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Is Transformational Leadership Always Perceived as Effective? Male Subordinates' Devaluation of Female Transformational Leaders1

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Abstract

This study investigated the impact of the gender composition of the leader–subordinate dyad on the relationship between leaders' transformational leadership behavior and their subordinates' ratings of the leaders' effectiveness. There were 109 dyads of leaders (58 male, 51 female) paired with a subordinate who was either the same or a different gender from themselves. The relationship between a leader's self-report on transformational leadership and their subordinates' evaluation of their performance was significantly less positive for female leaders with male subordinates than for female leaders with female subordinates. The male and female subordinates of male leaders rated their performance as equally effective, regardless of their levels of transformational leadership.

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... Curr Psychol different settings have demonstrated that democratic and transformational leaders, and leaders who use soft power bases are evaluated more positively than autocratic and transactional leaders who use harsh power bases, and the subsequent evaluations of satisfaction and performance are usually significantly higher and more positive (Ayman et al., 2009;Elias, 2007;Uğurlu & Hovardaoğlu, 2011;Wang, Chiang, Tsai, Lin, & Cheng, 2013). ...
... Step perceptions have been extensively evidenced by researchers (Ayman et al., 2009;Heilman, 2001;Powell, Butterfield, & Parent, 2002). Men are still more likely to become leaders and more often so than women. ...
... The effects of gender on leadership opportunities and various factors contributing to genderbased differences in the attainment of leadership positions such as work-family balance, stereotyping and discrimination, and organizational structure and culture creating gendered divisions (Eagly & Carli, 2007) have received extensive scholarly attention over the past century. The negative effects of gender stereotypes on the advancement of women and their access to decision-making positions particularly with regard to leadership and management perceptions have also been extensively evidenced by researchers (Ayman et al., 2009;Heilman, 2001;Powell et al., 2002). Yet, studies in different cultural contexts where different institutional logics pervade are needed for a thorough understanding of the dynamics behind power and gender relations. ...
Article
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Using a sample of 650 Turkish white collars, this study examines the joint effects of leader power bases, and leader’s and subordinate’s gender on perceived leader effectiveness. The study investigates the conditions under which a male or a female leader is perceived to be (in)effective given the use of two different bases of power. According to empirical findings, male leaders are evaluated more favorably even when they display gender-deviant leadership behavior by exercising soft power, and male subordinates’ disfavor of female leaders who violate role expectations is still a continuing phenomenon.
... Many theorize this is due to the prejudice and pushback women leaders face when behaving in a more autocratic style traditionally associated with masculine behavior (see Ayman & Korabik, 2010). Women leaders have also been found to use more transformational leadership, a style of leadership that strives to be inspiring, supportive, and respectful of their followers (Ayman et al., 2009;Bass & Avolio, 1993;Eagly et al., 2003). In the leadership literature overall, transformational leadership has been found to produce more long-lasting and effective results (e.g., see Ayman et al., 2009;Podsakoff et al., 1990;Rafferty & Griffin, 2004). ...
... Women leaders have also been found to use more transformational leadership, a style of leadership that strives to be inspiring, supportive, and respectful of their followers (Ayman et al., 2009;Bass & Avolio, 1993;Eagly et al., 2003). In the leadership literature overall, transformational leadership has been found to produce more long-lasting and effective results (e.g., see Ayman et al., 2009;Podsakoff et al., 1990;Rafferty & Griffin, 2004). Women also tend to use more transactional contingent reward behaviors, a leadership style that rewards followers with public recognition or material rewards for performing specific tasks (Ayman et al., 2009;Bass & Avolio, 1993;Eagly et al., 2003). ...
... In the leadership literature overall, transformational leadership has been found to produce more long-lasting and effective results (e.g., see Ayman et al., 2009;Podsakoff et al., 1990;Rafferty & Griffin, 2004). Women also tend to use more transactional contingent reward behaviors, a leadership style that rewards followers with public recognition or material rewards for performing specific tasks (Ayman et al., 2009;Bass & Avolio, 1993;Eagly et al., 2003). The combination of these leadership styles might help women be better leaders than men in domains such as health and social policy where involvement and participation by a wide range of individuals are crucial for success. ...
Article
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As early as two months into the COVID-19 pandemic, popular media started reporting that women leaders, compared to men leaders, were managing COVID-19 better. This paper empirically examines the impact of women leaders in managing pandemic health outcomes one year after the onset of the pandemic. Further, we consider leader effectiveness within the context of country culture. We find that women's leadership is indeed associated with better containment of the pandemic. We also find that certain country-level cultural traits play a significant role in pandemic outcomes. More hierarchical societies experience higher COVID-19 cases and death. Individualistic cultures and masculine cultures are associated with more deaths from the pandemic. Some cultural traits modulate women's ability to manage COVID-19. Our findings have implications for health policy and provide rationale for promoting gender equity in political leadership.
... This type of gender bias continues to hinder the advancement of women in leadership roles (Vial et al., 2016). Although some studies have indicated that women tend to devalue female leaders more than men (Parks-Stamm et al., 2008;Warning & Buchanan, 2009), the majority of studies have shown that gender bias is primarily observed among male subordinates (Ayman et al., 2009;see Koch et al., 2015;Koenig et al., 2011; for meta-analyses; Ryan et al., 2011). As a result, gender bias against female leaders is more pronounced among male versus female subordinates, which suggests that male subordinates are likely to be less accepting of a female leader's influence (Netchaeva et al., 2015;Vial et al., 2016). ...
... We extend research on subordinates' evaluations of women's leadership (Paustian-Underdahl et al., 2014) by proposing that male subordinates' behavioral responses to a female leader serve to address their misgivings about women's leadership. Second, we provide further evidence that both leader's gender and subordinates' gender are important for understanding the implications of women's leadership (e.g., Ayman et al., 2009;Ryan et al., 2011). By studying individual influence as a downstream outcome, we contribute to the literature on the effects of women's leadership on subordinates' behaviors and outcomes (e.g., Vial et al., 2016;Wang et al., 2013). ...
... Male subordinates are less likely to accept female leaders than female subordinates (Ayman et al., 2009;Eagly et al., 1992). Moreover, research has shown that men may have a more masculine conception of a leader than women (e.g., Ayman et al., 2009) and are more likely to view the world in terms of hierarchical relationships. ...
Article
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Gender bias against female leaders suggests that female leaders are less accepted than male leaders. Moreover, research has suggested that male subordinates are less willing to accept female leaders than their female peers. We propose that their unwillingness to accept a female leader's influence may invite male team members to seek to develop their own influence within the team. Drawing on the theory of social self‐regulation in relational demography, we argue that compared with their female counterparts, male team members are more motivated to increase their influence within the team through competence monitoring (self‐regulated behavior to establish their competence within the team), especially when there is a greater proportion of male peers in the team (i.e., a lower level of gender dissimilarity between themselves and the rest of the team). In turn, we propose that competence monitoring has an increasingly positive relationship with the influence of male members within the team. The findings of our multisource survey of 288 members of 61 research and development teams supported our hypotheses. We discuss the implications of our findings for research on gender and leadership and relational demography.
... Although the relationship of women's leadership with employees' outcomes has been extensively investigated, there are relatively few empirical studies and models to validate the role of women leaders to induce employees' trust and connectivity, which lead to employees' innovative behaviour (Girdauskienė, 2015). Literature on gender and leadership styles, however, indicates that women who are more empathic, caring and friendly towards subordinates are considered better transformational leaders compared to men (Ayman et al., 2009). As Growe and Montgomery (1999) state, women leaders are more interested in transforming the self-interests of people into organizational goals by encouraging feelings of selfworth and greater participation. ...
... As Growe and Montgomery (1999) state, women leaders are more interested in transforming the self-interests of people into organizational goals by encouraging feelings of selfworth and greater participation. Transformational leaders have been found to connect better with subordinates (Ayman et al., 2009), making them aware of organizational goals and develop followers' trust which leads to better organizational performance (Brown et al., 2005). Thus, we believe that women leaders possess greater competencies to connect with subordinates and develop followers' trust, which will be quite instrumental in inducing employees' creativity behaviour. ...
... Though literature on gender and leadership style is inconclusive (e.g., Kaiser & Wallace, 2016;Williams & Tiedens, 2016), it indicates that female leaders have a greater tendency of transformational leadership style compared to their male counterparts (Ayman et al., 2009). The proponents of transformational leadership have a common view that followers of transformational leaders have the maximum trust in their leaders (Bart & McQueen, 2013). ...
Article
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A number of women are leading a variety of organizations in Pakistan. The available research on the effectiveness of women’s leadership is not so clear, and there have been mixed findings across different contexts. The present research attempts to view women’s transformational leadership as a source of employees’ trust and connectivity that leads to innovative behaviour of employees in women-led organizations of Pakistan. The study also investigates the simple as well as sequential mediation of trust and connectivity in the relationship between women’s transformational leadership and employees’ innovative behaviour. Using a survey-based questionnaire, cross-sectional data were collected from 366 employees of different organizations which are led by women. These organizations include educational institutes, advertising agencies and fashion houses. The data were analysed using the MEDTHREE analysis for direct and indirect hypotheses (single and sequential mediations). The results indicate that women’s transformational leadership fosters trust, connectivity and innovative behaviour in the employees. Further, the results supported that employees’ trust in their leader and connectivity mediate the relationship between women’s leadership and innovative behaviour of the employees.
... With this, contact is reduced, and the possibilities of co-decision tend to decrease (Białas, 2009). Furthermore, previous researchers have indicated that women tend to see the world and organizations as a flat structure, whereas men identify hierarchical relationships (Ayman et al., 2009). ...
... These results lend further support to the notion that employees feel supported by managers when they encourage them to participate in the decision-making process (Wayne et al., 2002;Torka et al., 2010;Park, 2015). Evidence from this study confirms that the so-called dyad gender composition of both managers and employees has an effect on participation (Ayman et al., 2009). This study reinforces the results of previous findings: men and women have significantly different orientations leading to gender differences in the effects of participation initiatives (Olorunsola and Olayemi, 2011;Miller, 2012;Gallie, 2013;Sarafidou and Chatziioannidis, 2013). ...
Article
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The goal of this study is analyze the influence of perceived supervisor support (PSS) by employees at a micro level and the role of the cultural values of “power distance” and “masculinity” at a macro level on direct employee participation in decision-making (PDM). Furthermore, the influence of the gender of managers and employees is taken into account. The analysis is based upon the Sixth European Working Conditions Survey carried out by Eurofound in 2016. The results of a Hierarchical linear model indicate that all predictors significantly influenced PDM; PSS positively and cultural values negatively. When the gender of managers and employees is considered, the findings suggest that PSS has a larger impact on PDM when male managers address female employees. Regarding the moderating effect of PSS on cultural values, it is shown that masculinity and power distance lose importance when employees have the support of their supervisors.
