Article

Interpretations, Evaluations, and Consequences of Interpersonal Touch

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

Key elements of an expectancy violations (EV) framework are forwarded as a possible organizing framework for understanding how touch functions in interpersonal communication. Central to applying an EV framework to touch is assessing the expectedness, interpretations, and evaluations of touch and its influence on such communication outcomes as evaluations of communicator attractiveness and credibility. To address these considerations, an experiment required participants to engage in dyadic problem-solving discussions during which they were touched or not touched by high-valence (attractive, high status, expert) or low-valence (unattractive, low status, inexpert) confederates. Brief touches by high-valence communicators were less expected than from low-valence communicators but positively evaluated from both. Touch also carried many favorable relational message interpretations, and the combination of touch and high communicator valence generally produced the highest credibility and attraction ratings. Some gender effects emerged, which appeared to moderate touch effects. Results suggest that brief touches among strangers may have positive consequences, especially when initiated by high-valence communicators, for whom they may qualify as positive violations.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... A theory that predicts communication outcomes of nonverbal behavior is described by Burgoon (1978Burgoon ( , 1993. In another paper, Burgoon, Walther and Baesler (1992) apply this Expectancy Violations (EV) Theory to touch. Generally, the EV Theory suggests that interactants in interpersonal encounters hold expectancies about the nonverbal behaviors of others. ...
... We use such norms to guide our own behavior and to determine the behavior we expect of others. Social norms reflect judgments of what behaviors are typical for a particular setting, purpose, and set of participants (Burgoon et al., 1992). Think of how social norms and expectations of an interaction in a library will differ from interactions in team sports. ...
... In order to predict touch outcomes using the EV Theory, more insight on all the aspects of touch has to be gained. The important aspect that EV Theory points out is that in interactions with others, the expectancies within a culture vary as a function of communicator characteristics, interpersonal relationship, and context (Burgoon et al., 1992). ...
... However, when such sensations are used in haptic interactions aimed at social communication, that is, using haptics for social touch, a whole new layer of complexity is added. The way any social touch is interpreted, is for example dependent on the type of touch [18], the body location it is applied to [19], as well as relational [20] [21], cultural [22], and broader contextual factors [23]. ...
... The Midas touch effect may be influenced by characteristics of the toucher and the person who is touched. Touch by physically more attractive people has a stronger positive effect on pro-social behavior [20] [88]. In addition, touch by a female seems to have a stronger positive impact on prosocial behavior than touch by a male, for both male and female recipients [98] [99]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This survey provides an overview of work on haptic technology for social touch. Social touch has been studied extensively in psychology and neuroscience. With the development of new technologies it is now possible to engage in social touch at a distance or engage in social touch with artificial social agents. Social touch research has inspired research into technology mediated social touch, and this line of research has found effects similar to actual social touch. The importance of haptic stimulus qualities, multimodal cues, and contextual factors in technology mediated social touch is discussed. This survey is concluded by reflecting on the current state of research into social touch technology, and providing suggestions for future research and applications.
... One substantial attribute of interpersonal touch is its ability to affect impression formation in human communication. Research studies have shown that a touch recipient has a better impression of the touch provider in faceto-face communication than that in non-touch conditions [9][10][11][12][13]. Furthermore, previous studies have reported a spreading effect wherein the recipients have better impressions of the touch providers and information related to them, such as their organization skills [9,13]. ...
... Both direct and mediated interpersonal touch improve the impressions of the communication partner [9][10][11][12][13][34][35][36]. Therefore, since direct interpersonal touch creates a better impression of information that is related to the communication partner [9,13], we hypothesized that a mediated hug would incite humans to have better impressions of hearsay information. ...
Article
Direct interpersonal touch affects the recipients' impression of the touch providers and information related to them. However, the applicability of this fact in mediated interpersonal touch remains unclear. In this study, we describe the alleviating effect of mediated interpersonal touch on social judgment and show that mediated hugs with a remote person affect the impression of the hearsay information about a third person. In our experiment, participants rated their impressions via a questionnaire and recall test. Results show that mediated hugs reduced negative inferences when people recalled information about the third person. As a possible underlying mechanism, we argue that stress reduction through mediated hugs moderates negative impressions of the third person.
... The first fundamental assumption of EVT is that individuals in interpersonal encounters have expectations of the person with whom they are interacting (Burgoon et al., 1992). Burgoon and Walther (1990) describe expectations as "cognitions about the anticipative communicative behavior of specific others" (p. ...
... 236). These cognitions are influenced by the situational context, the characteristics of the communicator, the nature of the relationship, and social norms (Burgoon et al., 1992). This conceptualization of expectations is important to our purposes in that it clearly situates the patients' expectation in a mix of the context (e.g., discussing distressing information), the relationship (e.g., genetic counselor-patient relationship), and the culture. ...
Article
The goals for this investigation were to assess individuals' expectations for social support from genetic counselors, and to explore how these expectations influence perceptions of genetic counselor effectiveness. Two studies were conducted to address these goals. Results from the first study show that individuals most frequently expect genetic counselors to provide options and support following the disclosure of distressing test results, while data from the second study demonstrate that expectations play a significant role in individuals' assessment of genetic counselor effectiveness. These findings shed light on what individuals expect from genetic counselors following the disclosure of medically positive test results and inform how these expectations influence the success of genetic counseling sessions.
... A substantial attribute of interpersonal touch is its ability to affect impression formation in human social communication. Research shows that a touch recipient has better impression on a touch provider in face-to-face communication than non-touch condition [3,4,12,21,34]. Furthermore, it reports on a spread effect that the recipient also has better impression not only on the provider of the touch but also the information relating to the provider, such as his/her organization [12,21]. Such positive impression must induce positive behavior (e.g., chip [6], participating in survey [14], purchase [21], helping [35]); hence, the impression bias caused by interpersonal touch has gathered attention. ...
... Both direct and virtual interpersonal touch make better impression of a communication partner [3,4,12,21,24,31,34,39], and direct interpersonal touch makes better impression of the information relating to a communication partner [12,21]; hence, we hypothesize that virtual hug has positive effect on hearsay information as following: ...
Conference Paper
Although it is perceivable that interpersonal touch affects recipient's impression of touch provider as well as the information relating to the provider alike, its utility in touch mediated through communication devices (virtual interpersonal touch) remains unclear to date. In this article, we report the alleviating effect of virtual interpersonal touch on social judgment. In particular, we show that virtual hug with a remote person modulates the impression of the hearsay information about an absentee. In our experiment, participants rate their impressions as well as note down their recall of information about a third person. We communicate this information through either a speaker or a huggable medium. Our results show that virtual hug reduces the negative inferences in the recalls of information about a target person. Furthermore, they suggest the potential that the mediated communication offers in moderating the spread of negative information in human community via virtual hug.
... For males and females who held a high reward for the receiver of the message, males who employed the high gaze were rated as more dominant whereas females who employed high eye gaze were rated as more submissive. Burgoon, Walther, and Baesler (1992) found that the use of casual touch conveyed nonverbal relational messages such as greater immediacy, greater affection, trust, relaxation, similarity, and informality. The effect of touch in this study was moderated by valence of the toucher. ...
... Attraction and liking are also influenced by relational messages. Burgoon et al. (1992) and Mehrabian (1969) found that nonverbal relational messages are related to attraction or liking. For example, Mehrabian (1969) concluded that eye contact increases as a person reports higher levels of attraction until the attraction level become very high. ...
Article
Interpersonal scholars are concerned about what motivates people to communicate with one another, and how motivation manifests itself in dyadic interaction. Rubin, Perse, and Barbato (1988) identified the main motives for interpersonal communication: control, inclusion, affection, relaxation, pleasure, and escape. Although Myers and Ferry (2001) examined interpersonal communication motives and immediacy behaviors in general, there is a dearth of research addressing how nonverbal cues or messages correlate to motives in specific communication events. Examining the nonverbal layer that accompanies a verbal message is an important step in interpersonal communication motives research. Most of the meaning of a message is derived from the nonverbal layer of the message (Mehrabian, 1969). Incongruent verbal and nonverbal messages are more difficult to interpret than are congruent messages (Burgoon & Bacue, 2003). In addition, the sender of incongruent messages might "come across as smug, insincere, or patronizing" (p. 194). Schrader (1994) found, however, that messages attempting to convince an adversary were rated more appropriate when accompanied by nonverbal indicators of immediacy and intimacy, not dominance. In this case, incongruent behaviors preserved a favorable impression of the sender. Given these findings, it makes sense to examine whether or not nonverbal messages seem to complement or contradict the motivation of the message. Nonverbal cues normally tell us little about the messages when viewed in isolation from one another. Burgoon and Hale (1984) argued that relational messages encompass "both the verbal and nonverbal expression that indicate how two or more people regard each other, regard their relationship, or regard themselves" (p. 193). Although they identified several relational messages, Dillard, Solomon, and Palmer (1999) argued that substantive relational messages could be subsumed into two larger categories: dominance and affiliation. This study examines how nonverbal cues are interpreted in terms of dominance and affiliation for messages motivated by the three primary interpersonal communication motives: control, inclusion, and affection. The findings will illuminate how speakers package messages according to the motive for the communication.
