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Cross‐Lagged Panel Design

Chapter · October 2005with97 Reads
DOI: 10.1002/0470013192.bsa156
In book: Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science
    • "More research, including larger samples, is needed to learn more about the longitudinal dynamics of neuroticismÀ cognition associations and potential moderators. Also, future studies covering a longer follow-up period and more than two measurement occasions are desirable as two assessments may not provide sufficient information on the unfolding of processes and their interrelation over time (Kenny, 2005). In conclusion, we demonstrated in this study that cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between neuroticism and cognitive abilities in late life are moderated by sensory impairment status. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Gaining a comprehensive picture of the network of constructs in which cognitive functioning is embedded is crucial across the full lifespan. With respect to personality, previous findings support a relationship between neuroticism and cognitive abilities. However, findings regarding old age are inconsistent. In particular, little is known about potentially moderating variables which might explain some of the inconsistency. Our aim was to examine the moderating effect of severe sensory impairment on cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between neuroticism and cognitive functioning. The study sample consisted of 121 visually impaired (VI), 116 hearing impaired (HI), and 150 sensory unimpaired older adults (UI). Mean age was 82.50 years (SD = 4.71 years). Neuroticism was assessed by the NEO Five Factor Inventory, and multiple established tests were used for the assessment of cognitive performance (e.g., subtests of the revised Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale). Bivariate correlations and multi-group structural equation models indicated stronger relationships between cognitive abilities and neuroticism in both sensory impaired groups (VI and HI) compared to UI older individuals. This relationship was attenuated but still significant in both sensory impaired groups when controlling for age, education and health (number of chronic conditions). In cross-lagged panel models, higher baseline neuroticism was significantly associated with lower cognitive performance four years later in VI and HI individuals. Our results suggest that sensory impairment moderates both cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between neuroticism and cognitive function in advanced old age.
    Article · Sep 2016
    • "The number of sexual partners outside of committed relationships (Bancroft et al., 2003), more frequent unprotected anal and oral sex (Bancroft et al., 2003), inconsistent condom use (Wood et al., 2013), and sex under the influence of drugs or alcohol (Wood et al., 2013) were associated with greater sexual excitation and/or lower sexual inhibition. So far, these associations have only been assessed in cross-sectional studies that preclude a causal interpretation of causes and effects (Kenny, 2005). According to the dual control model's assumptions, sexual excitation and sexual inhibition should also be predictive of future sexual behaviors in prospective studies. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Women’s sexual health can be compromised by sex-related risks and sexual dysfunctions. Theoretical models of human sexuality are useful to systematically investigate predictors of healthy sexuality. According to the dual control model of sexual response, sexual arousal stems from the balance of two mechanisms. These are called sexual excitation and sexual inhibition. Both propensities are supposed to be related to individual variability in sexual responsivity and thereby influence which sexual behaviors are conducted. The aims of this thesis were to investigate the predictive value of sexual excitation and sexual inhibition for sexual risk behaviors, sexual function, and sexual arousal in women. To meet these objectives, a self-report scale was translated and validated in order to assess sexual excitation and sexual inhibition in women in Germany. Two studies—a questionnaire-based study (N = 2,206) with one-year and two-year follow-ups and a laboratory study (N = 58)—were conducted to evaluate if sexual excitation and sexual inhibition were predictive of these sexuality-related outcomes. Data were analyzed using confirmatory factor analysis, hierarchical multiple regression analysis, and hierarchical linear modeling. Lower sexual inhibition and greater sexual excitation were associated with more frequent sexual risk taking and better sexual function. Several aspects of sexual excitation and sexual inhibition were predictive of future sexual risk taking and future sexual function. Sexual excitation and sexual inhibition were not predictive of subjective and genital sexual arousal. Some lower order domains were moderators of the relationship between subjective and genital arousal. The studies presented in this thesis illustrate considerable diversity in women’s sexual behaviors and experiences. Our data provides supportive evidence for the usefulness of the dual control model of sexual response in explaining the variability in women’s sexual expressions.
    Full-text · Thesis · Mar 2016 · Journal of the Royal Statistical Society Series A (Statistics in Society)
    • "If SES has an impact on health, it is seen as support for the social causation hypothesis; if health has an impact on SES, it lends support to the health selection hypothesis. This popular research design is known as cross-lagged panel design (CLPD) (Kenny, 2005). Even though studies using CLPD can be quite heterogeneous in content, they can run into a common problem of differences in measurement error in the variables, which is the focus of this paper. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We discuss the problem of random measurement error in two variables when using a cross‐lagged panel design. We apply the problem to the question of the causal direction between socio‐economic status and subjective health, known also as health selection versus social causation. We plot the bias of the ratio between the social causation and the health selection coefficient as a function of the degree of measurement error in subjective health and socio‐economic status for different scenarios which might occur in practice. Using simulated data we give an example of a Bayesian model for the treatment of measurement error that relies on external information about the degree of measurement error.
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2015
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