Shrimp Culture: Economics, Market, and Trade

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Abstract Introduction Productive chain Prawn farming in the temperate zone Prawn farming in subtropical zones Prawn farming in tropical zones Global overview

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... Farming juveniles in grow-out earthen ponds for 3-4 months is particularly valuable because it optimizes land use and maximizes productivity. This strategy allows performing one profitable rearing cycle in temperate regions, two in subtropical and three in tropical areas (Valenti & Tidwell 2006). Stocking strategies include the use of newly-metamorphosed post-larvae or 0.5-2 month juveniles, which can be graded by size before stocking (Tidwell & D´Abramo 2010, Karplus & Sagi 2010). ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of stocking ponds using graded and ungraded juveniles and performing drained and combined harvesting on the production of M. amazonicum. A randomized completed-blocks design with 4 treatments (farming strategies) and 3 replicates was used. Treatments were: Upper size-graded juveniles, Lower size-graded juveniles, Ungraded juveniles, all with total drained harvesting, and Combined Harvesting (ungraded juveniles). Twelve earthen ponds were stocked at 40 juveniles.m -2, according to the treatment. After 3.5 months prawns were completely harvested. Lower size-graded prawns showed smaller average weight (3.37 ± 0.25 g) than upper size-graded (4.03 ± 0.40 g) and ungraded ones (3.80 ± 0.16 g). Survival percentage varied from 68 ± 9 to 76 ± 10, productivity was slightly higher than 1,000 kg.ha -1 and apparent feed conversion rate varied from 3.0 ± 0.7 to 3.7 ± 1.3. These parameters did not differ among the farming strategies. The best strategy for short term grow-out M. amazonicum in earthen ponds is stocking ungraded juveniles and performing total harvesting by draining ponds at the end of rearing cycle. Grading juveniles before stocking and selective-harvesting managements are not advantageous because they increase costs and do not improve any production parameter.
... ) per square meter as shelter (Jones and Ruscoe, 2001; Pineda, 2005) and to increase the two dimensional surface area within tanks, three squares (30 cm × 30 cm) of plastic netting were hung every 30 cm from parallel support lines above the water surface during cultivation (Ling, 1969; Valenti and Tidwell, 2006) (see Fig. 1). ...
Physicochemical parameters of water and survival rate, growth, and body composition of the Malaysian prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were recorded and evaluated for six months in two nursery rearing systems: biofloc and traditional cultivation. The study was conducted in a shade house (300 m− 3, plastic mesh, 90% shade) in four rectangular ponds (20 m− 3). Stocking was at 37 prawns m− 2 (0.025 g− 1) and fed twice daily with a commercial diet. Daily temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, NH3-N, NO3-N, NO2-N, and turbidity were recorded daily and the weight and length of the prawns were recorded each month. Water quality parameters were similar in both treatments, except transparency, which was significantly higher under traditional cultivation (36.10 ± 2.06 cm− 1) compared with the biofloc system (7.01 ± 1.52 cm− 1) at the end of the study. Survival rate was > 85% under both treatments, but final size was significantly higher in the biofloc system (11.54 ± 1.87 g− 1, 15.18 ± 8.27 cm− 1) than in the traditional system (10.67 ± 2.26 g− 1, 12.57 ± 7.89 cm− 1). Protein (51.19%) and lipid (13.84%) content in harvested prawns was significantly higher in the biofloc system, which we ascribe to the nutritional contribution of complementary food. The results strongly suggest that the biofloc nursery system is a profitable alternative for locations where climatic and water restrictions do not allow traditional prawn cultivation and also contributes to sustainable use of water and improved nutritional quality of the prawns.
... Global production of giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii has been increased from 17,129 to 180,221 tonnes between 1993 and 2003 (FAO, 2005). Environmental sustainability of freshwater prawn farming and recent technological developments in the culture methods have boosted prawn production (Valenti and Tidwell, 2006). It is a well-established fact that live feed organisms are more favored than the artificial feed in larval and early post larval stages of various fishes and shellfishes. ...
