Cross‐Lagged Panel Design

University of Connecticut, Storrs, CT, USA
DOI: 10.1002/0470013192.bsa156 In book: Encyclopedia of Statistics in Behavioral Science
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    ABSTRACT: The goal of this longitudinal study was to examine observed paternal and maternal control (psychological control and autonomy granting) and support (rejection and emotional warmth) as mediators of the relation between children's negative emotionality at 3.5 years of age and depression and anxiety problems at 4.5 years. For 35 children, 60-min unstructured parent–child interactions were rated at 4.5 years. Results indicated that maternal rejection mediated the relation between children's negative emotionality and their later anxiety/depression. Higher levels of child negative emotionality predicted more psychological control in mothers, but did not predict any parenting behaviours in fathers. Higher levels of paternal autonomy granting were associated with more child anxiety/depression. Unexpectedly, however, more maternal emotional warmth was related to higher levels of child anxiety/depression. The findings offer new insights to guide future research on the (mediating) role of parenting behaviours in the relation between children's negative emotionality and their internalizing problems. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
    No preview · Article · Jul 2010 · Infant and Child Development
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    ABSTRACT: Emotion regulation (ER) deficits have been linked to symptoms of anxiety in cross-sectional studies. However, the direction of the relationship between ER and anxiety symptom severity (ASS) is unclear. In order to clarify the relationship between ER skills and ASS symptoms, we assessed skills and symptoms in 131 individuals twice over a 5-year interval. Cross-lagged panel analyses were conducted to test whether ER skills were a significant predictor of subsequent ASS or vice versa. Additionally, we explored whether specific ER skills differed in regard to the strength of prospective associations with subsequent ASS. ER skills negatively predicted subsequent ASS over and above the effects of baseline ASS (whereas anxiety symptoms did not predict subsequent ER deficits). Acceptance, tolerance, and willingness to confront had the strongest prospective effects on lower subsequent ASS. General ER skills may play an important role in the development and maintenance of anxiety disorders.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · Depression and Anxiety
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    ABSTRACT: The capacity for teacher expectation effects to interact and compound across a child's schooling offers a largely untested mechanism for magnifying or minimizing effects. This study examined four types of long-term teacher expectation effects: within-year effects of single teachers, cross-year effects of single teachers, mediated effects of single and multiple teachers, and compounded effects of multiple teachers. Participants were 110 students tracked from preschool through Grade 4 on measures of achievement and teacher expectations. Evidence was found for within-year but not direct cross-year effects. However, path models demonstrated enduring indirect effects of teacher expectations on cross-year achievement. Multiple years of teacher expectation effects were additive in predicting student achievement at fourth grade, with similar effects for teachers' over- and underestimates of student ability. The study extends understanding of longer-term teacher expectation effects.
    Full-text · Article · May 2014 · Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology
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