... In situations where they have little or no information about each other, people tend to rely on normative behavioral scripts reflecting polite behavior (Brown & Levinson, 1978; Burgoon, Walther, & Baesler, 1992). The behavioral scripts that shape such normative interactions typically reflect moderate levels of NVI and VPC, such as listening, occasional smiles or head nods, and expressions of interest or condolence (e.g., " I am so sorry that you've had such a rough day. ...
... Immediately following the conversation, participants rated the confederate's behavior in terms of expectedness, appropriateness, effectiveness , sensitivity, and helpfulness. The expectedness measure was adapted from a scale used by Burgoon et al. (1992) and consisted of four items (e.g., " My conversational partner's behavior was how I would expect most people to behave in this situation. " ). ...
Article
This study explores the combined influence of nonverbal immediacy and verbal person centeredness in the emotional support process. Three complementary models were tested in an experiment with 216 participants who disclosed an emotionally upsetting event to a confederate trained to display different levels of nonverbal immediacy and person centeredness. Participants subsequently completed a set of instruments measuring the perceived comforting quality of the confederate. Results suggested that nonverbal immediacy and person centeredness influence perceptions of what makes for good comforting. The data supported 2 of the advanced models but failed to provide support for a nonverbal primacy effect on perceived comforting quality.
... Interpersonal touch within gameplay, defined as any act of bodily contact occurring between two people, may also increase feelings of social meaning and relatedness (Watts et al., 2010a). Incorporating the inherently social gesture of touch into gameplay creates a literal connection between the players, which may result in an emotional connection (Burgoon, Walther, & Baesler, 1992). Enhancing the social experience through interpersonal interaction can not only stimulate behavior and emotions that mark the satisfaction of relatedness, but also present a greater challenge for the players, adding new opportunities for feelings of competency (Watts, Sharlin, & Woytiuk, 2010b). ...
Article
Full-text available
The importance of relatedness in collocated multiplayer video games should not be underestimated. Interpersonal relationships, which develop from social interactions that occur during gameplay, contribute to player motivation and meaningful and memorable experiences for the players. In this study we examined how interpersonal touch within a gameplay experience impacted player motivation and inter-player impressions. Dyads played one of two iPad-based games in three different conditions, one of which required physical contact between the players. Results indicated those in the touch-based conditions scored higher on several measures of intrinsic motivation and impressions of their teammate.
... This effectiveness may be attributed due to the positive feelings fostered toward the toucher and the implicit sense of relationship that is suggested by "making contact." Nurses, librarians, waitresses, and greeters, among others, have elicited more favorable evaluations of themselves by use of brief, nonintimate touches ( Aguilera, 1967;Burgoon, 1991;Burgoon, Walther, & Baesler, 1992;Fisher, Rytting, & Helsin, 1976;Hornik, 1992). Physical appearance also plays a pivotal role. ...
... For example, touch affects compliance to requests [34], can reduce stress [18], and can be used to communication discrete emotions [42] [43]. These effects are strongly dependent on the context in which the communication takes place [12], such as the relation between conversation partners [11], the body location of the touch [46], the type of touch [24], and the communication partner's culture [67]. Effects can range from very positive affective responses, such as in the case of receiving a hug from a loved one, to very negative, for example when standing shoulder-to-shoulder in a busy train. ...
Conference Paper
Full-text available
In this paper we outline the design and development of an embodied conversational agent setup that incorporates an augmented reality screen and tactile sleeve. With this setup the agent can visually and physically touch the user. We provide a literature overview of embodied conversational agents, as well as haptic technologies, and argue for the importance of adding touch to an embodied conversational agent. Finally, we provide guidelines for studies involving the touching virtual agent (TVA) setup. © IFIP International Federation for Information Processing 2014
... To give expectancy-and violation-based predictions the necessary empirical grounding, our own work within U.S. culture has been investigating systematically the expectations, meanings, and evaluations associated with various nonverbal behaviors and composites (see Burgoon & Hoobler, 2002, for a summary). Our results have shown that some behaviors have consensual interpretations and evaluations, whereas others are moderated by communicator valence (Burgoon, 1992; Burgoon et al., 1986; Burgoon, Newton, Walther, & Baesler, 1989; Burgoon, Walther, & Baesler, 1992). For example, nearly constant gaze is interpreted as dominant when exhibited by a highly regarded male but as submissive when exhibited by a highly regarded female. ...
... Levav & Argo, 2010) and has a generally soothing and calming effect (e.g. Burgoon, 1991;Burgoon, Walther, & Baesler, 1992), and we therefore considered the possibility that self-touch primarily influences positive attitudes. To test this, we had participants evaluate either positive or negative framings of the same object. ...
... Nguyen, Heslin and Nguyen (1975) found that touching larger skin surfaces signified playfulness, warmth/love, and friendship/ fellowship. Similarly, Burgoon, Walther and Baesler (1992), also found that the combination of touch and high communicator valence produced the highest credibility and attraction ratings. Lee et al. (2006) showed that that physical embodiment with no possibility of tactile interaction decreases a robot's social presence, causing null or even negative effects in HRI. ...
Article
Full-text available
There has been a considerable transformation in game preferences of children with the rapid development of information and communication technology. Computer games became the mostly preferred spare time activity for children of different ages. Several studies found that technology, ranging from computer applications to social robots, can act as a mediator to improve interaction for children with social impairments. The contribution presented is an intermediate step which combines the embodiment with tangible and intuitive interaction that social robots can offer and an affordable and autonomous solution as a computer game. Probogotchi is a way to play an educational computer game, where children have to interact with a toy equipped with sensors connected to a PC. The control architecture is built around an artificial homeostatic system for social agents and is set to simulate pet-like behavior, resulting in a dependency on the user's interactions. As such, affective human-computer interaction is achieved. The homeostatic regulation is an autonomous system that uses input stimuli from a tactile and object identification system to detect certain actions originating from the user. If an action is triggered, it will influence the internal needs that are subsequently translated into an emotional state. This emotional state is communicated back to the user by a virtual model showing the corresponding facial expression. For the evaluation section, a preliminary study using Probogotchi as a bridge for interaction between a child with ASD and his typically developed sibling is for the first time described. Quantitative data and qualitative observations are presented. The paper concludes with a focus on the technical limitations and also on future developments and implications for the clinical use of Probogotchi game for children with autism.
... One possible reason for this difference might be the greater difference in acceptance of touch between hearing boys and deaf boys compared to hearing girls and deaf girls. The norm of low acceptance of affectionate touch between samesex peers in hearing populations (Burgoon, Walther, & Baesler, 1992) might be somewhat protective for hearing boys. Alternate reasons for this gender difference should be examined in further research. ...
Article
Full-text available
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the consequences of sexual and physical trauma among a sample of deaf adults. Thirty-two men and 45 women completed the Life Event Checklist (LEC), the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale (CAPS), the Trauma Symptom Inventory (TSI), the Somatoform Dissociation Questionnaire-20 (SDQ-20) and a sociodemographic questionnaire. In this sample, 40.6% of the male participants and 53.3% of the female participants had experienced some type of sexual trauma during their lifetimes. Physical trauma was reported by 75% of males and 71.1% of female participants. For those who had experienced childhood sexual trauma, the odds ratio of revictimization in adulthood was 6.69. Sexual trauma also rarely occurred by itself. Two thirds of all participants with sexual trauma histories also reported some type of physical abuse. Participants with sexual trauma histories displayed significantly more symptoms of PTSD and depression than people without such trauma history. Physical and sexual abuse represent significant problems in the deaf community. The authors include a call for the development of targeted intervention attempts to prevent further victimization in deaf child and adolescent populations.
... Robots can emulate human strategies for the formation and maintenance of relationships; on-going relationships between human and robot can thus exist (e.g., Bickmore and Picard, 2005;Gonsior et al., 2012;Kim et al., 2013;Kühnlenz et al., 2013;Leite et al., 2013). Some human interpersonal touches are only appropriate between people in a close relationship (e.g., Burgoon et al., 1992;Thompson and Hampton, 2011;Camps et al., 2012). Moreover, the effectiveness of touch on stress reduction also appears to depend on the strength of the interpersonal relationship (e.g., Grewen et al., 2003;Coan et al., 2006;Ditzen et al., 2007). ...
Article
Social touch forms an important aspect of the human non-verbal communication repertoire, but is often overlooked in human-robot interaction. In this study, we investigated whether robot-initiated touches can induce physiological, emotional, and behavioral responses similar to those reported for human touches. 39 Participants were invited to watch a scary movie together with a robot that spoke soothing words. In the Touch condition, these words were accompanied by a touch on the shoulder. We hypothesized that this touch – as compared with no touch – could (H1) attenuate physiological (heart rate (variability), skin conductance, cortisol, and respiration rate) and subjective stress responses that were caused by the movie. Moreover, we expected that a touch could (H2) decrease aversion towards the movie, (H3) increase positive perceptions of the robot (e.g., its appearance and one’s attitude towards it), and (H4) increase compliance to the robot’s request to make a monetary donation. Although the movie did increase arousal as intended, none of the hypotheses could be confirmed. Our findings suggest that merely simulating a human touching action with the robot’s limbs is insufficient to elicit physiological, emotional, and behavioral responses in this specific context and with this amount of participants. To inform future research on the opportunities and limitations of robot-initiated touch, we reflect on our methodology and identify dimensions that may play a role in physical human-robot interactions: e.g., the robot’s touching behavior, its appearance and behavior, the user’s personality, the body location where the touch is applied, and the (social) context of the interaction. Social touch can only become an integral and effective part of a robot’s non-verbal communication repertoire, when we better understand if, and under which boundary conditions such touches can elicit responses in humans.