... A possible explanation is the preference for gender of immediate boss and its relation to the gender of the subordinate has been studied in several papers with different outcomes. Ayman and Korabik (2009), Norris and Wylie (1995) and Tomkiewicz and Adeyemi-Bello (1995) found that men are more likely to be biased by the gender of their boss. However, Garcia-Retamero and Lopez-Zafra (2006), Parks-Stamm, Heilman & Hearns (2008) and Rudman (1998) claim the opposite. ...
... As the review showed, literature is completely divided on whether male or female subordinates value male or female bosses, or whether there is any correlation at al (Ayman & Korabik, 2009;Byron, 2007 Figure 2 shows the BWV valuation differences (∆BWV) between male and female bosses in each of the items of question Q63, for the each of the worker's gender built up from Tables 2 and 3 of the Appendix. According Figure 2 both men and women workers evaluate women more positively than men as their immediate boss for each of the items of question Q63. ...
... Ayman, Korabik and Morris (2009) examined the perception of transformational leaders, who are leaders that act as inspirational role models, work to develop skills in their followers, and motivate their followers. Women leaders are more participatory, relational and interpersonal and tend to have more collective views of leadership (Ayman, Korabik & Morris, 2009), however, it is not always beneficial to be a participative leader and the advantages of which often depend instead on context (Gastil, 1997). ...
... The "double bind" of leadership for women. While women leaders are rated higher on measures of transformational leadership than male leaders (Ayman, Korabik & Morris, 2009;Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt & van Engen, 2003), sexism continues to have negative consequences for women in leadership positions, a phenomenon referred to by Catalyst (2007) as a "double bind". There are in fact differing norms about leaders that are gendered: women are expected to be pleasant and caring; men strong and assertive (Eagly, 2016). ...
Article
For years, there has been a perceived inaccessibility of the field of Information Technology, centering on an organizational culture of “men and their machines” (Clark, 2012). This paper examines the role of women who lead technology initiatives in higher education and presents the experiences of these women leaders and their collision of organizational cultures as part of a comparative case study of two public institutions. Findings suggest elements of culture within the IT field that contribute to the experiences of women leaders in IT, and illuminate that leading a technology project may add a layer of gender expectations and gender roles that are more entrenched in the IT world than in other areas of higher education.
... For example, age has been shown to be positively associated with psychological empowerment (Seibert et al., 2011). There is also evidence that women and men can react differently to transformational leadership behaviours (Ayman et al., 2009;Yammarino et al., 1997). For example, male subordinates devalue the leadership competencies of their female supervisors more when the female supervisors behave more transformational (Ayman et al., 2009). ...
... There is also evidence that women and men can react differently to transformational leadership behaviours (Ayman et al., 2009;Yammarino et al., 1997). For example, male subordinates devalue the leadership competencies of their female supervisors more when the female supervisors behave more transformational (Ayman et al., 2009). In Tables 1 and 2, we show bivariate correlations among measurement variables for the two samples. ...
Article
Frequent experiences of flow – an enjoyable state of optimal challenge – at work are associated with many positive individual and organizational outcomes. In our research, we examine how leaders affect subordinates’ flow experiences through subordinates’ work-related self-concept. Specifically, on the basis of self-concept theory, we propose that transformational leaders affect followers’ work-related self-concept, which we construe as followers’ psychological empowerment, consisting of the four sub-facets of meaning, competence, self-determination and impact. We further propose that psychological empowerment is positively related to flow experiences at work. In sum, we thus hypothesize that the effect of transformational leadership on employees’ flow experiences is mediated by psychological empowerment. Additionally, we propose that this indirect effect is moderated such that it is stronger for employees holding a formal leadership position. We tested the model with two two-wave questionnaire studies with employees (Study 1: N = 307 at time 1; N = 60 at time 2; Study 2: N = 611 at time 1; N = 271 at time 2) from different organizations. Path models reveal support for the mediation hypotheses in both samples but not for the moderated mediation hypothesis.
... Leadership is a social interaction whereby characteristics of the leader become salient depending on the shared characteristics of the employee (Ayman et al., 2009). Research shows that employees who share characteristics with their leader are more influenced by their leader's behavior than employees without shared characteristics (Sparrowe et al., 2006). ...
... Organizational research informs us that males and females value different leadership behaviors. Women prefer leaders who display transformational leadership (Ayman et al., 2009), considerateness (Vecchio & Boatwright, 2002), and support (Kidd & Smewing, 2001), whereas men prefer leaders who display masculine traits associated with assertiveness, status, and authoritativeness (Ayman-Nolley & Ayman, 2005). These findings reflect the values associated with each sex conveyed by gender socialization processes (M. ...
Article
We extend relational demography theory by introducing kinship as a new demographic characteristic of categorization. We theorize that family firm employees’ kinship similarity (family vs. nonfamily), kinship tie (child vs. other familial relationship), and gender (female vs. male) uniquely affect their organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Data collected from 209 family CEO–employee dyads indicate that male family employees, especially sons of the CEO, display the highest OCB when altruistic leadership behavior is high, whereas daughters and other female family employees display consistently high OCB, confirming that employees’ experiences in family firms are simultaneously shaped by their kinship characteristics and gender.
... Transformational leadership is often aligned with producing higher levels of creativity (Puccio et al., 2011, p. 16). It is an approach that challenges followers to think about situations differently, among other attributes (Ayman et al., 2009). In a study of transformational leadership by women and men that looked at same instances where subordinate gender was the same as the leader, and where gender was different from the leader, there were differences in the value placed on transformational leadership competencies. ...
... Women leaders who considered themselves high on the transformational leadership scale were seen in a more negative light by male subordinates when compared to female subordinates. Additionally, there was little difference in the perception of men leaders by male or female subordinates (Ayman et al., 2009). As the title of the Ayman article suggests, males devalue female transformational leaders. ...
Chapter
This chapter will look at leadership approaches, especially through the lens of a woman leader in higher education. What types of leadership approaches might be best suited in times of broad reaching crises? The author explores transformative and creative leadership approaches and approaches and attributes of leadership that are often displayed by women leaders. In times of widespread personal crises that extends outside the immediate workplace, for example hurricane destruction or pandemic, it may be that a communal approach to leadership, based in honesty and compassion and traditionally attributed to women leadership style, might be the appropriate choice.
... The literature has not yet examined the direct effect of supervisor gender on the abusive supervision perceptions. However, previous studies were conducted to grasp the effect of supervisor gender on the perceived transformational leadership (Ayman et al., 2009), which is considered as a feminine leadership behavior and attributed to female managers mostly (Eagly & Carli, 2003). Just like the societal gender roles of females, transformational leadership values development and has aspects of nurturing and being supportive Eagly & Karau, 2002). ...
... The impact of gender similarity on abusive supervision is in accordance with the previous studies. Although previous studies were investigating the effect of gender on transformational leadership, the results show that most of the effects of gender are at the level of the gender-dyad of supervisor and subordinate relationship (Ayman et al., 2009). ...
Thesis
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This thesis intends to investigate the roles of supervisor gender, subordinate gender and perceivers’ sexist attitudes within the context of perception of abusive supervision on a Turkish sample. Defined as a form of dark leadership through which supervisors engage in hostile behaviors, excluding any physical harassment, towards their subordinates at the workplace, abusive supervision is relatively a new phenomenon that is rather unexplored in the leadership literature. Even though the negative consequences of abusive supervision have been investigated, the antecedents that lead to abusive supervision are still in need of further research. Moreover, perceptions of abusive supervision have not yet been explored with reference to the differential gender stereotypes. Therefore, this thesis examines the roles of supervisor gender, subordinate gender and gender similarity in supervisor-subordinate dyad on subordinate’s perception of abusive supervision. The moderating effects of the sexist attitudes of the perceivers (hostile sexism and benevolent sexism) on the relationship between supervisor behavior and the perception of abusive supervision are also investigated. In order to observe the relationships and test the hypotheses, data were collected from 260 graduate and undergraduate students from various universities located in Ankara, Turkey and analyzed by using quantitative methods. This study contributes to the leadership literature by examining the roles of gender and sexist attitudes on the perception of abusive supervision through vignettes, which are used for the first time on a Turkish sample.
... Women have repeatedly been shown to be successful at implementing this leadership style and multiple studies have shown that are able to bring about effective organizational change, two skills that are both necessary and desired in police services (Ayman et al., 2009;Vinkenburg et al., 2011). ...
... Male participants perceive as more relevant the ability to integrate and lead teams, to make decisions and to have professional competence. As Kakar (2002) highlights, there seem to be stereotyped perceptions of women's "soft" skills, which are not considered a value, contrary to the various studies by Ayman et al. (2009) andVinkenburg et al. (2011), which demonstrate that women have repeatedly been shown to be successful at implementing a transformational style of leadership and that they are capable of bringing about effective organizational change, skills that are considered necessary and desirable in police services. The perception of men tends to consider these skills as of lesser value, less recognized and less adjusted to the dominant profile, cataloging women as emotional, with little capacity to take risks and mostly oriented toward people. ...
Article
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The impediments and barriers that women face in entering and developing a police career have received relatively little attention from researchers. As of today in Europe, despite the slow progress, the 25% barrier to female representation has already been overcome in several countries. However, many areas remain closed to women within police organizations. In this context, research was conducted based on a content analysis of the perceptions of 56 police officers, 28 men and 28 women with considerable police experience, occupying executive leadership positions from a total of 26 European countries. Data was collected through a questionnaire composed of 23 open questions. The results show a considerable gap between the perceptions of male and female police executive leaders with regard to access, career development and workplace conditions faced by policepersons. According to the results, the mirage of equality, dominant in the view of male police officers, is a major barrier to achieving real equality, both horizontally and vertically. What implications these results have on the strategies that police organizations should follow to achieve the challenge of inclusion are discussed, and new ways of analysis are proposed.
... Ayman, Korabik, and Morris' (2009) research comparinga leader's self-report on transformational leadership with their subordinates' evaluation of their performance showed female leaders received more positive evaluations from their female subordinates than from their male subordinates. In contrast, there was no gender difference in male leaders' evaluative responses, regardless of their levels of transformational leadership [20]. Brandt and Laiho (2013) also found gender differences in their investigation of transformational leadership and the influence of gender and personality [21]. ...
