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Effects of Self-Efficacy and Post-Training Intervention on the Acquisition and Maintenance of Complex Interpersonal Skills

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Abstract

This study examined the effects of self-efficacy and a two-stage training process on the acquisition and maintenance (i.e., retention) of complex interpersonal skills. In stage one, all participants received basic training in negotiation skills; behavioral measures of negotiation performance were taken following this training. During stage two, alternative post-training interventions (goal setting and self-management) were offered to facilitate skill maintenance. Six weeks later, behavioral measures of performance were repeated. Results indicated that pre-test self-efficacy contributed positively to both initial and delayed performance. While training condition contributed to skill maintenance, self-efficacy also interacted with post-training method to influence delayed performance. Specifically, self-management training attenuated the self-efficacy performance relationship, while goal-setting training accentuated performance differences between high and low self-efficacy trainees. Implications of these findings are discussed for researchers and practitioners concerned with interpersonal skills training.

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... Self-efficacy emanates from social learning theory and is defined as one's judgment of his (her) capability to successfully perform target behaviors (Bandura, 1986). In a review of training effectiveness studies, self-efficacy is one of the main determinants of proximal training outcomes (Haccoun & Saks, 1998) and it has been shown to positively correlate with learning and behavior (e.g., Axtell, Maitlis & Yearta, 1997;Cheng, 2000;Chuang, Liao & Tai, 2005;Gist et al., 1991;Guerrero & Sire, 2001;Martocchio & Webster, 1992;Quinones, 1995). Additionally, several meta-analyses confirmed the relationship between self-efficacy and outcomes pertaining to performance (Stajkovic & Luthans, 1998). ...
... Additionally, several meta-analyses confirmed the relationship between self-efficacy and outcomes pertaining to performance (Stajkovic & Luthans, 1998). More specifically, many researches in the training literature have supported that self-efficacy has been positively related with learning from training (e.g., Colquitt, LePine & Noe, 2000;Gist, Schwoerer & Rosen, 1989;Gist, Stevens & Bavetta, 1991;Martocchio, 1994;Simmering & Posey, 2009). Therefore, we hypothesize that: ...
... However, there have been a few studies that have illustrated the role of trainees' self-efficacy in mediating or moderating the relationships between work-related behavior and its antecedents (for example, Gist, 1987;Gist & Mitchell, 1992;Gist et al., 1991;Saks, 1995). Two previous studies found that self-efficacy was a moderating variable for the effect of the training method on training outcomes, including learning. ...
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Previous research over the past two decades has argued Kirkpatrick’s model ignored the work environment and individual factors influencing training effectiveness. A focus of this study is to investigate four levels of Kirkpatrick’s model with a focus on moderating the influences of individual and work environment characteristic variables, which are learning motivation, self-efficacy, motivation to transfer, and social support. In the present study, we used path analysis to test the hypotheses. The results of this study expand our understanding of the progressive causal relationship of reaction, learning, and behavior to results. In particular, this study confirms the influence of the individual and work environment characteristic on training outcomes and it has implications for enhancing training effectiveness. Although the result of motivation to transfer as a moderating variable has negative effects on the relationship between learning and behavior, social support directly affects behavior change after training and moderates the relationship between learning and behavior. Furthermore, future research on training evaluation should consider the training design variables beyond the training course that may have interfered with the training outcomes.
... These findings indicated that design self-efficacy is a belief that requires more than physical development or advancing from one grade to the next in an undergraduate program. It seems that, an intervention is need for increasing design self-efficacy (Carberry et al., 2010;Gist et al., 1991;Goodyear, 2015). Beeftink et al. (2012) state that organizations may help individuals to develop self-efficacy through success experiences. ...
... Remarkably, Miller, Ramirez, and Murdock (2017) reported that self-efficacy of teachers influence perceptions of students about their teachers' competence, as well. Particularly, the importance of selfefficacy for designing has also been demonstrated (Gist, Stevens, & Bavetta, 1991). Carberry, Lee, and Ohland (2010) stated that, with regards to education, there is a need to understand completely "how students learn and how to effectively teach them" (p. ...
... On the other hand, non-significant relationships between design self-efficcacy and age, sex, department and grade level of the participants indicated that design self-efficacy is a belief that requires more than physical development or advancing from one grade to the next in an undergraduate program. It seems that, an intervention is need for increasing design self-efficacy (Carberry et al., 2010;Gist et al., 1991;Goodyear, 2015). Beeftink et al. (2012) state that organizations may help individuals to develop self-efficacy through success experiences. ...
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The purpose of this study was to develop a Turkish version of the Design Self-Efficacy Scale (Beeftink, van Eerde, Rutte, & Bertrand, 2012) and to explore its psychometric properties. Design Self-Efficacy Scale may be used for measuring preservice and inservice teachers’ design self-efficacy and for producing knowledge which may be useful for explaining teachers’ design expertise. Participants were 510 preservice teachers enrolled in a public university in Turkey (N=510). Out of 510 preservice teachers, 269 (52.75%) participated in the first study for the exploratory factor analysis and 241 (47.25%) participated in the second study for the confirmatory factor analysis. Of all the participants, 377 (73.9%) were female and 133 (26.1%) were male. Design Self-Efficacy Scale which is an 8-item Likert-type English questionnaire was translated into Turkish by the researcher. A total of eight researchers who were expert in English language education, educational measurement and evaluation, Turkish education, elementary education, and educational technology fields participated in the back-translation and expert review processes. The experts were employed in the faculty of education of the university that the study took place. Exploratory factor analysis resulted with a single-factor model similar with the original scale. Cronbach’s α coefficients was 0.877. Confirmatory factor analysis demonstrated a statistically significant model fit to the data. Results validated the factor structure of the adapted scale: χ2/df=2.401, RMSEA=0.074, GFI=0.963, AGFI=0.922, RMR=0.023, SRMR=0.03, NFI=0.96, NNFI=0.976, CFI=0.976. All fit indices except RMSEA and AGFI were calculated to be in the best evaluation range. The present study suggested that Turkish adaptation of the Design Self-Efficacy Scale possesses adequate psychometric properties. Findings revealed that design self-efficacy did not correlate with the age of the participants and did not differ according to sex, department, or grade level of the participants.
... In a comparative study on customer-service skills training, trainees in the outcome goal GS group utilized learned behaviors to a greater extent than did those in the modified RP and control groups [17]. In a case study of Master of Business Administration students' salary-negotiation simulations, the results of the regression analysis showed that modified RP attenuated trainees' negotiating performance, while self-set GS accentuated it [29]. In the earliest comparative study of GS with modified RP intervention in the context of a time-management workshop [28], students in GS interventions were superior to those in modified RP and the control group in terms of maintaining behavior change over a two-month period. ...