A 60-day experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of enrichment on fatty acid composition of Moina micrura through lipid emulsions containing highly unsaturated fatty acids and to study the impact of HUFA-enriched Moina on growth, survival and fatty acid composition of post larvae of giant freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Enrichment was done in three differently prepared emulsions containing sunflower oil, cod liver oil and MaxEPA capsules (commercially available) as sources of lipid. The feeding trial to post larvae was conducted using three replicates of four treatments which were fed with three different types of HUFA-enriched Moina and un-enriched Moina (control). The prepared emulsions were found efficient in enriching Moina by increasing the level of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) up to a maximum of 7.31±0.07% and 2.17±0.03%, respectively. Growth rates of post larvae increased (maximum specific growth rate=3.60±0.02) with increased amount of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid (HUFA) in dietary Moina. Survival increased (maximum survival=80.00±1.65) as the amount of EPA and DHA increased in the respective dietary Moina. HUFA-enriched Moina showed good effect on the fatty acid composition of M. rosenbergii post larvae with respect to EPA and DHA. EPA percentage in post larvae ranged from 7.82±0.13% (in control) to a maximum of 14.94±0.17% (in MaxEPA group). DHA percentage showed similar trend ranging from 2.45±0.14% (in control) to 7.63±0.19% (in MaxEPA group). The present study indicates that, like in other live feeds, the nutritional quality of Moina in relation to fatty acids can also be increased by enrichment which can influence the growth, survival and fatty acid composition of post larvae of freshwater prawn.
... This rapid increase may be mainly due to the dramatic developments in culture technologies, and the great environmental sustainability of freshwater prawn farming (Valenti and Tidwell, 2006). M. rosenbergii larviculture is commonly conducted in intensive systems with high stocking density. ...
The effects of ambient nitrite concentrations on larval development of giant river prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated. The trials were conducted in two phases: phase 1, larvae from stages I through VIII and phase 2, larvae from stage VIII until post-larvae. In both phases larvae were kept in water with nitrite (NO2–N) concentrations of 0, 2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/L. Oxygen consumption was analyzed for larvae in stage II at nitrite concentrations of 0, 4, and 8 mg/L. Survival, weight gain, larval stage index and metamorphosis rate decreased linearly with increasing ambient nitrite concentration. However, there was no significant difference between larvae subjected to 0 and 2 mg/L NO2–N. In phase 1, there was total mortality at 16 mg/L NO2–N, while in phase 2 larval development stopped at stage X in this treatment. The oxygen consumption in stage II increased significantly at NO2–N concentration from 0 to 4 mg/L, but there was no difference between 4 and 8 mg/L NO2–N. In conclusion, increasing ambient nitrite up to 16 mg/L NO2–N delays larval development, reduces larval growth rate and causes mortality, whereas no significant effect occurs for levels below 2 mg/L NO2–N. However, the establishment of a general safe level of nitrite to M. rosenbergii hatchery may be difficult due to the great variability in larvae individual sensitivity.
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We describe the downstream supply and value chains originating from commercial tambatinga farming in Midnorth Brazil, which was used as a model for inland pond fish farming in tropical South America. We assessed how farm size affects intermediaries, job creation, income generation, and the number of wealth beneficiaries. We surveyed 16 commercial farms from 0.1 to 220 ha and their supply chains. To compare wealth creation and the number of beneficiaries, we established a baseline annual production of 550 t. Labor hours per tonne tended to rise in medium and extra-large farms. We identified 7 downstream supply/value chains, which can be grouped into farmer-controlled and intermediary-controlled supply/value chains. The first group includes small farms selling their fish directly to consumers, while the second encompasses medium, large, and extra-large farms relying on intermediary trading. These two types showed different impacts on wealth creation and the number of wealth beneficiaries. The first group generates significant wages concentrated in the farmers’ segment. This permits small farms to compensate for their low production level and to obtain economic outcomes sufficient to have a decent life and it allows wealth distribution. This model makes small fish farms (around 1 ha or less) an interesting business to alleviate poverty, provide food security and decent jobs, and reduce inequalities. The intermediary-controlled chains consist of non-vertically integrated farms composed of supply chains with intermediaries that transport and trade fish, mostly in remote markets. Thus, various stakeholders share the gross revenue. This was found to result in poor economic outcomes for the livelihoods of small farms and small intermediaries. Therefore, this model is more suitable for large farms or intermediaries, resulting in fewer wealth beneficiaries.