... Henley (1977) initially conducted individual research and then with her associate LaFrance (1984) they studied the inter-sex non verbal behaviour where the touching factor was incorporated. Burgoon (1992) dealt mainly with the types of handshake and the social importance of each one. Ritchmont and his collaborator McCroskey (2000) studied non verbal behaviour in the cross-cultural and international relations (Stamatis, 2005). ...
Article
Introducción. El sentido del tacto se relaciona positivamente con numerosos estímulos y formas del entorno dando lugar a una forma efectiva de comunicación no verbal. Más específicamente, puede producir y transmitir experiencias personales dentro de lo que denominamos “comportamientos táctiles beneficiosos” que caracterízan el proceso pedagógico presentado. La investigación sobre comportamientos táctiles de profesorado de Educación Infantil, y sus aplicaciones prácticas en las aulas, puede generar numerosas conclusiones pedagógicamente útiles dado que explicita las relaciones entre percepciones y procedimientos, así como la contribución del sentido del tacto en el desarrollo del proceso de comunicación de los niños.Metodo. Los datos se obtienen a través de un cuestionario centrado en las percecpciones del profesorado de preescolar sobre las dimensiones pedagógicas del tacto. Además se utiliza la observación y el análisis de vídeos.Resultados. Los estadísticos descriptivos proporcionan, en primer lugar, elementos cuantitativos interesantes sobre las características de los niños y del profesorado en relación con los comportamientos táctiles, y en segundo lugar, las razones de las interacciones entre ellos.Conclusión. A pesar de la fuerte creencia del profesorado sobre la importancia del tacto para el desarrollo de la comunicación interpersonal y para la creación de relaciones profesor/alumno positivas.
... hitting). Incorporating this notion of touch in video games between avatars or characters may produce a real connection between gamers, (i.e. increase their sense of meaningful social interaction and relatedness: [1,20]. [22] found that nonverbal social interactions in virtual environments are governed by the same social norms as found in the physical world. ...
Article
As the number of individuals becoming gamers continues to increase, using video games as a medium to understand the social interactions and underlying motivations of players becomes ever so important. Interpersonal relationships, which develop from the social interactions that occur during gameplay have been found to contribute to player motivation and relatedness within the game (Rigby & Ryan, 2011). In the current study we examined how interpersonal touch, more specifically positive or negative touch conditions within a gameplay experience, impacted player motivation and inter-player impressions in 74 undergraduate students. In addition, observational data was collected measuring the quality of interaction between the participant in the study and a research confederate with whom they were playing an online game. Quantitative results indicate significant differences between the positive touch conditions perceived competence, effort/importance, and relatedness when compared to the control touch and negative touch conditions. Qualitative results also reveal that participants who were in the positive touch and negative touch conditions had more reactions not only cognitively (i.e. in game response) but emotionally (i.e. out of game response like laughing) than the control condition. Touch is only one aspect of behaviors that can help to foster a sense of connection between players. These results begin to highlight the effect of virtual touch on relatedness and motivation. More research is needed to help determine the exact levels of virtual touch, as well as the different types of virtual touch needed to elicit a change in the participant’s motivation and relatedness, with hopes that game developers may take virtual touch into account when creating a game.
... Limitations of our study are its reliance on subjective measures for ASMR and social touch responsiveness, which should be replicated using more objective profiling of ASMR (e.g., Swart et al., 2021; see also Hostler, Poerio, & Blakey, 2018) and laboratorybased tactile tasks (e.g., Burgoon, Walther, & Baesler, 1992;Gazzola, Spezio, Etzel, Castelli, Adolphs, & Keysers, 2012;Nummenmaa, Tuominen, Dunbar, Hirvonen, Manninen, Arponen et al., 2016;Sussman & Rosenfeld;1978;von Mohr, Krahé, Beck, & Fotopoulou, 2018). It may further be prudent to replicate our findings with the full set of stimuli comprising the MTS screening measure (Ward et al., 2018). ...
Article
Full-text available
The characterisation of autonomous sensory meridian response (ASMR) as an audio-visual phenomenon overlooks how tactile experiences are not just perceptual concurrents of ASMR (i.e., tingling) but also commonly strong ASMR inducers. Here we systematically investigated whether ASMR-responders show altered tactile processing compared to controls. Using a screening measure of vicarious touch with a predefined cut-off for mirror-touch synaesthesia (MTS; a condition where tactile sensations are experienced when viewing, but not receiving, touch), we found that ASMR-responders had more frequent and intense vicarious touch experiences, as well as a strikingly higher incidence of MTS, than non-responders. ASMR-responders also reported greater reactivity to positive, but not negative, interpersonal touch. Correlations further showed these patterns to be more prevalent in those responders with stronger ASMR. We discuss the implications of our findings in terms of heightened sensory sensitivity, bodily awareness, and the underlying neuro-cognitive mechanisms driving vicarious tactile perception in ASMR and MTS.
... Understanding the role of nonverbal behaviors in developing high-quality relationships characterized by rapport offers many opportunities for organizational research. First, "touch" is one of the least understood nonverbal codes (Burgoon, Walther, & Baesler, 1992), and the workplace offers a unique opportunity to better understand this form of communication. Indeed, touch in the workplace is provocative because it can come in many forms and be interpreted in myriad ways from positive (e.g., compassion) to negative (e.g., threatening; Lee & Guerrero, 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Nonverbal behavior is a hot topic in the popular management press. However, management scholars have lagged behind in understanding this important form of communication. Although some theories discuss limited aspects of nonverbal behavior, there has yet to be a comprehensive review of nonverbal behavior geared toward organizational scholars. Furthermore, the extant literature is scattered across several areas of inquiry, making the field appear disjointed and challenging to access. The purpose of this paper is to review the literature on nonverbal behavior with an eye towards applying it to organizational phenomena. We begin by defining nonverbal behavior and its components. We review and discuss several areas in the organizational sciences that are ripe for further explorations of nonverbal behavior. Throughout the paper, we offer ideas for future research as well as information on methods to study nonverbal behavior in lab and field contexts. We hope our review will encourage organizational scholars to develop a deeper understanding of how nonverbal behavior influences the social world of organizations.
... There nevertheless was a consistent gender difference in Studies 5 and 6, with male but not female participants perceiving more assertiveness with greater gesturing speed (see Footnote 7). This type of gender difference was not consistently found in the few studies in the Hall et al. (2005) metaanalysis that examined male and female participants' ratings separately for open novel contexts; rather, findings were mixed or ambiguous (Farley, 2000;Forden, 1981;Burgoon et al., 1992). ...
Article
Full-text available
More frequent gesturing, talking faster, and talking louder are aspects of nonverbal behavior often associated with being perceived as more dominant, assertive, influential, or as leader. The causal hypothesis in Study 1 was that people perceive an individual who gestures faster as more assertive and angrier in the context of a work or task-based interaction such as between coworkers. In the between-subject design of all six studies, participants observed at different speeds a cropped silent video of a dyadic interaction. Only hands, arms, and torsos could be seen, and one individual gestured throughout while the other hardly moved. In Studies 1–6, participants perceived the individual as more assertive and less anxious with faster gesturing, which were small effects across the workplace and other contexts. Findings as a function of context consistently emerged for perceived anger and warmth. In Studies 1, 3, and 4, participants perceived more anger and less warmth at slow and fast relative to moderate speed for the workplace and similar contexts. In Studies 5 and 6, there were no differences for perceived anger and warmth for the context of a one-time meeting between unacquainted students. To a varying degree across studies, participants who perceived the individual as more assertive and angrier rated the individual’s gesturing speed as faster, which contributed to these speed ratings being inflated in the slow video speed condition in Studies 1–4. Findings are discussed in terms of the cropped silent video methodology, context, and the identity of the gesturing individual.
... Social touch induces positive feelings and improves interpersonal evaluation [24][25][26][27]. For example, participants evaluate even a stranger more positively, if that person has inconspicuously touched them during an interaction [25,[27][28][29]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Many species use touching for reinforcing social structures, and particularly, non-human primates use social grooming for managing their social networks. However, it is still unclear how social touch contributes to the maintenance and reinforcement of human social networks. Human studies in Western cultures suggest that the body locations where touch is allowed are associated with the strength of the emotional bond between the person touched and the toucher. However, it is unknown to what extent this relationship is culturally universal and generalizes to non-Western cultures. Here, we compared relationship-specific, bodily touch allowance maps across one Western (N = 386, UK) and one East Asian (N = 255, Japan) country. In both cultures, the strength of the emotional bond was linearly associated with permissible touch area. However, Western participants experienced social touching as more pleasurable than Asian participants. These results indicate a similarity of emotional bonding via social touch between East Asian and Western cultures.
... Accumulating evidence suggests that touch is associated with both social and health benefits (Jakubiak & Feeney, 2017, 2019. Interpersonal touch can increase trust, even amongst strangers (Burgoon et al., 1992;Hertenstein et al., 2009). Research among seriously ill older adults in health-care settings demonstrates that touch from nurses can enhance comfort and alleviate symptoms of illness (Sims, 1988). ...
