively associated with joband life satisfaction among South Korean workers. This result supported previous studies that found positive correlations between a sense of calling and job-and life satisfaction among North American participants (Davidson & Caddell, 1994;Duffy et al., 2011;Hagmaier & Abele, 2012;Peterson et al., 2009). After we found that approaching work as a calling can be beneficially applied to South Koreans as well, we moved to the next step to understand how a sense of calling may link to job-and life satisfaction. ...
Article
This study examined how a sense of calling is linked with job and with life satisfaction among 209 Korean working adults. Using structural equation modeling, the mediating effects of living a calling and work volition were tested in the link between perceiving a calling and job-and life satisfaction. Living a calling was found to be a significant mediator only in the link between perceiving a calling and job satisfaction. Interestingly, work volition mediated the link between perceiving a calling and both job- and life satisfaction. Inconsistent with previous research suggesting that work volition was an antecedent of living a calling, this study showed that work volition directly linked to job and life satisfaction. Furthermore, the mediating effects of work volition were stronger than living a calling for job-and life satisfaction among South Koreans. Implications for future research and clinical work are discussed.
... Conversely, interpersonal care in a professional context may be more concisely encapsulated by qualities in the VIA such as kindness, fairness and social intelligence, whereas workminded commitment may be better reflected by qualities such a zest and perseverance which are comparable with the character dimension of drive in an organisational setting (i.e. passionate engagement towards excellence; Crossan et al. 2017; also see Peterson et al. 2009). Thus, in order to collate a succinct reflection of character relevant within a professional domain, the quality of humour along with the transcendent and theological qualities of spirituality, love, appreciation of beauty, gratitude, forgiveness and hope were excluded from the aggregation of the character variable. ...
... Such qualities have been found less relevant for organisational contexts and outputs (e.g. ), but are closely associated with personal well-being and life satisfaction (e.g. Feldman & Snyder 2005;Peterson et al. 2009;Wood et al. 2011). It is possible that these alternative-character practitioners experience high levels of general well-being, but their personal values are out of sync with qualities promoted within normative professional cultures and working environments, which inhibit their sense of professional purpose. ...
Article
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Dimensions of character are often overlooked in professional practice at the expense of the development of technical competence and operational efficiency. Drawing on philosophical accounts of virtue ethics and positive psychology, the present work attempts to elevate the role of ‘good’ character in the professional domain. A ‘good’ professional is ideally one that exemplifies dimensions of character informed by sound judgement. A total of 2340 professionals, from five discrete professions, were profiled based on their valuation of qualities pertaining to character and judgement. Profile differences were subsequently examined in the self-reported experience of professional purpose towards a wider societal ‘good’. Analysis of covariance, controlling for stage of career, revealed that professionals valuing character reported higher professional purpose than those overweighting the importance of judgement or valuing neither character nor judgement, F(3, 2054) = 7.92, p < .001. No differences were found between the two groups valuing character, irrespective of whether judgement was valued simultaneously. This profiling analysis of entry-level and in-service professionals, based on their holistic character composition, paves the way for fresh philosophical discussion regarding what constitutes a ‘good’ professional and the interplay between character and judgement. The empirical findings may be of substantive value in helping to recognise how the dimensions of character and judgement may impact upon practitioners’ professional purpose.
... In diesem Kontext konnte gezeigt werden, dass die Wahrnehmung einer Berufung zu einer größeren Klarheit hinsichtlich beruflicher Interessen führe, als auch eine höhere Entschlossenheit in der Berufswahl impliziere (Duffy & Sedlacek, 2007b;Steger, Pickering, Shin, & Dik, 2010). Ebenso konnten positive Einflüsse auf die berufliche Laufbahnentwicklung und das organisationale Commitment berichtet werden (Dobrow & Tosti-Kharas, 2011;Duffy et al., 2012;Duffy et al., 2011b;Peterson, Park, Hall, & Seligman, 2009;. Darüber hinaus wurden positive Auswirkungen von Berufung sowohl auf das berufliche und allgemeine Wohl-befindens, als auch auf die Lebenszufriedenheit und die Zufriedenheit mit der Berufswahl, auf die Arbeitszufriedenheit, die Sinnfindung im Leben, die Sinnerfüllung, berufliche Entschlossenheit, Selbstklarheit und positive Emotionen deutlich (Duffy & Sedlacek, 2007a;Davidson & Caddell 1994;Bunderson & Thompson 2009;Dik, Sargent, & Steger, 2008;Peterson et al. 2009). ...
... Ebenso konnten positive Einflüsse auf die berufliche Laufbahnentwicklung und das organisationale Commitment berichtet werden (Dobrow & Tosti-Kharas, 2011;Duffy et al., 2012;Duffy et al., 2011b;Peterson, Park, Hall, & Seligman, 2009;. Darüber hinaus wurden positive Auswirkungen von Berufung sowohl auf das berufliche und allgemeine Wohl-befindens, als auch auf die Lebenszufriedenheit und die Zufriedenheit mit der Berufswahl, auf die Arbeitszufriedenheit, die Sinnfindung im Leben, die Sinnerfüllung, berufliche Entschlossenheit, Selbstklarheit und positive Emotionen deutlich (Duffy & Sedlacek, 2007a;Davidson & Caddell 1994;Bunderson & Thompson 2009;Dik, Sargent, & Steger, 2008;Peterson et al. 2009). Der Einfluss erstreckt sich weiter auch auf eine allgemein erhöhte Wertschätzung der beruflichen Karriere (Duffy & Sedlacek, 2007a;. ...
... The final theme, Energy Influx, amalgamated the idea of deriving energy from calling-related activities, rather than spending it. This outcome echoes a finding that zestful individuals tended to approach their work as a calling (Peterson et al., 2009). ...
Article
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Background. During the last decade, life calling has become an areas of dynamically developing research in psychology, management, and counseling. However, it has not been empirically investigated in Russia, despite Russia’s rich intellectual and spiritual tradition, and abundant research on related constructs, such as personal meaning. Objective. The aim of the present study is an initial qualitative exploration of the concept of calling in Russian culture. Design. We employed qualitative document analysis to examine openended responses from 104 college students regarding their definition of calling, and the actions they undertook to discern and implement that calling. Results. We found that the students saw a calling as something more than a mere job; were intrinsically motivated to find and dedicate themselves to it; associated a calling with the use of their abilities; and at the same time expected it to make them more energized and successful without considerable effort. While some participants felt called to a specific domain, the majority indicated abstract other or self-oriented callings. Regarding the implementation of their calling, the participants fell into two groups: those who did something specific, such as study and practice, and those who did something vague, such as “everything” or “nothing”. Conclusion. These results are largely in line with similar findings in other cultures. The results can be used in career guidance in educational institutions, as well as in private counseling. Specific recommendations for practice, as well as directions for future research, are explored.
... Personal resources also promote self-efficacy and confidence in one's abilities which are strong predictors of subjective well-being (Karademas, 2006). Energy represents positive feelings of aliveness which can drive an individual's level of engagement in everyday work duties and in overall life affairs (Russo et al., 2016), so that such employees develop a sense of contentment and belief that their lives are meaningful (Peterson, Park, Hall, & Seligman, 2009). ...
... Personal resources also promote self-efficacy and confidence in one's abilities which are strong predictors of subjective well-being (Karademas, 2006). Energy represents positive feelings of aliveness which can drive an individual's level of engagement in everyday work duties and in overall life affairs (Russo et al., 2016), so that such employees develop a sense of contentment and belief that their lives are meaningful (Peterson, Park, Hall, & Seligman, 2009). ...
