Article

Gender Differences in Personality and Interests: When, Where, and Why?

Authors:
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the author.

Abstract

How big are gender differences in personality and interests, and how stable are these differences across cultures and over time? To answer these questions, I summarize data from two meta-analyses and three cross-cultural studies on gender differences in personality and interests. Results show that gender differences in Big Five personality traits are ‘small’ to ‘moderate,’ with the largest differences occurring for agreeableness and neuroticism (respective ds = 0.40 and 0.34; women higher than men). In contrast, gender differences on the people–things dimension of interests are ‘very large’ (d = 1.18), with women more people-oriented and less thing-oriented than men. Gender differences in personality tend to be larger in gender-egalitarian societies than in gender-inegalitarian societies, a finding that contradicts social role theory but is consistent with evolutionary, attributional, and social comparison theories. In contrast, gender differences in interests appear to be consistent across cultures and over time, a finding that suggests possible biologic influences.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the author.

... Prior research has examined people's reports of their Big Five personality traits (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism) across many sociodemographic groups (Benet-Martínez & Oishi, 2008;McCrae et al., 2005). Some of the most notable group differences in the Big Five are those between women and men, and these gender differences have been quite stable over time and consistent across societies (Lippa, 2010). In the last decade, social media has become an integrated part of everyday life. ...
... Third, women reported higher levels of all Big Five across 26 societies in another study (Costa et al., 2001). Across these three large-scale studies, women reported higher levels of all of the Big Five (Lippa, 2010). ...
... As such, normative pressures for women to attend to physical aspects of themselves are so strong that they can lead to anxiety, depression, or other negative psychological consequences (Sinclair, 2006). However, explanations for why there are gender differences in openness and conscientiousness based on context are not clear since the effect sizes of the gender differences for these two traits are smaller and less consistent across societies (Lippa, 2010;Weisber et al., 2011). ...
Article
Full-text available
Past research has found notable gender differences in the Big Five personality and that these differences may arise from cultural and ecological contexts. Social media has become part of everyday life with people constantly switching between social media and offline contexts. The present research addressed whether gender differences in the Big Five are the same between offline and social media contexts and potential explanations behind these gender differences between contexts. Across two samples of college students (total N = 943), women reported higher levels of all the Big Five personality traits than men in both contexts, except there were no significant gender differences in offline extraversion. Gender differences in extraversion and agreeableness were more pronounced on social media compared to offline. Gender differences in neuroticism were less pronounced on social media compared to offline. The findings further suggested that the amount of time spent on social media, the number of connections on social media, and public self-consciousness may serve as potential explanations for why these gender differences in personality were not the same between the two contexts. The findings from this research inform how advances in digital technology transform gender differences across contexts.
... An important clue is that a similar gender difference already appears in surveys of occupational plans and first choices of high-school students (Ceci, Ginther et al., 2014;Xie & Shauman, 2003). This is possibly mainly due to gender differences in interests (Ceci et al., 2014;Hyde, 2014;Lippa, 2010;Stoet & Geary, 2018;Su & Rounds, 2015;Su, Rounds, & Armstrong, 2009;Thelwall, Bailey et al., 2019). Gender differences in relative attitudes (girls with high mathematical ability tend to also have high verbal ability) also contribute to student choices (Ceci et al., 2014;Stoet & Geary, 2018;Wang, Eccles, & Kenney, 2013): Most of the gender gap in student intentions to study math disappears after taking into account their mathematics versus reading difference in PISA scores, while absolute results (boys outperform girls in mathematics, girls outperform boys in reading) are much less able to explain the gender gap (Breda & Napp, 2019). ...
... It is interesting to point out that the gender differences in representation and productivity observed in bibliometric data can be explained at face value (one does not need to assume that confounders make things different from what they seem), relying on the combination of two effects documented in the scientific literature: differences in interests (Diekman, Johnston, & Clark, 2010;Lippa, 2010;Su, Rounds, & Armstrong, 2009;Su & Rounds, 2015;Thelwall, Bailey et al., 2019) and in variability (Deary, Irwing et al., 2007;Halpern, Benbow et al., 2007;Hyde, 2014;Stevens & Haidt, 2017;Wang et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
I analyze bibliometric data about fundamental physics worldwide from 1970 to now, extracting quantitative data about gender issues. I do not find significant gender differences in hiring rates, hiring timing, career gaps and slowdowns, abandonment rates, citation, and self-citation patterns. Furthermore, various bibliometric indicators (number of fractionally counted papers, citations, etc.) exhibit a productivity gap at hiring moments, at career level, and without integrating over careers. The gap persists after accounting for confounding factors and manifests as an increasing fraction of male authors going from average to top authors in terms of bibliometric indices, with a quantitative shape that can be fitted by higher male variability.
... Furthermore, distraction/catharsis tend to be more important for women (Kilpatrick et al., 2005;Molanorouzi et al., 2015), whereas social recognition and challenge seem to rate higher for men (Kilpatrick et al., 2005). These gender differences of importance in goals could be explained by different theoretical approaches (see for an overview Hyde, 2014;Lippa, 2010): For example, evolutionary theories assume that gender differences are caused by evolutionary selection, whereby men compete against each other to gain privileges, tend to be more risk-taking and tend to endorse more status-oriented goals as characteristics of being an attractive partner. ...
... For example, a higher proportion of the health-, figure-and relaxation-oriented sportspersons are women, whereas most contact-friendly athletes are men. These results are in accordance with theoretical assumptions concerning gender differences (Hyde, 2014;Lippa, 2010) and with previous non person-oriented studies showing that goals such as figure/appearance and distraction/catharsis are more important for females, whereas men assess competition/achievement as more important (Kilpatrick et al., 2005;Lehnert et al., 2011;Molanorouzi et al., 2015;Stults-Kolehmainen et al., 2013). ...