Article
Full-text available
Touch is an important element of human social interaction linked to various dimensions of well-being, but we know little of how it is distributed among older adults. This study considers whether greeting/affectionate touch is a function of characteristics such as race, gender, and socioeconomic status. Data come from Wave 1 (2005–2006) of the NSHAP study from the United States. Results reveal that women experienced more frequent touch relative to men, net of several features of the interpersonal environment. Mediation analyses revealed that gender differences in associations with touch were partially explained by women’s greater participation in formal and informal social activity. No patterns were detected related to race, education, or wealth. This study situates greeting/affectionate touch as a form of corporeal non-verbal interaction that offers a unique lens into patterns of social connection. We close by considering what this form of interaction means in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.
... In accordance with this, receiving a CT-optimal stroke on the arm and palm is found to result in more pleasant feelings and higher heart-rate variability (referring potentially to higher physiological relaxation) if the participants are simultaneously shown attractive vs. unattractive faces (Novembre et al., 2020). In addition, receiving touches on the shoulder and forearm during problem-solving discussion appears to be more positively experienced if the toucher is perceived to score high rather than low on attractiveness, status, and expertise (Burgoon et al., 1992). Moreover, receiving touch on the shoulder in a task-related situation is found to be experienced more positively if the toucher is highly attractive (Patterson et al., 1986). ...
Article
Social touch is increasingly utilized in a variety of psychological interventions, ranging from parent-child interventions to psychotherapeutic treatments. Less attention has been paid, however, to findings that exposure to social touch may not necessarily evoke positive or pleasant responses. Social touch can convey different emotions from love and gratitude to harassment and envy, and persons’ preferences to touch and be touched do not necessarily match with each other. This review of altogether 99 original studies focuses on how contextual factors modify target person’s behavioral and brain responses to social touch. The review shows that experience of social touch is strongly modified by a variety of toucher-related and situational factors: for example, toucher’s facial expressions, physical attractiveness, relationship status, group membership, and touched person’s psychological distress. At the neural level, contextual factors modify processing of social touch from early perceptual processing to reflective cognitive evaluation. Based on the review, we present implications for using social touch in behavioral and neuroscientific research designs.
... hitting). Incorporating this notion of touch in video games between avatars or characters may produce a real connection between gamers, (i.e. increase their sense of meaningful social interaction and relatedness: [1,20]. [22] found that nonverbal social interactions in virtual environments are governed by the same social norms as found in the physical world. ...
Article
Full-text available
With the number of individuals becoming gamers on the rise, it has become ever so important to understand the underlying motivations and social interactions that occur within this video game medium. Research has revealed that player motivation and relatedness within a game setting can be affected by the interpersonal relationships that develop from in game social interactions. This specific study was interested in how interpersonal touch and relatedness gestures, more specifically positive or negative touch conditions within a gameplay experience, can impact both player motivations, as well as inter-player impressions. Additionally, observational data measuring the quality of interaction between the participant in the study and a research confederate, with whom they were playing an online game was collected. A positive relationship was found between player relatedness and positive touch between avatars.
... On the one hand, social touch is thought to possess positive hedonic value (although clearly this value depends on the specific context, i.e., touch may not always be welcome or pleasant), in order to promote affiliative and prosocial behaviour (15). For example, the effects of touch in social interactions have been shown to increase the liking of a person (16)(17)(18) as well as generosity and compliance (18)(19)(20). On the other hand, social touch serves as a form of bonding and reinforcing alliances (21,22). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Social touch has positive effects on social affiliation and stress alleviation. However, its ubiquitous presence in human life does not allow the study of social touch deprivation ‘in the wild’. Nevertheless, COVID-19-related restrictions such as social distancing allowed the systematic study of the degree to which social distancing affects tactile experiences and mental health. In this study, 1746 participants completed an online-survey to examine intimate, friendly and professional touch experiences during COVID-19-related restrictions, their impact on mental health and the extent to which touch deprivation results in craving touch. We found that intimate touch deprivation during COVID-19-related restrictions is associated with worse psychological wellbeing, even though this type of touch is still the most experienced during the pandemic. Moreover, intimate touch is reported as the type of touch most craved during this period, thus being more prominent as the days practicing social distancing increase. However, our results also show that the degree to which individuals crave touch during this period depends on individual differences in attachment style: the more anxiously-attached, the more touch is craved; with the reverse pattern for avoidantly-attached. These findings point to the important role of interpersonal and particularly intimate touch in times of distress and uncertainty.
... The potential benefits of touch have been studied in many fields, ranging from animal studies to developmental and adult psychological and neuroscientific studies in humans [11][12][13][14][15]. On the one hand, social touch is thought to possess positive hedonic value (although clearly this value depends on the specific context, i.e. touch may not always be welcome or pleasant), in order to promote affiliative and prosocial behaviour [16]. For example, the effects of touch in social interactions have been shown to increase the liking of a person [17][18][19] as well as generosity and compliance [19][20][21]. On the other hand, social touch serves as a form of bonding and reinforcing alliances [22,23]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Social touch has positive effects on social affiliation and stress alleviation. However, its ubiquitous presence in human life does not allow the study of social touch deprivation ‘in the wild’. Nevertheless, COVID-19-related restrictions such as social distancing allowed the systematic study of the degree to which social distancing affects tactile experiences and mental health. In this study, 1746 participants completed an online survey to examine intimate, friendly and professional touch experiences during COVID-19-related restrictions, their impact on mental health and the extent to which touch deprivation results in craving touch. We found that intimate touch deprivation during COVID-19-related restrictions is associated with higher anxiety and greater loneliness even though this type of touch is still the most experienced during the pandemic. Moreover, intimate touch is reported as the type of touch most craved during this period, thus being more prominent as the days practising social distancing increase. However, our results also show that the degree to which individuals crave touch during this period depends on individual differences in attachment style: the more anxiously attached, the more touch is craved; with the reverse pattern for avoidantly attached. These findings point to the important role of interpersonal and particularly intimate touch in times of distress and uncertainty.
... Evaluation of the interaction with the robot. To assess how people generally evaluate the interaction with the robot, adapted versions of the Evaluation subscale ( [45]; 4 items; e.g., "I was enjoying the interaction with the robot Nao."; 1 = "strongly disagree"to 5 = "strongly agree"; α = 0.81) and the Overall Rewardingness scale ( [46]; 4 items; e.g., "The opportunity to interact with the robot Nao again is very desirable."; 1 = "strongly disagree"to 5 = "strongly agree"; α = 0.85) were used. ...
Article
Full-text available
Since social robots are increasingly entering areas of people’s personal lives, it is crucial to examine what affects people’s perceptions and evaluations of these robots. In this study, three potential influences are examined: 1) the robot’s level of interaction skills, 2) the robot’s expected future role as a helpful assistant or a threatening competitor, and 3) people’s individual background with regard to robots and technology in general. In an experimental lab study with a 2x2 between-subjects-design (N = 162), people read a vignette describing the social robot Nao either as assistant or competitor and subsequently interacted with Nao, which either displayed high or low interaction skills. Results of a structural equation model show that the robot’s interaction skill level had the strongest effect, with a low level leading to a negative evaluation of the robot’s sociability and competence and subsequently a negative general evaluation of the interaction with the robot. A robot which was expected to become a competitor was also evaluated as less sociable than a robot expected to become an assistant. Overall, in case of an actual interaction with a social robot, the robot’s behavior is more decisive for people’s evaluations of it than their expectations or individual backgrounds.
... The evaluation of the interaction was assessed via the Rewardingness scale ( [21]; 4 items; e.g., "The opportunity to interact with the robot Nao again is very desirable."; 5-point Likert scale; α = 0.85) and the Evaluation subscale ( [22]; 4 items; e.g., "I was enjoying the interaction with the robot Nao."; 5-point Likert scale; α = 0.81). ...
... Individuals touch to communicate affection as well as other emotions, and touch recipients typically perceive intimacy, immediacy, and trust when they receive touch from close others (Burgoon, 1991;Burgoon, Buller, Hale, & deTurck, 1984;Floyd, 2006;Hertenstein, Holmes, McCullough, & Keltner, 2009). Certainly not all touches are positive; people also touch to demonstrate anger and enact violence, and individuals react negatively to touch that they feel is inappropriate for the relationship or situation (e.g., Burgoon, Walther, & Baesler, 1992;Hertenstein et al., 2009). However, within the context of close relationships, touch is typically positive, welcomed, and regarded favorably. ...
Article
This investigation examined the extent to which receiving touch during discussions of stressors predicts subsequent personal and relational well-being. Married couples were unobtrusively videotaped as couple-members took turns discussing their personal stressors with one another. We assessed the degree to which couple-members received touch from their spouses during the discussions and investigated whether touch receipt predicted beneficial personal and relational outcomes after the discussions. Results indicated that disclosers who received greater (higher frequency and higher intensity) touch while they discussed their stressors perceived that they were more able to overcome their stressors, experienced greater decreases in self-reported stress, reported greater increases in self-esteem, and viewed their partners more positively than disclosers who received less touch. Additionally, helpers (spouses in the listening role) who received greater touch during their partner’s stressor discussion also viewed their partners more positively than helpers who received less touch. Implications and potential future directions are discussed.