Article
Subjective well-being is of great significance to mankind. Consistent with the emerging field of positive organizational scholarship, our study seeks to investigate the relationship between employee energy and subjective well-being (SWB). We propose a moderated mediation framework that examines the employee energy and SWB relationship along with the mediating influence of flourishing and moderating role of prosocial motivation. Data was collected in two waves over a two month time period from 266 bank employees. Our results provide support for our hypothesized model. We find that flourishing plays a vital role in explaining the association between energy and SWB. In addition, the significant and negative interactional impact of prosocial motivation and energy demonstrates that with higher prosocial motivation, employees invest a substantial amount of energy in helping their co-workers which undermines their own flourishing limiting their SWB.
... Martin Seligman [16], der Begründer der Positiven Psychologie, sieht in der Förderung der persönlichen Stärken großes Potenzial um Lebenszufriedenheit zu erreichen. Die vierundzwanzig von Peterson und Seligman [17] klassifizierten Charakterstärken bestimmen sowohl die Zufriedenheit mit dem eigenen Leben, als auch die Zufriedenheit mit der Arbeit [18]. Eine dieser Stärken ist die soziale Intelligenz, die als Fähigkeit, Emotionen anderer Menschen wahrzunehmen und entsprechend zu reagieren, verstanden wird [16]. ...
Conference Paper
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Die wirtschaftliche Bedeutsamkeit einer hohen Studienzufriedenheit und einer damit einhergehenden niedrigen Studienabbruchsquote für den tertiären Bildungssektor waren Ausgangspunkt der vorliegenden Studie. Dabei wurde das Konzept der Studienzufriedenheit einerseits in Analogie zu Theorien der Arbeits- und KundInnenzufriedenheit betrachtet, andererseits aber auch in die Metatheorie des subjektiven Wohlbefindens und der Lebenszufriedenheit eingebettet. Ausgehend von Untersuchungen der Positiven Psychologie zur Lebenszufriedenheit stand die Frage im Fokus, ob Charakterstärken einen Einfluss auf die Studienzufriedenheit haben. In einer Online-Erhebung wurden die Charakterstärken, die Studienzufriedenheit sowie soziodemographische Merkmale von insgesamt 140 Studierenden erhoben. Die Untersu-chungsergebnisse zeigen, dass neben der Studienrichtung folgende Charakterstärken in Zusammenhang mit der Studienzufriedenheit stehen: Weitsicht, Ausdauer, Führungsvermögen, Selbstregulation, Tatendrang, Hoffnung, Liebe zum Lernen und Teamwork. Weitere Forschungsfragen und relevante Implementierungsvorschläge zur Verbesserung der oben erwähnten Charakterstärken werden vorgestellt.
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This study focuses on the relationships of career calling to job satisfaction in army officers. The direct and indirect (via meaning in life and meaning in work) effects of career calling on job satisfaction were investigated in 355 male army officers in China. For this purpose, structural equation modeling and bootstrap method were used. Results of confirmatory factor analysis verified the latent structures of meaning in work and job satisfaction. Structural equation modeling and χ² test indicated meaning in work and presence meaning in life partially mediated the association between career calling and job satisfaction. The bootstrap method also revealed a significant indirect path from career calling to job satisfaction through them. These findings extend previous studies and shed light on promoting job satisfaction from a positive and meaningful perspective through the effect of adaptive career calling.
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Occupational calling is defined as a career or work that individual find intrinsically meaningful, display prosocial orientation in nature and the result of summons. Numerous studies have made to investigated the positive effects, but there is little literature concerning the influence of occupational calling on safety management field. In the current study, we designed a model to investigate the relationships between occupational calling, work engagement, perceived organizational support, and safety performance among Chinese train drivers. A total sample of 368 Chinese train drives were from 18 major railway companies. The results reveal that occupational calling has a direct and positive effect on train drivers’ safety performance, and an indirect effect on safety performance motivated by work engagement. The findings also reveal that perceived organizational support may strengthen the positive and direct effect of occupational calling on safety performance. Besides, the practical implications of these findings are discussed.
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This study examines whether life satisfaction could influence social‐capital factors of interest to managers looking for pro‐social employees willing to do extra work and willing to help contribute to a positive environment. Employee data were analyzed (n = 7134) from the 2006 Social Capital Community Survey (SCCS) to analyze the role life satisfaction plays in influencing active pro‐social work behavior in employees. Regression analysis results showed that employees with greater life satisfaction engage in more organizational citizenship behavior, feel calmer and less emotionally exhausted at the end of the day, are more likely to trust their coworkers, are more likely to be members of a neighborhood association or work on a community project, and are more likely to participate and volunteer. The degree of employees' life satisfaction was shown to influence their active orientation towards work due to their greater social‐capital proclivities, which reflect organizational citizenship behavior.
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Developing and retaining talent is crucial in helping organizations compete effectively. However, how employers understand talent and thus invest appropriate resources to motivate and develop talented employees still requires considerable attention. This study argues that, differing from a generic HR system, the implementation of a more narrowly focused strategic talent management system (STMS) for investment in a talented group can craft the employees’ job interpretation in terms of employee calling. This can, in turn, further develop positive employee behaviors, including those of entrepreneurship and voice. In addition, a mediation effect of employee calling is examined in this study. Data were collected from 234 individuals in 45 firms across Taiwan. This study provides theoretical and empirical support for the effects of STMS. It also provides empirical evidence that employee calling is a key mediator for developing employees’ work behaviors. The practical implications identified are also an important reference for organizations. A more narrowly‐focused strategic talent management system (STMS) is crucial to organizational success. A strategic talent management system could satisfy the talent's needs and is associated with their entrepreneurial and voice behaviors. Employees’ calling is a key mediator for developing employees’ work behaviors.
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This study offers new perspectives on employees’ intention to stay in organizations by examining the role of calling and perceived supervisor support (PSS). Drawing from work as calling theory (WCT) and utilizing survey data collected in the Philippines (Study 1; n = 338), we found that perceiving a calling is positively and significantly related to intention to stay and that PSS serves as a moderating variable. To further assess the mechanism that links perceiving a calling with intention to stay, we conducted a second study, after 6 months, focusing on the employee’s state of living out the calling. Using another survey data set collected in the Philippines (Study 2; n = 379), we found that living a calling serves as a mediating variable that influences the relationship between perceiving a calling and intention to stay, which is further strengthened by PSS. Theoretical and practical implications are fully discussed.
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The aim of the study is determined to find out the effect of calling on job satisfaction. The mediator role of the flow experience in this relationship is also investigated in the study. The sample of the study consists of 309 academicians. The questionnaire technique has been used in the study and electronically prepared questionnaire has been delivered to the academicians using snowball sampling method. Descriptive statistics, confirmatory factor analysis, correlation, and bootstrap regression analyses are used to analyze the collected data. As a result of the study, it has been determined that the dimensions of calling have a positive significant relationship with both the dimensions of flow experience and job satisfaction. Moreover, according to the results of the analysis, the relationship between the dimensions of flow experience and job satisfaction is positive and significant. Finally, it has been found out that all dimensions of the flow experience have the mediator role on the effect of calling dimensions on job satisfaction.
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Life is a collection of moments, some light and pleasant, some dark and unpleasant, some neutral. Character strengths contribute to the full range of human experiences, influencing and creating positive opportunities while also helping us to endure the mundane and embrace and navigate the struggles. Some researchers have argued that thriving, which casts a wider net on the human experience than constructs such as flourishing or resilience, constitutes strong well-being and performance at times of both adversity and opportunity (Brown et al. 2017). With this and the many findings in the science of character in mind, six character strengths functions are theorized and then applied across time orientations, making the case for the integral role of character strengths in these matters of thriving. Three opportunity functions are offered, including priming in which character strengths prompt and prepare for strengths awareness and use; mindfulness in which character strengths serve in synergy with mindful awareness of the present reality; and appreciation in which character strengths use expresses value for what has occurred. The three adversity functions include: buffering – character strengths use prevents problems; reappraisal – character strengths explain or reinterpret problems; and resilience – character strengths support the bounce-back from life setbacks. Several applications of these six functions for vocational and educational settings are explored.