Article
Full-text available
In sport and exercise promotion, it is important to consider goals because achieving these goals leads to a sense of well-being and behaviour adherence. Individuals often pursue multiple goals simultaneously. Therefore, it is also important to not only consider each individual's combination of goals but also to identify so-called "goal profiles". Taking a developmental-psychological perspective, the goal profiles of adolescents may differ from those of young adults. Furthermore, goal profiles might differ concerning the self-determined motivation, sport and exercise behaviour, and gender. Therefore, both age groups, 966 adolescents and 636 young adults, were questioned by self-report on their goals in sport and exercise, self-determined motivation, sport and exercise behaviour, and gender. A multiple-group-analysis for latent-profile-solutions was conducted resulting in six goal profiles for both age groups. As expected, the shape of these profiles differed qualitatively for the majority of adolescents and young adults: In adolescents, goals such as contact and the perception of challenge were more prominent, whereas in young adults, health, figure/appearance, and distraction/catharsis were dominant. Validation analyses support the profiles identified as they differ in self-determined motivation, sport and exercise behaviour, and gender. To more efficiently tailor interventions, an age-specific focus on goal profiles seems promising.
... In fact, being male is the only demographic that has consistently been associated with higher scores on the MRS in previous studies. This is noteworthy, as Agreeableness is also the Big Five trait on which men and women differ the most [35]. It seems plausible therefore that men's (vs. ...
... This pattern of results was anticipated based on the observation that people who moralize rationality are uniquely willing to judge other people harshly for their epistemically suspect beliefs [4], as well as based on the fact that men (vs. women) generally score lower on Agreeableness [35], and higher on the MRS [4]. Notably, men did indeed score higher on the MRS than women in the present studies. ...
Article
Full-text available
People differ in how much personal importance, and moral relevance, they ascribe to epistemic rationality. These stable individual differences can be assessed using the Importance of Rationality Scale (IRS), and Moralized Rationality Scale (MRS). Furthermore, these individual differences are conceptually distinct, and associated with different cognitive, affective, and behavioral outcomes. However, little is known about what signifies and differentiates people who score high (vs. low) on the IRS and MRS respectively, and where these individual differences stem from. In the present research we begin to address these questions by examining how these epistemic values relate to the Big Five personality traits. Two studies consistently show that both the IRS and MRS are positively related to Openness to experience. However, only the MRS is negatively associated with Agreeableness, and only the IRS is positively associated with Conscientiousness.
... Part 1 contained data items on demographics (age range, sex, years of experience, country of practice) and the 44-item validated personality tool based upon the Five Factor Model of personality-the Big Five Inventory (BFI; Appendix S2) 31,32 . These demographics were of specific interest given evidence from the general population that personality traits change with age 33,34 and women tend to have higher levels of agreeableness and lower levels of emotional stability than men, findings which persist across cultures 35,36 . In surgeon populations, increasing experience has been associated with increased risk-taking 26,27 . ...
... Colorectal surgeons had higher levels of emotional stability (even-temperedness) than the general population and possessed lower-than-average levels of agreeableness (tendency towards conflict), extraversion (tendency towards enthusiasm, assertiveness), and openness to experience (tendency towards fixed thinking, routine), with some support for our findings from a recent systematic review on abdominal surgeon personality (high levels of conscientiousness) 15 . Interestingly, female surgeons had lower levels of openness than male surgeons, differing from what is commonly found in the general population 35,36 . Thus, this study builds upon previous work demonstrating that colorectal surgeons may have differing personality traits to the general population 14,15 , while demonstrating that the surgeon's personality is an independent factor influencing variation in decision-making-a novel finding. ...
Article
Full-text available
Abstract Background Decision-making under uncertainty may be influenced by an individual’s personality. The primary aim was to explore associations between surgeon personality traits and colorectal anastomotic decision-making. Methods Colorectal surgeons worldwide participated in a two-part online survey. Part 1 evaluated surgeon characteristics using the Big Five Inventory to measure personality (five domains: agreeableness; conscientiousness; extraversion; emotional stability; openness) in response to scenarios presented in Part 2 involving anastomotic decisions (i.e. rejoining the bowel with/without temporary stomas, or permanent diversion with end colostomy). Anastomotic decisions were compared using repeated-measure ANOVA. Mean scores of traits domains were compared with normative data using two-tailed t tests. Results In total, 186 surgeons participated, with 127 surgeons completing both parts of the survey (68.3 per cent). One hundred and thirty-one surgeons were male (70.4 per cent) and 144 were based in Europe (77.4 per cent). Forty-one per cent (77 surgeons) had begun independent practice within the last 5 years. Surgeon personality differed from the general population, with statistically significantly higher levels of emotional stability (3.25 versus 2.97 respectively), lower levels of agreeableness (3.03 versus 3.74), extraversion (2.81 versus 3.38) and openness (3.19 versus 3.67), and similar levels of conscientiousness (3.42 versus 3.40 (all P <0.001)). Female surgeons had significantly lower levels of openness (P <0.001) than males (3.06 versus 3.25). Personality was associated with anastomotic decision-making in specific scenarios. Conclusion Colorectal surgeons have different personality traits from the general population. Certain traits seem to be associated with anastomotic decision-making but only in specific scenarios. Further exploration of the association of personality, risk-taking, and decision-making in surgery is necessary.
... The result is that important topics are presented in a slanted fashion, or not discussed at all; they include the theory of sexual selection (see Geary, 2021); the existence of large sex differences in occupational interests (e.g., Lippa, 2010;Morris, 2016), in multivariate profiles of personality (e.g., Del Kaiser, 2019;Kaiser et al., 2020), and at the tails of cognitive abilities (e.g., Baye & Monseur, 2016;Wai et al., 2010Wai et al., , 2018; findings of temporal and cross-cultural stability (e.g., Schmitt et al., 2003;Stoet & Geary, 2020); "paradoxical" patterns that run against simple socialization accounts, with larger sex differences in more gender-egalitarian countries (e.g., Falk & Hermle, 2018;Kaiser, 2019;MacGiolla & Kajonius, 2019;Schmitt et al., 2017;Stoet & Geary, 2015; and cross-species similarities in sexually differentiated behaviors (e.g., Alexander & Hines, 2002;Benenson, 2019;Cashdan & Gaulin, 2016;Hassett et al., 2008). For recent overviews of these and related topics, see Archer (2019), Geary (2021), and Murray (2020). ...