... The research shows that the participant nurses' perceptions of their supervisors' leadership behavior variedsignificantly according to their gender, educational background, and years of experience. While this is conducive to other findings in the literature [20,21,30], these results draw attention to the issues involved in thischallengingcare contextof Iraq at the time of the research and reflect the long-term impact of the disruption of war.It is noteworthy that two-thirds of the nurses were male and generally more experienced than females, with a much larger proportion holding a Bachelor's degree than a Diploma. This is not surprising because of the disruptive history and potential danger in traveling for females, particularly at night, and the nature of the work being seen as less culturally appropriate for women [7,31]. ...
Article
Background: While Iraq was once seen as a highly developed country, it is now categorized as 'developing' because of several decades of disruption and war. Since little is known about how this has impacted the overall health care system, it is clear that staffing hospitals' task is challenging in this current war-torn context, as is the nature of the work for the nursing staff for a variety of reasons. Moreover, it can be argued that nurses' leadership skills are of even greater importance given the complexities involved. Participants: this research explored over two hundred ward nurses' perceptions of their leaders' leadership behaviors through completing a survey. Method: the survey comprised twenty items, each of which described a leadership characteristic reflective of a transformative and adaptive style. The nurses rated how frequently their leaders behaved in these ways as described, on a five-point scale ranging from 'doesn't do' to 'always do.' These items are related to the three dimensions of personal behavior, mentoring, and motivational behavior. Results: The nurses' perceptions of their leaders' leadership behavior were influenced by their gender, educational background, and work experience. The results of t-tests showed statistically significant differences in these variables. These findings suggest an essential moral imperative to ensure that health-care organizations in Iraq are led by individuals and teams who display effective personal behavior, mentoring behavior, and motivational behavior (such as high-level communication skills; concern for their employees as persons and modeling effective behavior; and encouraging staff participation and giving recognition for significant work, respectively).Conclusion: This research identifies the characteristics of nurse leaders in a challenging workplace setting with limited resources. This work could enable nurse leaders to better adapt to working in these difficult circumstances, and ultimately facilitate the organization's ability to consider what support and education are needed for nurses leaders and staff.
... Vienų tyrimų rezultatai rodo, kad moterų ir vyrų transformacinio vadovavimo išreikštumas nesiskiria (Panopoulos, 1999;Kim & Shin, 2017;Munir & Aboidullah, 2018). Visgi Eagly, Johannesen-Schmidt ir Van Engen (2003) ir Van Engen ir Willemsen (2004) atliktos metaanalizės rezultatai ir kiti užsienio autorių tyrimai (Rosenbusch & Townsend, 2004;Stempel, Rigotti, & Mohr, 2015;Ayman, Korabik, & Morris, 2009) rodo, jog moterys yra vertinamos kaip labiau išreiškiančios transformacinį vadovavimą nei vyrai. Verta atsižvelgti į tai, kad tiek metaanalizės, tiek didesnė dalis tyrimų teigia, jog būtent moterys labiau pasižymi transformaciniu vadovavimu, todėl ši prielaida tikrinama ir empiriniame tyrime. ...
... Be to, kaip rašo užsienio mokslininkai, ateities tyrimuose verta atkreipti dėmesį ir į vertintojų lyties reikšmę vadovavimo efektyvumo vertinimo kontekste (Ayman et al., 2009;Lyons & McArthur, 2007). Cuadrado, Navas, Molero, Ferrer ir Morales (2012) atlikto tyrimo rezultatai rodo, kad tiek pavaldiniai vyrai, tiek moterys vadovus vyrus ir vadoves moteris vertina labai panašiai ir pagal grupės reprezentavimo, tikslų siekimo, pasitenkinimo vadovavimu kriterijus, ir pagal bendrąjį efektyvumą. ...
Article
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For quite a long period of time, transformational leadership was related only to positive antecedents and outcomes (van Knippenberg & Sitkin, 2013). However, nowadays researchers are more invited to study the “dark side” of transformational leadership (Eisenbeiß & Boerner, 2013; Vreja, Balan, & Bosca, 2016). The model of dark triad traits (Paulhus & Williams, 2002) could be an interesting topic in this contemporary discussion. Therefore, a quasi experiment was conducted with the aim to analyze the impact of a hypothetical leader’s dark triad traits in assessing transformational leadership. A total of 157 respondents (31 male and 126 females) participated in the quasi experiment. The average age of respondents was 24.87 (SD = 5.4) years, with the average of 4.5 (SD = 5.03) years of working experience. Most of the respondents (62.4%) had higher education. Respondents were asked to fill in the questionnaire about their dark triad traits (SD3, Jones & Paulhus, 2014), to read one of four scenarios (2 x 2 experiment design: male or female leader; a high or low expression of a leader’s dark triad traits) and to evaluate the transformational leadership of a hypothetical leader in the scenario (GTL scale, Carless, Wearing, & Mann, 2000). The analysis revealed that the index of transformational leadership was higher when hypothetical leaders with a low expression of dark triad traits were assessed in comparison with hypothetical leaders who possessed a high expression of dark triad traits. So, the main hypothesis was confirmed. However, an additional analysis of the factors that could be also important in predicting the assessment of transformational leadership did not support the significant role of the assessor’s or the assessee’s gender or the assessing individual’s dark triad traits. Nevertheless, contextual factors in the assessment of transformational leadership deserve further attention from researchers and practitioners. In general, the impact of a hypothetical leader’s dark triad traits in the assessment of transformational leadership is significant: the higher expression of dark triad traits, the less transformational leadership. With reference to scientific literature (Hoch, Bommer, Dulebohn, & Wu, 2018; Brymer & Gray, 2006; Jung, Chow, & Wu, 2003), transformational leadership is set as a criteria of effective leadership. Therefore, if practitioners wish to have an effective leader whom subordinates are ready to follow in their organizations, they should pay attention to how these subordinates evaluate their leaders’ dark triad traits. However, these results need confirmation in a field survey.
... The findings of the past literature pertaining to this issue demonstrated that in certain aspects male leaders differ from their female counterparts, whereby it has been revealed that men are more task-oriented and on the other hand, women are more relationship oriented (e.g., Ayman, Korabik & Morris, 2009;Bass, Avolio& Atwater, 1996;Butler & Geis, 1990;Cuadrado, García-Ael& Molero, 2015;Chapman, 1975;Eagly& Johnson, 1990;Triana, Richard & Yücel, 2017). On the contrary, literature has also proven that there exists no difference in the teaching practices of men and women (Cuadrado et al., 2012;Eagly, 2007;Laird, Garver & Niskodé, 2007). ...
... Some studies also maintain that women lead and direct in a more democratic and participative manner than men [16]. Likewise, several authors have proposed the idea that women more often and more effectively use a transformational leadership style than men [17,18]. ...
... The literature, furthermore, claims that the gender of the followers also has an effect on the perceived effectiveness of feminine leadership (Cooper, 1997;Stoker et al., 2012). Especially male subordinates who hold a masculine image of a leader may perceive POLBs being not effective on performance (Ayman et al., 2009;Koenig et al., 2011), while female subordinates have a greater preference for leader considerateness (Vecchio and Boatwright, 2002). In all the primary studies included in this meta-analysis, the follower was simultaneously the rater of the leader behaviors. ...
Article
Purpose The research studies the role of contextual moderating variables on the relationship between person-oriented leadership behaviors (POLBs) and team performance. The authors claim that the varying effect sizes between POLBs and team performance are large because of the context the team is functioning in. Therefore, based on the framework of Johns (2006), this paper aims to investigate the moderating role of the relevant demographic (leader gender), social (in-group collectivism and team size), task (skill differentiation) and methodological (common method bias and the rater of the team performance) contextual variables in the study. Design/methodology/approach The authors accumulated evidence from 48 independent primary studies (N team = 4,276) to run the meta-analytic analyses. The authors followed the procedures described by Schmidt and Hunter (2015). For the categorical moderators, the analyzes were aided by the Hunter–Schmidt meta-analysis programs (2.0) (Schmidt and Le, 2014), which is an interactive software using a random-effects model. In the analyzes for the continuous moderators, the authors used Lipsey and Wilson’s (2001) statistical package for the social sciences macros and run meta-regressions using a random-effects model with unrestricted maximum likelihood. Findings The results indicate that the relationship weakens when female leaders exhibit these behaviors and when the team size increases. On the other hand, in-group collectivism strengthens the relationship. The study also found that the common method bias and the assessment method of the team performance are significant moderators altering the relationship. Practical implications The study highlights the perceptual differences and biases based on leader gender. Acknowledging these biases may help practitioners to appreciate the female qualities in leadership and decrease the undervaluation of female effectiveness. To create high-performing teams, leaders in high in-group collectivist countries are expected to develop a family feeling in the team by showing their concern for personal issues and build close interpersonal relationships. Researchers should use multiple sources to assess the predictor and criterion variables and also opt for more objective assessment methods for team performance. Originality/value With this study, the authors follow a substantively different perspective compared to the past meta-analytic reviews on this relationship. Rather than testing the inquiry whether there is a relationship between the two variables, the authors specifically focus on the role of contextual moderating variables. Several researchers have acknowledged that contextual considerations are critical in leadership-team performance research. Nevertheless, the body of research remains to be not cohesive. Thus, the study answers a call in the leadership area for a more context-based and cohesive understanding of the effects of leadership on team performance.
... The findings of the past literature pertaining to this issue demonstrated that in certain aspects male leaders differ from their female counterparts, whereby it has been revealed that men are more task-oriented and on the other hand, women are more relationship oriented (e.g., Ayman, Korabik & Morris, 2009;Bass, Avolio& Atwater, 1996;Butler & Geis, 1990;Cuadrado, García-Ael& Molero, 2015;Chapman, 1975;Eagly& Johnson, 1990;Triana, Richard & Yücel, 2017). On the contrary, literature has also proven that there exists no difference in the teaching practices of men and women ( Cuadrado et al., 2012;Eagly, 2007;Laird, Garver & Niskodé, 2007). ...
Chapter
This book contains thirteen chapters contributed by the authors who specialized in their own areas of business studies. This publication provides a platform for contributors to address the topics of their choices that are generally current in nature. It is also a platform for PhD students to write together with members of their supervisory committees. The readers would find a wide array of findings, conceptual frameworks and suggestions for further research being offered by the respective authors. It is hoped that this book is of great value to the readers for its informative and useful nature. The Chapters in this book contain current challenges and opportunities in the areas of organizational behavior and leadership. The Editor would like to thank all contributors of the chapters for their commitment and dedication; and to the Head of Department of Management and Marketing, Assoc. Prof. Dr. Ho Jo Ann; and the Dean of Faculty of Economics and Management, Professor Dr. Azali Mohamed, for their endless support in making this publication possible. Thank you. Abdul Rashid Abdullah and Ariful Islam explored The Relationship between Knowledge and Behavior of Sustainable Development Among Employees of Readymade Garments (RMG) Industry in Bangladesh. The authors suggested that the management can outline proper strategic communication methods to control or develop employees being appreciative towards sustainable objectives of the concerned industrial sector.