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Çalışmanın amacı hakemlerin mesleki haz düzeylerinin bazı demografik değişkenlere göre incelenmesidir. Çalışma grubu uygun örnekleme yöntemi ile oluşturulmuştur. Çalışmaya 2017-2018 sezonunda aktif olarak hakemlik yapan %61'i (n:200) basketbol ve %39'u (n:125) futbol hakemi olmak üzere 325 kişilik hakem grubu katılmıştır. Araştırmada veri toplama aracı olarak kişisel bilgi formu ve Karaçam ve Pulur (2018) tarafından geliştirilen hakemler için mesleki haz ölçeği (HİMHÖ) kullanılmıştır. Değişkenler arası ilişkilerin belirlenmesi için Pearson Momentler Çarpımı Korelasyon Katsayısı, ikili karşılaştırmalarda t testi ve çoklu karşılaştırmalarda tek yönlü varyans analizi (ANOVA) kullanılmıştır. Yapılan analizlerde basketbol ve futbol hakemlerinin mesleki haz düzeyleri arasında cinsiyetlerine göre erkek hakemler lehine, hakemlikten elde edilen gelirlerinden memnun olma durumlarına göre gelirinden memnun olanlar lehine anlamlı bir fark olduğu görülmüştür (p<.05). Basketbol ve futbol hakemlerinin mesleki haz düzeyleri ile yönetilen maç sayısı arasında pozitif yönlü ve anlamlı ilişki olduğu görülmüştür (p<.05). Basketbol ve futbol hakemlerinin mesleki haz düzeylerinin branşa, klasmana ve eğitim durumlarına göre anlamlı bir farklılık göstermediği görülmektedir (p>.05). Basketbol ve futbol hakemlerinin mesleki haz düzeyleri ile yaş ve hakemlik yılı arasında anlamlı bir ilişki bulunamamıştır (p>.05). Araştırma sonucunda futbol ve basketbol hakemlerinin cinsiyetleri, hakemlikten elde ettikleri gelir düzeyi ve yönettikleri maç sayısının hakemlerin mesleki haz düzeyleri için önemli değişkenler olduğu görülmüştür. Abstract: The aim of this study is to examine the referees' zest for work levels in relation to certain demographic variables. Convenience sampling method was used in the study and the sample consisted of a group of 325 referees who actively served during the 2017-2018 season. 61% (n:200) of the participants were basketball referees and 39% (n:125) were soccer referees. A demographic information form and "The Zest for Work Scale for Referees" (ZWSR) developed by Karaçam and Pulur (2017) were used as data collection tools. The Pearson-Product Moment Correlation Coefficient was used to determine the correlations between the variables, and t-test and one-way variance analysis (ANOVA) were used in binary and multiple comparisons, respectively. As a result of the analyzes, basketball and soccer referees were found to have a significant difference in favor male referees by the variable of gender and in favor of those who are satisfied with their income by the variable of satisfaction with the income (p<.05). It was observed that basketball and soccer referees' zest for work levels did not show any significant difference in terms of branch, classification and educational background (p>.05). There was no significant relationship between the participants' zest for work levels and the variables of age and refereeing experience (p>.05). As a result of the study, basketball and football referees' gender, income level, and the number of matches they have refereed so far were found to be critical variables for the referees' zest for work levels.
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In this study, we investigate the dimensionality of work orientation and propose an internal model. Our study considers the model of work orientation presented by Bellah et al. (1985). This model assumes that there are three types of work orientation: calling, career, and job. We undertook a transversal study of 959 Portuguese adults between the ages of 18 and 71, who were all currently working. We used confirmatory factor analysis to study the dimensionality of work orientation and, to study the internal model of work orientation, we used structural equation modelling. Together, the results of these analyses suggest that work orientation is indeed three-dimensional and, additionally, suggest that work orientation dimensions have a direct impact on each other. This study provides important contributions to the theory of work orientation and introduces for discussion and future research an even greater set of questions.
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By employing work as a calling theory, this study examines the direct influence of perceiving a calling on occupational burnout, the mediating effect of living a calling between the perceiving a calling and occupational burnout association, and the moderating role of job crafting between the relationship of living a calling and occupational burnout. The data were collected in two phases from 254 participants working in Pakistan’s different organizations (i.e., manufacturing, banking, and higher education). To test the hypotheses, PROCESS-macro was used to test the relationships. The findings reveal that the individuals’ perceiving a calling helps reduce occupational burnout. It indicated that living a calling act as a mediating mechanism between perceiving a calling and occupational burnout. Additionally, the study investigated that job crafting moderated the negative relationship between living a calling and occupational burnout and supported the mediated moderation results. By summing up, the present study highlights the importance of calling phenomena by unveiling the positive and negative aspects of certain mechanisms such as living a calling and job crafting that affect occupational burnout. Further, implications and limitations are discussed.
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Purpose Based on self-consistency theory and conservation of resource theory, this study aims to discuss the impact of career calling congruence on employees’ innovation performance (IP) and analyzes the mediating effect of work passion [harmonious passion (HP) and obsessive passion (OP)]. Design/methodology/approach To avoid serious common method biases, data in this paper were collected at three-wave. This paper investigated 381 employees to assess their career calling in time 1, measured their work passion in time 2 and assessed the IP of these employees in time 3. This paper also conducts confirmatory factor analysis, polynomial regression, response surface analysis, bootstrapping test and simple slope test to verify the research hypothesis in this paper. Findings In the career calling congruence case, employees’ HP, OP and IP are higher when both levels of serving oneself career calling and helping others career calling are high than when both are low; In the career calling incongruence case, employees’ HP, OP and IP are higher in the “low serving oneself and high helping others” case than in the “high serving oneself and low helping others” case; The more congruent the “serving oneself” and “helping others” career calling are, the higher the employees’ HP, OP and IP will be; and HP and OP mediate the relationship between career calling congruence and IP. Originality/value This study further clarifies the structure of career calling and find the positive effects of career calling on IP. The results present a deeper understanding of career calling and are universal applicable to the eastern culture context.
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This study examined the mediating role of cognitive emotion regulation in the relationship between calling and posttraumatic growth (PTG) and the moderating role of transformational leadership among Air Force pilots. A total of 215 ROK Air Force pilots participated in this study twice with an interval of 4 weeks. The results of this study were as follows. First, calling, transformational leadership, adaptive emotion regulation, and PTG showed statistically significant correlations. Second, a mediating model showed that the relationship between calling and PTG was mediated by adaptive emotion regulation. Third, the moderation effect of transformational leadership in the relationship calling on adaptive emotion regulation was found. Finally, transformational leadership also moderated the mediating effect of calling on PTG through adaptive emotion regulation was identified. Implications, limitations, and future research suggestions were discussed.
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The hotel manager has the responsibility to stimulate the passion of the staff. The vision, hope/faith, and altruistic love advocated by spiritual leaders can meet the independent psychological needs of employees, thus enhancing their harmonious passion. This study is based on self-determination theory, intrinsic motivation theory and psychological capital theory, and explores the relationship between spiritual leadership and employees’ harmonious passion. This study uses 260 employees of star hotels in Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Hefei, Huangshan, and other cities in China. Results show that spiritual leadership positively impacts employees’ harmonious passion, and calling plays an mediation role between spiritual leadership and employees’ harmonious passion. The results are helpful to clarify the formation mechanism of employees’ harmonious passion from the perspective of self-determination theory, intrinsic motivation theory and psychological capital theory and show that spiritual leadership can drive employees’ harmonious passion, especially when hotel vision and employee calling are consistent. Furthermore, the altruistic love of spiritual leaders for their followers also plays a key role in employee calling and promoting harmonious passion. Therefore, this study also emphasizes the importance of calling in improving the harmonious passion of employees. The theoretical and management implications that help to enhance the harmonious passion of employees are discussed in detail.