Article
Individuals often experience incidental device-delivered haptic feedback (e.g., vibrational alerts accompanying messages on mobile phones and wearables), yet almost no research has examined the psychological and behavioral implications of technology-mediated touch on consumers. Drawing from theories in social psychology and computer science, we explore how device-delivered haptic feedback may have the capability to augment consumer responses to certain consumer-directed communications. Across four studies, we find that haptic alerts accompanying messages can improve consumer performance on related tasks and demonstrate that this effect is driven by an increased sense of social presence in what can otherwise feel like an impersonal technological exchange. These findings provide applied value for mobile marketers and gadget designers, and carry important implications for consumer compliance in health and fitness domains.
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether communication via mediated hand pressure during a remotely shared experience (watching an amusing video) can (1) enhance recovery from sadness, (2) enhance the affective quality of the experience, and (3) increase trust towards the communication partner. Thereto participants first watched a sad movie clip to elicit sadness, followed by a funny one to stimulate recovery from sadness. While watching the funny clip they signaled a hypothetical fellow participant every time they felt amused. In the experimental condition the participants responded by pressing a hand-held two-way mediated touch device (a Frebble), which also provided haptic feedback via simulated hand squeezes. In the control condition they responded by pressing a button and they received abstract visual feedback. Objective (heart rate, galvanic skin conductance, number and duration of joystick or Frebble presses) and subjective (questionnaires) data were collected to assess the emotional reactions of the participants. The subjective measurements confirmed that the sad movie successfully induced sadness while the funny movie indeed evoked more positive feelings. Although their ranking agreed with the subjective measurements, the physiological measurements confirmed this conclusion only for the funny movie. The results show that recovery from movie induced sadness, the affective experience of the amusing movie, and trust towards the communication partner did not differ between both experimental conditions. Hence, feedback via mediated hand touching did not enhance either of these factors compared to visual feedback. Further analysis of the data showed that participants scoring low on Extraversion (i.e., persons that are more introvert) or low on Touch Receptivity (i.e., persons who do not like to be touched by others) felt better understood by their communication partner when receiving mediated touch feedback instead of visual feedback, while the opposite was found for participants scoring high on these factors. The implications of these results for further research are discussed, and some suggestions for follow-up experiments are presented.
Article
Tactile contact and compliance to a request: A meta-analytic review Among the compliance without pressure well-know procedures in the social-psychology literature, the Touch technique appears so be really efficient. A host of studies showed that a slightly tactile contact used with a solicitation led the target to accept more favorably the request. Furthermore, unlike further compliance techniques such as the Foot-in-the-Door or the Door-in-the-Face technique, the efficiency of Touching behavior has never been tested by the way of the meta-analytic statistical technique. Our paper shows that the effect of touch is real but seems to be related with the dependant variables used in the experiments. In a methodological and theoretical way the meta-analysis method shows the benefit to synthesize the studies conduct the last 30 years in order to present new research perspectives.
Article
Full-text available
Touch is our primary nonverbal communication channel for conveying intimate emotions and as such essential for our physical and emotional wellbeing. In our digital age, human social interaction is often mediated. However, even though there is increasing evidence that mediated touch affords affective communication, current communication systems (such as videoconferencing) still do not support communication through the sense of touch. As a result mediated communication does not provide the intense affective experience of co-located communication. The need for ICT mediated or generated touch as an intuitive way of social communication is even further emphasized by the growing interest in the use of touch-enabled agents and robots for healthcare, teaching and telepresence applications. Here we review the important role of social touch in our daily life and the available evidence that affective touch can be mediated reliably between humans and between humans and digital agents. We base our observations on evidence from psychology, computer science, sociology and neuroscience with focus on the first two. Our review shows that mediated affective touch can modulate physiological responses, increase trust and affection, help to establish bonds between humans and avatars or robots, and initiate pro-social behaviour. We argue that ICT mediated or generated social touch can (a) intensify the perceived social presence of remote communication partners and (b) enable computer systems to more effectively convey affective information. However, this research field on the crossroad of ICT and psychology is still embryonic and we identify several topics that can help to mature the field in the following areas: establishing an overarching theoretical framework, employing better research methodologies, developing basic social touch building blocks, and solving specific ICT challenges.
Article
Mediated social touch technologies represent touch across distance as a mechanism for building and reinforcing social relationships. We investigated how people perceive and respond to mediated affective gestures given the relationship between participants (strangers vs. known partners), the task carried out (high vs. low emotional salience tasks), and the modality of mediated communication technology used (videochat vs. projector-camera duplexed workspace vs. projector-camera with shape-memory alloy haptics). Through a between-subjects 3 × 2 × 2 factorial design with 162 participants, we found that generally a projector-camera mediated social touch system without haptics performed no worse than one with haptics on most measures. However, we saw significant interaction effects, suggesting that haptics may offer some benefit for high-emotional salience tasks on measures of expressiveness and task load. We reflect on our findings by providing concrete recommendations on technologies to use, variables to include, and measures to consider for future mediated social touch research.
Article
This article focuses on the cultural meaning of art mediated intra and interpersonal touch and space (AMITS) phenomena amongst a group of Korean, female, graduate students (n = 22). In a workshop, each student created and shared a personalized Attachment-Based Cloth album. While sharing their albums, the participants’ cultural based AMITS behaviors included frequent reaching out to, touching, and manipulating their partner's album. Analyses of a survey suggested that AMITS themes were respect, care, and support, the degree of which was mediated by familiarity. Engaging with AMITS also facilitated the expression of autobiographical memories and interpersonal relationships, communication of respect, and could replace some of the functions of physical touch.
Conference Paper
When people share updates with their friends on Facebook they have varying expectations for the feedback they will receive. In this study, we quantitatively examine the factors contributing to feedback expectations and the potential outcomes of expectation fulfillment. We conducted two sets of surveys: one asking people about their feedback expectations immediately after posting on Facebook and the other asking how the amount of feedback received on a post matched the participant's expectations. Participants were more likely to expect feedback on content they evaluated as more important, and to a lesser extent more personal. Expectations also depended on participants' age, gender, and level of activity on Facebook. When asked about feedback expectations from specific friends, participants were more likely to expect feedback from closer friends, but expectations varied considerably based on recency of communication, geographical proximity, and the type of relationship (e.g. family, co-worker). Finally, receiving more feedback relative to expectations correlated with a greater feeling of connectedness to one's Facebook friends. The findings suggest implications for the theory and the design of social network sites.
Chapter
In diesem Kapitel sollen ausgewählte Fertigkeiten nonverbaler Kommunikation vorgestellt und erläutert werden. Im Einzelnen gehen wir auf haptische Signale, Körpersprache, Proxemik (d. h. räumliches Verhalten) und physische Charakteristika ein.
Chapter
Affectionate Communication in Close Relationships - by Kory Floyd December 2018
Book
Cambridge Core - Communications - Affectionate Communication in Close Relationships - by Kory Floyd
Chapter
Full-text available
In diesem Kapitel sollen ausgewählte Fertigkeiten nonverbaler Kommunikation vorgestellt und erläutert werden. Im Einzelnen gehen wir auf haptische Signale, Körpersprache, Proxemik (d. h. räumliches Verhalten) und physische Charakteristika ein.
Article
This study examined Millennial student perceptions of use of social networking, specifically Facebook, by instructors. Two independent variables were examined: instructor age (Baby Boomer or Millennial) and use of Facebook (utilising a course group site through the service versus not using the service at all). Results revealed that Baby Boomer instructors who used a class Facebook group were rated more highly on mediated immediacy, credibility and affective learning than Baby Boomer or Millennial instructors who did not use Facebook. The role of expectancy violations theory in Millennials’ perceptions of their instructors’ communication is discussed and recommendations are made for future research.
Thesis
Communicating emotions is important for human attachment and bonding as well as for physical and psychological well-being.We communicate emotions through voice, but also through body language such as facial expressions, posture or touch. Among all these nonverbal cues, the tactile modality plays a particular role. Touch happens in co-located situations and involves physical contact between two individuals. A touch contact can convey emotions such as comforting someone by gently stroking her arm.Current technologies and devices used for mediated communication are not designed to support affective touch communication.There is a need to have new interfaces to mediate touch, both to detect touch (to replace the receiver's skin) and to convey touch (to replace the emitter's hand).My approach takes inspiration from the human body to inform the design of new interfaces. I promote the use of anthropomorphic affordances to design interfaces that benefit from our knowledge of physical interaction with other humans.Anthropomorphic affordances project human functioning and behaviour to the attributes of an object to suggest ways of using it. However, anthropomorphism has received little attention so far in the field of Human-Computer Interaction; its design space is still largely unexplored. In this thesis, I explore this design space and focus on augmenting mobile and robotic devices with tactile capabilities to enhance the conveying of emotions to enrich social communication.This raises two main research problems addressed in this thesis.A first problem is to define the type of device needed to perform touch. Current actuated devices do not produce human-like touch.In the first part of this thesis, I focus on the design and implementation of interfaces capable of producing humanlike touch output.I highlight human touch factors that can be reproduced by an actuated device. I then experimentally evaluate the impact of humanlike device-initiated touch on the perception of emotions.Finally, I built on top of these findings to propose Mobilimb, a small-scale robotic arm that can be connected onto mobile devices and can touch the user.A second problem is to develop interfaces capable of detecting touch input. My approach is to integrate humanlike artificial skin onto existing devices.I propose requirements to replicate the human skin, and a fabrication method for reproducing its visual, tactile and kinaesthetic properties. I then propose an implementation of artificial skin that can be integrated onto existing devices and can sense expressive touch gestures. This interface is then used to explore possible scenarios and applications for mediated touch input.In summary, this thesis contributes to the design and understanding of anthropomorphic devices for affective touch communication. I propose to use anthropomorphic affordances to design interfaces.To address the research questions of this thesis, I built upon human biological characteristics and digital fabrication tools and methods. The devices presented in this thesis propose new technical and empirical contributions around touch detection and touch generation.