... The other major theme I have discussed is the deconstruction of gender and sex. Starting from the 1990s, the idea that masculinity and femininity are independent dimensions of variation has been challenged by research showing that, even if M-F is not a simple unitary construct, it is possible to derive robust and meaningful M-F dimensions from patterns of interest and personality (see Lippa, 2001Lippa, , 2010Del Giudice, 2020). The more radical project of disrupting the "sex binary" started in the 1970s and was still underway in the 1990s (e.g., Fausto-Sterling, 1993), but did not start to get serious traction until the mid-2010s, when it merged with fourthwave feminism and transgender activism. ...
... Part V | Chapter 1 o girls like to draw human figures, boys prefer to draw objects, weapons, and fight scenes; o the "people versus things" difference is still present in adults: the difference is larger than one standard deviation, so yes, this difference is very large (d = 1.18) (e.g. Browne, 2002;Lippa, 2010); o it is safe to say that this "people versus things" difference contributes to sex differences in occupational preferences (e.g. Su et al., 2009) and the occupations ultimately chosen (Lubinski et al., 2014;Su & Rounds, 2015). ...
... These findings are in line with hypotheses from evolutionary psychology and totally contradict the SSSM (and the social role theory by Alice Eagly in particular) (e.g. Falk & Hermle, 2018;Lippa, 2010;Nivette et al., 2019;Stoet & Geary, 2018 Heritability (h 2 ) is explained in detail in Plomin, DeFries, McClearn, and McGuffin (2001) as well as in Rushton and Jensen (2005). Heritability refers to the genetic contribution to individual differences or variance among people in a particular group in a particular environment. ...
Chapter
Full-text available
Evolutionary Psychology is in line with evolutionary biology and offers testable hypotheses and retrodic- tions. EP has become a multidisciplinary research domain, gathering the brightest re- searchers from different fields of study, including biology, anthropology, medicine, and psychology. Evolutionary psychology provides new ways of thinking about literally every topic in psychology and thus can be used as a framework to serve as a first test for midlevel or mini theories. If we really want to know how our psychology works, we need to study biology and the in- teraction of biology with our environment, just as biologists need to know chemistry and physics. Understanding human nature better will help us find strategies to counter phe- nomena we dislike such as warfare, racial or sexual discrimination, workplace bullying, unsound internal competition reducing the beneficial outputs of collaboration, etc.
... relevantly said to commonly have traits of anxious and jealous (Lippa, 2010). ...
... Numerous empirical studies have confirmed that Holland's model applies to a variety of cultures and countries (Bullock et al. 2010;Day and Rounds 1998;Holland 1997;Nauta 2010;Spokane and Cruza-Guet 2005). In addition to the well-documented finding of gender disparities (Ion et al. 2017) with strong differences regarding the socalled "People-Things" dimension (Lippa 2010;Prediger 1982), best represented by the social (people: female-dominated) and realistic (things: male-dominated) interests (Armstrong et al. 2011;Lippa 2001;Lubinski 2000;Nagy et al. 2010;Proyer and Häusler 2007;Su et al. 2009), the congruence hypothesis has been well examined. The latter focuses not only on vocational (Nauta 2010;Sheu et al. 2010;Sverko and Babarovic 2008;Tracey and Hopkins 2001;Volodina and Nagy 2016) but also on educational choices (e.g., Golle et al. 2019;Marks 2013;Päßler and Hell 2012;Patrick et al. 2011;Usslepp et al. 2020). ...
Article
Full-text available
Many educational systems are characterized by segregation between a general and vocational educational track. When adolescents must decide on their postcompulsory education at the end of lower secondary school, the different programs are typically embedded in one of these two main tracks. Prior career choice theories postulate that vocational interests, as structured by the six-dimensional RIASEC model of Holland (1997), play a crucial role in educational and vocational transition processes. However, regarding the question of general versus vocational education, previous studies have mainly focused on the effects of social background. Therefore, this paper examines the impact of vocational interests on the choice of Baccalaureate School (BAC, general track), Vocational Education and Training (VET, vocational track) or the Federal Vocational Baccalaureate (FVB), a hybrid qualification that links elements of both tracks. The sample consists of N = 609 students at the end of lower secondary school in Switzerland. The results of multinomial logistic regression analyses show that all six dimensions of Holland’s interest model are significant predictors for the three postcompulsory tracks, even when controlling for school variables (e.g., grades) and variables of social background. While the realistic and social dimensions are positively interrelated with the choice of VET, the artistic, investigative and enterprising dimensions predict the choice of BAC. The conventional dimension is the only one positively linked to the choice of FVB. The results are discussed with special attention to segregation between more practical and more theoretical types of interests.
... It was assessed through body movement (motor creativity), which is the most direct access to the unconscious (Selissky 2017), and an effective way to show one' personality. Therefore, the significant differences found could have been caused by a well-documented stronger social pressure on girls' body image (Lippa 2010). This could have led to a lesser daring to develop the test task than the boys. ...
Article
The goal was to assess the effects of a Theatrical Improvisation program on students’ motor creativity. 163 Secondary Education students enrolled in eight classes participated. Four were randomly considered the experimental group (n=79), who experienced a Theatrical Improvisation unit, and the other four the control group (n=84), who experienced a Drama in Education unit (based on the current Spanish educational law). A pretest, posttest, quasi-experimental, comparison group design was followed. Participants’ motor creativity and its four dimensions (Fluency, Flexibility, Imagination, Originality) were assessed before and after the intervention programs. Results showed that the students who experienced Theatrical Improvisation increased significantly more the four dimensions of motor creativity. Creative programs based on Theatrical Improvisation are interesting to progressively push towards the needed global educational change at the personal, social and political level: disorder (divergence) offers the possibility of new order (convergence).