... The participants were then trained to set proximal plus distal goals. Adapting the approach from previous studies [19,29,30], the training included two main parts: (1) discussion and demonstration of GS and (2) development of GS by the trainees. The first part of the training consisted of introducing the idea of a proximal plus distal goal and of explaining why GS is important. ...
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How to enhance the transfer of training remains an important question, and to some extent, post-training interventions can provide an answer. The purpose of this study was to validate inconclusive findings on the effectiveness of two post-training transfer interventions. This study used Solomon four-group design to filter out the effects of pretest sensitization and history, which are threats to the internal and external validity but have rarely been checked in previous transfer studies. Management study undergraduate students were randomly divided into two groups: pretested and unpretested groups. After a time management workshop, the students were randomly subdivided into three additional groups based on the following conditions: full relapse prevention (RP); proximal plus distal goal setting (GS); and the control group. Although results from both intervention groups were not significantly different from those of the control group, a significant difference was found between full RP and proximal plus distal GS in terms of self-reported time-management behavioral change. It is difficult to conclude whether post-training interventions enhance the transfer of training. Further ideas for improving research designs were explored, such as increasing the time intervals between training and interventions so that trainees have opportunities to attempt transfers before the interventions.
... Nonetheless, the findings in this study support understanding that structured discussions can provide students with opportunities to observe peers discuss and work toward a collective focus on developing a solution (Gist, Stevens, & Bavetta, 1991). In addition, teachers can facilitate discussions so that adolescents have opportunities to speak in a structured environment that aims to give respectful treatment to the speaker (Ehman, 1980). ...
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Communicative self-efficacy serves as an important link between discussing controversial issues and civic engagement because confidence in one’s discourse skills is important to managing conflicting perspectives and developing solutions to community-based problems. Freely available to schools, Word Generation is a cross-content literacy program that supports teachers in the four main content areas—ELA, social studies, science, and math—to embed learning of controversial issues through classroom discussions, subject-specific lessons, and writing. Middle school students (N = 5,870) from diverse backgrounds participated in a randomized study of the intervention that was conducted in 12 middle schools located in an urban school district. We analyzed survey data based on students’ self-reported ratings on their communicative self-efficacy, as indicated by confidence to participate in discussions of 15 different controversial issues related to politics, society, and science. Paired sample t-tests indicate that treatment students reported higher communicative self-efficacy than control students on a set of topics immediately covered prior to testing, but not on the set of topics covered in the previous year. This study informs curriculum developers, policy makers, and educators to consider the importance of incorporating classroom discussions of controversial issues within a framework of subject-specific instruction.
... Also assisting trainees in monitoring their progress toward meeting their objectives or reminding them to continuously answer the question "why am I doing this" may enhance the effectiveness of training (Mesmer-Magnus and Viswesvaran, 2010). Further, post-training interventions such as goal-setting and self-management (Gist et al., 1991;Werner et al., 1994) have proved to improve learning outcomes. ...
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Research indicates that Positive Psychology Interventions (PPIs) in the work context have a small positive impact on improving desirable work outcomes, and a small to moderate effect on reducing undesirable work outcomes, suggesting that the effects of PPIs are not trivial, but also not large. Whereas this may be related to the difficulty of changing oneself or one’s happiness levels, the relatively small effects of PPIs may also be due to the predominant use of one-off interventions instead of more structural interventions that reflect policy level commitment. Furthermore, since most PPIs tend to focus on the individual, one could question the long-term effectiveness of such interventions, especially when the work environment remains unchanged. In this manuscript, I introduce a typology of PPIs in organizations by distinguishing between the organizational level they target (the individual or group level), and between one-off and structural interventions. I argue that different types of interventions can strengthen each other, and that to make a sustainable contribution to the optimal functioning of workers, PPIs need to comprise a wide variety of one-off and structural interventions targeting both individuals and groups in organizations. Furthermore, I make suggestions for improving the long-term effectiveness of PPIs by drawing on the literature on transfer of training, nudging, and positive design.
... When presented with the novel task, these participants may have been inadvertently been prepared to deal with the ambiguity of a novel task. This is consistent with previous research that has shown trainees can be taught self-management skills that influence performance outcomes [115]. Future research would benefit from examining the relationship between ambiguous training instructions and the impact this has on preparing trainees for ambiguity and building resilience and self-efficacy. ...
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Virtualized training provides high fidelity environments to practice skills and gain knowledge, potentially mitigating harmful consequences from real life mistakes. Current research has focused on videogames, believed to have characteristics that improve learning. There is conflicting evidence on the benefits of using videogame-based training to improve learning. This study explored the impact of two videogame characteristics (i.e., rules/goals clarity and human interaction), on mid-training scores and post-training scores (i.e., familiar task and novel task). Results from a sample of 513 undergraduates showed that both videogame characteristics significantly impacted mid-training performance but not post-training performance; clear rules/goals and completing the training alone improved mid-training performance. There was also a significant moderation between the two videogame characteristics for post-training scores on the novel task, but not the familiar task, or mid-training performance. Findings suggest videogame characteristics have an immediate but not sustained impact on learning; implications are discussed.
... Moreover, Krueger and Dickson (1994) found that positive feedback resulted in an increase in individuals' self-efficacy compared to negative feedback. This increase in selfefficacy has also been shown to translate into positive performance on a salary negotiation exercise (Gist et al., 1991) and satisfaction with job (Türkoğlu et al., 2017). While individuals' baseline level of self-efficacy has been found to be a strong predictor of goal setting and performance on an identification task (Locke et al., 1984) or physical exercise (Strachan et al., 2016), and in aviation, on training performance and transfer of learning (Davis et al., 2000), how it mediates "tone of feedback" remains unknown. ...
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Objective: This study examines the effect of “tone of feedback” on student pilot flight performance. Background: Corrective feedback is primarily given verbally in flight training to facilitate trainee pilot performance. Such feedback can be provided using different vocal tones (i.e., positive, neutral, negative). How the effectiveness of the feedback varies based on changes in vocal tone remains unknown. Method: Thirty-eight student pilots completed two simulated flights, both involving a right-hand circuit. Following the first flight, the student pilots listened to prerecorded verbal feedback in either a positive, neutral or negative tone about their flight performance, in terms of mean altitude during the downwind leg. Deviation from the target altitude during downwind in the second flight was examined. Self-efficacy and self-esteem were also measured to examine their mediating effect. Results: The results revealed that student pilots who received a positive tone of feedback performed significantly worse than pilots who received neutral or negative tones of feedback. No mediating effects were found for self-efficacy or self-esteem. Conclusion: These findings provide aviation authorities and training organizations insight into the effect of tone of feedback on trainee pilots’ performance. Understanding this effect has the potential to improve student pilot learning outcomes and performance.