... Similar gender distribution was reported in previous studies that tested delivery and vision (e.g., Holladay & Coombs, 1994;Johnson & Dipboye, 2008). Examination of the research literature regarding gender differences in perceiving charisma among followers showed no differences (e.g., Antonakis, Avolio, & Sivasubramaniam, 2003;Ayman, Korabik, & Morris, 2009;Carless, 1998;Felfe & Schyns, 2010;Schyns & Sanders, 2007;Stempel, Rigotti, & Mohr, 2015;Vinkenburg, Van Engen, Eagly, & Johannesen-Schmidt, 2011). We recommend conducting a systematic study that will scrutinize the potential impact of gender on perceptions of charisma. ...
Article
Perceived charisma is an outcome of message content and delivery, where the latter dominates the former. Framing perception of charisma within dual-process theories, we suggest a rapid processing of delivery and a slow processing of content. We aimed to track the differential processing speed of content and delivery that accounts for the delivery dominance. In two laboratory experiments, we manipulated content and delivery. Participants reported perceived charisma after viewing a presentation (Experiment 1) or moment-by-moment during the presentation (Experiment 2). The results confirmed the immediate influence of delivery on perceived charisma that was later either supported or revised by the content. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.
... Even though female managers are found to be more transformational ( [49,52]). Thus, research on gender had shown that female managers that managed female followers have reported of higher levels of female transformational leadership than their male opposite numbers [53]. Further, Bass and Riggio, [54]; Eisenbach et al. [55], emphasized that transformational leadership is a suitable leadership style for managing organizational change. ...
Article
Full-text available
The role of leadership style in organisational change management has been investigated considerably in this article. Authors have made efforts to cover and present wide-ranging literature on the role of leadership style in organisational change. It was discovered in various literature reviewed that there are several leadership styles that can act as promoter in change management processes; ranging from authoritarian leadership, transformational leadership, laissez-faire leadership, servant leader, transactional leadership, democratic leadership, strategic leadership, bureaucratic leadership, to consultative and participative leadership. It was learnt further that leadership is one of the leading factors in bringing affirmative change in organizations. For instance, leadership is when the leader guides employees towards the direction they desire them in order to achieve organizational goals. It was also discovered that leadership has become an essential component for a successful change in any organization in order to face the ever contentious market competitiveness. In addition, the review as well, covered the concepts of leadership and organisational change management and their types in detail.
... Ayman, Korabik and Morris (2009) examined the influence of the "gender composition of the leader-subordinate dyad on the relationship between leaders' ...
... The results can be interpreted focussing on the employees' attention. For instance, those working in the public sector can be assumed to be more focussed on particular organisational aspects and therefore evaluated a leader's certain behaviour(s) with higher scores (Liu et al., 2012;Ayman et al., 2009). ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the relationship between dimensions of the perceived transformational leadership style and the employees’ workaholism. Design/methodology/approach The quantitative approach with a cross-sectional research design was adopted in the present study. The study involved 250 employees working in different Lithuanian organisations. The perceived transformational leadership style was assessed with the help of the Transformational Leadership Inventory (Podsakoff et al. , 1990). The ten-item Dutch Work Addiction Scale developed by Schaufeli et al. (2009) was used for measuring workaholism. Findings The results revealed a significant positive correlation between the perceived high expectations of the manager, employees’ excessive work and general workaholism. The perceived individualised support was negatively related to the employees’ excessive, compulsive work and general workaholism. It was also found that high performance expectations could predict the employees’ greater excessive work and general workaholism. Moreover, a higher level of individualised support appears to be the most important factor decreasing the employees’ excessive work and proneness to general workaholism. It was further found that the probability of higher levels of workaholism was stronger among the middle managers than among the non-executive employees. Originality/value This study contributes to limited empirical research into the negative effect of the transformational leadership style in determining the employees’ health-damaging work behaviour.
... Transformational vs. transactional leadership literature in most cases examines gender and organizational type patterns: while research on gender dyads indicates that female leaders become more transformative (Bass, 1999;Lien et al., 2022), it also indicates that female followers under female leaders reported higher usage of transformational leadership as compared to their male competitors (Ayman et al., 2009). Lowe et al. (1996) discovered that contrary to their assumptions, transformational leadership and management-by-exception (a type of transactional leadership) are more frequently recorded in public enterprises. ...
... In addition to the theme of representation, other areas of study that have flourished in recent years include the gender wage gap (Vial, Napier, & Brescoll, 2016;Yanadori, Gould, & Kulik, 2018) and how gender stereotypes impact on perceptions of leadership. This work, mostly experimental, has shown how males are more often perceived as prototypical leaders who are presumed to be competent and who are associated with ambition and independence (Ayman, Korabik, & Morris, 2009;Brown, Diekman, & Schneider, 2011;Eagly & Karau, 2002;Kulich, Lorenzi-Cioldi, Iacoviello, Faniko, & Ryan, 2015;Powell & Butterfield, 2017;Rink, Ryan, & Stoker, 2013). ...
Article
The concept of intersectionality, the overlapping nature of social identities and systems of power, has become increasingly influential in the social sciences literature. However, the analysis of leadership experiences at the intersections of culture and gender has remained marginal to the field despite the rapid growth of diverse workplaces worldwide. This review aims to find out whether there is evidence of underrepresentation of culturally and linguistically diverse (CALD) women leaders, analyze common theoretical developments in the literature, and recommend an agenda for further research. In this study, published, peer‐reviewed qualitative and quantitative articles were examined. This critical appraisal identifies three evolving strands of research from the past 20 years. The majority of the manuscripts highlight the absence of CALD women in the leadership literature, describe the obstacles they face, and illustrate how they view their role and enact leadership. This paper discusses the areas central to intersectional leadership that require further examination to better understand the underrepresentation of CALD women in leadership positions.
... In fact, women must work harder and demonstrate greater performance than men in order to be considered equally capable [95]. At the same time, women find themselves in a contradictory situation [96], since male managers are considered to be more competent than female managers, and consequently, more worthy of admiration and respect; women are thus less well accepted, respected, and valued than their male counterparts when they are leaders. ...
Article
Full-text available
The growing global need for social cohesion and sustainable development gives visibility to cooperatives because their principles help to achieve these objectives and the adoption of Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Among them, gender equality policies are in the forefront. This paper explains how cooperatives contribute to women’s professional opportunities and to balancing the presence of women in management positions. It analyzes the predominant leadership styles and gender differences in cooperatives with a sample of 114 cooperative firms. The results show that: a) Both transformational and transactional leadership styles are widely used; b) no significant differences in leadership styles between men and women exist; and c) the composition of management teams results in significant leadership style differences. The transformational style is less often used in mixed teams with a male majority and a woman president, and most often used in homogeneous teams (made up of only men or only women). Transactional leadership is more frequently implemented in teams made up only of women than in mixed masculine teams with a female president. These findings identify women’s leadership styles in cooperatives, pointing out their difficulties and introducing innovative proposals for contributing to their success and the achievement of SDGs in cooperatives.
... Teniendo en cuenta la importancia que representa para las organizaciones hoy en día permanecer a la vanguardia de los cambios intempestivos que surgen en su contexto, es preciso mencionar que las evidencias empíricas señalan que son varios los aspectos concernientes al desarrollo organizacional que han incentivado a reconsiderar las diferencias del género en el rol directivo de las organizaciones, así como el valor que ofrece dar lugar a un panorama gerencial diverso que permita el ejercicio de las habilidades de relacionamiento, y características propias tanto de los hombres como de las mujeres que no solamente favorezcan la optimización de recursos, sino que a su vez den lugar a una organización innovadora que se oriente a resultados estratégicos (Ayman, Korabik & Morris, 2009). De esta forma, el género constituye uno de los factores que establece diferencias significativas en la forma de dirigir los equipos de trabajo en las organizaciones. ...
... La presente investigación ha comprobado empíricamente que la generación de relaciones de confianza desde la perspectiva de género en pymes sector servicios en la ciudad de Bogotá D.C. favorece el desarrollo organizacional y ofrece valor mediante un panorama gerencial diverso, que permite el ejercicio de las habilidades del relacionamiento y características propias tanto de los hombres como de las mujeres (Ayman, Korabik y Morris, 2009). ...
... The findings of the past literature pertaining to this issue demonstrated that in certain aspects male leaders differ from their female counterparts, whereby it has been revealed that men are more task-oriented and on the other hand, women are more relationship oriented (e.g., Ayman, Korabik & Morris, 2009;Bass, Avolio& Atwater, 1996;Butler & Geis, 1990;Cuadrado, García-Ael& Molero, 2015;Chapman, 1975;Eagly& Johnson, 1990;Triana, Richard & Yücel, 2017). On the contrary, literature has also proven that there exists no difference in the teaching practices of men and women (Cuadrado et al., 2012;Eagly, 2007;Laird, Garver & Niskodé, 2007). ...
... Teniendo en cuenta la importancia que representa para las organizaciones hoy en día permanecer a la vanguardia de los cambios intempestivos que surgen en su contexto, es preciso mencionar que las evidencias empíricas señalan que son varios los aspectos concernientes al desarrollo organizacional que han incentivado a reconsiderar las diferencias del género en el rol directivo de las organizaciones, así como el valor que ofrece dar lugar a un panorama gerencial diverso que permita el ejercicio de las habilidades de relacionamiento, y características propias tanto de los hombres como de las mujeres que no solamente favorezcan la optimización de recursos, sino que a su vez den lugar a una organización innovadora que se oriente a resultados estratégicos (Ayman, Korabik & Morris, 2009). De esta forma, el género constituye uno de los factores que establece diferencias significativas en la forma de dirigir los equipos de trabajo en las organizaciones. ...
Book
El retador contexto dentro del que se desenvuelven en la actualidad las organizaciones, genera la necesidad de vincular directivos cuyas habilidades de liderazgo favorezcan el desarrollo de ambientes laborales en los que prime el trabajador como factor de competitividad. Por ello, la influencia de los directivos tiene un papel central en el desarrollo de competencias que favorezcan el desempeño de las personas y la organización, como la confianza considerada un capital intangible que incentiva una mayor competitividad organizacional propiciada por estos al establecer acuerdos cooperativos y transparentes con sus stakeholders (Cegarra, Briones & Ros, 2005). Tradicionalmente existe el paradigma en el que prima el liderazgo masculino en los cargos directivos representando destrezas de una gerencia efectiva.
... Although women's leadership styles "are more effective within the context of team-based, consensually driven organizational structures that are more prevalent in today's world" (Applebaum et al., 2003) and are particularly critical given generational shifts in expectations (Kezar & Lester, 2008), recent findings suggest that the devaluation of female leaders by male subordinates extends to female transformational leaders (Ayman et al., 2009). The single most important barrier preventing women from reaching the top is probably the tenacious stereotypical association of leadership with being male (Schein, 2001). ...