Males of Macrobrachium olfersii have a large cheliped (second pereiopod) with individual variations in shape and ornamentation, and they vary in size within and between populations. Some misidentification or doubts about taxonomic validity occur due to this morphological variability throughout their geographic distribution. We carried out a morphometric analysis to detect specific patterns and the potential occurrence of morphotypes in M. olfersii from different populations. Our data set included 52 females and 109 males collected in the Neotropical region, between the north and south limits of Brazilian territory, in coastal rivers from the states of Rio Grande do Norte, Bahia, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina. Body measurements were size standardized by allometric methods and explored by the principal component analysis (PCA) and non‐hierarchical analysis of K‐means clustering and canonical variate analysis (CVA). Our results suggested three distinct morphological groups (morphotypes) only for males in M. olfersii. Furthermore, the confirmation of monophyly of the different populations of M. olfersii was accomplished by sequences of 16S rDNA. Additional studies about relative growth in other populations and the analysis of the entire ontogenetic development of males in the laboratory will be important to complement the knowledge about morphotypes in this species.
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Fresh and local production of tropical fish species are growing in demand in subtropical and temperate regions. However, their productions are limited by the short growing season and uncertainty related to using agricultural greenhouses. Thus, this study evaluated the economic feasibility of Amazon River prawn (Macrobrachium amazonicum) and tambaqui (Colossoma macropomum) grow-outs in monoculture and integrated multi-trophic aquaculture (IMTA) systems carried out in a subtropical region of Brazil, considering the transfer of the fish to agricultural greenhouses to complete the grow-out during the winter season. Simulations were performed of each system on small- (1 ha) and medium (5 ha)-sized properties to test the effects of production system and scale on cost return and cash flow, economic indicators, and sensitivity (risk) to productivity and market changes. Treatments were prawn monoculture (PRWN), tambaqui monoculture (FISH), IMTA of prawns and tambaqui reared free-swimming (IMTA), and IMTA of prawns reared free-swimming and tambaqui reared in net cages (CAGE). Harvested prawns were marketed for recreational fishing and the tambaqui is traded for the next grow-out phase after overwintering in greenhouses. Internal rate of return (IRR), net present value (NPV), payback period (PP), and benefit–cost ratio (BCR) showed economic feasibility for all systems, and shorter PP and greater profitability were observed with an increased size of the properties. In addition, the integrated systems showed resilience by remaining economically feasible when subjected to variations in productivity, major costs, and selling price. Further research should test the technical feasibility of producing tambaqui in greenhouses during the winter in colder climates.
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Inadequate seed supply remains a bottleneck for the expansion of the Macrobrachium rosenbergii production industry. Nevertheless, the limitation is not technical, and thus, we presumed that fragile production chains and economic feasibility might be the major issues. Therefore, we investigated the intensification as a way to improve the system's profitability and resilience. We have reported relevant costs and revenues of hypothetical hatcheries stocking 50, 100, and 140 larvae per L in clear water recirculating systems. A Monte Carlo simulation assessed the risks associated with development and management. Data showed that all hatcheries are profitable. Nevertheless, 100 and 140 larvae per L reached better economic results than 50 larvae per L. With less than 40% of the selling price, high‐density hatcheries covered their costs and became profitable. The Monte Carlo simulation demonstrated that high‐density hatcheries are more resilient to production and marketing oscillations. However, the use of 140 larvae per L requires greater investment and is more susceptible to production risks and instabilities. Therefore, 100 larvae per L is the most appropriate stocking density for M. rosenbergii hatchery in clear water recirculating systems. Additionally, the scaled production, the adoption of realistic selling price, diversification of products and markets may strengthen the production chain and hatcheries resilience.
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Integrated aquaculture can be defined as aquaculture systems sharing resources with other activities, commonly agricultural, agroindustrial, and infrastructural. Freshwater prawns are excellent options for integration, since they are omnivores and can therefore take advantage of a wide range of feed residuals, either from aquatic or terrestrial species. Furthermore, due to their benthic habit, they have a well-defined spatial distribution in the environment, thus favoring interaction with various species of fish, other animals, and even with plants. The integrated farming of freshwater prawns includes different culture systems, such as polyculture and coculture with other aquatic species, rice-prawn culture, hydroponics, and integration with terrestrial animals and plants. Our review includes a worldwide perspective on the main commercial integrated systems involving freshwater prawns, the present status of research on integrated freshwater prawn production and the main opportunities for integrated freshwater prawn farming in a world that is moving toward sustainability. The review continues by providing a brief summary of the future prospects for this form of aquaculture. Finally, we conclude that integrating freshwater prawn farming with other aquaculture and farming activities has considerable potential as a means of increasing food production in a sustainable fashion.