... Additionally, research suggests that self-efficacy, or the belief in one's capabilities to perform, also has a positive relation to transfer (Bandura, 1977). Gist, Stevens, and Bavetta (1991) found that pre-training self-efficacy was significantly related to students' ability to a transfer task related to salary negotiations. ...
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... Self-efficacy is the "belief in one's capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to produce given attainments" (Bandura, 1977). According to the purpose of the study, we argue that customer self-efficacy is the customer's belief in his/her capabilities to organize and execute the courses of action required to meet task demands in service interaction; it involves a generative capability by which resources and subskills are orchestrated into successful performance (Gist et al., 1991). ...
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Authors have shown a strong interest in training self‐efficacy (TSE), but two noteworthy concerns are present in the literature. First, existing measures of TSE may contain items that do not gauge their construct of interest. Second, although other forms of self‐efficacy may better explain observed relationships, TSE is often studied in isolation. We address these concerns by creating two measures in a four‐study process. These measures are shown to have satisfactory psychometric properties and convergent validity. Additionally, we provide an empirical study that investigates, regarding a computer‐based training program, the impact of TSE beyond positive self‐evaluations, general self‐efficacy, and computer‐self efficacy. The results demonstrate that TSE is predictive of trainee reactions beyond these other predictors, but it is not predictive of learning. While the specificity of TSE may cause these results, novel theoretical perspectives may better explain the observed relationships.
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This chapter presents an open system informed model of training effectiveness in organisations. The model is composed of inputs, process components and outputs. The inputs consist of macro external inputs, internal micro-level inputs and training design inputs. The process elements of the model consist of three components: individual and organisational reactions to training, individual and organisational learning outcomes, and individual and organisational-level training transfer factors. The outputs component of the model consists of emergence enablers, collective human resource outcomes, operational performance outcomes and financial outcomes. The chapter summarises the literature on each component of the model.
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Safety training is an important means to reduce unsafe behaviors and improve safety management efficiency. However, the contradiction between “high frequency and wide coverage” and “low transfer efficiency” in safety training at this stage is prominent. To explore the factors that affect the transfer of safety training, this study selects three academic literature groups, training transfer, safety training, and safety training transfer, and introduces the bibliometric method and the mapping knowledge domain to analyze the co-occurrence of the subject keywords of each literature group, evolution process, and knowledge structure. When these results are combined with the characteristics of safety training and based on the classic training transfer theory and safety training theory, it can be seen that the characteristics of the trainees, the safety training design, and the working environment affect the safety training transfer. Based on the functions and characteristics of safety training, it is shown that the driving mechanism between the influencing factors of safety transfer and the multiangle systematic improvement of safety training transfer long-term mechanism will become two important directions for improving the efficiency of safety training transfer in the future.
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It is beyond doubt that negotiation is the most effective way to resolve construction dispute. However, failing negotiation are not uncommon. It is advocated that having an ‘intention to settle’ would provide construction dispute negotiation. Unwillingness to settle would make negotiation difficult and in the worst scenario, would lead to costly attribution or litigation. Based on the literature on pillars of negotiations, four factors are identified: (i) preparation; (ii) negotiation skill; (iii) relationship; and (iv) the self. The hierarchy of the four ingredients ranges from macro to micro and from project specific to disputant specific. Mastering the understanding of these elements can help design the dispute negotiation conditions and provide some insights for negotiators to recognize how and when a negotiator is ready for settlement.
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What is the most appropriate QCA solution type when engaging in a multimethod design that includes QCA and in-depth process-tracing (PT)? While either the intermediate or the parsimonious solution are generally favored in QCA-only studies, we identify important challenges that can emerge when selecting those solutions in a QCA-PT multimethod study. We particularly highlight the risk of mechanistic heterogeneity, omitted conditions, and draw the attention on the issue of generalization. We discuss each of these intertwined challenges in depth, and explain why the conservative solution is useful to consider in addressing them. We substantiate our arguments by drawing on a recently completed evaluation study that was commissioned by the Flemish ESF Agency in Belgium. In the study, we combined QCA and theory-guided in-depth process-tracing to uncover under what combinations of conditions (QCA) a training programme would lead to successful training transfer and how (PT) this happened in the successful cases. The article highlights the need to carefully consider the selection of solution types in any multimethod design comprising QCA.
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With the amount of money organizations spend on training, leaders want to be sure they are providing the most effective learning experience possible. Innovative technologies are increasingly finding their way into training, creating new ways to deliver content. This raises questions about whether training presentation modes that vary in technological sophistication affect beliefs individuals form before training even begins. One such belief is training self-efficacy, which is known to influence learning outcomes. This experiment asked participants (N = 229) to review a cross-cultural training program flyer. Participants were randomly assigned to view one of four flyers, which described the training presentation mode as either using comic strips, videos, virtual reality, or did not mention a presentation mode for those in the control condition. Participants were asked to imagine what it would be like to participate in the training. They then completed a training self-efficacy scale measuring confidence in their ability to succeed in the program described on the flyer they reviewed. They also rated their technology self-efficacy. Results revealed technology self-efficacy partially moderated the effects of presentation mode on training self-efficacy. More specifically, people low in technology self-efficacy reacted with the least confidence about being able to learn through videos.
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Interpersonal skills require mastering a wide range of competencies such as communication and adaptation to different situations. Effective training includes the use of videos in which role models perform the desired behaviours such that trainees can learn through behavioural mimicry. However, new technologies allow new ways of designing training. In the present study, given that virtual reality is emerging as a valuable training setting, we compare two different demonstration conditions within virtual reality by investigating the extent to which the use of doppelgangers as role models can boost trainees’ interpersonal skills development as compared to a role model that does not resemble the trainees. We also assess trainees’ level of self-efficacy and gender as potential moderators in this relationship. Participants delivered a speech in front of a virtual audience twice. Before delivering their second speech, they watched a role model giving a speech in front of the same audience. The role model was either their doppelganger or an avatar of the same gender depending on the condition they were randomly assigned to. Results showed that the doppelganger-based training was the most beneficial for male trainees low in self-efficacy. These findings have important implications for training design, suggesting that doppelganger-based training might be effective only for a specific subset of trainees.
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There are conflicting findings about the role that timing plays in the administration of self-efficacy questionnaires and the relationships between self-efficacy scores, training, and subsequent demonstration of skills. The current study examined self-efficacy in the context of a training program to educate residents in patient-centered communication skills. Previous research indicates that providers who use patient-centered skills have higher patient satisfaction ratings and their patients show improved physical and psychological health outcomes. 163 residents conducted patient-centered interviews with standardized patients. One group rated their self-efficacy before the interview (n = 85, 52%) and the other group rated it after the interview (n = 78, 48%). Researchers used a validated content analysis coding scheme to measure patient-centered skills in the interviews. There was no significant difference in self-efficacy scores obtained before or after the interview or in the relationship between self-efficacy and objectively coded patient-centered skills in either group. Self-efficacy also did not mediate the relationship between training in patient-centered skills and significantly improved performance of the skills. The findings suggest that timing of self-efficacy questionnaire does not influence subsequent self-efficacy ratings and that demonstrated PCI skills and perceived self-efficacy ratings increase significantly with training. Results imply that self-efficacy requires further study before it can be used as a surrogate for skills performance.