... Durumsal ilgi, odaklanmış dikkat, artan bilişsel işlev, merak, duygusal katılım içeren ve bağlama özgü, kısa vadeli psikolojik bir durumdur (Hidi ve Renninger, 2006;Schiefele, 2009). Bireysel ilgi ise zaman içinde devam eden belirli bir konuyu anlamaya yönelik görece istikrarlı ve içsel istek olarak tanımlanmaktadır (Schraw ve Lehman, 2001 Graziano ve ark., 2011;Groen ve ark., 2018;Lippa, 1998;Lippa, 2010;Su ve ark., 2009;Su ve Rounds, 2015;Varella ve ark., 2016;Woodcock ve ark., 2013;Yang ve Barth, 2015). Cinsiyetin, kişilikle birlikte alan seçimindeki varyansın önemli bir kısmını açıkladığı görülmektedir (Lakhal ve ark., 2012). ...
... As pointed out by David Geary (2021), these sex differences in play fighting and play parenting have even been observed in nonhuman species, where gender role beliefs do not exist. Additionally, in early childhood, human males show greater interest in objects and things than females do, while females show greater interest in people and helping people, as well as higher levels of conscientiousness and aesthetic interests than males do (Lippa, 2010;Passler & Hell, 2020;Soto, 2016). Further, cross cultural studies have documented that higher levels of warmth, nurturance, benevolence, and related traits among females relative to males are found worldwide (Costa et al., 2001;Geary, 2021;Schmitt et al., 2008;Schwartz & Rubel-Lifschitz, 2009). ...
... Also, the sample consisted of disproportionately more women. This could be in accordance with previous findings that women show more people-oriented interests and less thing-oriented interests than men (Lippa, 2010) as well with findings that females are more prone to use online social networks (Penni, 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
The study aimed to assess relations between coronavirus-related psychological distress and its potentially predictive factors. An online sample of 2,860 Croatian adults filled in questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, distress (the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21), coping (the Brief COPE), personality (the International Personality Item Pool), and social support (the Duke-UNC Functional Social Support Questionnaire) during the COVID-19 lockdown and after the capital was hit by an earthquake. Results indicated that 15.9% of the respondents experienced severe to extreme depression, 10.7% severe to extreme anxiety, and 26.2% severe to extreme stress. The hierarchical regressions analysis indicated that the considered variables explained a substantial percentage of the variance in depression (51.4%), anxiety (35.2%), and stress (45.5%). Main predictors of emotional distress were lower scores of Emotional Stability, higher scores of Agreeableness, avoidant coping, lack of active coping, and perceived social support. The negative effect of the earthquake was weak. Results provide information on a broad range of potentially protective or vulnerability factors that could help identify those at risk for developing coronavirus-related psychological distress. Findings suggest that promoting active coping styles and social interactions could be preventive and potentially therapeutic in general populations.
... Pada proses pemilihan produk, perempuan memiliki gaya mencari variasi dan merupakan bagian dari rekreasi dengan menikmati proses pemilihan produk dengan pilihan yang beragam dan fokus pada detail dari masing-masing produk (Mitchell & Walsh, 2004). Perempuan juga lebih menghabiskan waktu untuk memperhatikan detail dari desain produk (Qu & Guo, 2019), fitur produk (Darley & Smith, 1995), serta aspek yang berhubungan dengan "orang" (Lippa, 2010). Terkait dengan sepeda motor, perempuan memilih model dengan bobot yang ringan, ukuran kecil, kemudahan penggunaan, memiliki fungsi penyimpanan barang yang besar, dan dapat digunakan untuk menjemput anak dan berbelanja (Yang & Chen, 2014). ...
... Some of the largest sex differences observed to date pertains to occupational preferences (Lippa, 1991(Lippa, , 1998(Lippa, , 2005, and a large-scale Internet-based survey suggests that this pattern (differences in People-Things dimension ranging from d = 0.96 to d = 1.40) holds across diverse cultural and ethnic boundaries (Lippa, 2010). A recent very large-scale study suggests that the underrepresentation of girls and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields may even increase with increases in national gender equality (Stoet & Geary, 2018). ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Some of the most persistently recurring research questions in the fields of personality and social psychology concern sex differences. Although much progress has been made, no research has addressed the basic question of whether there is one general construct of genderedness that runs through various life domains, or whether genderedness is specific to certain domains. In order to determine whether being gender typical in one way goes together with being gender typical also in other ways, we investigated whether 16-year old girls and boys (N = 4106) finishing Finnish elementary school differ in their personality traits, values, cognitive abilities, academic achievement, and educational track. To do this, we updated the gender diagnosticity approach by employing penalized logistic regression to estimate multivariate sex differences based on both binary and continuous variables. The preregistered analysis show that the magnitude of sex differences varies a lot from domain to domain, that narrow measures, such as grade profiles, can be highly accurate in predicting sex, whereas broad measures, such as general cognitive ability, can be useless, and that the correlations between femininity-masculinity scores based on different domains, despite all being positive, are too weak to suggest the existence of a general factor of genderedness. Our more exploratory analyses show that more focus on gender typicality could offer important insights into the role of gender in shaping people’s lives. We discuss how future research could employ the methods we introduce to further our understanding of sex differences and gender typicality in developmental and educational fields.
... Evolutionary psychology posits various sources of sex differences, such as sexual selection (intersexual selection and intrasexual competition) and the theory of obligatory parental investment (Archer, 1996(Archer, , 2009Buss, 1995;Geary, 2010). Moreover evolutionary psychologists attempt to describe and explain how evolutionary processes shape sex differences in personality and the specific reasons as to why we might expect, or not expect, to see sex differences specific personality traits (Del Giudice et al., 2012;Lippa, 2010;Schmitt et al., 2008). There is also a salient literature on the proposed cultural origins of gender, more particularly the purported sociocultural factors that shape gender symmetry (Hyde, 2007) or differences (Eagly & Wood, 1999). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study examined sex differences in domain and facet scores from six personality tests in various large adult samples. The aim was to document differences in large adult groups which might contribute new data to this highly contentious area. We reported on sex differences on the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI); the Five Factor NEO-PI-R; the Hogan Personality Indicator (HPI); the Motives and Values Preferences Indicator (MVPI); the Hogan Development Survey (HDS) and the High Potential Trait Indicator (HPTI). Using multivariate ANOVAs we found that whilst there were many significant differences on these scores, which replicated other studies, the Cohen’s d statistic showed very few (3 out of 130) differences >.50. Results from each test were compared and contrasted, particularly where they are measuring the same trait construct. Implications and limitations for researchers interested in assessment and selection are discussed.