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The aim of this paper is to identify and explore ‘enablers’ to a lived calling: those people, things or events that pave the way for individuals to live their calling. These enablers emerged from a study of sixty-five Australian respondents across a range of industries. The results of the research, which utilised the grounded theory research methodology and collected data using semi-structured interviews, showed that the most prominent enablers to a lived calling were: (1) embracing opportunities and making the most of them; (2) support from others; (3) self-confidence/belief; (4) education and financial resources; (5) luck and (6) experience.
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Culturally held beliefs about the self and its relations with others affect the way individuals view their work. In this study, we examined the associations between individualism-collectivism and the three work orientations (i.e., viewing work as a job, a career, or a calling). We also investigated whether the positive effects of a calling orientation can be generalized to a developing eastern country, Mongolia. Using a sample of 352 Mongolian workers, we found that those endorsing horizontal collectivism tended to view their work as a calling more than as a job or a career. Mongolians with a calling orientation reported having better satisfaction with job, salary, and life, more work meaningfulness, and less turnover intention than those viewing work as a job or a career. The results suggest that cultural orientations and work orientations are intertwined, and the positive roles of a calling orientation are generalizable to Mongolia.
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To be sustainable in the current rapidly changing business environment, organizations must strive to adapt and respond to a new environment. Employees are the key performers of organizational change. Furthermore, change-oriented organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is essential for them to positively accept and implement organizational change. Additionally, the leader’s role is crucial to promoting such change-oriented OCB. In this regard, this study investigates the effect of authentic leadership on change-oriented OCB, demonstrating that the vocational calling of employees strengthens such positive influences. Based on the self-determination theory (SDT), this study examines that the moderating effect between authentic leadership on change-oriented OCB increases when employees have a higher perception of calling for work than lower. This study uses a two-wave data set gathered from 485 currently working employees in South Korea. The empirical analysis is revealed below. First, authentic leadership has a positive effect on direct OCB. Second, employees’ perception of calling has a positive effect on direct change-oriented OCB. Third, the higher the level of employees’ perception of calling, the greater the effect of authentic leadership on change-oriented OCB. The most significant theoretical contribution of the study is that it is the first to determine that calling acts as a moderating factor between authentic leadership and change-oriented OCB. The fact that the positive effect of authentic leadership on change-oriented OCB increases when there is a high calling implies that employees are more likely to conduct change-oriented OCB when they perceive a high level of calling. Based on this result, this study explains the method and reason for maximizing change-oriented OCB through authentic leadership.
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The present study analyzed whether one’s work orientation can be organized into work orientation profiles beyond the three pure orientations of job, career, and calling. We tested the existence of these hybrid work orientations in a sample of 959 adults aged from 18 to 71 years old (M = 40.61, SD = 9.54). A cluster analysis showed that the best result consisted of four profiles: “Career-Calling”, “Career-Job”, “Pure Job”, and “Indifference”. Theoretical and practical implications of profile approach to the study of work orientations are discussed at the end.
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This study investigates the mechanism underlying the effects of customer brand engagement on the extent of customer participation in a specific service co-creation, leading to co-created value. Using the data collected from 286 customers of yoga training service in Vietnam, the analyses show that customer engagement significantly affects customer participation energy and effort, both of which then affect the perceived service value. These findings elucidate the cognitive and affective mechanisms explaining how customers’ extra-role behaviors (customer engagement) toward a brand affect their in-role behaviors (customer participation) in a long-lasting service co-creation process. Managerial implications are then discussed accordingly.
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Experiencing career as a calling has implications for an individual’s career trajectory; yet, little is known about whether calling relates to career plateaus, which have the potential to stall an employee’s career path. This relationship is particularly interesting for members of the U.S. military, who have a relatively prescribed set of career experiences and opportunities. Serving in the U.S. military requires potential sacrifice, loyalty, and a sense of moral duty, all characteristics of what it means to experience one’s career as a calling. Yet, research has largely neglected to examine callings in the context of military service. We address these gaps by examining the relationships between career calling, career plateaus, and organizational commitment. We also examine whether social capital moderates these relationships via complementary or substitution effects. Using a two-wave survey sample of 237 officers, we found that calling negatively related to content career plateaus which in turn mediated calling’s positive relationship to commitment. Social capital moderated this mediation in a manner to suggest substitution effects. We discuss the implications of our findings for research on military careers, career as a calling, and affective commitment, as well as for practicing military officers and their leadership.
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A growing body of research demonstrates the relevance of character strengths for flourishing in general, but also for important outcomes across different life domains (e.g., work performance and relationship satisfaction). Studies have also shown that there are differences in the extent to which character strengths are applied, that is, perceived as relevant and shown in behavior in a given context, between work and private life, but they have not considered other life domains. This study aims to close this gap by examining the life domains of work, education, leisure, close personal relationships, and romantic relationships. The present study investigates whether (a) strengths-related behavior across different life domains explains additional variance in flourishing beyond the trait level of each respective character strength and studies (b) differences in the relevance of character strengths and strengths-related behavior across different life domains, and examines (c) their relationships with flourishing. A sample of 203 German-speaking adults (78.8% females; mean age = 29.4 years) completed self-reports assessing flourishing and character strengths. They also indicated which of the five life domains were personally relevant to them (i.e., on average 4.23 life domains) and reported the character strengths' perceived relevance and the frequency of displaying strengths-related behavior for each of these life domains separately. The results demonstrate that (a) strengths-related behavior averaged across all relevant life domains explained unique variance in flourishing above the trait-level of character strengths in some cases (e.g., creativity, kindness, and fairness), (b) different life domains were characterized by specific profiles of character strength—regarding both their relevance and strength-related behavior. Moreover, (c) character strengths and strengths-related behavior in different life domains both showed substantial correlations with flourishing. In some cases, these associations were domain-specific (e.g., displaying love of learning in the context of education was related to higher levels of flourishing). In conclusion, we suggest that examining strengths-related behavior across different life domains represents a worthwhile addition to research on character strengths.
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Within the last two decades, social science research on work as a calling has rapidly grown. To date, knowledge regarding prevalence and demographic differences of calling in the United States derives from data collected mainly from regionally limited and/or occupationally homogenous samples. The present study used data from the Portraits of American Life Study, a nationally stratified panel study of religion in the United States (U.S.), to estimate calling’s prevalence in the U.S. Our findings represent the first known population estimates of seeking, perceiving, and living a calling in the U.S. Results revealed that calling is a relevant concept for many U.S. adults, with 43% endorsing “mostly true” or “totally true” to the statement “I have a calling to a particular kind of work.” Small differences for presence of and search for a calling emerged across age groups, employment statuses, and levels of importance of God or spirituality. For living a calling, significant differences were identified only for importance of God or spirituality, contrasting with previous findings that suggested that living a calling varies as a function of income and social status. Implications for research and practice are explored.
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This conceptual article extends the literature on the disadvantages of calling. The article makes four main contributions. First, it argues that some of the burden of calling is shouldered not by called individuals or their employers, but rather by close family members. Second, it argues that calling influences work–life ideology, limiting a called person’s ability to exercise choice and self-manage their work–life boundary. Third, it introduces the novel notion of the sacrifice-reliant organisation, which relies on calling to achieve organisational goals. Fourth, the article argues normatively that organisations with called members have an enhanced duty of care towards families of its members that is commensurate with the extent to which they rely on calling to achieve their goals. Using ethics of care, it also develops guidelines on the extent and components of such an enhanced duty of care.