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Modern computer gaming technology offers a rich potential as a platform for the creation of compelling immersive training systems, and there have been a number of game-based training systems developed in recent years. However, the field is still in its infancy. Improved understanding is needed on how to best embed instruction in a game and how to best use gaming features to support different types of instruction. Further, the field is inherently inter-disciplinary, requiring instructional system designers, software developers, game designers and more, yet there are no established development methodologies to ensure effective coordination and integration across these disciplines. The authors introduce a collaborative effort that is investigating how to improve the craft and science of game-based training. They present their experiences in creating a flooding control training system for the U.S. Navy Recruit Training Command, and discuss the inter-disciplinary development issues that they encountered. They present the lessons they learned and their views on how to advance current methods to support the consistent production of effective game-based training.
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Distance education has become an important method of extending education to populations that otherwise might be educationally neglected. Distance education in the private sector provides learners with more educational opportunities and widens the range of innovative services with a one-stop educational solution. With distance education, learners can undertake customized education on a more ubiquitous scale. Additionally, information technology allows both trainers and learners to work independently, free from the constraints of location. This study selected the determinants of educational effectiveness from previous literature regarding traditional educational environments, and empirically tested the authors’ hypotheses to examine factors that affected educational effectiveness in terms of learner satisfaction and application performance using a structural equation model. Results show that factors in traditional education are still significant in terms of application performance while certain factors in distance education affect learner satisfaction. The authors expect that this research can serve as a guideline for distance education in the private sector.
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Over the last four decades, the field of negotiation has become a fully recognized academic discipline around the world and negotiation courses and competitions have become increasingly popular. Although it is believed that negotiators may be trained and that negotiation is a skill that can be taught and evaluated, the question of how to assess negotiation performance systematically and comprehensively remains largely unanswered. This article proposes a negotiation competency model for evaluating negotiation performance. The model includes a set of selected negotiation competencies together with proficiency levels and their behavioral indicators. Our goal is to help scholars design more effective negotiation courses and fairer negotiation competitions, improve negotiation pedagogy, and train negotiators who are well prepared to handle conflicts in our increasingly complex society.
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Purpose Industry skills council (ISC) in Korea is at an earlier stage in terms of its formation and incubation. As a governance model similar to sector councils in Canada and UK, it still requires training and development of talents who work for ISCs. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effectiveness of training programs that are currently provided to personnel of the ISC to foster their learning systematically and to develop measures for effectiveness of the training programs. Design/methodology/approach This study evaluated the training program for the staff of the ISC secretariat as a tool to activate the councils’ main functions. In terms of methodology, we developed an effective training model to measure the training transfer and used it as an analytical framework for evaluation. Success case method was applied to identify the best case of training transfer that reinforces the role and function of ISC. Findings Learning transfer can help not only the transfer of the learning contents but also the role of the organization that the members belong to and strengthen the function of the ISC. By transferring the content matter of the learning, it can help strengthen the capacity of members to carry out the roles and functions of the ISC, and further strengthen the functions of the council and the role of key players in labor markets. Research limitations/implications An effective training model for the personnel of national sectoral bodies or non-profit organization can be further investigated. Practical implications The learning transfer evaluation model for ISC staff has unique characteristics that are different from previous studies. ISC has the characteristics of public goods that are established with government support and are active in developing human resources in each industry sector. Originality/value Incubating ISC in South Korea is at an earlier stage in terms of research and policy practice. The research findings in this study lay the foundations for further empirical explorations.
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Agency is the human capability to exert influence over one’s actions and environment, such as through forethought, self-regulation and self-reflection. We focus on six prominent agency constructs, including goal orientation, regulatory focus, proactivity, fear of failure, core self-evaluations and psychological capital, and review what we have learned from each construct. By adopting an overarching multidisciplinary perspective, we identify key research agendas for the six prominent constructs: (1) incorporating self-reflection into research on agentic disposition; (2) how agency dispositions equip employees for workplaces of the futures, yet also how such behaviours may challenge societal and corporate mechanisms of control; and (3) well-being and health-related consequences of agency. In addition, we highlight the importance of understanding the interface between agency scholarship and developments in technology, medicine and sociology. JEL Classification: M10, M14
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The present paper primarily aimed to examine the joint effect of training methods and readiness for training on the effective training process (ETP). The paper conducted an examination of the proposed study model, using the survey questionnaire design. Data were gathered from Ajman police departments by distributing 252 questionnaire copies. From the copies distributed, 172 questionnaires were retrieved, from which data was analyzed using SEM-PLS. On the basis of the statistical results obtained, training methods significantly affect ETP. The study provides several implications, both theoretical and practical, and the findings are expected to assist in the proper decision-making of managers when it comes to training methods effective implementation in organizations. This is one of the pioneering empirical studies that investigated the influence of training methods and readiness for training on ETP. Since the establishment of the police started exercising the functions assigned to them in maintaining security within the emirate, and those exceeding the tasks was to guard and traffic regulation, and the number of individuals and officers, not to exceed twenty, then the number has increased gradually depending on the increase and the multiplicity of functions of the police. The police and security apparatus in Ajman, did not lag behind the progress and development achieved by the police and security services with the beginning of the State of the Union, which merged together to the Ministry of the Interior, This is a new stage and a real beginning to build a modern police. Bakanonuahd where he began working for the police and security, and police were able to achieve significant progress and development, thanks to the attention and care on the part of His Highness the President and his brothers, Their Highnesses Rulers of the Emirates. The development and progress that has occurred to the police in Ajman has emerged significantly in the security facilities of modern with the latest devices and equipment, as well as the increase in Adeddalillat and non-commissioned officers and individuals working in various departments and divisions, units and centers of Ajman Police, furthermore, provides the potential and Alojhzhalmttorh that help the police on the performance of their business to serve the citizens and residents of the state. Did not skimp on the Ministry of Interior security forces and even provided her all the way forward and Alttorpma guaranteed to perform its security responsibilities to the fullest, and in this context, the Cherthagaman using the latest computer programs in many departments and areas such as traffic management, licensing, police stations and the Department of planning and development processes, it which is easy for employees to access the information required less time and effort. Ajman Police has prepared a future plan which will create several centers in different police areas in the Emirate of Ajman.