... This view implies that if there is a greater achievement of goals than the organization, the greater the results that will be achieved from these goals. If after the implementation of public policy activities it turns out that the impact is not able to solve the problems currently facing the community, it can be said that a policy activity has failed, but sometimes a public policy results are not immediately effective in the short term, but after going through a certain process (Ayman et al., 2009). ...
Article
Full-text available
Planning can be defined as determining the actions that will be carried out in the future with the aim of achieving what is desired. Planning is often arranged to solve a certain problem at a certain time. Planning is a continuous process, covering two aspects, namely the formulation of the plan and its implementation. Development is a process of implementing activities to make a better change as an application of a predetermined planning process. In the Cianjur Regency RPJMD 2011-2016, it is explained that the policy on public works is directed at road and bridge infrastructure programs, irrigation, water resources, building construction and rural infrastructure development. In accordance with the context of the problem to be studied, this research focuses more on road infrastructure based on tourism in South Cianjur which is expected to increase the purchasing power and welfare of the community, especially those in South Cianjur. This research uses qualitative research. A qualitative approach was chosen because it can be used to reveal and understand something behind a phenomenon that is not yet known or a phenomenon that is little known. The results showed that the implementation of the Cianjur Regency RPJMD policy was deemed not implemented properly, it was proven that good road conditions were around 36.35% and the rest was 64.65%.
... In the past, researchers (Lan, Okechuku, Zhang, & Cao, 2013;Sarwar & Khalid, 2011;Kwak & Kim, 2015;Ling, Lin, & Wu, 2016;Koyuncu, Burke, Astakhova, Eren, & Cetin, 2014) extensively measured the job satisfaction of frontline service leaders and a few extended their research to measure the impact of service environment effectiveness and service performance in relation to leadership. While research on empowerment in relation to gender is generally limited (Ayman, Korabik, & Morris, 2009;Ayman & Korabik, 2010;Paustian-Underdahl, Walker, & Woehr, 2014), it is even more so in the Malaysian context. Thus, this study primarily measured the effectivity of frontline service leaders in five-star hotels of Malaysia. ...
Article
Full-text available
Emotional Intelligence, Perceived Organisation Support and Organisation Citizenship Behaviour: Their Influence on Job Performance among Hotel Employees
... It is worth mentioning that mainstream approaches also analyze the relations between gender and leadership. However, most of these studies focus on gender behavioural aspects and their relationship with the leadership styles of women and men, seeking mainly to understand the possible differences and similarities in leadership styles between men and women, and how these styles influence organizational performance (Aarum & Hansson, 2011;Ayman, Korabik & Morris, 2009;Eagly & Johannesen-Schmidt, 2001;Gipson, Pfaff, Mendelsohn, Catenacci & Burke, 2017). Ford (2006Ford ( , 2010 highlights that, concerning these mainstream studies, poststructuralism allows a more subjectivist interpretation of leadership, analyzing in the speeches given the complex relations between gender, psyche and self. ...
Article
Full-text available
Resumo Liderança é considerada um tema relevante para os estudos organizacionais, fato que pode ser verificado pela existência de diversos periódicos acadêmicos dedicados exclusivamente ao tema. Contudo, apesar da proliferação de periódicos e várias publicações sobre o tema, a definição de liderança ainda é vaga, sendo geralmente considerada pelo mainstream um atributo masculino de líderes individuais heroicos. Assim, este artigo busca realizar uma análise crítica do mainstream sobre liderança, tendo-se como lente de análise a ontologia pós-estruturalista sobre o tema. Portanto, este artigo objetiva contribuir com o debate ontológico sobre liderança ao abordar o que é liderança para o pós-estruturalismo, enfatizando suas diferenças ontológicas em relação ao mainstream. O pós-estruturalismo promove uma ontologia de liderança alternativa ao mainstream que rompe com a concepção universal de liderança ao evidenciar sua característica microssocial e discursiva, concebendo liderança como um processo discursivo micropolítico, sendo fundamental para a entendimento da ontologia pós-estruturalista de liderança compreender (1) a produção das identidades de líderes e seguidores e (2) a materialidade da liderança.
... Furthermore, Ayman, Korabik, and Morris found that male subordinates, compared to female subordinates, are more negative in their evaluation when a female leader considers herself high on the transformational leadership behaviors [39]. Bartling believes that females can be as effective as males in their leadership [40]. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this paper is to examine the different levels of transformational leadership between male and female principals and their relationships with teachers' Innovative Work Behavior (IWB) in Malaysian secondary schools. In total, 477 teachers from various secondary schools were randomly selected as respondents (218 are working under female principals, while 259 of them are under male principals). This study revealed that the respondents agree that male principals practice transformational leadership higher than female principals. However, the female principals were highly influential on the teachers’ IWB compared to their male counterparts. This study provides a glimpse of the teachers' innovative behavior improvement resulted from transformational leadership by male and female school principals.
... Furthermore, the hypothesis of this study is accepted that there is no significant difference between the mean score about the opinions of male faculty members and female faculty members about the level of exiting practices of Inclusive Leadership at the tertiary level. They have the same opinion about their heads' leadership style that result is also supported by (Ayman et al., 2009;Arnold et al.,2015;Abukhait et al., 2019;Munir & Beh, 2019;Paustian-Underdahl et al., 2014;). It is argued that multicultural literature focused on inclusive leadership for better work outcomes (.Qi et al., 2019;Liu, 2016;Zubair et al., 2015). ...
Article
Full-text available
In this study, teachers' perceptions of leaders' inclusive leadership skills were examined to improve their work performance. This study employed a survey research design of a quantitative approach. A sample of 389 teachers of public universities of Sindh, Pakistan, was drawn through a stratified random sampling technique. This study revealed that the heads could play a fundamental role in teachers' job performance by facilitating need-based intervention based on teachers' capacities and innovative attitudes. However, the study findings suggest a shift in the university's organizational structure by listening openly and being accessible, available in diverse situations. Further, the null hypothesis was accepted that both genders have the same opinions about the level of inclusive leadership qualities and viewed that heads' Inclusive leadership (IL) style can enhance proactive behavior of faculty members. Researchers found the theoretical and practical implications for future studies.
... On the basis of previous research (see, e.g., Ayman, Korabik, & Morris, 2009;Eagly & Karau, 2002;Furnham, Hosoe, & Tang, 2002;Lee & Ashton, 2004;McCormick, Tanguma, & Lopez-Forment, 2003;Prime, Jonsen, Carter, & Maznevski, 2008), one might have expected this study to find differences in perceptions of leader effectiveness, confidence, and/or humility according to the sex of the principal and/or teacher. Somewhat surprising, such differences were not found. ...
Article
Full-text available
Humility in leadership has received growing scholarly attention in recent years. However, the literature is devoid of empirical studies of the relationship between humility, confidence (an attribute consistently linked to effective leadership) and leader effectiveness. This quantitative study examined the understudied relationships among these three concepts. In this study, 137 teachers from K-12 educational settings completed a survey measuring their perceptions of their principals' confidence, humility and leader effectiveness. Results showed that humility and confidence were strongly and positively related to each other and to leader effectiveness. The findings provide support for the importance of humility and confidence as attributes of effective leadership and have potentially important implications for educational leadership.
... In the past, researchers (Lan, Okechuku, Zhang, & Cao, 2013;Sarwar & Khalid, 2011;Kwak & Kim, 2015;Ling, Lin, & Wu, 2016;Koyuncu, Burke, Astakhova, Eren, & Cetin, 2014) extensively measured the job satisfaction of frontline service leaders and a few extended their research to measure the impact of service environment effectiveness and service performance in relation to leadership. While research on empowerment in relation to gender is generally limited (Ayman, Korabik, & Morris, 2009;Ayman & Korabik, 2010;Paustian-Underdahl, Walker, & Woehr, 2014), it is even more so in the Malaysian context. Thus, this study primarily measured the effectivity of frontline service leaders in five-star hotels of Malaysia. ...
Article
Full-text available
The hospitality industry is a service industry that is constantly evolving with innovated service models, especially the hotel sector. However, hotel sector jobs are always associated with low paid salaries, unstable employment procedures, socially undesirable working hours and low-esteem job status with poor benefits. In such conditions, service leaders require high levels of motivation, work values, job attributes and job satisfaction in order to effectively interact with both customers and subordinates. Most hotel management recognise that effective leadership is one of the most powerful competitive advantage that one can possess through employee job satisfaction; alternatively, several research findings identify that job satisfaction and leadership effectiveness may not have a linear relationship but rather it intercedes through the level of empowerment given to service leaders and distinguished further by gender. This study examines how the antecedents of job satisfaction influence leadership effectiveness and further tests the mediating effect of empowerment between them whilst moderating across male and female frontline service leaders. A total of 118 supervisory and managerial level employees from four (4) five-star hotels in Klang Valley were surveyed using a self-administrative survey questionnaire. The PLS-SEM approach was used to assess the higher-order moderated mediation model. One of the major findings reveal that all the antecedents of job satisfaction are positively related to the endogenous variable; interestingly, empowerment partially mediates the relationship between job satisfaction and leadership effectiveness across both genders. With regard to practical implications, it is important for hotel management teams to appraise the identified underlying factors as these increase employees' performance which boost the overall service quality of the organisation and meet organisational goals.
... Furthermore, these leaders value their supporters, sincerely care about their personal development and growth. They allow them to be pushed to learn new skills and abilities, as well as to think about situations that are different from their previous experiences [11] [12]. Their interpersonal relations with disciples are centered on coaching or mentoring interactions, in which all the leaders are in charge of encouraging the followers' growth and development [13]. ...
Book
Perceived Role Performance of Female Principals in Nepalese Schools A Case of Institutional Schools
Article
Studies in the think manager–think male paradigm ( Schein, 1973 ) routinely observe gender–leader similarity variation across participant subgroups (e.g., men and women). The traditional use of intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) to measure similarity hinders researchers’ ability to fully understand the nature of these relationships. This article advocates for a regression framework ( Edwards, 1995 ), which avoids problems associated with ICCs. A think manager–think male study based on rating content from Fischbach et al. (2015) was conducted to demonstrate the advantages of this procedure. The results were then compared against the traditional ICC analysis. Overall, it is argued that a regression framework is more useful in testing hypotheses about the relationship between participant characteristics and gender–leader similarity than ICCs.