... Third, gender differences in interest do not correspond to a difference in a subjects' complexity or its quantitative analytical requirements, but rather with its expected contents, especially a "people vs things" orientation [9,18]. Large meta-analysis of studies on performance in mathematics supports the conclusion that there are no gender differences in this regard [8], and data from Finland on curiosity in school children shows that most questions about liking complex problems, hunger for knowledge, enjoyment of hands-on exploration, preference for solving problems on your own, or liking strange and puzzling objects are gender neutral [2]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Discusses the Anna Karenina Principle and examines the implications for women. This principle is a useful metaphor that captures the reasons behind the gender disparity in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM).
... Gender (dummy-coded; 0 = female, 1 = male) and age were control variables as they relate to vocational interests and leadership as well as entrepreneurship intention (e.g., Hirschi and Läge, 2007;Lippa, 2010;Lechner et al., 2018). Additionally, we controlled for parental role modeling as this too correlates with vocational interests and the intention for leadership or entrepreneurial roles (e.g., Palmer et al., 2019). ...
Article
Full-text available
Three separate studies demonstrate that socio-emotional skills add incremental validity beyond cognitive ability when predicting leadership and entrepreneurship intention, emergence as well as success. Study 1 uses a longitudinal approach and tests the cognitive ability and vocational interests of 231 students to predict their leadership and entrepreneurship intention. It demonstrates that cognitive ability predicts their intention to become a business leader or entrepreneur 2 years in the future. Importantly, the vocational interests “enterprising” and “social” increase this ability-driven prediction of leadership and entrepreneurship intention (ΔR2Lead.Intent. = 15%, ΔR2Entre.Intent. = 9%). Study 2 investigates 123 business leaders and shows that those with higher cognitive ability more likely emerge as top-level leaders, receive more income and get slightly better supervisor-ratings on their performance. The leaders’ Big Five traits (openness, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, emotional stability) added validity beyond cognitive ability when predicting these criteria (ΔR2Income = 9%, ΔR2Lead.Level = 8%, ΔR2Perform. = 15%). Finally, Study 3 includes 155 participants and demonstrates that cognitive ability predicts a person’s entrepreneurial status but not performance. Additionally, considering the Big Five traits improves the prediction of who becomes an entrepreneur and successfully performs as such (ΔR2Status = 7%, ΔR2Perform. = 18%). Importantly, selected Big Five traits and vocational interests boost the importance of cognitive ability in the field of leadership and entrepreneurship. Concluding, this series of studies suggests that it is the combination of personality traits or interests with cognitive ability which is most powerful when predicting leadership and entrepreneurship intention, emergence and success.
... Rather it indicates that significant differences can exist along with a high degree of overlap between the distributions of men and women (Hyde, 2005). Many meta-analyses and reviews have examined gender differences in self-reports of personality on questionnaires that measure the Big Five traits as well as facets within each trait (Feingold, 1994;Costa et al., 2001;Lippa, 2010). ...
... 4 Male hide their fear due to predictable gender role that also has been reported previously by Pierce and Kirkpatrick. 4,14,15 In 2002, a study conducted by Ministero della showed that dental anxiety conditions are prevailing more in females as compared to males. 11 Al-Omari studied women having highest dental anxiety scores than men. ...
Article
Full-text available
The objective of the study was to determine level of dental anxiety related to dental procedures in dental students and comparing the dental anxiety between male and female undergraduate dental students of Rawal Dental College. This cross-sectional study was conducted at Rawal Dental College, Islamabad, Pakistan during October 2016. A validated Corah Dental Anxiety Scale (DAS) questionnaire were distributed among dental students in first, second, third and fourth year students present at the day of study. There were four questions with five options in this scale that assess level of anxiety. Total score ranged from 4-20. This was total of all points of scale items. The score 8 or below 8 showed no anxiety, 9-12 showed moderate level of anxiety, 13-14 showed high level of anxiety and 15-20 showed severe level of anxiety. Chi-Square Test used to determine level of anxiety and Mean Anxiety Score between male and female students. Mean and Standard Deviation of gender was calculated by independent T test and that of Academic classes of dental students were calculated by one-way ANOVA. Results showed female students presented with higher mean anxiety score as compared to male students. The difference was statistically insignificant (P-value = 0.10). Dental anxiety reduced from first year to final year. Female students had more high to severe level of anxiety as compared to male students. Mean and standard deviation of Mean anxiety score was calculated i.e. 9.11 ±3.15. Key Words: Corah Dental Anxiety Scale, Dental anxiety, Stress, Dental Anxiety Score (DAS), Dental Fear, Dental Students.
... According to evolutionary theories, women and men have somewhat different reproductive natures (e.g., women invest more in offspring than men do, both physiologically and behaviorally), and the two sexes evolved to have somewhat different traits, particularly in domains related to reproduction [27]. In the realm of personality, higher male levels of aggressiveness and status seeking presumably evolved as sexually selected traits that fostered male dominance and helped ancestral men attract mates, whereas higher female levels of nurturing offspring, tender-mindedness, and people orientation evolved as sexually selected traits that fostered women's success at rearing children [28]. Additionally, according to life-history strategy (LHS) theory, which describes the trade-offs individuals make in energy allocation toward different life tasks, including bodily growth and maintenance, mating effort, and parenting/kin investment [29], if energy is allocated into survival, individuals pay attention to maintain their body, develop knowledge and skills, raise offspring, and have long-term plans, whereas if the energy is allocated into reproduction, individuals tend to show precocious puberty, have more children and less investment in raising their generations, and have a preference for immediate satisfaction and short-term benefits. ...