The effects of intensification on growth, survival, productivity, population structure, and distribution of harvested biomass in individual size classes of Macrobrachium amazonicum in semi-intensive culture were evaluated. Postlarvae (0.01 g) were stocked in 12 ponds at densities of 10, 20, 40, and 80/m2 (three replicates per treatment) and raised for 5.5 mo. Average individual weight significantly decreased and productivity significantly increased as stocking density increased (P < 0.001), while survival was not affected (P > 0.05). Prawn mean weight at harvest ranged from 3.6 (80/m2) to 7.0 g (10/m2). Average survival ranged from 65.5% (40/m2) to 72.8% (20/m2), while productivity ranged from 508 (10/m2) to 2051 kg/ha (80/m2). Harvested biomass showed a clear bimodal distribution in individual size classes indicating the occurrence of heterogeneous growth, which may affect management and market strategies. Harvested biomass of prawns weighing more than 7 g (the best market size) increases for stocking densities up to 40/m2 and stabilizes between 40 and 80/m2. Growth reduction was associated with a decreasing frequency and average weight of green claw 1 and green claw 2 male morphotypes and adult females as density increased. Thus, the distribution of male morphotypes and sexually mature females are affected by density-dependent factors. Results suggest that prawn density plays an important role on M. amazonicum grow-out phase, as has been demonstrated for other species of the genus Macrobrachium. M. amazonicum tolerates grow-out intensification and may be raised in both semi-intensive and intensive systems stocked at very high densities yielding high productivity.
The farming of the freshwater prawn Macrobrachium rosenbergii has developed rapidly during recent years. Advances in techniques, and the huge expansion of world demand for this species, continue to stimulate the growth of a multi-million dollar industry. This landmark publication is a compendium of information on every aspect of the farming of M. rosenbergii. A comprehensive review of the status of freshwater prawn farming research, development and commercial practice, the book is intended to stimulate further advances in the knowledge and understanding of this important field. An extremely well-known and internationally-respected team of contributing authors have written cutting edge chapters covering all major aspects of the subject. Coverage includes biology, hatchery and grow-out culture systems, feeds and feeding, up-to-date information on the status of freshwater prawn farming around the world, post-harvest handling and processing, markets, and economics and business management. Further chapters are devoted to the culture of other prawn species, prawn capture fisheries and the sustainability of freshwater prawn culture. Contributions to the book have been brought together and edited by Michael New and Wagner Valenti, themselves widely known for their work in this area. The comprehensive information in Freshwater Prawn Culture will give an important commercial edge to anyone involved in the culture and trade of freshwater prawns. Readership should include prawn farm personnel, business managers and researchers, and invertebrate, freshwater and crustacean biologists. Copies of the book should be available on the shelves of all libraries in research establishments and universities where aquaculture and fisheries are studied and taught. Michael Bernard New, OBE is a Past-President of the World Aquaculture Society and President-Elect of the European Aquaculture Society; Wagner Cotroni Valenti is a Professor at the Aquaculture Center, São Paulo State University, Brazil.
Origins of modern freshwater prawn cultureGlobal production statusSummary of opportunities and constraints
Development and present status Freshwater prawns are one of the most recently introduced animals in freshwater Chinese aquaculture production despite the traditional preference of the people to the product in many areas of the country. Real commercial culture of freshwater prawns did not commence until the 1990s although its experimental culture was reported as early as the late 1970s. Freshwater prawn culture has grown very rapidly. This can be attributed to several factors including the traditional preference of Chinese to shrimp and prawn, the decline in the production of marine shrimp culture in the early 1990s caused by disease problems and an increasing demand for high quality products as the living standards of the Chinese people have improved through economic development. The rapid increase in production of cultured freshwater prawn is the result of growth in the area under culture, improved culture techniques and diversification in species. There is no national data available on the total culture area of freshwater prawn at the moment. However, freshwater prawn culture has expanded very quickly across the country. For example, Macrobrachium rosenbergii was cultured only in 12 provinces in 1993 and there was just one province with production of more than 1000 tons. By 2000, culture of M. rosenbergii has expanded to 24 provinces and autonomous regions in China and 7 provinces had production exceeding 1000 tons each. Overall, cultured M. rosenbergii accounted for only 0.06% of the total freshwater aquaculture production in China in 1993. By 2000, this had increased to 0.64%, nearly 10 times higher. In some areas, freshwater prawn culture has become a locally important component of freshwater aquaculture. Production of another cultured freshwater prawn species, M. nipponesis was estimated to be around 100,000 tons in China in 2000, close to the total capture production of the species. In 2000, the total production of cultured freshwater prawn was estimated to be over 200,000 metric tons in China 1 .
Freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii, are a relatively recent aquaculture crop in Kentucky and neighboring states. Kentucky State University's Aquaculture Research Center (ARC) has been involved in prawn production research in ponds since 1991. Technologies prior to 1996 involved stocking juveniles at relatively low densities (20,000-40,000/ha) and feeding a 32% protein diet, resulting in an average yield of approximately 1,000 kg/ha. From 1996 onwards, artificial substrate has been installed in ponds, which offer greater habitable area, and have increased average yields to more than 1,500 kg/ha (in 1998). Although stocking and feeding rates increased with substrate use, the average feed conversion ratio decreased, indicating more efficient feed usage. From 1998 onwards, a phase feeding practice, with higher feeding rates, was introduced. This involved feeding prawn distiller's grains, 32% protein feed, and 40% protein feed at different stages of the growout period. These feeding practices, in conjunction with a higher stocking density, substrate use, etc., have produced average yields in excess of 2,500 kg/ha (in 1999 and 2000).While the technological evolution has steadily increased average yields, production costs have also increased. However, breakeven price of production (in year 2000 dollars/kg) decreased from $18.37/kg (1991) to $9.93/kg (2000). Breakeven price analyses, taking output, input quantity, and price risk into consideration, indicate that the technology developed in 2000, using intensive stocking, phase feeding and artificial substrate, is the most competitive.
Statistical informationThe freshwater prawn fisheries of Asia and the PacificThe freshwater prawn fisheries of OceaniaThe freshwater prawn fisheries of AfricaThe freshwater prawn fisheries of the Americas
— The effect of stocking prawns Macrobrachium rosenbergii at increasing densities in ponds with Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus reared at low density was evaluated. Twelve 0.01-ha earthen ponds were stocked with 1 tilapia/m2 and 0, 2, 4, or 6 postlarvae prawn/m2. Three replicates were randomly assigned to each prawn density. Postlarval prawns were stocked a week prior to tilapia juveniles and both were harvested 175 d after the beginning of the experiment. Tilapia final average weight, survival, production, and food conversion rates did not differ significantly among treatments (P > 0.05); the averages were 531 g, 67%. 3,673 kg/ha, and 1.91, respectively. Prawn survival rates did not differ for the three stocking densities (mean 90%). However, final weight and production were significantly different (P < 0.05) as follows: 34.0, 23.0, and 14.7 g and 639, 909, and 818 kg/ha, respectively for 2. 4, and 6 prawns/m2 densities. Stocking densities up to 6 prawn/m2 did not affect tilapia production and required neither additional feeding nor significant changes in management. The polyculture system allowed an increase in total production with the same amount of supplied feed, thus improving the system sustainability.
Effect of stocking density on growth, biomass increase and survival of postlarvae of Macrobrachium rosenbergii were evaluated in cages fixed inside an earthen pond. In the primary nursery phase, newly metamorphosed postlarvae (PL) were stocked for 20 days at densities of 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 PLs l−1. In the secondary phase (60 days), the densities tested were 100, 200, 300, 400, 600 and 800 PLs m−2. Prawns were fed with a 35% protein commercial pellet. Survival, final mean weight and average weight gain were significantly lower (P<0.05) in high densities of the primary phase, whereas biomass increase was significantly higher (P<0.05). In the secondary phase, final mean weight and average weight gain were significantly higher (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively) for densities of 100 and 200 PLs m−2 than for density of 800 m−2. Biomass increase was significantly higher (P<0.01) at densities of 400, 600 and 800 PLs m−2, when compared to densities of 100 and 200 m−2, whereas survival differences were not significant. High-density nursery culture of M. rosenbergii in cages seems to be feasible, in order to reduce the costs normally found in conventional nursery systems.
Nursery systems and management. In Freshwater Prawn Culture: The Farming of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii
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Flow-through hatchery systems and manage-ment. In Freshwater Prawn Culture: The Farming of Macrobrachium Rosenbergii
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A modernizaçã da carcinicultura dé agua doce
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Situaçã atual, perspectivas e novas tecnologias para produçã de camarõ dedé agua doce
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Carcinicultura dé agua doce como agronegó
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