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This qualitative study examined perceptions of calling among 35 U.S. mid-career missionaries. Participants indicated that calling is a lifelong process of listening to God. They also emphasized ongoing personal and spiritual formation as foundational to living a calling. Current theological and theoretical research is discussed and evaluated to develop an integrative Christian perspective on the source(s), nature, means, and enactment of calling. Findings argue for the development of a robust spiritual theology of calling.
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Nonpharmacological approaches to chronic pain are being increasingly sought out by therapists and health-care providers. Cognitive approaches to reduce pain catastrophizing have shown some efficacy; however, interventions used to increase well-being have not been investigated. In this study, we examined a strengths-based approach to reduce chronic pain and enhance pain self-efficacy, the belief that one has the capacity to function despite pain. In study 1, we administered a survey (N = 491) in order to identify the strengths most associated with pain self-efficacy. In study 2, participants (N = 122) were randomized into one of four experimental conditions based on the findings of Study 1, including a group who wrote about zest as well as several comparison groups. Results from Study 2 indicated that zest remained the most promising strength to target. In Study 3 (N = 81), in a pre-registered trial, we replicated the main findings of Study 2, showing that focusing on the strength of zest effectively increases pain self-efficacy as well as the capacity to function despite pain after a two-week follow-up. These studies show that a strength-based intervention can increase pain self-efficacy and the capacity to function despite pain.
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This chapter focuses on the two characteristics necessary in every organization, big or small, namely, effectiveness and efficiency, to reveal how management experts and the discipline of organizational behavior can learn from Gandhi. Starting with motivation, it is revealed how Gandhi differed from behavioristic theorists of motivation and their narrow focus on reinforcements, advocating, instead, intrinsic motivation in the form of “listening to one’s heart” or “soul force,” a concept very similar to that of the “Calling Orientation,” on which psychology has only recently started focusing. Gandhi’s followers drew from such intrinsic forms of motivation, which brings in its wake, organizational citizenship, effectiveness and efficiency of the highest order. The second part of the chapter deals with the simple techniques through which Gandhi used the power of groups and group dynamics to manage efficiently and effectively, various satyagrahi organizations, again revealing that the psychological study of group dynamics can be highly enriched through the analysis of Gandhian techniques. We, move, thereafter, to the concept of leadership and detail the Gandhian model of leadership, namely, leadership by example, and delve into the advantages accrued thereby, going far beyond those obtained from the traditional trichotomy (autocratic/democratic/laissez-faire styles). It has been emphasized that Bandura’s social learning theory is, definitely, relevant; that charisma can be used for the betterment of the employees; and that group cohesiveness does not always have to be deleterious. The third part of the chapter deals with the Gandhian concept of trusteeship, much akin to the modern concept of servant leadership along with the various moral issues being faced today, for example, diversity management, corporate governance and transparency, corporate social responsibility, conflict management and the means-end relationship. Organizational psychology can, certainly, use the ideas put forth by Gandhi to resolve these issues amicably.
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The notion of well-being has been evolving as research continues to unfurl its multidimensional nature. The importance of well-being in the organizational context is becoming a valuable line of inquiry, and employee well-being has emerged as a pivotal focus in positive psychology. Despite this, employees report high levels of disengagement and stress at work. Thus, we conducted 15 in-depth interviews with middle- and senior-level managers in the service sector in India to understand the factors that impact an employee’s well-being. Research question: What comprises an individual’s well-being at the workplace? Theory: Conservation-of-resources theory, broaden-and-build theory. Type of the case: Applied problem-solving. Basis of the Case: Phenomenon. Protagonist: Not needed. Findings: Data was analysed using grounded theory. We synthesized the factors contributing to employee well-being into the following themes: encouraging organizational culture, providing social support, demonstrating positive leadership, integrating work and life, finding meaning in work, providing autonomy and ensuring good working conditions. Discussion: Study findings extend the conservation-of-resources and broaden-and-build theories by emphasizing on gain spirals; that is, individuals use a positive effect to conserve, replenish, broaden, and build their inner resources and well-being. While leaders in an organization invest in enhancing employees’ well-being, they need to be cognizant of the several factors at interplay. An overall positive environment, autonomy, safety and meaningfulness contribute holistically towards the well-being of employees.
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This sequential explanatory mixed-methods study examined the profile of character strengths in developmental services workers (DSWs) employed in Ontario, Canada and explored how they use their strengths when supporting people with developmental disabilities. In the quantitative phase of the study, nineteen (N = 19) DSWs completed the Global Assessment of Character Strengths questionnaire (GAS-72). In the qualitative phase, a sub-set of nine (n = 9) participants completed a single face-to-face interview where they identified their top five self-perceived character strengths, and described how they use them in their work when supporting their clients. The GAS-72 results indicated that participants rated the top eight character strengths as: humor, teamwork, fairness, honesty, kindness, self-regulation, love of learning, and perspective/wisdom. Interview findings indicated that participants used the character strengths of humor, love of learning, and perseverance concurrently to provide compassionate and meaningful care, to support their client’s overall well-being, and to motivate themselves to flourish in doing their work. Future research needs to examine how character strengths in DSWs and other social services professionals can promote employee well-being, job satisfaction, and compassionate care.
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The current study examined the mediating role of gratitude in the relationship between zest for life and depression. A total of 326 undergraduate students were included in a cross-sectional study and responded to an online survey package. Structural equation modeling with maximum likelihood and bootstrapping with 5000 resamplings (95% confidence interval) supported that the relationship between zest for life and depression was fully mediated by gratitude. It can be claimed that zest for life affects students' depression inversely through gratitude. However, limitations of this cross-sectional study should be considered when interpreting the results. The practical implications were discussed.
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This qualitative study examined the perceptions of career agency and career calling among 35 U.S. mid-career foreign missionaries from four organizations who reported a sense of living out a calling. In-depth interviews were analyzed using grounded theory methodology to describe participant perspectives on calling and agency with the goal of understanding factors that contribute to living a calling. Data analysis revealed two main themes, nine categorical sub-themes, and 18 base concepts. The first theme, calling as a dynamic lived experience, affirms elements of Work as Calling Theory and indicates a need to clarify the role of prosocial orientation in calling. The second theme, socio-contextual factors perceived as influencing lived callings, offers insights regarding the need to explore a more robust integration of socio-contextual factors into Work as Calling Theory. A hypothesis regarding the relation between cultural competence and living a calling is proposed for future testing.
Article
Purpose The association of calling with burnout is not well understood. This study investigates how calling influences burnout and what the roles of social worth and career stage are in this relation. Drawing from the Conservation of Resources Theory, we expect that calling may be negatively associated with burnout through increased social worth and that career stage moderates these relationships. Design/methodology/approach Based on a sample of 566 healthcare professionals, we conducted regression analyses with bootstrapping procedures to test the proposed hypotheses. Findings The findings show that social worth mediates the negative relation between calling and burnout. Additionally, the positive relation between calling and social worth was more pronounced for late-career employees; yet, the negative relation between social worth and burnout was stronger for early-career employees. Practical implications The findings suggest that searching and pursuing a professional calling is beneficial for individuals. Additionally, social worth is crucial in this relation and could be used to actively prevent burnout. Originality/value The study advances our understanding of the consequences of calling for employees by explaining the underlying mechanism between calling and burnout and its importance at different career stages.