Article
Full-text available
The preferences of employees of organizations in male and female leadership qualities, as well as in the choice between a male leader and a female leader have been studied. More specifically, three factors have been considered, which can influence on these preferences: gender of the employee, gender of the manager, and the ratio of men to women in the organization. In the process of research, the theory of congruency has been studied, which claims that there is a mismatch between the female gender role and the role of manager. The concept of tokenism has been analysed. Empirical studies show mixed support for the concept of tokenism. Indeed, there are studies confirming that numerical representation negatively correlates with discrimination. Using the theory of social roles, it has been concluded that women leaders suffer from shortcomings based on prejudices related to gender and managerial stereotypes. As a result of the study, the author comes to the conclusion that increasing the proportion of women leaders is an effective way to overcome managerial stereotypes.
Article
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Women's leadership in the education sector began to show a rising trend. This is because the glass ceiling barrier that has been turned into a maze, where more women to contribute at the leadership level, is one of the leaders in schools with special needs. Schools with special needs are schools that serve education for individuals who have differences. All children with special needs have the same rights in their needs education, where they need education more participatory and collaborative, as well as various studies that have been done are more feminist leadership characteristics. This article will discuss the leadership styles of women in special needs schools in Jember, especially in facing the challenges of the 21st century skills. This study uses qualitative research methods with engineering data in the form of in-depth interviews, observation, and documentation. Data analysis includes data reduction, data presentation, and conclusion reduction. Research informants for people who are principals in special needs schools in Jember.. The results showed that the leadership style used by female leaders in schools with special needs in Jember Regency was more to involve relational or transformational, where leadership was built on the basis of communication, relationships, and teamwork, but among these were specific instructional leadership strategies. Women leaders to pay more attention and mentoring and encourage appropriate behavior, both with teachers and students with special needs in their schools. The results of this study can be used by feminist leadership with the characteristics of caring, visionary, collaborative, courage, and intuition.
Chapter
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One of the key drivers of the development of societies over the past century has been the shift in women's social and economic position. Women have since been increasingly moving into the labor market, into employment, and into work organizations. According to the 2017 ILO report, women's overall labor participation is estimated to be 49.4%, and this rate increases to 53% for the East European countries. Even though women's participation in the labor force and in the front-line managerial positions is increasing, we are still far from achieving gender equality. Apart from the participation of women, a number of other issues remain to be tackled such as the under-representation of women in decision-making positions, the gender pay gap, and male-dominated work cultures. This chapter explores the effects of values and gender role perceptions on attitudes towards women managers.
Article
There is a large and growing body of work on gender on leadership, but this literature remains fragmented and incomplete, due in part to insufficient attention paid to nuances of the criterion variable of leadership. To provide a broader perspective on this literature, we draw upon Campbell, McCloy, Oppler, and Sager's (1993) theory of job performance as a framework to organize our review. First, we position gender as an indirect determinant of leadership and summarize prior work on (a) gender differences in leadership outcomes (i.e., emergence and effectiveness), (b) gender differences in leader behaviors, (c) gender differences in direct determinants of leader behaviors (i.e., declarative knowledge, skill, and motivation), and (d) potential mediated or indirect relationships between gender and these leadership criteria. Second, we explore gender as a moderator of both interpersonal (i.e., leader behaviors → leadership outcomes) and intrapersonal (i.e., direct determinants → leader behaviors) leadership processes. Throughout our review, we highlight new directions for future research to advance the study of gender and leadership.
Book
In a time of increasing divisiveness in politics and society, there is a desperate need for leaders to bring people together and leverage the power of diversity and inclusion. Inclusive Leadership: Transforming Diverse Lives, Workplaces, and Societies provides leaders with guidance and hands-on strategies for fostering inclusion and explains how and why it matters. Inclusive Leadership explores cutting-edge theory, research, practice, and experience on the pivotal role of leadership in promoting inclusion in diverse teams, organizations, and societies. Chapters are authored by leading scholars and practitioners in the fields of leadership, diversity, and inclusion. The book is solidly grounded in research on inclusive leadership development, diversity management, team effectiveness, organizational development, and intergroup relations. Alongside the exhaustive scholarship are practical suggestions for making teams, groups, organizations, and the larger society more inclusive and, ultimately, more productive. Leaders and managers at all levels, HR professionals, and members of diverse teams will find Inclusive Leadership invaluable in becoming more effective at cultivating inclusive climates and realizing its many benefits—including innovation, enhanced team and organizational performance, and social justice.
Chapter
Inclusive leadership creates and fosters conditions that allow everyone in diverse groups, workplaces, and communities across and with their differences and without having to subsume or hide valued identities—to be at and to do their best, to see the value in doing so, and to belong and participate in ways that are safe, engaging, appreciated, and fair. Inclusive leaders facilitate participation, voice, and belonging—without requiring assimilation and while fostering equity and fairness across multiple identities. Inclusive leadership is the fulcrum of inclusion because it plays a pivotal role in magnifying inclusion within and transmuting inclusion across levels of analysis: it brings societal and organizational goals, values, and policies related to inclusion to life in everyday behavior and interactions, and detects and highlights relevant micro-level experiences and behavior, giving them meaning and addressing them at the organizational and societal levels. This chapter (1) defines inclusive leadership through the lens of diversity, inclusion, and equity in a multilevel systems perspective; (2) discusses its pivotal role as a fulcrum or force multiplier, fostering and magnifying inclusion at micro and macro levels and connecting micro and macro aspects of inclusion, and (3) outlines key elements of inclusive leadership, including focal inclusive leadership behaviors.
Article
In a bid to improve water supply Tanzania changed its water policy in 2002. It is now almost two decades and water problems have remained a prominent issue. Community leadership is required to ensure increased access to safe water by enhancing effective community engagement in operation and management of water resources. The current study investigated the roles of community leadership in water supply through self-help initiatives in the Morogoro region. A total of 365 household heads were randomly selected for a survey. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used for data analysis. Results show that there is a significant positive relationship (r = 0.562 at p < .001) between community leadership and self-help initiatives. Good leadership practices promote self-help actions in water supply services. However, lack of accountability in the management of community water funds as well as leaders’ inability to lead by self-help actions are examples of leadership ineffectiveness that currently hampers community self-help initiatives. As such, addressing the current water problems in rural Tanzanian communities in a sustainable manner requires investments in programs that empower community leadership, and in some situations, alongside the development of water infrastructure.
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Gender studies of work effectiveness of male and female have being conducted for a long time. However, with the trend of the spread of equality, they become particularly relevant. It is impossible to say with certainty which manager is more effective. Both a woman and a man can be equally effective in any position. At the same time, it cannot be denied that there are significant differences between the male and female management style. They can be considered in a certain approximation, since there are always exceptions to the rules. The article examines the advantages and disadvantages of women’s management style, provides a typology of women managers, a criterion analysis of female and male management styles. And recommendations are also given on what points a female manager needs to work on in order to be more effective at work.
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This research aims to determine the effect of transformational leadership, employee engagement, job satisfaction on job performance with gender moderation from the leader on Health Social Security Administering Agency employees. This research was conducted in Indonesia with a total of 329 respondents. Research respondents were selected using the purposive sampling method. The research sample is Health Social Security Administering Agency employees at branch offices in Indonesia in region DKI Jakarta, Bogor, Depok, Tangerang, and Bekasi with a minimum of 2 years. This research is a quantitative research using the Structural Equation Model (SEM) method. This study proves that there is no effect between transformational leadership and job performance and no gender moderating effect of transformational leadership on job performance. This study also confirms the impact of transformational leadership on employee engagement and job satisfaction. In addition, it also proves the effect of job satisfaction and employee engagement on job performance. The contribution of this research is to add information at the theoretical level of human resource management and positive managerial implications, especially for company management, to determine the proper steps to improve job performance.
Chapter
Leadership is a remarkable attribute; it is one that has been witnessed in the work of renowned politicians, policy makers, businesspeople, athletes, scholars, members of the clergy and nobelists, among many others. There have been so many women and men who have achieved great results, regardless of the nature of their strategic objectives and goals. Granted, not all have had the best of intentions, and their actions may have been somewhat disappointing and even straight-out unethical; however, their success ultimately lies in their followers and achievement of effective outcomes. Their legacy is, in fact, the continuous successes as leaders despite potential contradicting points of view.
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Etude meta-analytique des recherches ayant utilise le paradigme experimental de Goldberg (1968), dans le but d'un examen critique des conclusions sur l'evaluation plus favorable, chez les femmes, des auteurs de sexe masculin
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Examines research using a classic, influential experiment conducted by Goldberg (1968), showing that women were likely to rate male authors (e.g., John T. McKay) more favorably than female authors (e.g., Joan T. McKay) of identical articles. Although replications of this study have been inconclusive, Goldberg's research is still frequently cited as demonstrating an evaluative bias against women. A quantitative meta-analysis of research using Goldberg's experimental paradigm shows that the average difference between ratings of men and women is negligible. Furthermore, although the effect sizes are not homogeneous, the difference remains negligible when other factors such as sex of subject or year of publication are taken into consideration. Several explanations for the heterogeneity of effect sizes and the inconsistency of findings are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Despite an increase in the number of womenmanagers, women frequently have difficulty advancing toupper levels of management. Researchers such as V . E.Schein [(1973), “The Relationship Between SexRole Stereotypes and Requisite ManagementCharacteristics,” Journal of Applied Psychology,Vol. 57, pp. 95-100; (1975) “Relationships BetweenSex Role Stereotypes and Requisite ManagementCharacteristics Among Female Managers,” Journal ofApplied Psychology, Vol. 60, pp. 340-344] and G. N.Powell and D. A. Butterfield [(1979), “The'Good Manager': Masculine orAndrogynous?" Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 22, pp. 395-403; (1989) “The'Good Manager': Did Androgyny Fare Better inthe 1980s?” Group and Organization Studies, Vol.14, pp. 216-233] have found that perceptions of womenare often incongruent with perceptions of successful managers, thegap particularly evident in male subjects [O. C.Brenner, J. Tomkiewicz, & V . E. Schein (1989);“The Relationship Between Sex Role Stereotypes andRequisite Management Characteristics Revisited,”Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 32, pp. 662-669; P.Dubno (1985) ”Attitudes Toward Women Executives:A Longitudinal Approach,” Academy of Management Journal, Vol. 28, pp. 235-239; M. E. Heilman,C. J. Black, R. F. Martell, & M. C. Simon (1989)”Has Anything Changed? Current Characterizationsof Men, Women, and Managers,” Journal of Applied Psychology, Vol. 74, pp. 935-942; O. Massengil& N. D. Marco (1979) ”Sex-Role Stereotypes andRequisite Management Characteristics: A CurrentReplication,” Sex Roles, Vol. 5, pp. 56-576; J.Tomkiewicz & T. Adeyemi-Bellow (1995) ”ACross-Sectional Analysis of Attitudes of Nigerians andAmericans Toward Women as Managers,” Journal ofSocial Behavior and Personality, Vol. 10, pp. 189-198].This study used 702 college student subjects (morethan 90% white, 58% female) to examine the effect ofsubject sex on perceptions of a target (male manager,female manager, prototypical manager), and found thatsubject sexhas a greater effect on the perceivedcharacteristics of a successful female manager than on theperceived characteristics of a prototypical successfulmanager or a successful male manager. Male and femalesubjects generally agree about the characteristics of a prototypical manager or a male manager,but differ in how they perceive a femalemanager.