Article
Following preventive measures is crucial for slowing the rate of COVID-19 spread. To date, most research has focused on the role of individual differences and personality in compliance with preventive measures to COVID-19. Building on findings that interpersonal touch instills a feeling of security, we propose that interpersonal touching behavior, an underexplored factor tied to social interaction, leads to more breaches of coronavirus restrictions by inducing security feelings. In a lab experiment (Experiment 1) and a field study (Experiment 2), we demonstrated that a female experimenter’s fleeting and comforting pat on the shoulder made people less willing to abide by preventive measures in their self-report and actual behavior. Further, we excluded a potential alternative explanation that touch intervention by the experimenter presents the defiance of COVID-19 rules because the effect cannot be observed when the touch consists of a handshake rather than a comforting pat on the shoulder (Experiment 3). Finally, consistent with our theoretical perspective, the results revealed that sense of security mediated the effect of interpersonal touch on violation of instructions to follow coronavirus precautions. Taken together, interpersonal touch not only enhances trust and security, but also can push people away from health guidelines.
Article
Full-text available
The effects of interpersonal reward and violations of conversational distancing expectations on compliance and interaction behaviors were tested in three retail shopping settings. Subjects were salespeople (N = 70, N = 49, N = 104) who were approached by confederates posing as customers or students conducting interviews on consumer behavior. Two levels of interpersonal reward (high versus low levels of apparent status, attractiveness, purchasing power and/or expertise) and three levels of distance (close violation, norm, far violation) were manipulated. Results showed high reward to induce more compliance with a request and more favorable interaction patterns than low reward. Distance violations evoked more arousal, activation and apparent distraction, while the favorability of reactions to distance violations tended to vary by reward level, as expected. Confounding effects of gender, confederate communication style, and possible nonverbal norms for compensation and reciprocity are also discussed.
Article
Full-text available
In this article, key concepts and propositions of expectancy violations theory are explicated and then applied to emotional communication. It is proposed that emotional experience and expression can profitably be understood according to what experiences and expressions are expected in interpersonal relationships, the extent to which enacted expressions deviate positively or negatively from expectancies, the degree to which other types of expectancy violations engender emotional expressions, and the effects of deviating from entrenched patterns of emotional expression.
Article
Full-text available
Nonverbal expectancy violations theory holds that positive violations produce more favorable communication outcomes than conformity to expectations, while negative violations produce less favorable ones, and that reward characteristics of the communicator mediate the interpretation and evaluation of violations. The factors affecting expectancies and the consequences of violating them are reviewed and compared to other models (discrepancy‐arousal, arousal‐labeling, arousal‐valence, sequential functional) employing similar assumptions and mediating variables. An experiment extending the model domain to immediacy violations and to interactions with familiar as well as unfamiliar others had friend and stranger dyads (N=82) engage in discussions during which one member of each pair significantly increased immediacy, significantly reduced it, or conformed to normal levels. Nonimmedicacy violations produced lower credibility ratings than high immediacy or conformity to expectations for both friends and strangers. Nonimmediacy was interpreted as communicating detachment, nonintimacy, dissimilarity and more dominance than normal immediacy, while high immediacy expressed the most intimacy, similarity, involvement and dominance. Implications for the role of ambiguity in violations are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Touch has been described as both the most basic sensory process and the earliest and most elemental form of communication (Frank, 1957; Montagu, 1971). Unlike other forms of nonverbal communication (e.g., eye gaze, proxemics, paralanguage), a separate term does not exist for the sensory process (e.g., vision, hearing) and the communication process (e.g., gaze, speech). Rather, the same term, touch, generally is used to describe the sensory process, specific stimuli, and the communication mechanism. This chapter focuses on the communication properties of touch in general, and gender patterns in tactile communication, in particular.
Article
Full-text available
This article presents a critique and further tests of a model proposed by Burgoon on the effects of violating conversational distance expectations. Based on the results and critique it is concluded that the model needs revision to include the interactive effects of reward and distance.
Article
Full-text available
This investigation explored observer interpretations of relational messages associated with nonverbal conversational involvement and cross‐validated observer interpretations with those provided by participants. Observers each rated five 2‐minute videotaped segments from interactions in which untrained confederates greatly increased or decreased involvement. High involvement, and the specific nonverbal cue complexes associated with it, conveyed greater intimacy (immediacy, affection, receptivity, trust, and depth), composure/relaxation, equality/similarity, dominance, and formality than low involvement. Observers showed high consistency among themselves in their interpretations and some correspondence with participants, a finding which offers qualified support for a social meaning model (i.e., that there are consensually recognized meanings for behavior). However, participants showed a positivity bias, assigning more favorable interpretations on average than did observers.
Article
Full-text available
La communication dite «relationnelle» est traditionnellement reputee se deployer selon deux ou trois dimensions. On presente ici, a partir d'une analyse multidisciplinaire (anthropologie, psychotherapie, expression des emotions, analyse de contenu...) un schema en douze dimensions: dominance/soumission, intimite, affection/hostilite, implication personnelle, inclusion/exclusion, confiance, profondeur/superficialite, vivacite des emotions, sang-froid, ressemblance, formalisme, socialite
Article
Full-text available
The argument for preceding multiple analysis of variance ({anovas}) with a multivariate analysis of variance ({manova}) to control for Type I error is challenged. Several situations are discussed in which multiple {anovas} might be conducted without the necessity of a preliminary {manova}. Three reasons for considering multivariate analysis are discussed: to identify outcome variable system constructs, to select variable subsets, and to determine variable relative worth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
An earlier model of personal space expectations and their violations is expanded through specification of primitive terms, constitutive definitions, and the prepositional logic underlying the model. Five sample hypotheses are deduced and experimentally tested. Results generally support the model: violations by rewarding communicators produced more positive outcomes than violations by punishing communicators, and the relationships between distance and communication outcomes for each type of communicator were curvilinear.
Article
Full-text available
A recently advanced schema for relational communication proposes as many as 12 fundamental and distinctive themes underlying relational message exchange. Reported here are the results of three measurement studies using exploratory oblique and orthogonal factor analyses and confirmatory factor analysis. These offer empirical validation for seven to 10 of the themes. Additionally, results from seven experiments using the relational communication measure provide reliability estimates and predictive validity data. The final recommended measurement instrument is a 30‐item scale incorporating eight independent themes or clusters of themes.
Article
Full-text available
Two competing models of the social meaning and effects of eye gaze exist. One holds that different levels of eye gaze have clearly identifiable meanings that will yield main effects on such communication outcomes as hiring and interpersonal evaluations. The other holds that deviant levels of eye gaze are ambiguous in meaning and that interpretation depends on contextual cues such as the reward value of the violator. An experiment required 140 Ss to serve as interviewers during a structured interview in which six confederate interviewees sytematically varied three levels of eye gaze (high, normal, low) and two levels of reward (highly qualified, highly unqualified for the advertised position). Results favored a social meaning model over a violations of expectations model: Subjects were more likely to hire and rate as credible and attractive interviewees who maintained a normal or high degree of gaze than those who averted gaze. Interpretations given to higher amounts of gaze were more intimacy and similarity, more immediacy and involvement, and more composure, informality and nonarousal. The eyes of men converse as much as their tongues, with the advantage that the ocular dialect needs no dictionary, but is understood the world over. —Ralph Waldo Emerson These lovely lamps, these windows of the soul. —Guillaume de Salluste And I have known the eyes already, known them all—The eyes that fix you in a formulated phrase ... —T.S. Eliot
Article
Full-text available
A central feature of nonverbal expectancy violations theory is that unexpected behaviors trigger a cognitive-affective appraisal of such behavior, leading to a valencing of the behavior(s) as positive or negative. It has been proposed that communicator reward mediates the interpretation and evaluation of such violations but may be more important when the violative act is ambiguous in meaning than when it is not. Unclear is whether nonverbal behavioral composites introduce greater or less equivocality of interpretation. Two experiments employing multi-cue conversational involvement violations addressed this issue. In the first, dyads (N=51) engaged in a 10-minute baseline interview, after which participants rated each other on several measures of reward valence. One randomly selected member then served as a confederate interviewee during a second interview and either significantly increased or decreased involvement. In the second experiment, reward was manipulated as physical attractiveness, status, and task expertise. Dyads (N = 60) engaged in prolonged problem-solving discussions during which the confederates either committed an involvement violation or not. In both experiments, the involvement changes were sufficiently unexpected, arousing, and distracting to qualify as violations of expectations. Analysis of message interpretations indicated that (1) relative to normal involvement levels, increased nonverbal involvement was interpreted as most immediate/affectionate, receptive, similar, dominant, and composed, and decreased involvement as least so, and (2) reward mediated only the interpretation of formality. High involvement violations in turn produced greater attraction, credibility, and persuasiveness than low involvement violations for high as well as low-reward communicators, as predicted.