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This qualitative study explored the perceived influence of various types of supportive behaviors on novice trainees' ability to transfer learning from firefighter training. Findings indicated that positive reinforcement was perceived to have the greatest influence on trainees' ability, self‐efficacy, and motivation to transfer. Furthermore, results indicated that the following supportive behaviors were also perceived to have a notable influence on trainees' ability, self‐efficacy, and motivation to transfer: (a) trainees' ability to remain confident, motivated, and receptive and (b) instructors' positive tone. In addition, results suggested behaviors were perceived differently, resulting in varying levels of influence. Finally, results suggested there was a corresponding relationship between self‐efficacy and the motivation to transfer.
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Perception of negative emotions including envy is on rise specifically in private organizations, which has important implications on employees’ attitudes and behaviors. This study examined the relationship between benign envy (one of the two forms of envy) and employee engagement. Furthermore, mechanisms underlying benign envy–outcome relationship are not well understood. To enhance this knowledge, this study investigated self-efficacy as a mechanism in understanding the relationship between benign envy and employee engagement. Relying on cross-sectional study design, data were gathered from 107 employees at two different point of times from private organizations of the service sector. Self-report measures comprising of all variables of the study were adopted. Data were analyzed and interpreted using Statistical Package for Social Sciences 21. Correlations and moderated regression analyses revealed that benign envy is not significantly related to employee engagement. However, the results revealed that the interaction term of benign envy and self-efficacy had significant influence on employee engagement, that is, the relationship between the two variables became significant under the condition of high self-efficacy. The implications and limitations of the study are discussed and the article concluded with an outline for possible future research.
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Negotiating serves as an essential skill in our daily life, however, it is quite challenging to negotiate well. Various negotiation training systems have been developed to solve this problem and improve people’s performance in negotiation. Nevertheless, these systems mainly focus on skills practice and less on negotiation understanding or self-efficacy development. Aiming at improving both people’s negotiation knowledge and self-efficacy, a virtual reality negotiation training system is proposed that exposes users to virtual cognitions during negotiating with virtual characters. The virtual cognitions, delivered as a personalised voice-over, provide users with a stream of thoughts that reflects on the negotiation progress and their performance, and also presents self-motivational statements. To study the effectiveness of the system and the self-motivational statements included in virtual cognitions, an empirical study with 48 participants was conducted. The study employed a between-subjects design with three groups: waitlist, training with self-motivational statements, and training without self-motivational statements. 24 waitlist participants were also randomly assigned to and completed the training following the waiting period. The results indicated that 1) the system significantly enhanced people’s knowledge about negotiation and increased their self-efficacy, 2) the self-motivational statements included in virtual cognitions even further improved self-efficacy. Furthermore, these effects remained after multiple weeks.
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Negotiation and conflict management skills have been identified as critical skills for students as part of their business education. In this paper, we have combined research on negotiation self-efficacy and pedagogical tools previously developed to support educational experiences for students in the classroom. Utilizing negotiation cases, we are able to test a student’s ability to create and claim value, maximize goals, and avoid leaving unclaimed value on the bargaining table. The results demonstrate how the negotiation exercise in the marketing context is able to increase confidence and student negotiation skills through the testing of a negotiation self-efficacy scale. Pre-and-post survey results are compared and analyzed.
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Purpose The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate the role of resistance to change and self-efficacy (SE) on the relationship between learning culture and motivation to transfer training (MTT). Design/methodology/approach The study collected data from 412 faculty members of higher education institutions on the basis of multi-stage sampling technique. First, the population was divided into two strata. Second, universities were selected on a random basis and finally, respondents were selected on simple random basis. Findings The study used structural equation modeling and hierarchical regression techniques to test the hypotheses. The study found that in the presence of high SE and low resistance to change learning culture more likely to influence on MTT. Research limitations/implications The study contributed to cognitive theory, signaling theory and experimental learning theory and has implications for managers and academic policymakers. Originality/value The study is a novel attempt to examine the side by side role of learning culture, SE and learning transfer climate toward MTT.
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An important area for human resource development research (HRD) is the interrelated nature of different types of workplace learning. In our research, we studied feedback-seeking and reflection as informal, proactive learning behaviors in the transfer of formal training in the context of global leadership development programs. Thus, we add to our knowledge about how learners can transfer and extend formal training into informal workplace learning. In a partially mixed-method field investigation, we first explored triggers, characteristics, as well as the outcomes of feedback-seeking and reflection. Second, we investigated their predictive and mutually reinforcing effect on transfer of training. Integrated results from a qualitative interview study (Study 1, n = 15) and a quantitative survey study (Study 2, n = 60, comprising n = 15 participants from Study 1 and n = 45 additional participants) support the hypotheses that feedback-seeking and reflection are both relevant facilitators of transfer of training. In addition, Study 2 reveals that transfer of training was highest when both feedback-seeking and reflection were high, supporting our interaction hypothesis. This research extends the understanding of the importance of informal learning activities following formal training. Based on our results we advocate that learners in their post-training phase be engaged in both feedback-seeking as well as reflection to enhance their transfer of training. Further implications for human resource development research and practice are discussed.
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Much evidence exists that supports the use of goal setting as a motivational technique for enhancing task performance; however, little attention has been given to the role of task characteristics as potential moderating conditions of goal effects. Meta-analysis procedures were used to assess the moderator effects of task complexity for goal-setting studies conducted from 1966 to 1985 (n = 125). The reliability of the task complexity ratings was .92. Three sets of analyses were conducted: for goal-difficulty results (hard vs. easy), for goal specificity-difficulty (specific difficult goals vs. do-best or no goal), and for all studies collapsed across goal difficulty and goal specificity-difficulty. It was generally found that goal-setting effects were strongest for easy tasks (reaction time, brainstorming), d = .76, and weakest for more complex tasks (business game simulations, scientific and engineering work, faculty research productivity), d = .42. Implications for future research on goal setting and the validity of generalizing results are discussed.
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Kerr [1976] has coined the term "substitutes for leadership" in reference to nonleader sources of task structure and direction. We focus on one such substitute, the capability of the follower for self-management. Individuals manage their own behaviors by setting personal standards, evaluating their performance in terms of these standards, and by self-administering consequences based on their self-evaluations. Specific techniques such as self-observation, goal specification, cueing strategies, incentive modification, and rehearsal can be used to exercise self-management behavior. Organizational leaders can help subordinates develop self-management skills.
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This article analyzes organizational functioning from the perspective of social cognitive theory, which explains psychosocial functioning in terms of triadic reciprocal causation. In this causal structure, behavior, cognitive, and other personal factors and environmental events operate as interacting determinants that influence each other bidirectionally. The application of the theory is illustrated in a series of experiments of complex managerial decision making, using a simulated organization. The interactional causal structure is tested in conjunction with experimentally varied organizational properties and belief systems that can enhance or undermine the operation of the self-regulatory determinants. Induced beliefs about the controllability of organizations and the conception of managerial ability strongly affect both managers' self-regulatory processes and their organizational attainments. Organizational complexity and assigned performance standards also serve as contributing influences. Path analyses reveal that perceived managerial self-efficacy influences managers' organizational attainments both directly and through its effects on their goal setting and analytic thinking. Personal goals, in turn, enhance organizational attainments directly and via the mediation of analytic strategies. As managers begin to form a self-schema of their efficacy through further experience, the performance system is regulated more strongly and intricately through their self-conceptions of managerial efficacy. Although the relative strength of the constituent influences changes with increasing experience, these influences operate together as a triadic reciprocal control system.