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As globalization intensifies, the need for tapping the capabilities of corporations’ human resources, gecome more paramount. To this end, businesses cannot afford to have their most important resource, their people, hampered by attitudes that detract from their abilities to perform at their best. This is especially relevant when there may be a misconception that being male is synonymous with management competency. The focus of this research was on exploring the attitudes towards women managers in the United States and Poland. Questionnaires were distributed to two groups of individuals within each nation, professionals and graduating business students or “future managers”. There were 157 and 295 usable responses from Poland and the United States, respectively. The results indicate that Polish women may have more negative attitudes to overcome in becoming managers in comparison to the US counterparts. Perhaps more disconcerting is the potential that “future managers” in Poland may have even more negative attitudes toward women as managers.
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In contemporary research, attitudes toward women appear to be more positive than those toward men in samples of US and Canadian university students, and the evaluative content of the female stereotype is more favorable than the evaluative content of the male stereotype. These research findings on attitudes and stereotypes are compared with the findings of Goldberg-paradigm experiments on judgments of women's and men's competence, which are commonly thought to reflect people's attitudes and stereotypes. Although research on competence judgments has not shown a pervasive tendency to devalue women's work, it has demonstrated prejudice against women in masculine domains (e.g. male-dominated jobs, male-stereotypic behavior). This targeted form of prejudice is consistent with the generally more favorable evaluation of women than men obtained in attitude and stereotype studies because this positive evaluation derives primarily from the ascription to women of nice, nurturant, communal characteristics, which people think qualify individuals for the domestic role as well as for low-status, low-paying female-dominated jobs. Women's experiences of gender discrimination and feminist protests concerning a contemporary backlash against women reflect women's inroads into traditionally masculine arenas, especially their efforts to gain access to high-status, high-paying male-dominated jobs, which are thought to require characteristics stereotypically ascribed to men.
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This chapter examines the changes that have occurred in our thinking about sex and gender during the 20th century, discusses the effect that this has had on organizations and organizational research, and identifies the issues needing attention in the new millennium. Topics include: the doctrine of separate spheres; the evolution of 20th century models of gender (unidimensional models, bidimensional models, multidimensional models); and issues for the new millennium (clarification of the distinction between sex and gender, greater reliance on theory, greater integration of theoretical perspectives, greater awareness of cultural differences). (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The definition of halo error that dominated researchers' thinking for most of this century implied that (1) halo error was common, (2) it was a rater error, with true and illusory components, (3) it led to inflated correlations among rating dimensions and was due to the influence of a general evaluation on specific judgments, and (4) it had negative consequences and should be avoided or removed. Research is reviewed showing that all of the major elements of this conception of halo are either wrong or problematic. Because of unresolved confounds of true and illusory halo and the often unclear consequences of halo errors, the authors suggest a moratorium on the use of halo indices as dependent measures in applied research. They suggest specific directions for further research on halo that take into account the context in which judgments are formed and ratings are obtained and that more clearly distinguish between actual halo errors and the apparent halo effect. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This study examined gender bias on job performance in work settings where confounding variables (e. g., organizational level, experience, education) were cautiously taken into consideration to ensure fair comparisons. Although previous meta-analyses examined gender biases on evaluations, findings in tightly controlled laboratory environments may differ from those in highly complicated field studies. We found little evidence of overall gender bias in performance appraisals in nonconfounded field studies. However, there were significant pro-male biases when only men served as raters. Measure-specific gender stereotypicality, instead of genera! stereotypicality about the job, produced gender bias in performance appraisal. Masculine measures produced pro-male bias, and feminine measures produced pro-female bias.
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In the early 1970s Schein identified managerial sex typing as a major psychological barrier to the advancement of women in the United States. The globalization of management brings to the forefront the need to examine the relationship between sex role stereotypes and requisite management characteristics in the international arena. A review of the replications of the Schein research in the United States, United Kingdom, Germany, China, and Japan provides the basis for a global look at the “think manager–think male” phenomenon. Implications of the outcomes, especially among males, for women's progress in management worldwide are discussed.
Article
A role congruity theory of prejudice toward female leaders proposes that perceived incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles leads to 2 forms of prejudice: (a) perceiving women less favorably than men as potential occupants of leadership roles and (b) evaluating behavior that fulfills the prescriptions of a leader role less favorably when it is enacted by a woman. One consequence is that attitudes are less positive toward female than male leaders and potential leaders. Other consequences are that it is more difficult for women to become leaders and to achieve success in leadership roles. Evidence from varied research paradigms substantiates that these consequences occur, especially in situations that heighten perceptions of incongruity between the female gender role and leadership roles.
Article
offers a comprehensive description of the development and validation of transformational leadership theory / in response to criticisms of the conceptualization, measurement, and evidential bases of the theory, the authors bring together the results of an impressively extensive program of research / they identify what they consider to be both the strengths of their approach as well as the areas needing further development / offer a future agenda for research and training (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The definition of halo error that dominated researchers' thinking for most of this century implied that (a) halo error was common; (b) it was a rater error, with true and illusory components; (c) it led to inflated correlations among rating dimensions and was due to the influence of a general evaluation on specific judgments; and (d) it had negative consequences and should be avoided or removed. We review research showing that all of the major elements of this conception of halo are either wrong or problematic. Because of unresolved confounds of true and illusory halo and the often unclear consequences of halo errors, we suggest a moratorium on the use of halo indices as dependent measures in applied research. We suggest specific directions for future research on halo that take into account the context in which judgments are formed and ratings are obtained and that more clearly distinguish between actual halo errors and the apparent halo effect.
Article
This review article posits that the scarcity of women at the upper levels of organizations is a consequence of gender bias in evaluations. It is proposed that gender stereotypes and the expectations they produce about both what women are like (descriptive) and how they should behave (prescriptive) can result in devaluation of their performance, denial of credit to them for their successes, or their penalization for being competent. The processes giving rise to these outcomes are explored, and the procedures that are likely to encourage them are identified. Because of gender bias and the way in which it influences evaluations in work settings, it is argued that being competent does not ensure that a woman will advance to the same organizational level as an equivalently performing man.
Article
This study departed from previous research on gender stereotyping in the leadership domain by adopting a more comprehensive view of leadership and using a diagnostic-ratio measurement strategy. One hundred and fifty-one managers (95 men and 56 women) judged the leadership effectiveness of male and female middle managers by providing likelihood ratings for 14 categories of leader behavior. As expected, the likelihood ratings for some leader behaviors were greater for male managers, whereas for other leader behaviors, the likelihood ratings were greater for female managers or were no different. Leadership ratings revealed some evidence of a same-gender bias. Providing explicit verification of managerial success had only a modest effect on gender stereotyping. The merits of adopting a probabilistic approach in examining the perception and treatment of stigmatized groups are discussed.
Article
This study provides a multiple-levels-of-analysis investigation of transformational and contingent reward leadership and outcomes involving female leaders. We tested multisource data from male and female salespersons and their female sales managers for individual-, dyad-, and group-level effects via within and between analysis (WABA). As hypothesized, the associations of interest were based on differences between dyads. Each female leader formed a unique relationship with each subordinate that was independent of their group membership.
Article
Theories of transformational and charismatic leadership provide important insights about the nature of effective leadership. However, most of the theories have conceptual weaknesses that reduce their capacity to explain effective leadership. The conceptual weaknesses are identified here and refinements are suggested. The issue of compatibility between transformational and charismatic leadership is also discussed. Finally, some methodological problems involving construct validation and theory testing are identified, and suggestions for future research are provided.
Article
The purpose of this study was to examine whether self-awareness of managers (defined as agreement between self and other leadership ratings) would moderate relationships between (a) aspects of emotional intelligence and transformational leadership behavior, and (b) transformational leadership behavior and managerial performance. Multisource data were collected from 63 managers (who responded about their emotional intelligence and transformational leadership behavior), 192 subordinates (who rated their manager’s transformational leadership behavior and performance outcomes), and 63 superiors of focal managers (who rated managerial performance). Results indicated that correlations between emotional intelligence aspects, leader behavior, and performance varied as a function of self-awareness of managers. The practical implications of these findings are discussed.
Article
This study examined gender differences intransformational leadership from multiple perspectives.The sample was employees of a large international bank inAustralia. Ratings were obtained from branch managers' (n = 120 female and n = 184 male), theirsuperiors (n = 32) and subordinates (n = 588). Thefindings showed that superiors evaluated female managersas more transformational than male managers. Consistent with the superior observations, at the globallevel, female managers rated themselves as moretransformational than males, however, at the morespecific, behavioral level of analysis, significantgender differences were noted only for those subscaleswhich are more interpersonally-oriented. Subordinatesevaluated their female and male leadersequally.
Article
The purpose of this paper is to present a model of four `base competencies' mobilizing innovation and change, managing people and tasks, communicating, and managing self-developed from 18 workplace skills. The base competencies constitute generic skill sets necessary for advanced-level corporate jobs and provide a succinct model of the managerial competencies which advanced level employees, not just managers, need to complement their technical expertise. The analysis is based on the Making the Match Between University Graduates and Corporate Employers-Phase II project consisting of three surveys (1987-8, 1988-9, and 1989-90) of two cohorts of university students (early university and pre-graduate) and three cohorts of graduates (job entry, job change and stabilized). A total of 816 students from five Ontario universities and 794 university graduates working in 20 Canadian corporations returned questionnaires in all three years. The skills and base competencies are examined across the three years and the five cohorts. Base competency ratings of men and women are also compared.
Article
Transformational leadership was clarified conceptually in this study by focusing on leader-follower interactions in terms of multiple levels of analysis: individuals, dyads within groups, and groups. The focal leaders were 186 United States Navy Officers who were graduates of the United States Naval Academy and on active duty assigned to the surface warfare fleet. Data about the officers were collected from 793 senior subordinates of the officers via a mail survey. Results from within and between analysis (WABA) suggest that the network of relationships was based primarily on individual differences in subordinates' perceptions of leadership and outcomes. Transformational leadership as compared to transactional or laissez-faire leadership was related more strongly to subordinates' extra effort and satisfaction with the focal officers and the officers' effectiveness.