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This study examines the association between calling and crafting behavior by proposing a moderated mediation model. Drawing from the job crafting perspective and self-determination theory (SDT), career commitment is identified as the mediator, and occupational self-efficacy and job autonomy are identified as the moderators in the model, respectively. The authors tested the proposed relationships with an SPSS macro that utilizes a sample of 338 employees in a three-wave procedure. Results support all the hypotheses. The findings reveal calling to be significantly associated with employees’ job crafting behavior. Such a process begins with one’s career commitment and is strengthened by the level of occupational self-efficacy in the first stage as well as the level of job autonomy in the second stage, thus yielding a pattern of moderated mediation. These findings answer recent calls for an integrative examination of calling in the workplace by demonstrating that career commitment along with occupational self-efficacy and job autonomy represent key mechanisms in transferring one’s calling into job crafting behavior. As such, this study complements existing literature on the theoretical and practical implications of calling.
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Marital satisfaction is an important factor for establishing a family relationship, feeling satisfied, and living happily together. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between optimism, humor, positive and negative affect, and marital satisfaction among infertile couples. The sample comprised 80 infertile Iranian couples (n = 160) who visited infertility clinics. Participants completed a series of Persian versions of psychometric scales related to optimism (Attributional Style Questionnaire), humor (Humor Styles Questionnaire), marital satisfaction (Enrich Marital Satisfaction Questionnaire), positive affect (PA) and negative affect (NA) (Positive and Negative Affect Schedule). The obtained result of Smart PLS statistical analysis confirmed the significant positive correlation between optimism and humor with marital satisfaction and high PA and low NA. Moreover, the findings also provided an adequate fit of the model. The findings demonstrated that infertile couples high in optimism and humor have higher levels of marital satisfaction and high PA and low PA. Based on the study’s findings, interventions for facilitating optimism and humor among infertile couples are discussed.
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The purpose of this work was to estudied the measurement equivalence of a job satisfaction scale and an organizational commitment scale between the Mexican culture and that of the United States. The data were collected through a self-administered questionnaire that was applied to a sample of master’s degree students from both nations (Mexico = 287, United States = 273). The results indicated that the analyzed scales are not invariant between the cultures. One implication of this finding is that transcultural job satisfaction and organizational commitment studies can report invalid results regarding the direct comparison of the concepts. To avoid this, we recommend taking certain precautions in the preparation and the analysis of data.
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We present evidence suggesting that most people see their work as either a Job (focus on financial rewards and necessity rather than pleasure or fulfillment; not a major positive part of life), a Career (focus on advancement), or a Calling (focus on enjoyment of fulfilling, socially useful work). Employees at two work sites (n= 196) with a wide range of occupations from clerical to professional were unambiguous in seeing their work primarily in terms of a Job, Career, or Calling. Differences in respondents' relations to their work could not be reduced to demographic or occupational differences; an homogenous subset of 24 college administrative assistants were, like the total sample of respondents, distributed evenly across Job, Career, and Calling.
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This paper is about the elusive and highly sought after goal of happiness. For decades, since the famous Hawthorne studies, the happy/productive worker thesis has forcefully captured the imagination of management scholars and business executives alike. According to this "Holy Grail" of management research, workers who are happy on the job will have higher job performance than those who are less happy. Most typically, happiness has been measured as job satisfaction. We propose that this viewpoint is unnecessarily limiting and suggest an expanded view of the thesis, considering worker happiness as psychological well-being (PWB). We explore this perspective in greater detail, illustrating how happiness, considered as PWB, works to the benefit of both employers and the employees. We conclude with a discussion of several intervention strategies for promoting workplace happiness and increased productivity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This 2-yr longitudinal field study examined the contributions of psychological well-being, job satisfaction, and dispositional affect--positive and negative affect--to job performance. 49 public sector management professionals from a governmental county agency participated in this study. Measures of job satisfaction, dispositional affect, and psychological well-being were available at Time 1. Measures of composite job performance were available at Time 1 and Time 2 (2 yrs later). Results show that while psychological well-being predicted job performance, the data fail to establish relations between job satisfaction and dispositional affect as predictors of job performance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Within the vast literature on the antecedents of career success, the success criterion has generally been operationalized in a rather deficient manner. Several avenues for improving the conceptualization and measurement of both objective and subjective career success are identified. Paramount among these is the need for greater sensitivity to the criteria that study participants, in different contexts, use to construe and judge their career success. This paper illustrates that contextual and individual factors are likely to be associated with the relative salience of objective and subjective criteria of career success. Drawing on social comparison theory, propositions are also offered about when self- and other-referent success criteria are likely to be most salient. A broader research agenda addresses career success referent choice, organizational interventions, and potential cultural differences. This article maps out how future research can be more sensitive to how people actually do conceptualize and evaluate their own career success. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Drawing from both self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 1991) and Carstensen's (1993) socioemotional selectivity theory, we hypothesized that well-being and health would be facilitated by: (a) greater personal autonomy; (b) perceived support for autonomy from both nursing-home staff and residents friends and relatives; and (c) the emotional quality (rather than quantity) of residents' contacts with friends and family. Results based on structured interview and survey data from 50 nursing-home residents, showed that both autonomy support and relatedness indexes correlated with psychological out-comes. Personal autonomy also was significantly related to mortality at a 1-year follow-up. It also was found that subjective vitality (Ryan & Frederick, 1997) was associated with lower distress and greater well-being, and perceived autonomy and relatedness.
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We propose that employees craft their jobs by changing cognitive, task, and/or relational boundaries to shape interactions and relationships with others at work. These altered task and relational configurations change the design and social environment of the job, which, in turn, alters work meanings and work identity. We offer a model of job crafting that specifies (1) the individual motivations that spark this activity. (2) how opportunities to job craft and how individual work orientations determine the forms job crafting takes, and (3) its likely individual and organizational effects. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Academy of Management Review is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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Data from a 2-year field study were used to examine the relationships among psychological well-being, job satisfaction, and employee job performance with employee turnover. Using a sample of 112 managers employed at a large organization on the West Coast of the United States, and controlling for employee age, gender, ethnicity, and job performance, well-being and job satisfaction were found to predict turnover in a nonadditive manner. As expected, well-being was found to moderate the relation between job satisfaction and job separation, such that job satisfaction was most strongly (and negatively) related to turnover when well-being was low.
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Why are certain character strengths more associated with life satisfaction than others? A sample of U.S. adults (N = 12,439) completed on-line surveys in English measuring character strengths, orientations to happiness (engagement, pleasure, and meaning), and life satisfaction, and a sample of Swiss adults (N = 445) completed paper-and-pencil versions of the same surveys in German. In both samples, the character strengths most highly linked to life satisfaction included love, hope, curiosity, and zest. Gratitude was among the most robust predictors of life satisfaction in the U.S. sample, whereas perseverance was among the most robust predictors in the Swiss sample. In both samples, the strengths of character most associated with life satisfaction were associated with orientations to pleasure, to engagement, and to meaning, implying that the most fulfilling character strengths are those that make possible a full life.
Article
The theory of work adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984) provided the context to study the pattern of reinforcers characteristic of the homemaker occupation and to identify occupations similar and dissimilar to this job. Married women, self-described as satisfied homemakers engaged outside the home less than half time in paid employment or educational pursuits, were classified into 6 subsamples that corresponded to Lopata's (1966) stages in the social role of the homemaker. The description of the reinforcer pattern as measured by the Minnesota Job Description Questionnaire indicated that their jobs provided significant opportunities to make decisions, work without supervision, work independently, try out their own ideas, be of service to other people, and exercise authority. Missing were opportunities for advancement, technical supervision, support from management, fairly administered company policies and practices, recognition in the community, and a good salary rate.