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40 male first-line supervisors were randomly assigned to a behavioral modeling training program or to a control group. The training was designed to improve supervisors' interpersonal skills in dealing with their employees. The training program produced highly favorable trainee reactions, which were maintained over time. Moreover, the performance of the trainees was significantly better than that of supervisors in the control group on a learning test administered 6 mo after training, on behavioral simulations collected 3 mo after training, and on performance ratings collected on the job 1 yr after training. After the control group received the training, they achieved significant improvement in their supervisory skills and did not differ from the trainees who had originally undergone the training on any of the measures. The modeling films, developed by M. Sorcher (A. Goldstein and M. Sorcher, 1974) were based primarily on A. Bandura's (1977) principles of social-learning theory. (23 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The complexity of innovations has long been recognized as a factor affecting the rate of adoption. We investigated the relation between sense of efficacy regarding computers and people's readiness to use them. Using structural equation modeling procedures ({lisrel}) in Study 1, we showed the hypothesized relation between efficacy beliefs with respect to computers and the likelihood of using computers (as measured by subsequent enrollment in computer-related courses) in two independent samples. We demonstrated that beliefs of efficacy regarding computers exert an influence on the decision to use computers that is independent of people's beliefs about the instrumental value of doing so. In Study 2 we extended this finding by showing that, consistent with Bandura's research on the personal efficacy construct, previous experience with computers is related to beliefs of efficacy with respect to computers, but that it does not exert a direct independent influence on the decision to use computers. Furthermore, a significant relation was found in Study 2 between general beliefs of personal efficacy and use of other electronic devices. These studies demonstrate the importance of efficacy beliefs in the decision to adopt an innovation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Meta-analysis procedures were applied to the results of 70 managerial training (MT) studies. The meta-analysis results for 34 distributions of MT effects representing 6 training-content areas, 7 training methods, and 4 types of criteria (subjective learning, objective learning, subjective behavior, and objective results) indicated that MT was moderately effective. For 12 of the 17 MT method distributions, the 90% lower-bound credibility values were positive, and thus the effectiveness of these training methods, at least minimally, can be generalized to new situations. A list of the 70 MT studies is included. (97 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Two central constructs of applied psychology, motivation and cognitive ability, were integrated within an information-processing (IPR) framework. This framework simultaneously considers individual differences in cognitive abilities, self-regulatory processes of motivation, and IPR demands. Evidence for the framework is provided in the context of skill acquisition, in which IPR and ability demands change as a function of practice, training paradigm, and timing of goal setting (GS). Three field-based lab experiments were conducted with 1,010 US Air Force trainees. Exp 1 evaluated the basic ability–performance parameters of the air traffic controller task and GS effects early in practice. Exp 2 evaluated GS later in practice. Exp 3 investigated the simultaneous effects of training content, GS and ability–performance interactions. Results support the theoretical framework and have implications for notions of ability–motivation interactions and design of training and motivation programs. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Determined the long-term effects of self-management training given to 20 unionized state government employees to increase their job attendance in a 6-month follow-up study. A repeated measures analysis of variance revealed that enhanced self-efficacy and increased job attendance were effectively maintained over time. Perceived self-efficacy at the end of training predicted subsequent job attendance. The control group ( n = 20) was then given the same training in self-management by a different trainer. Three months later, this group showed the same positive improvement as the original training group with regard to increased self-efficacy and job attendance. These findings lend support to a self-efficacy based theory of job attendance. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Much evidence exists that supports the use of goal setting as a motivational technique for enhancing task performance; however, little attention has been given to the role of task characteristics as potential moderating conditions of goal effects. Meta-analysis procedures were used to assess the moderator effects of task complexity for goal-setting studies conducted from 1966 to 1985 ( n = 125). The reliability of the task complexity ratings was .92. Three sets of analyses were conducted: for goal-difficulty results (hard vs. easy), for goal specificity–difficulty (specific difficult goals vs. do-best or no goal), and for all studies collapsed across goal difficulty and goal specificity–difficulty. It was generally found that goal-setting effects were strongest for easy tasks (reaction time, brainstorming), d = .76, and weakest for more complex tasks (business game simulations, scientific and engineering work, faculty research productivity), d = .42. Implications for future research on goal setting and the validity of generalizing results are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Training in self-management was given to 20 unionized state government employees to increase their attendance at the work site. Analyses of variance revealed that compared to a control condition ( n = 20), training in self-regulatory skills taught employees how to manage personal and social obstacles to job attendance, and it raised their perceived self-efficacy that they could exercise influence over their behavior. Consequently, employee attendance was significantly higher in the training than in the control group. The higher the perceived self-efficacy, the better the subsequent job attendance. These data were significant at the .05 level. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Specific, difficult goals enhance performance in many tasks. We hypothesize, however, that this effect disappears or reverses for novel tasks that allow multiple alternative strategies. We report findings from three laboratory experiments using a stock market prediction task with these characteristics. In the first study, 34 students made predictions concerning the value of 100 companies' stock based on three manipulated cues after receiving either a "do your best" or a specific, difficult goal concerning the accuracy of their predictions. In the second study, 88 students making stock market predictions received one of the following goals: do your best, specific-easy, specific-moderate, specific-hard, or a tapering, specific goal. The third study ( n = 30) replicated the first study by using a different prediction algorithm for the stock market simulation. Repeated measures multivariate analyses of variance conducted on indexes of prediction accuracy and predictor weightings supported the hypothesis that specific, difficult goals (prediction accuracy) increase an individual's strategy search activity and reduce prediction accuracy for the stock predictions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Transfer of training is of paramount concern for training researchers and practitioners. Despite research efforts, there is a growing concern over the "transfer problem." The purpose of this paper is to provide a critique of the existing transfer research and to suggest directions for future research investigations. The conditions of transfer include both the generalization of learned material to the job and the maintenance of trained skills over a period of time on the job. The existing research examining the effects of training design, trainee, and work-environment factors on conditions of transfer is reviewed and critiqued. Research gaps identified from the review include the need to (1) test various operationalizations of training design and work-environment factors that have been posited as having an impact on transfer and (2) develop a framework for conducting research on the effects of trainee characteristics on transfer. Needed advancements in the conceptualization and operationalization of the criterion of transfer are also discussed. ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR Copyright of Personnel Psychology is the property of Blackwell Publishing Limited and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts)
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Presents a theory of motivation based on attributions of causality for success and failure. The heart of the theory consists of an identification of the dimensions of causality and the relation of these underlying properties of causes to psychological consequences. Three central causal dimensions have been discerned: stability, locus, and control; these dimensions, respectively, are linked with expectancy change, esteem-related emotions, and interpersonal judgments. (81 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Although organizations invest heavily in training programs to enhance managerial effectiveness, little attention is paid to the transfer of such training from the workshop to the workplace. This paper describes a cognitive-behavioral model that offers a systematic approach to the maintenance of behavior. Relapse prevention strategies are discussed, and implications for management training and research are considered.