Article
Probably more has been written and less known about leadership than any other topic in the behavioral sciences.
Article
This review article posits that the scarcity of women at the upper levels of organizations is a consequence of gender bias in evaluations. It is proposed that gender stereotypes and the expectations they produce about both what women are like (descriptive) and how they should behave (prescriptive) can result in devaluation of their performance, denial of credit to them for their successes, or their penalization for being competent. The processes giving rise to these outcomes are explored, and the procedures that are likely to encourage them are identified. Because of gender bias and the way in which it influences evaluations in work settings, it is argued that being competent does not ensure that a woman will advance to the same organizational level as an equivalently performing man.
Book
This study investigated 3 broad classes of individual-differences variables (job-search motives, competencies, and constraints) as predictors of job-search intensity among 292 unemployed job seekers. Also assessed was the relationship between job-search intensity and reemployment success in a longitudinal context. Results show significant relationships between the predictors employment commitment, financial hardship, job-search self-efficacy, and motivation control and the outcome job-search intensity. Support was not found for a relationship between perceived job-search constraints and job-search intensity. Motivation control was highlighted as the only lagged predictor of job-search intensity over time for those who were continuously unemployed. Job-search intensity predicted Time 2 reemployment status for the sample as a whole, but not reemployment quality for those who found jobs over the study's duration. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The different conceptual and operational definitions of halo are reviewed, and problems when using halo as a dependent measure in performance rating research and practice are pointed out. Four major points are emphasized: (1) There is no agreed on conceptual definition of halo; (2) the different conceptual definitions of halo are not systematically related to different operational definitions (i.e., measures) of halo; (3) halo measures may be poor indexes of rating quality in that different halo measures are not strongly interrelated and halo measures are not related to measures of rating validity or accuracy; and (4) although halo may be a poor measure of rating quality, it may or may not be an important measure of the rating process. The utility of assessing halo to determine the psychometric quality of rating data is questioned. Halo may be more appropriately used as a measure to study cognitive processing, rather than as a measure of performance rating outcome. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Investigated the relationship between perceived gender-role characteristics and transformational and transactional leadership. Questionnaire data from 71 men and 82 women revealed a strong connection between gender and leadership and between the styles of leadership. Both feminine factors and masculine factors showed a positive relationship with transformational leadership. Results suggest that transformational leadership requires a gender balance rather than the traditional leadership stereotype of masculinity. This gender balance must encompass strong, positive feminine and masculine characteristics. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
purpose in this chapter . . . is to build upon existing models of leadership present a new paradigm of leadership, and preliminary evidence, to account for variance in subordinate effort and performance that goes beyond the boundaries or predictions of current leadership theories model that attempts to explain how leaders draw the attention of their subordinates to an idealized goal and inspire them to reach beyond their grasp to achieve that goal transactional leadership transformational leadership and organizational effectiveness (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Sought to refine understanding of transformational leadership theory (TLT) by a specification and test of boundary conditions. Multiple levels of analysis (individual, dyad, and group) were used to identify and assess the potential bounds on TLT. Multi-source data were collected from 105 male salespersons and their 33 male sales supervisors, and within and between analysis procedures were conducted. Contrary to higher-level (dyad, group) and cross-level assertions in the literature, transformational leadership results were based solely on individual differences. That is, in this sales setting, TLT was determined to be an individual-level theory bounded by individuals' (superiors' and subordinates') perceptions and not holding at higher or cross levels of analysis. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
[Correction Notice: An erratum for this article was reported in Vol 112(3) of Psychological Bulletin (see record 2008-10512-001). Some of the numbers in the Value columns of Table 1, page 11, were aligned incorrectly. The corrected version of Table 1 is provided in the erratum.] Reviews research on the evaluation of women and men that occupy leadership roles. While holding the characteristics, except for sex, constant and varying the sex of the leader, these experiments investigated whether people are biased against female leaders and managers. Although this research showed only a small overall tendency for Ss to evaluate female leaders less favorably than male ones, this tendency was more pronounced under certain circumstances. Specifically, women in leadership positions were devalued relative to their male counterparts when leadership was carried out in stereotypically masculine styles, especially when this style was autocratic or directive. Also, the devaluation of women was greater when leaders occupied male-dominated roles and when the evaluators were men. Findings are interpreted from a perspective that emphasizes the influence of gender roles within organizational settings. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
31 male and 43 female hall directors (HDs) and 270 male and 338 female resident assistants (RAs) completed instruments that assessed leadership behaviors and achieving styles. Male and female HDs held similar views of their leadership behaviors. Transformational factors were reported at an average to moderately high level. Relational achieving approaches were the most preferred achieving style by both male and female HDs. Yet, whereas female HDs thought their relational styles contributed to their transformational leadership, men felt no such relationship. Men viewed their power direct styles instead as contributing to their self-view of being a transformational leader. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
review the research demonstrating the significance of social perception in understanding leadership / examine how social perception processes operate in leadership research with heterogenous samples / implication of gender in leadership research, as well as related examples from cross-cultural leadership research will be discussed chapter has two objectives / analyze the methodological and theoretical complexities involved in perceptual measures of leadership / identify the psychological hurdles that people with different physical or cultural characteristics face when occupying positions of status, such as leadership / review of research findings will be aimed at clarifying the role of values and expectations in perception and judgment of diverse people in leadership relationships an analytical examination will be made of the existing knowledge on leadership in settings that are socially heterogenous / in so doing, specific recommendations will be made for future research, in which either the culture or other characteristics of the participants are diverse (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Compared 2 models of the cognitive processes underlying performance ratings: a traditional model outlined by W. C. Borman (see record 1980-26801-001), and a cognitive categorization model proposed by J. M. Feldman (see record 1981-24524-001). To distinguish these 2 models, 120 college students were shown 1 of 2 videotapes of a college lecturer in which 3 of 5 dimensions of performance were manipulated to be opposite to that of the lecturer's overall performance. Ratings were made either immediately after viewing the videotape or 2 days later. Results indicate that the traditional model was appropriate for describing the rating process in both the immediate and the delayed rating conditions. However, a large halo effect was also found that was consistent with the categorization model despite conditions designed to minimize the likelihood of halo. Additional effects of cognitive categorization included a tendency to make errors in later recall of lecturing incidents consistent with Ss' general impression. (48 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
The relationship between sex role stereotypes and characteristics perceived as necessary for management success was examined among 361 male and 228 female management students in Japan and the People's Republic of China. The results revealed that males and females in both countries perceive that successful middle managers possess characteristics, attitudes and temperaments more commonly ascribed to men in general than to women in general. These results were compared with previous studies done in the U.S., Great Britain and Germany, using the same Schein 92-item Descriptive Index, and similar samples and procedures. The comparison supports the view that ‘think manager—think male’ is a global phenomenon, especially among males. Regardless of country context, there was a strong and similar degree of managerial sex typing among male management students in all five countries. Among females, the managerial sex typing hypothesis was confirmed in every country except the U.S., in which men and women are seen as equally likely to possess requisite management characteristics. Unlike those of their male counterparts, the females' pattern of outcomes varied across countries, possibly a reflection of their respective opportunities for managerial participation. The implications of managerial sex typing as a global phenomenon are discussed.
Article
Contemporary models of job performance are reviewed. Links between task performance, contextual performance, organizational citizenship behaviors, counterproductivity and organizational deviance are pointed out. Measurement issues in constructing generic models applicable across jobs are discussed. Implications for human resource management in general, and performance appraisal for selection and assessment in particular, are explored. It is pointed out that the different dimensions or facets of individual job performance hypothesized in the literature are positively correlated. This positive manifold suggests the presence of a general factor which represents a common variance shared across all the dimensions or facets. Although no consensus exists in the extant literature on the meaning and source of this shared variance (i.e., the general factor), rater idiosyncratic halo alone does not explain this general factor. Future research should explain the common individual differences determinants of performance dimensions.
Article
Les données d'une étude en cours furent rassemblées dans trois conditions d'échantillonnage variées afin d'examiner si des cadres hommes et femmes, observés par leurs évaluateurs directs, avaient le même style de commandement. L'étude en cours se démarque d'une recherche beaucoup plus ancienne sur les différences entre hommes et femmes en leadership, en ceci que nous y avons examiné des différences dans les deux styles de leadership transformationnel et transactionnel, en utilisant le Multifactor Leadership Questionnaire. Dans les trois échantillons, les cadres féminins furent reconnues par des évaluateurs à la fois féminins et masculins comme manifestant des aspects-clés fondamentaux du leadership transformationnel (p. ex. charisme, considération individualisée) plus fréquemment que les hommes. Bien que la taille des échantillons fut généralement petites, les données de ces études suggèrent que les femmes ne sont pas moins transformationnelles que leurs homologues masculins et pourraient en fait l'être davantage. Le sexe des noteurs n'apparaît pas comme influençant les résultats obtenus.
Article
Despite being the most widely used and popular measure of transformational leadership, the MLQ has not received much attention in terms of possible method biases, either at the item or structural level. Based on a priori theory and empirical work, we examined the influence of affect on the measurement of transformational leadership, as assessed by the MLQ, and its structural relationships with important organizational outcomes in two separate studies. Results of the first study (N=307) indicated that while temporary mood states have little impact either on measurement or structural relationships, target-specific affect (i.e., liking) influenced both. The effect of target-specific affect was fully replicated in a second study (N=120) using an independent sample and a more conservative estimate of the liking effect. Overall, the results of this research suggest that transformational leadership, at least when assessed with the MLQ, is highly influenced by the interpersonal affect raters feel towards the target being rated (i.e., liking). These results are discussed in terms of their implications for future work on transformational leadership and affect.
Article
In a laboratory setting, 135 undergraduate students (69 male, 66 female; approximately 98% white) completed a mock class scheduling task led by a female confederate who was chosen either preferentially or by merit. Results indicated that (1) subordinate evaluations of female leader performance were not affected by preferential selection, but were significantly related to degree of non-traditional views held toward female managers; (2) commitment to the goal assigned by the female leader was not lessened by preferential selection, but also was significantly related to degree of non-traditional views toward female managers; and (3) subordinate performance on the scheduling task was significantly related to commitment to the leader-assigned goal.
Article
The relationship between sex role stereotypes and characteristics perceived as necessary for management success was examined among male and female undergraduate management students and compared with results of managers today as well as with those of managers studied 15 years ago. Male management students, similar to their managerial counterparts in the 1980s and 1970s, still adhere to the male managerial stereotype and perceive that successful middle managers possess characteristics, attitudes, and temperaments more commonly ascribed to men in general than to women in general. Female management students, similar to today's female managers, no longer sex type the managerial job, a change from the female managers of the 1970s. Implications of these outcomes for undergraduate management education are discussed.