Chapter
Like many of the social sciences, the field of organizational studies has long had a negative tilt (Cameron/Caza 2004). Topics like absenteeism, alienation, attrition, employee theft, workplace violence and discrimination are investigated frequently by organizational researchers. Indeed, people in general have little trust in big business (Harris Poll 2005), and the erosion of ethical standards in the workplace is the subject of growing societal concern and comment (Gardner et al. 2001). This focus on what goes wrong in an organizational context makes sense because problems demand attention and require remediation (Baumeister et al. 2001). But an exclusive focus on the negative yields an incomplete view of the human condition, and it leads to a focus on mere prevention of problems rather than on the building and nurturing of individuals and organizations that thrive.
Article
Recent debates between the job enrichment and social-information-processing perspectives have led to a trend toward greater situationalism in organizational research. This paper, however, argues for a more dispositional approach in which the role of the person is emphasized. Using a longitudinal sample, measures of affective disposition from as early as adolescence were used to predict job attitudes in later life. Results showed that dispositional measures significantly predicted job attitudes over a time span of nearly fifty years. The implications of these findings are discussed in terms of both theories of job attitudes and organizational development activities that attempt to alter employee job satisfaction.
Article
This article reports the development and validation of a scale to measure global life satisfaction, the Satisfaction With Life Scale (SWLS). Among the various components of subjective well-being, the SWLS is narrowly focused to assess global life satisfaction and does not tap related constructs such as positive affect or loneliness. The SWLS is shown to have favorable psychometric properties, including high internal consistency and high temporal reliability. Scores on the SWLS correlate moderately to highly with other measures of subjective well-being, and correlate predictably with specific personality characteristics. It is noted that the SWLS is suited for use with different age groups, and other potential uses of the scale are discussed.
Article
We investigated the relationship between various character strengths and life satisfaction among 5,299 adults from three Internet samples using the Values in Action Inventory of Strengths. Consistently and robustly associated with life satisfaction were hope, zest, gratitude, love, and curiosity. Only weakly associated with life satisfaction, in contrast, were modesty and the intellectual strengths of appreciation of beauty, creativity, judgment, and love of learning. In general, the relationship between character strengths and life satisfaction was monotonic, indicating that excess on any one character strength does not diminish life satisfaction.
Article
After teaching cognitive and social-problem-solving techniques designed to prevent depressive symptoms, we followed 69 fifth- and sixth-grade children at risk for depression for 2 years We compared these children with 49 children in a matched no-treatment control group The prevention group reported fewer depressive symptoms through the 2-year followup, and moderate to severe symptoms were reduced by half Surprisingly, the effects of the prevention program grew larger after the program was over We suggest that psychological immunization against depression can occur by teaching cognitive and social skills to children as they enter puberty
Article
The dominant view of calling among management scholars is that it is a stable construct that does not change. This view has resulted in a research void about calling's early development and subsequent evolution. Insight into the dynamic process through which callings develop is fundamental to understanding its role in people's careers and lives. In this study, I focus on the antecedents of calling, a consuming, meaningful passion people can experience toward a domain. I propose a dynamic model in which calling can change over time and can be shaped by antecedent factors, specifically, through people's ability, behavioral involvement, and social comfort in the area toward which they feel a calling. I tested these ideas in a seven-year, four-wave prospective longitudinal survey study of 450 amateur musicians. Multilevel analyses indicate individuals who were more behaviorally involved and felt higher social comfort in the calling domain (e.g., music) experienced higher levels of calling early on but experienced a decline in calling over time. Individuals' ability in the calling domain was not related to initial calling or change in calling. I discuss the implications for theory and research on calling, meaning of work, and the dynamics of careers. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Book
The principal aim of this book is to propose and apply a broad-ranging model of some environmental determinants of mental health. The features to be considered may be studied in any environment, but particular attention will be paid to the settings of paid work and unemployment. It will be argued that mental health in both these settings is determined by the same environmental characteristics. The harmful features of some jobs are also those which cause deterioration in unemployment, and the factors which are beneficial in jobs can also enhance mental health during unemployment. The framework to be developed has three major parts. The first two are what McGuire (1983) has described as "categorical" and "process" theories. The third part of the overall framework addresses the interaction between persons and situations. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Results from a 2-yr longitudinal field study involving 33 human services supervisory personnel supported the hypothesized positive relationship between mental health and subsequent work performance. Relative (retest correlational analysis) and absolute (change in mean level) stability analyses established mental health as a consistent and stable trait. The importance of dispositional (trait) explanations for organizational behaviors are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Behavioral examples of how military units express varying degrees of morale were provided by US military personnel in the US and in 2 foreign locations. From these examples, behaviorally anchored rating scales were developed for 8 dimensions of group morale. They were used to rate morale of 47 platoon-sized units in the US Army stationed in a foreign location. Although errors of leniency and restriction of range did not seem severe, the ratings did show indications of halo error and only low to moderate interrater reliability. Despite these psychometric deficiencies, correlations with ratings of unit effectiveness and self-reports of unit members provided some evidence for convergent validity. Military units rated high on the morale scales were also rated high on overall effectiveness and low on frequency of low-morale activities like dissent, drug abuse, and destruction/sabotage. Members of units rated high on some of the morale scales were more likely to report high morale and intentions of reenlisting. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the relationship between leadership and followership within the context of performance-maintenance (PM) leadership theory. Nine types of PM leadership–followship dyads were compared in terms of performance and group morale, using 27 groups of 4 members (1 leader and 3 subordinates) each. Ss were Japanese college students. Results indicate that leadership effectiveness was a function of followship type. Furthermore, findings show that, as hypothesized, the PM–PM dyad type had the highest performance and morale scores. This led to refining the existing model in order to account for interaction between leaders and followers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The theory of work adjustment (Dawis & Lofquist, 1984) provided the context to study the pattern of reinforcers characteristic of the homemaker occupation and to identify occupations similar and dissimilar to this job. Married women, self-described as satisfied homemakers engaged outside the home less than half time in paid employment or educational pursuits, were classified into 6 subsamples that corresponded to Lopata's (1966) stages in the social role of the homemaker. The description of the reinforcer pattern as measured by the Minnesota Job Description Questionnaire indicated that their jobs provided significant opportunities to make decisions, work without supervision, work independently, try out their own ideas, be of service to other people, and exercise authority. Missing were opportunities for advancement, technical supervision, support from management, fairly administered company policies and practices, recognition in the community, and a good salary rate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The costs attributed to employee health problems are usually measured by employers in terms of direct health care costs, such as medical plan claims. Although it has been understood that employee health problems also produce indirect costs for employers, their measurement has been far less frequent. At best, studies have recorded one component of indirect health costs: the time lost to employee absenteeism and disability. The study presented here includes a measure of the actual decrease in the productivity of employees while they are on the job, in addition to measures of absenteeism and disability. These three measurements were combined to produce a Worker Productivity Index (WPI). The WPIs of 564 telephone customer-service agents were correlated with the employees' number and type of health risks, as measured by a Health Risk Appraisal. Additionally, the WPI was also examined across different disease states in the same population of employees. As the number of health risks increased, an employee's productivity decreased. The nature of the health risk may also differentially affect the pattern of the decrease. Finally, disease states were also associated with different patterns of productivity reduction.