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Self-efficacy (one's belief in one's capability to perform a task) affects task effort, persistence, expressed interest, and the level of goal difficulty selected for performance. Despite this, little attention has been given to its organizational implications. This paper reviews the self-efficacy concept and then explores its theoretical and practical implications for organizational behavior and human resource management.
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This article examines the idea that perceived self‐efficacy is an important variable in understanding achievement behavior. Self‐efficacy refers to personal judgments of one's capability to organize and implement behaviors in specific situations. Students gain information about their level of self‐efficacy from self‐performances, vicarious experiences, verbal persuasion, and physiological indices. In forming efficacy judgments, people take into account factors such as perceived ability, task difficulty, effort expenditure, performance aids, and outcome patterns. Even when students acquire efficacy information from self‐performances, efficacy judgments are not mere reflections of those performances because educational practices differ in the type of information they convey about students’ capabilities. Some experimental tests of these ideas are summarized along with their educational implications. The self‐efficacy framework is compared with locus of control, attribution, and self‐worth theories of achievement behavior.
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The construct of self-efficacy has received increasing empirical attention in the organizational behavior literature. People who think they can perform well on a task do better than those who think they will fail. Differences in self-efficacy are associated with bona fide differences in skill level; however, efficacy perceptions also may be influenced by differences in personality, motivation, and the task itself. This article reviews theoretically the antecedent processes and information cues involved in the formation of self-efficacy. A model of the determinants of self-efficacy is proposed that enhances understanding of both the complexity and malleability of the construct. Determinants that facilitate the most immediate change in self-efficacy are identified, and appropriate change strategies are highlighted. Implications and propositions pertaining to future research are discussed at the end of the article.
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Investigated the relative contribution of goal setting and task difficulty to performance on a heuristic computer task with 128 undergraduates who attempted to solve either easy or difficult maze puzzles. Each S was assigned either an easy, moderate, or difficult goal or told to do his/her best. One month prior to the experiment, Ss responded to the Neuroticism scale of the Eysenck Personality Inventory to collect data on arousal. Data were also collected on acceptance, commitment, task complexity, and performance. Results show that both goals and task difficulty affected task performance, arousal, and perceptions of task complexity. A linear, rather than curvilinear, relationship was found between task arousal and performance. Contrary to prior research by G. A. Bassett (see record 1980-33518-001), results also show that, when the task was difficult, the setting of a difficult goal led to significantly lower performance. The decrease in performance in the difficult goal condition was attributed to the variation in performance strategy employed by these Ss as opposed to other Ss. It is argued that the setting of difficult goals may not be an effective motivational strategy when a heuristic, rather than algorithmic, solution is needed. (40 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Assigned a total of 22 female and 5 male managers in a medical center to 1 of 2 managerial training programs or a no-treatment control group. One program involved role playing, together with delayed appraisal sessions and assigned goal setting; the other involved role playing with delayed appraisal sessions, assigned goal setting, and immediate reinforcement via telecoaching. Measures of managerial behavior and subordinate satisfaction were collected 60 days after the completion of training. Results indicate that the training programs were statistically more effective than no treatment in improving the consideration and integration skills of managers and reducing the absenteeism of their subordinates, although the programs were not statistically different from each other. The success of both treatments was accomplished without any undesired reduction in the managers' general level of initiating structure or production emphasis. The program involving delayed appraisal sessions and assigned goal setting was most effective in increasing subordinate work satisfaction. (16 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Manipulated self-efficacy and task strategies in the training of 209 undergraduates under high strategy, low strategy, and control conditions. Ss underwent 5 trials and were administered a self-efficacy scale after each trial. Results show that ability, past performance, and self-efficacy were the major predictors of goal choice. Ability, self-efficacy, goals, and task strategies were related to task performance. Self-efficacy was more strongly related to past performance than to future performance but remained a significant predictor of future performance even when past performance was controlled. Self-efficacy ratings for moderate to difficult levels of performance were the best predictors of future performance; a reanalysis of 2 previous goal-setting studies by the first author confirms this finding. (19 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This review of human motor skills is historical and critical, and starts about 100 years ago. Three historical periods are identified. The main topics are knowledge of results, distribution of practice, transfer of training, retention, and individual differences in motor learning. Basic research is emphasized, but applied research is included also. The article concludes with projections for the future that are based on past research and the present research climate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Alternative training methods on self-efficacy and mastery of a computer software program were compared in the context of a field experiment involving 108 university managers. A behavioral modeling approach relative to a tutorial approach yielded higher self-efficacy scores and higher performance on an objective measure of computer software mastery. Participants scoring high in self-efficacy performed significantly better than participants with low computer self-efficacy scores. Participants low in self-efficacy reported greater confidence in their ability to master the software training in the modeling compared with the tutorial conditions. Participants in the modeling training reported more effective cognitive working styles, more ease with the task, more satisfaction with training, and less frustration compared with participants in tutorial training. Implications for training interventions are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Addresses the centrality of the self-efficacy mechanism (SEM) in human agency. SEM precepts influence thought patterns, actions, and emotional arousal. In causal tests, the higher the level of induced self-efficacy, the higher the performance accomplishments and the lower the emotional arousal. The different lines of research reviewed show that the SEM may have wide explanatory power. Perceived self-efficacy helps to account for such diverse phenomena as changes in coping behavior produced by different modes of influence, level of physiological stress reactions, self-regulation of refractory behavior, resignation and despondency to failure experiences, self-debilitating effects of proxy control and illusory inefficaciousness, achievement strivings, growth of intrinsic interest, and career pursuits. The influential role of perceived collective efficacy in social change and the social conditions conducive to development of collective inefficacy are analyzed. (21/2 p ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). © 1982 American Psychological Association.
Article
The intention of this study was to improve behavioral modeling's effectiveness by substituting managers for professional trainers and to evaluate the effect on 44 male supervisors using Kirkpatrick's four levels of evaluation: reaction, learning, behavior on the job, and performance. Twenty-two supervisors were trained with six behavior modeling modules and the effect was compared to a control group consisting of 22 supervisors. The research also examined the effects of trainees’ self-esteem and the perceived power of the trainers. The results showed that behavior modeling resulted in favorable reactions and an increase in learning, but did not produce behavior change on the job, or improved performance results. Power and self-esteem did not moderate the training effectiveness. The findings are compared with previous behavior modeling research. The discussion concludes with a recommendation for researchers to identify more complete theoretical models which explain behavioral change on the job (e.g., Maltz's theory of psycho-cybernetics) as opposed to relying solely on Bandura's social learning theory.