Article
Full-text available
The study explored sex differences in traditional school bullying perpetration and victimization among Chinese adolescents and the effects of Machiavellianism and school climate. Data were collected from 727 adolescents (M = 16.8 years, SD = 0.9) who completed the Olweus Bully/Victim Questionnaire, Kiddie Machiavellian Scale, and School Climate Perception Questionnaire. Results showed: (1) boys were more likely to bully others and be bullied; (2) both Machiavellianism and school climate partially mediated sex differences in school bullying perpetration and victimization; (3) the chain-mediating effect of Machiavellianism and school climate on sex differences in bullying perpetration and victimization was significant. These results provide insight into the sex differences in Chinese traditional school bullying perpetration and victimization. The implications are interpreted and discussed.
... Withdrawal of attention from PE teachers could mean that girls feel more ignored, invisible, and unvalued compared to boys (Mitchell et al., 2015;Shen, 2015). Given gender differences in personality traits could play an important role in girls' and boys' perceptions of internal and external controlling strategies (Lippa, 2010;Thomas et al., 2020), future studies should include students' personality traits in hypothetical models. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose : Grounded in self-determination theory, this study examined gender latent mean differences in students’ perceptions of externally and internally controlling teaching behaviors, basic psychological need frustration, controlled motivation, amotivation, and oppositional defiance in the physical education context. Moreover, it analyzed the differentiated role that internal and external controlling behaviors play on these self-determination theory-related variables among girls and boys. Method : A sample of 1,118 students ( M age = 14.11 ± 1.50; 50.9% girls) participated in this research. A multigroup structural equation modeling approach was used to respond to the research questions. Results : Analyses revealed that girls reported more maladaptive outcomes in most self-determination theory-related variables than boys. Although externally and internally controlling behaviors of physical education teachers were positively related to maladaptive outcomes, the behaviors correlate differently between boys and girls. Conclusion : Findings highlight the importance of reducing externally controlling behaviors in boys and internally controlling behaviors in both genders, but particularly in girls.
... Thus, if husbands and wives can make an effective balance of their roles at their companies, they can reduce the agency cost of the internal consumption between them and achieve a combined effect of the development and utilization of corporate strategic decision-making in the early stage (Deacon et al., 2014). However, scholars have also different views on whether corporate behavior will be more conservative after wives participate in the management team or the decision-making of their companies (Lippa, 2010). The main reason for this disagreement is the preconceived perception of gender differences in the traditional culture. ...
Article
Full-text available
Purpose Few studies have focused on the impact of conjugal control and non-conjugal control on the innovation capability of family firms. In the context of the relative lack of research on the relationship between family firm heterogeneity and innovation ability, this study aims to focus on the differentiated impact of husband–wife-controlled family listed companies and non-husband–wife-controlled family listed companies on their innovation capabilities, which provides empirical evidence with more Chinese institutional and cultural characteristics for the development of corporate organizational management and innovation theories. Design/methodology/approach Taking all A-share listed family firms from 2007 to 2016 as the research sample, this paper examines the influence of spousal control on firm innovation level by empirical research method. Findings The empirical results show that compared with non-spousal-controlled family enterprises, spousal-controlled family enterprises have significant positive effects on the level of enterprise innovation. Further studies suggest that joint management of spousal-controlled family enterprises improves the level of innovation. Authority difference of the couple will weaken the innovation capacity. However, the wife’s professional skills can promote the innovation level. Originality/value Focusing on the characteristics of family internal structure and embedding marriage relationship in the enterprise organization, this paper investigates the influence of different characteristics of husband and wife and cooperation mode on enterprise innovation, and the conclusion enriches the theory of family business and family science, as well as provides important information reference for the stakeholder groups in the capital market.
... The MF-Occ is designed to measure gender-related occupational interests as a single, unidimensional trait, with higher scores indicating more male-typical/less female-typical interests and lower scores indicating less male-typical/more female-typical interests. This one-factor, unidimensional structure is supported by studies factor analysing the relevant items assessing genderrelated occupational interests (Lippa, 1998(Lippa, , 2010b. The MF-Occ and its unidimensional scoring procedure have been employed in a range of studies, including a large-scale study with over 200,000 participants across 53 nations (Lippa, 2010a). ...
Article
Full-text available
Substantial average gender differences in childhood play behaviour and occupational interests have been well-documented. Recent research shows that childhood gender-related play behaviour longitudinally predicts gender-related occupational interests in adolescence (Kung, 2021). The first aim of the present study was to extend this recent finding by examining whether university students’ recalled childhood gender-related play behaviour predicts their current gender-related occupational interests. The second aim of the present study was to investigate whether gender-related socio-cognitive processes mediate the relation between childhood play behaviour and subsequent occupational interests. University students (260 men, 542 women) completed scales assessing recalled childhood gender-related play behaviour, gender-related occupational interests, gender typicality, gender contentedness, agentic goal endorsement, communal goal endorsement, and gender-related occupational stereotype flexibility. In the present study, recalled childhood gender-related play behaviour predicted gender-related occupational interests in both men and women. In men, gender typicality and gender contentedness mediated the play-interests link. In women, gender typicality and communal goal endorsement mediated the play-interests link. The present study provides further evidence that childhood gender-related play behaviour is related to subsequent gender-related occupational interests. Although the current study has a correlational design, one interpretation of the current findings is that childhood play may influence socio-cognitive processes, such as gender compatibility and goal endorsement, which may in turn shape occupational interests.
... person focus), suggesting that they prioritize gifts that can convey social status ; see also Palan, 2001) or, alternatively, that they prefer things-oriented rather than people-oriented gifts (cf. Su et al., 2009;Lippa, 2010). These findings emphasize self-perceived gender identity as another potentially influential factor that may also be associated with people's product preferences and consumption responses (Gupta and Gentry, 2016). ...