Article
This research examined relationships between alternative measures of affect and supervisory performance ratings. The first study showed that dispositional rather than state affect significantly predicted supervisory ratings of performance over time. Since the measures of affect differed on both content and temporal dimensions, a follow-up study was conducted to explicate the results. The second study found that a pleasantness-based measure of dispositional affect (Berkman, 1971a) again predicted rated performance over time, but activation-based measures of both dispositional and state affect (using PANAS scales) were not predictive of supervisory evaluations of performance. The implications of these findings in terms of research on affect and the longstanding pursuit of the happy–productive worker are discussed. Copyright © 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Article
While often used in everyday exchanges, feeling vigorous at work, that is individuals’ feelings that they have physical strength, emotional energy, and cognitive liveliness, has hardly been subjected to any conceptual inquiry or empirical research. In this chapter, I pursue the following objectives: (a) to review the range of behavioral science literature in which vigor has been considered as a distinct affect; (b) based on this review, to present a conceptual framework of vigor at work; (c) to explore the antecedents of vigor and its consequences, including vigor’s possible effects on individuals’ mental and physical health, and job performance; and (d) to describe a proposed measure of vigor at work and the results of an effort to construct validate the new measure. I conclude by pointing out a few open research questions that concern the study of vigor at work.
Article
Subjective well-being (SWB) comprises people's longer-term levels of pleasant affect, lack of unpleasant affect, and life satisfaction. It displays moderately high levels of cross-situational consistency and temporal stability. Self-report measures of SWB show adequate validity, reliability, factor invariance, and sensitivity to change. Despite the success of the measures to date, more sophisticated approaches to defining and measuring SWB are now possible. Affect includes facial, physiological, motivational, behavioral, and cognitive components. Self-reports assess primarily the cognitive component of affect, and thus are unlikely to yield a complete picture of respondents' emotional lives. For example, denial may influence self-reports of SWB more than other components. Additionally, emotions are responses which vary on a number of dimensions such as intensity, suggesting that mean levels of affect as captured by existing measures do not give a complete account of SWB. Advances in cognitive psychology indicate that differences in memory retrieval, mood as information, and scaling processes can influence self-reports of SWB. Finally, theories of communication alert us to the types of information that are likely to be given in self-reports of SWB. These advances from psychology suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing SWB will create a more comprehensive depiction of the phenomenon. Not only will a multifaceted test battery yield more credible data, but inconsistencies between various measurement methods and between the various components of well-being will both help us better understand SWB indictors and group differences in well-being. Knowledge of cognition, personality, and emotion will also aid in the development of sophisticated theoretical definitions of subjective well-being. For example, life satisfaction is theorized to be a judgment that respondents construct based on currently salient information. Finally, it is concluded that measuring negative reactions such as depression or anxiety give an incomplete picture of people's well-being, and that it is imperative to measure life satisfaction and positive emotions as well.
Article
This article has the dual purpose of expanding an understanding of the relationship between subjective and objective careers, and describing one condition under which the subjective career takes on particular salience: when the person feels a sense of calling in his or her career (that is, a sense of purpose, that this is the work one was meant to do.) This sense of calling does not necessarily have to be connected to a set of religious beliefs. We present a model of psychological success based on the career as a calling in order to clarify relationships between the subjective and objective career, and we offer propositions related to the model. Further, we offer a case study to illustrate the notion of the career as a calling, as proposed in the model. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Policy decisions at the organizational, corporate, and governmental levels should be more heavily influenced by issues related to well-being—people's evaluations and feelings about their lives. Domestic policy currently focuses heavily on economic outcomes, although economic indicators omit, and even mislead about, much of what society values. We show that economic indicators have many shortcomings, and that measures of well-being point to important conclusions that are not apparent from economic indicators alone. For example, although economic output has risen steeply over the past decades, there has been no rise in life satisfaction during this period, and there has been a substantial increase in depression and distrust. We argue that economic indicators were extremely important in the early stages of economic development, when the fulfillment of basic needs was the main issue. As societies grow wealthy, however, differences in well-being are less frequently due to income, and are more frequently due to factors such as social relationships and enjoyment at work. Important noneconomic predictors of the average levels of well-being of societies include social capital, democratic governance, and human rights. In the workplace, noneconomic factors influence work satisfaction and profitability. It is therefore important that organizations, as well as nations, monitor the well-being of workers, and take steps to improve it. Assessing the well-being of individuals with mental disorders casts light on policy problems that do not emerge from economic indicators. Mental disorders cause widespread suffering, and their impact is growing, especially in relation to the influence of medical disorders, which is declining. Although many studies now show that the suffering due to mental disorders can be alleviated by treatment, a large proportion of persons with mental disorders go untreated. Thus, a policy imperative is to offer treatment to more people with mental disorders, and more assistance to their caregivers. Supportive, positive social relationships are necessary for well-being. There are data suggesting that well-being leads to good social relationships and does not merely follow from them. In addition, experimental evidence indicates that people suffer when they are ostracized from groups or have poor relationships in groups. The fact that strong social relationships are critical to well-being has many policy implications. For instance, corporations should carefully consider relocating employees because doing so can sever friendships and therefore be detrimental to well-being. Desirable outcomes, even economic ones, are often caused by well-being rather than the other way around. People high in well-being later earn higher incomes and perform better at work than people who report low well-being. Happy workers are better organizational citizens, meaning that they help other people at work in various ways. Furthermore, people high in well-being seem to have better social relationships than people low in well-being. For example, they are more likely to get married, stay married, and have rewarding marriages. Finally, well-being is related to health and longevity, although the pathways linking these variables are far from fully understood. Thus, well-being not only is valuable because it feels good, but also is valuable because it has beneficial consequences. This fact makes national and corporate monitoring of well-being imperative. In order to facilitate the use of well-being outcomes in shaping policy, we propose creating a national well-being index that systematically assesses key well-being variables for representative samples of the population. Variables measured should include positive and negative emotions, engagement, purpose and meaning, optimism and trust, and the broad construct of life satisfaction. A major problem with using current findings on well-being to guide policy is that they derive from diverse and incommensurable measures of different concepts, in a haphazard mix of respondents. Thus, current findings provide an interesting sample of policy-related findings, but are not strong enough to serve as the basis of policy. Periodic, systematic assessment of well-being will offer policymakers a much stronger set of findings to use in making policy decisions.
Chapter
Subjective well-being (SWB) comprises people’s longer-term levels of pleasant affect, lack of unpleasant affect, and life satisfaction. It displays moderately high levels of cross-situational consistency and temporal stability. Self-report measures of SWB show adequate validity, reliability, factor invariance, and sensitivity to change. Despite the success of the measures to date, more sophisticated approaches to defining and measuring SWB are now possible. Affect includes facial, physiological, motivational, behavioral, and cognitive components. Self-reports assess primarily the cognitive component of affect, and thus are unlikely to yield a complete picture of respondents’ emotional lives. For example, denial may influence self-reports of SWB more than other components. Additionally, emotions are responses which vary on a number of dimensions such as intensity, suggesting that mean levels of affect as captured by existing measures do not give a complete account of SWB. Advances in cognitive psychology indicate that differences in memory retrieval, mood as information, and scaling processes can influence self-reports of SWB. Finally, theories of communication alert us to the types of information that are likely to be given in self-reports of SWB. These advances from psychology suggest that a multimethod approach to assessing SWB will create a more comprehensive depiction of the phenomenon. Not only will a multifaceted test battery yield more credible data, but inconsistencies between various measurement methods and between the various components of well-being. Knowledge of cognition, personality, and emotion will also aid in the development of sophisticated theoretical definitions of subjective well-being. For example, life satisfaction is theorized to be a judgment that respondents construct based on currently salient information. Finally, it is concluded that measuring negative reactions such as depression or anxiety give an incomplete picture of people’s well-being, and that it is imperative to measure life satisfaction and positive emotions as well.
Article
Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/67361/2/10.1177_000276427501800303.pdf
Article
Character refers to qualities within individuals that lead them to desire and to pursue the good. We propose that strengths of character are a neglected but critically important resource for organizations. Character matters because it leads people to do the right thing, and the right thing can be productive and profitable. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Peer Reviewed http://deepblue.lib.umich.edu/bitstream/2027.42/55841/1/398_ftp.pdf