Article
This field experiment examined the influence of two training methods on self-efficacy and performance during training for innovative problem solving. A training method composed of cognitive modeling with practice and reinforcement generated significantly higher participant self-efficacy than a method involving lecture and practice alone. Participants in modeling training significantly outperformed those in the lecture condition on measures of the quantity and divergence of ideas generated. Findings are discussed in terms of training designs for innovative problem solving.
Article
This study contrasted goal setting and self-management training designs for their effectiveness in facilitating transfer of training to a novel task. Behavioral measures of performance were used to assess transfer in terms of skill generalization, skill repetition and overall performance level. Skill generalization was more limited among the goal-setting trainees as compared to the self-management trainees. While goal-setting trainees generalized fewer skills to the novel task context, these skills tended to be used more repeatedly. In contrast, self-management trainees exhibited higher rates of skill generalization and higher overall performance levels on the transfer task, even after the effects of outcome goal level were controlled. Implications are discussed for future research on training transfer.
Article
A field experiment of 68 full-time employees studied the effects of performance feedback and cognitive playfulness (that is, cognitive spontaneity in human-computer interactions) on microcomputer training performance. In addition, this research examined the impacts of performance feedback and cognitive playfulness on software efficacy perceptions and on a variety of affective outcomes, including satisfaction with feedback, satisfaction with training, and positive mood. The findings suggest that positive feedback generally results in higher test performance and more positive affective outcomes, than does negative feedback. Similarly, employees higher in cognitive playfulness demonstrated higher test performance and more positive affective outcomes than those lower in cognitive playfulness. Finally, a significant feedback × playfulness interaction on test performance was found. Specifically, employees lower in cognitive playfulness benefited more from the positive feedback than did those higher in cognitive playfulness. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
Article
This commentary addresses misconceptions concerning perceived self-efficacy contained in the article by Eastman and Marzillier. People who regard themselves as highly efficacious act, think, and feel differently from those who perceive themselves as inefficacious. Self-percepts of efficacy thus contribute significantly to performance accomplishments rather than residing in the host organism simply as inert predictors of behaviors to come. A substantial body of converging evidence is reviewed, lending validity to the proposition that perceived self-efficacy operates as one common mechanism through which diverse influences affect human action, thought, and affective arousal.
This study investigated the relationship between Type A behavior and the research productivity of university faculty. The research also examined the roles played by various Type A subfactors (job involvement, competitiveness, and impatience) and by three hypothesized intervening variables (self-efficacy, performance goals, and working on multiple projects) in the Type A—productivity relationship. Results showed a direct relationship between Type A behavior and both quantity and quality indices of faculty research productivity. Findings also supported self-efficacy, goals, and working on multiple projects as variables intervening between the display of Type A behavior and performance. Job involvement was found to be the only Type A subfactor related to productivity.
Article
The process of self-efficacy expectation development, coping with a difficult task, and task performance is examined using a path analytic framework. A model of this process is examined with a job interview task as a way of assessing the generalizability of self-efficacy theory to career-related behavior. Results show that self-efficacy expectation theory generalizes to a career-related task, and that emotion-focused coping mediates the relationship between self-efficacy expectations and perceived performance, but not performance as assessed by the interviewer. The importance of self-efficacy expectations and emotion-focused coping as mediating the relationship of perceived past performance and pretask anxiety with subsequent behavior and outcomes is discussed.
Article
The effects of reward or reinforcement on preceding behavior depend in part on whether the person perceives the reward as contingent on his own behavior or independent of it. Acquisition and performance differ in situations perceived as determined by skill versus chance. Persons may also differ in generalized expectancies for internal versus external control of reinforcement. This report summarizes several experiments which define group differences in behavior when Ss perceive reinforcement as contingent on their behavior versus chance or experimenter control. The report also describes the development of tests of individual differences in a generalized belief in internal-external control and provides reliability, discriminant validity and normative data for 1 test, along with a description of the results of several studies of construct validity.
Article
Assessed the effects of symbolic coding and rehearsal, source of codes, and type of codes on reproduction of modeled events and generalization of observational learning to novel contexts. Retention processes not previously included in behavior-modeling training are examined in a procedure designed to teach college students assertiveness skills. Exp I (20 Ss) compared descriptive and rule codes and showed that descriptive coding produced more accurate reproduction than rule coding. Code type had no differential effect on generalization. Exp II (70 Ss) revealed that modeling alone and rehearsal facilitated reproduction and generalization, that trainee-generated rule codes enhanced generalization, and that reproduction decay was least in the trainee-generated code conditions. (16 ref)
Article
Two experiments combining intergroup and intrasubject designs were conducted to test the hypothesis that self-percepts of efficacy operate as cognitive mediators of coping behavior and fear arousal. Differential levels of self-efficacy were induced in phobic subjects through either inactive mastery or modeling. Their coping behavior and accompanying fear arousal were then measured. In the next phase, self-efficacy was successively raised to designated levels within the same subjects, whereupon their behavior and fear arousal were again measured. Coping behavior corresponded closely to instated self-percepts of efficacy, with higher levels of perceived self-efficacy being accompanied by greater performance attainments. The efficacy-action relationship was replicated across different modes of efficacy induction, different types of behavioral dysfunctions, and in both intergroup and intrasubject comparisons. The hypothesis that fear arousal stems largely from perceived coping inefficacy also received support from the findings. As subjects' self-efficacy level was raised, they experienced progressively less anticipatory and performance distress while coping with threats. Results of a third experiment using cardiac acceleration and elevation in blood pressure as indicants of arousal further corroborate the generality of the relationship between perceived coping inefficacy and stress reactions.
Article
The present research tested the hypothesis that self-reactive influences exert differential impact on motivation as a function of the level and direction of discrepancy between a comparative standard and attainments. Subjects pursued a challenging standard in a strenuous activity and received preselected feedback that their effort fell either markedly, moderately, or minimally short of the standard, or that it exceeded the standard. They then recorded their perceived self-efficacy, self-evaluation, and self-set goals, whereupon their motivational level was measured. In accord with prediction, perceived self-efficacy contributes to motivation across a wide range of discrepancy conditions. Self-evaluation operates as an influential motivator only when attainments fall markedly or moderately short of a comparative standard. Self-set goals contribute to motivation at all discrepancy levels except when attainments are markedly discrepant from the standard. The relevant self-influences operating in concert at particular discrepancy levels explain a substantial amount of the variance in motivaion.
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