Article
Full-text available
This paper examined the similarities and differences among several models of nonverbal exchange. In that context, an experiment was conducted to test one specific explanation — the violations of expectations model. Immediacy and reward level (manipulated in terms of friend or stranger pairs) were factorially combined in dyads. A broad range of behavioral, arousal, and impression measures were taken. In general, the results of the experiment showed a dominant pattern of reciprocity to increased immediacy, especially on various evaluative measures. In contrast, compensatory responses were much less common in response to increased immediacy and when they occurred were primarily found on measures related to sensory stimulation and comfort. Although these results provided some limited support for the violations of expectations model, the same results were also consistent with some predictions from alternate models.
Article
Full-text available
According to a social meaning model of nonverbal communication, many nonverbal behaviors have consensually recognized meanings. Two field experiments examined this presumption by investigating the relational message interpretations assigned to differing levels and types of touch, proximity, and posture. Also examined were the possible moderating effects of the communicator characteristics of gender and attractiveness and relationship characteristics of gender composition and status differentials. Results showed that touching typically conveyed more composure, immediacy, receptivity/trust, affection, similarity/depth/equality, dominance, and informality than its absence. The form of touch also mattered, with handholding and face touching expressing the most intimacy, composure, and informality; handholding and the handshake expressing the least dominance, and the handshake conveying the most formality but also receptivity/trust. Postural openness/relaxation paralleled touch in conveying greater intimacy, composure, informality, and similarity but was also less dominant than a closed/tense posture. Close proximity was also more immediate and similar but dominant. Proximity and postural openness together produced differential interpretations of composure, similarity, and affection. Gender initiator attractiveness was more influential than status in moderating interpretations.
Chapter
Surely one of the more exasperating consequences of changing social mores is the absence of behavioral norms for many circumstances that once were clearly programmed, such as, in the case of changing gender relations, opening doors, arranging dates, or paying restaurant bills. This is probably the level on which most of us are conscious of these changing mores; but deeper questions of relations between women and men are involved, ones of power and authority in the home and at work, for which there are still no clear norms.
Article
The study reports a factor analytic investigation of the interpersonal attraction construct. Two‐hundred and fifteen subjects completed 30 Likert‐type, seven‐step scales concerning an acquaintance. Factor analysis indicated three dimensions of the interpersonal attraction construct which were labeled “task” “social” and “physical.” The results of this study and four replications suggest that the resulting 15‐item instrument can be expected to measure reliably three dimensions of interpersonal attraction.
Article
An experiment to test an encounter group assumption that touching increases interpersonal attraction was conducted. Twenty-one college women were randomly assigned to a touch or no-touch condition. In the touch condition the subject was paired with an experimental accomplice who joined her in three bogus ESP experiments, the last of which involved mutual touching for 11o seconds. The no-touch condition was identical, save touching. Subjects then evaluated the experimental accomplice on four dimensions. A comparison of total evaluation scores verified the hypothesis: subjects who touched the accomplice perceived her as a more attractive person than those who did not touch her.
Article
Based on the assumptions that relational messages are multidimensional and that they are frequently communicated by nonverbal cues, this experiment manipulated five nonverbal cues -eye contact, proximity, body lean, smiling, and touch - to determine what meanings they convey along four relational message dimensions. Subjects (N= 150) observed 2 out of 40 videotaped conversational segments in which a male-female dyad presented various combinations of the nonverbal cues. High eye contact, close proximity, forward body lean, and smiling all conveyed greater intimacy, attraction, and trust. Low eye contact, a distal position, backward body lean, and the absence of smiling and touch communicated greater detachment. High eye contact, close proximity, and smiling also communicated less emotional arousal and greater composure, while high eye contact and close proximity alone conveyed greater dominance and control. Effects of combinations of cues and sex-differences are also reported.
Article
On the assumption that a teacher's credibility with his students is related to student learning, a measure of teacher credibility was developed and tested. Data obtained from 1,80 students in basic speech communication courses from two universities indicated five dimensions of teacher credibility: “Character,” “Sociability,” “Composure,” “Extroversion,” and “Competence.” These dimensions were found useful for predicting some aspects of student learning. A 14‐item instrument for the measurement of teacher credibility is recommended.
Article
Observers at an airport coded the nonverbal behavior of 103 pairs composed of a traveler and someone who was greeting or saying goodbye to him or her. It was found: (1) The intimacy of the relationship between two people relates positively to both the likelihood they will be at the airport together (Rho = .74) and the non-verbal intimacy of their encounter (Rho = .54); (2) men tended to initiate touch with women more than vice versa; and (3) the general trend was for more intimate touching to be less frequent (Rho = -.42).
Article
This report reviews the construct of expectancy and its relevance to understanding communication phenomena. Given the shortage of empirically based knowledge about what constitute expected and unexpected interpersonal behaviors and how they are evaluated, a two-part experiment was conducted to determine the expectedness and evaluation of three nonverbal variables: touch, conversational distance, and posture. The possible moderating effects of communicator attractiveness, status, and gender were also examined. Respondents (N = 622) viewed photographs of an attractive or unattractive male or female stimulus interacting with a male or female partner, attributed to be of same, higher, or lower status, who displayed one of seven forms of touch or one of nine combinations of posture and proximity. Respondents rated the appropriateness, typicality, and desirability of the observed behavior. Results demonstrated that several behaviors are expected and positively valenced, while others qualify as positive or negative violations of expectations. Attractiveness influenced expectancies and evaluations; gender and status had limited effects. Implications for information processing and nonverbal expectancy violations theory are discussed.
Article
The influence of touching different locations of the body on helping behavior was examined. One hundred females and 100 males walking in shopping males were interviewed by either a female or male confederate (C). At the end of the interview, the C touched the S on either the shoulder, the upper arm, the lower arm, the hand, or did not touch the S, and immediately after dropped several survey forms. The greatest helping behavior was received when the female C touched male and female Ss on the upper arm, with almost all males helping when touched on this area. However, the male C received about the same level of help regardless of where he touched the Ss, or if he did not touch them. The female C received greater help than the male C, and more help from male Ss than female Ss.
Article
The present study employed an adapted version of the contextual analysis method developed by Scheflen and others to examine the meanings‐in‐context of touches reported by persons from their daily interactions. The results revealed 12 distinct and relatively unambiguous meanings: support, appreciation, inclusion, sexual interest or intent, affection, playful affection, playful aggression, compliance, attention‐getting, announcing a response, greetings, and departure. There were also several kinds of hybrid meanings, the main ones being greeting/affection and departure/affection, and four categories of potentially ambiguous touches: reference to appearance, instrumental ancillary, instrumental intrinsic, and accidental. Finally, the analysis revealed a number of types of “touch sequences,” patterns of behavior consisting of a series of related touches, which took two primary forms, repetitive sequences and strategic sequences. These results are discussed in terms of three emergent generalizations about the nature of tactile communication and compared with past theory and research. Directions for further research are proposed.
Article
Reviews the literature on gender differences in touch, which is divided into observational studies of touch frequency, people's beliefs about frequency and meaning, data on qualitative differences in touch, and studies of response to touch. The observational studies reveal no overall tendency for males to touch females more than vice versa; a tendency for females to initiate touch more than males; a questionable tendency for females to receive touch more than males; a tendency for more female same-gender touch than male same-gender touch; and a tendency for same-gender dyads to touch more than opposite-gender dyads. Some of these conclusions are debatable, owing to methodological problems. Data dealing with qualitative aspects of touch are too sparse and inconsistent to yield much information about gender differences in the uses or meanings of particular types of touch. The literature shows a tendency for women to respond more positively to touch than men. N. M. Henley's (1977) power hypothesis is discussed as a possible explanatory framework. (67 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted a replication and extension of a previous study which found that touching increased liking. 40 experimentally naive female undergraduates were paired with an accomplice (A) in 3 bogus ESP experiments, the last of which involved either mutual touching or no touching. In each touch condition, A behaved warmly with 1/2 the Ss and coldly with the remainder. The only significant effects were due to A's behavior, with the warm A being evaluated more positively. The touch effect in the previous study may have been due to a lack of control over A's behavior or to subtle differences in touch between the 2 As. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This study examined the influence of nonverbally communicated personal warmth on the WAIS performance of 15 Athabascan Indian and Eskimo high school students from remote Alaskan villages. Personal warmth communicated through physical closeness, smiling, and a mutually seated posture resulted in increased intelligence test scores. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
This experiment was undertaken to test two contrasting explanations of the effects of eye gaze on social perceptions and outcomes. A social meaning model holds that differing levels of gaze have such clear meaning that gaze alone accounts for the reactions to it. A nonverbal expectancy violations model holds that normative behaviors are expected in social interactions with strangers and that violating these expectations produces different results depending on whether the violator is deemed highly “rewarding” or “nonrewarding.” This experiment, the third in a series, proposed to extend the violations model by incorporating the concept of positive and negative types ofviolations. Subjects (N = 145) interviewed one of four confederate interviewees who manipulated one of three levels of eye gaze (nearly constant, normal, andnearly constant aversion) and who were assigned one of two levels of reward (highly qualified for the job or highly unqualified). Differential gaze behavior resulted in varied impressions of attraction, credibility, and relational communication, with gaze aversion producing consistently negative effects. Interpretations and communication consequences were mediated by reward, gender, and confederate differences.