Article
Full-text available
This study investigated whether individuals' preferences for masculine (vs. feminine) consumption options could be predicted by a biological sex cue (the 2D:4D digit ratio; a biomarker linked to prenatal testosterone exposure), and a psychological gender cue (self-perceived gender identity). Chinese participants (N = 216) indicated their preferences for a series of binary options that differed in their perceived gender image (e.g., romantic comedy vs. action thriller; pop music vs. hard rock), with one of the options evaluated as relatively more feminine and the other viewed as comparably more masculine. Participants also self-reported their gender identity and the length of their index and ring fingers, which was used to calculate their 2D:4D digit ratios. A low (male-typical) digit ratio and a masculine gender identity were both associated with more masculine preferences, regardless of participants' biological sex. However, a low digit ratio predicted preferences for masculine consumption options only in female participants with a masculine gender identity, but not in those with a feminine gender identity. These findings add to the literature on whether and when biological sex cues and psychological gender cues can predict preferences for options with a distinct gender image and suggest that the connection between these cues is more complex in women than in men.
... A study conducted in South-Western China evaluated stress and anxiety, and the stress scores reported were higher in female quarantined communities during the COVID-19 outbreak when compared with their counterparts [35]. Similarly, another study conducted on undergraduate students in Turkey reported higher stress levels among female students [36]. Earlier studies conducted in Saudi Arabia have reported high-stress scores among different university students, and stress levels were higher among female students [6,17]. ...
Article
Full-text available
This study aimed to assess the perceived stress levels in students, assistants, and faculty members of the College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal, University (IAU), Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) during the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Using the Cohen’s perceived stress scale (PSS) questionnaire (consisting of 14 items, hence called PSS-14), an online observational survey was conducted. The PSS 14 was rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 0 (never) to 4 (very often). The scores ranging from 0–18 represented low stress, 19–37 represented moderate stress, and 38–56 represented high stress. The second-and third-year students were designated as junior year students, while fourth-year onwards were considered senior year students. Out of total 265 participants, 65% (173) were female, and the majority of the participants were dental students 70% (185) with a mean age of 26.71 ± 9.26 years. In the present study, the average PSS score for the participants was computed as 29.89 (range score: 0–56) which shows moderate stress levels among the respondents. The PSS score for the students was 31.03; for the faculty, it was 28, while for the assistants, it was 27.05. Among the three participant groups, the students were found more on the severe stress side (19%) (p-value = 0.002), and among them, the senior year students (6th year) showed significantly higher stress levels compared to the junior year students (p-value = 0.005). Age-wise, the participants below 20 years were most stressed (21%), followed by those 20–30 years old (18%). Female participants were more severely stressed than males (17% vs. 10%, respectively). It was concluded that the students experienced more stress, followed by the faculty members and dental assistants. In addition, younger participants, females, and senior year students were more stressed than their counterparts. Future studies directed at evaluating stress levels of these groups from different dental institutes could provide an opportunity for policymakers to offer various resources to improve their mental health.
... Gender differences have been documented for a number of personality traits. Most meta-analyses and reviews examine gender differences in self-reports of personality on questionnaires that measure the Big Five, as well as facets within each (Feingold, 1994;Costa, Terracciano, and McCrae, 2001;Lippa, 2010). ...
... Some of the largest sex differences observed to date pertain to occupational preferences (Lippa, 1991(Lippa, , 1998(Lippa, , 2005, and a large-scale Internet-based survey suggests that this pattern (differences in People-Things dimension ranging from d = 0.96 to d = 1.40) holds across diverse cultural and ethnic boundaries (Lippa, 2010). A recent very large-scale study suggests that the underrepresentation of girls and women in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) fields may even increase with increases in national gender equality (Stoet & Geary, 2018). ...
Article
Some of the most persistently recurring research questions concern sex differences. Despite much progress, limited research has thus far been undertaken to investigate whether there is one general construct of genderedness that runs through various domains of human individuality. In order to determine whether being gender typical in one way goes together with being gender typical also in other ways, we investigated whether 16-year-old Finnish girls and boys ( N = 4106) differ in their personality, values, cognitive abilities, academic achievement, and educational track. To do this, we updated the prediction-focused gender diagnosticity approach by methods of cross-validation for more accurate estimation. The preregistered analysis shows that sex differences vary across domains ( Ds = 0.15–1.48), that fine-grained measures, such as grade profiles, can be accurate in predicting sex (77.5%), whereas some summary indices, such as general cognitive ability, do not perform above-chance (52.4%), and that the genderedness correlations, despite all being positive, are too weak (average partial correlation, r´ = .09, range .03–.34) to support a general factor of genderedness. Our more exploratory analyses show that more focus on gender typicality could offer important insights into the role of gender in shaping people’s lives.
Article
The Proactive Personality Scale (PPS) is used widely to measure proactive personality. Previous research has evaluated the psychometric properties of the 6-item PPS (hereafter called PPS-6) using classical test theory. There is a need to provide further validity evidence for the PPS-6 using modern test theory. This study evaluated the psychometric properties of the PPS-6 using Rasch analysis. A total of 429 participants completed the PPS-6. Rasch rating scale model (RSM) was used to analyse the data. RSM showed that the PPS-6 fitted the Rasch model well. RSM demonstrated that the PPS-6 functioned as a unidimensional measure with good internal consistency reliability. Items on the PPS-6 did not show any noticeable differential item functioning across gender. RSM showed that the response rating scale of the PPS-6 is suitable. Results suggest that the PPS-6 is a reliable measure for the assessment of proactive personality.
Article
This study examined sex differences in domain and facet scores on a new dark-side personality test (Hogan Development Survey: Form 5) measuring sub-clinical personality disorders. Over 50,000 adults completed the new HDS which assesses eleven dark-side traits and three facets of each. Comparing males and females on the 11 domains and 33 facets using t-tests and binary regressions we found that there were many significant differences on these scores, which replicated other studies. However, the Cohen's d statistic showed very few (5 out of 44) differences >.20. The biggest difference was on Reserved (Schizoid) and few differences on Excitable (Borderline). Implications for researchers interested in assessment and selection are discussed along with limitations of the study.