Article
The functional significance of structural and sex-related differences in greeting behavior was analyzed through systematic observation of naturally-occurring contact-greetings. Ss were 152 greeting dyads, composed of airline travelers and their greeters. Greeting sequences were found to contain one or more of seven discrete types of behavioral components. Type of greeting varied with location in sequence and sex-composition of dyad. The handshake, mutual-lip-kiss, and face-kiss occurred early in greeting sequences, whereas hand-to-upper-body was the characteristic terminating act. Male-male dyads typically engaged in a brief, mutual handshake. In contrast, female-female and cross-sex dyads displayed relatively longer contacts, composed of mutual-lip-kisses, mutual-face-contacts, embraces, and hand-to-upper-body touches.
Article
Nancy Henley argues that nonreciprocal touch in male—female relations is used by men as a status reminder to keep women in their place. This study examines Henley's argument by exposing 60 observers to photographs of male—female interactions and asking them to rate the pictured actors on the degree to which each dominates the interaction. The interactions differ across two dimensions: status differences evident in the age and dress of the participants (female higher vs. equal vs. male higher) and who is touching whom (female toucher vs. no toucher vs. male toucher). Results of the study support but qualify the status reminder argument. Nonreciprocal touch reduces the perceived power of the person being touched whether the high-status or the low-status person is doing the touching and whether the man or the woman is being touched. Thus, nonreciprocal touch can be used by high-status men to remind lower-status women of their subordinate positions. But it can also be used by lower status women to undermine the status claims of higher status men. In the equal status interactions, nonreciprocal touch does not alter power perceptions as systematically. This finding suggests that without other status cues evident in the relationship, touch alone is insufficient to establish a power advantage for either party.
Article
This study examined the effect of probing for additional information on the accuracy of deception detection. One hundred forty-eight experimental interactions were analyzed to see whether deceivers and truthtellers behave differently when probed and whether probing improved deception detection. Probing produced a number of changes in nonverbal behavior, several of which differed between deceivers and truthtellers. Probing may have communicated suspicion or uncertainty; therefore, deceptive sources were motivated to control their nonverbal demeanor to mask deception-related cues and appear truthful. Probing did not improve detection. Instead, probing receivers considered all sources more truthful. It is suggested that suspiciousness and prior knowledge may affect probing''s efficacy.
Article
Direct gaze and a personal approach distance have been shown to increase compliance in a face to face situation. In the present study touch was varied along with gender and difficulty of request to assess the effects upon rate of compliance. The results indicated that touch was important in securing compliance, moreso if the request was more difficult, and most important in securing same gender compliance.
Article
Two hundred and eight respondents rated what it means to them if they are touched on various areas of their body by either a stranger or a close friend of the same or opposite sex. Male and female respondents agree that (a) touch from a close friend of the opposite sex is pleasant, and (b) touch from a same sex person is unpleasant. However, touch from an opposite-sex stranger, is considered to be unpleasant by women but quite pleasant by men. For women, the meaning of a touch is primarily influenced by how well they know the other person; for men, the meaning is primarily determined by the other person''s sex. That the intrusiveness of touch depends on acquaintanceship supports the hypothesis that for psychological comfort the level of intimacy of a) nonverbal behavior and b) the social relationship of two people must be congruent.
Article
Development of two touch-avoidance measures via factor analysis are reported. Touch avoidance is a nonverbal communication predisposition that consists of two dimensions, same-sex touch avoidance and opposite-sex touch avoidance. The results are replicated across two distinct samples with consistent reliability of measurement. Touch avoidance is then related to communication apprehension, self-disclosure, self-esteem, and a series of cultural role variables. The cultural role variables seem to have the greatest relationship with the two measures of touch avoidance. A program for future research on touch avoidance is also discussed.
Article
Observers'' perceptions of actors engaged in cross-sex and same-sex nonreciprocal touch vs. no-touch interactions were assessed. Touchers were rated significantly higher than recipients on dimensions of status/dominance, instrumentality/assertiveness, and warmth/expressiveness. Furthermore, touchers were rated higher, and recipients were rated lower, on these dimensions than no-touch controls. Female observers rated actors involved in touch interactions as more attractive than those involved in no-touch interactions, whereas male observers did the reverse. Results suggest that nonreciprocal touch conveys several messages, and appears to benefit the toucher more than the recipient. Implications of these results for evaluations of the nonverbal communication patterns of women and men were discussed.
Article
This study investigated the effects of touch on compliance to a help request. The experimenter''s initiation of touch during the request did increase compliance as measured by time spent scoring bogus personality inventories. The hypothesized role of attraction in mediating the touch-compliance link was not supported. Instead, touch may have served to indicate status or power differences that influenced subjects to comply. A sex of subject sex of experimenter interaction was manifested in female subjects complying more to female experimenters than did subjects in any other sex pairing.
Article
Cultural norms may restrict the demonstration of intimacy between men, such that male adults are relatively unlikely (in comparison to females) to display affection in public by hugging or putting hands around one another''s waists. Study 1 examined via a role playing technique how the gender composition of a dyad and types of friendship influence tactile greetings. Males displayed less physical intimacy with male friends than with female (platonic or dating) friends and less than females displayed with their same-sex friends. Study 2 examined subjects'' perceptions of and attributions about reciprocal touch. Male-male behavior was rated as less normal as a function of the level of physical touch (going from no touch, hugging, to arms around the waist). The normalcy rating of opposite-sex pairs did not vary as a function of the touch manipulation, but female, same-sex pairs'' behavior was rated as less normal in the arms around the waist than in either the no touch or hug conditions. In the male same-sex pairs, hugging was seen as more likely to reflect a sexual relationship than no touch, while arms around one another''s waist was rated as even more likely to represent a sexual relationship. It was suggested that homophobia, the fear of appearing or being homosexual, may operate to inhibit physical intimacy between men.
Article
Eighty-seven male and female university students were shown one of three videotapes of a male and a female having a conversation. The three videotapes were identical, except for the beginning and end, where in one condition the male touched the female on the shoulder, in another the female touched the male, in the last neither touched. After they had watched a videotape, subjects were asked to rate the male and the female on 17 descriptive adjectives. Touch condition significantly changed ratings on two clusters of adjectives: the dominant cluster for the female; and the passive cluster for the male. The female was seen as most dominant (stereotypically male) when she touched, the male as most passive (stereotypically female) when he was touched. These results are discussed in terms of Henley's (1977) theory of touch as a power symbol.
Article
Two experiments supported the hypothesis that gaze and touch would serve additive functions of increasing compliance to unambiguous requests. These and other experiments were integrated into Ellsworth and Langer's (1976) framework for interpreting gaze (and touch) as nonspecific activators. It was concluded that behavioral responses to gaze and touch are a function of the attention and arousal elicited by these stimuli, the meaning derived from the situation, and the attributes of the gazing and touching person. It was suggested that future research should study subjects' responses to gaze and touch in terms of attributions made by subjects about people who engage in these behaviors.
Article
Thesis (M.A.)--Michigan State University. Dept. of Communication, 1984. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 26-32). Microfilm. s
Article
A 2 (touch-no touch) x 2 (sex of confederate) x 2 (sex of subject) between subjects design tested the affective and evaluative consequences of receiving an interpersonal touch in a Professional/Functional situation. It was found that the affective and evaluative response to touch was uniformly positive for females, who felt affectively more positive and evaluated the toucher and the environmental setting more favorably than in no touch conditions. The male response to touch was more ambivalent.
Article
The effect of contingent nonverbal teacher approval on student attentive behavior was examined in a classroom with 12 retarded children. After baseline data were gathered on contingent verbal and nonverbal teacher approval and student attentive behavior, the teacher was instructed to increase her use of contingent nonverbal approval (smiles and physical contact) and to maintain her baseline level of verbal approval. After a reversal phase, the nonverbal approval phase was reinstated. Nonverbal teacher behaviors increased during the experimental phases, whereas verbal teacher approval (alone or in conjunction with nonverbal behaviors) did not increase. Attentive behavior increased for 11 of 12 students during the phases in which contingent nonverbal teacher approval increased. Correlational data suggested that nonverbal teacher approval accounted for behavior change of the students to a greater extent than did changes in the amount of teacher approval per se or in the teacher's use of verbal approval.
Conference Paper
Prior experiments on computer-mediated communication have suggested depersonalizing effects of the medium, while field studies report warmer personal relations. Past research is criticized for failing to incorporate temporal and developmental perspectives on social information processing and relational development, and for omitting nonverbal cues in comparisons between conditions. 192 coders evaluated relational communication of 16 computer-mediated and 16 traditional groups over time. Mediated groups exhibited greater intimacy and social-orientation than did face-to-face groups. Boundaries on previous theories of computer-mediated communication are recommended, and research using temporal and nonverbal variables is suggested