Chapter
This chapter summarises the psychological research on gender. The first part of the chapter focusses on experimental and social constructivist psychology and discusses what psychological differences are found between genders and the different approaches put forward to explain these differences. These approaches include essentialist theories which argue that gender differences arise from evolutionary adaptations, and constructivist theories, which argue that gender differences are the result of cultural and contextual influences. We discuss the extent to which these approaches can explain gender differences in general, but also patterns of gender differences across cultures. The second part of this chapter discusses psychological research that adopts social constructionist approaches to studying gender, and outlines examples of discourse and conversation analytic research on the (re)production of gender in language and interactions. Finally, we will discuss how the retention of multiple perspectives and research methods by gender researchers is important for moving beyond additive (and dichotomous) models of gender, and beyond a European/US centric view.
Article
Full-text available
In the Western world, gender has traditionally been viewed in the Western world as binary and as following directly from biological sex. This view is slowly changing among both experts and the general public, a change that has been met with strong opposition. In this article, we explore the psychological processes underlying these dynamics. Drawing on previous work on gender performativity as well as gender as a performance, we develop a psychological framework of the perpetuation and disruption of the gender/sex binary on a stage that facilitates and foregrounds binary gender/sex performance. Whenever character, costume, and script are not aligned the gender/sex binary is disrupted and gender trouble ensues. We integrate various strands of the psychological literature into this framework and explain the processes underlying these reactions. We propose that gender trouble can elicit threat—personal threat, group-based and identity threat, and system threat—which in turn leads to efforts to alleviate this threat through the reinforcement of the gender/sex binary. Our framework challenges the way psychologists have traditionally treated gender/sex in theory and empirical work and proposes new avenues and implications for future research.
Article
The present study links the person‐environment fit theory of vocational interests (VI) with the research on the selection of romantic partners. Empirically, we explore the assortment for VI in 215 heterosexual romantic partners. Using both the variable‐centered (VCA) and couple‐centered (CCA) approaches, we test the hypotheses on positive versus negative assortment, initial assortment versus convergence, and active assortment versus social homogamy. A modest to moderate positive assortment was found for Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, and Social interests but not Conventional interests, whereas evidence of couple similarity in Enterprising interests was less consistent. A moderate level of positive assortment was identified in couples when full interest profiles were evaluated. The results indicate an initial and active assortment rather than convergence or social homogamy effects. The analysis also shows that the assortment for interests represents an independent preference that cannot be easily seen as a by‐product of the assortment in the five‐factor personality traits. These findings highlight the importance of VI in the active selection of romantic partners. We discuss implications for future research and practice.
Article
Full-text available
IntroductionGender dysphoria (GD) is associated with several psychiatric conditions, but the causal links are not known. We note that some of these conditions are associated with physiological masculinisation.Methods Here, we explore this association through a series of systematic reviews, using Google Scholar, on original studies that test the relationship between GD and at least one correlate of androgens, namely autism spectrum disorder, left-handedness, 2D:4D ratio, being male and male heterosexuality.ResultsIndividuals with GD tend to exhibit scores that reflect heightened levels of androgens and masculinity compared with non-GD individuals. We further show that these same androgen indices are also associated with other identity disorders (or dysphoriae).Conclusions Autism is associated with masculinisation, and we argue that GD may reflect autism spectrum disorder traits that indirectly lead to anxiety and to one questioning one’s sense of self. We note that this is consistent with Blanchard’s transsexualism typology, which successfully integrates a wide range of empirical findings.
Article
Across cultures, women reliably exhibit higher levels of Neuroticism than men. Recent work shows that this sex difference, particularly in Neuroticism’s anxiety facet, is partly mediated by the sex difference in physical strength. We build on this finding by testing pre-registered predictions of mediation by physical strength of the sex differences in HEXACO Emotionality and its Anxiety and Fearfulness facets (HEXACO stands for the factors of honesty–humility, emotionality, extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness to experience). Facultative calibration models predict that levels of these two facets, but not necessarily Emotionality’s other facets, will be adaptively adjusted during ontogeny to a person’s relative physical formidability. Results from five samples of U.S. undergraduates (total N = 1,399) showed that strength mediated the sex difference (women > men) in Emotionality and all its facets, but that the mediation effect was strongest for Fearfulness and weakest for Sentimentality. Overall, findings are consistent with the hypothesis that physical strength explains sex differences found in fearful and anxious personality traits.
Article
Full-text available
This study aims to explore mediating effects of professional quality of life on the relationship between big-five personality traits and job satisfaction in a Chinese healthcare setting. A total of 1620 Chinese healthcare professionals were recruited to participate in a randomised cross-sectional survey. The results suggest that professional quality of life transmitted the effect of personality to job satisfaction. Specifically, compassion satisfaction and burnout mediated the positive effect of extraversion, agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness upon job satisfaction; as well as mediated negative effects of neuroticism upon job satisfaction. Secondary traumatic stress mediated the positive effect of extraversion upon job satisfaction. The paper also discusses the cultural factors contributing to the mediating effects and implications offered by the study at the macro, messo, and micro levels.
Article
LGBTQ people have pioneered major scientific advances, but they face challenges in STEM that ultimately waste human talent and hinder scientific progress. Growing evidence suggests that LGBTQ people in STEM are statistically underrepresented, encounter non-supportive environments, and leave STEM at an alarming rate. Potential factors driving LGBTQ disparities in STEM include bias and discrimination, misalignments of occupational interests with STEM stereotypes, and STEM norms of impersonality that isolate LGBTQ people. LGBTQ retention shares common psychological processes with female and racial minority retention such as STEM identification and belonging. The key barrier to better understanding and addressing LGBTQ challenges in STEM is the lack of sexual orientation or gender identity (SO/GI) demographic data on the U.S. STEM workforce. Policy recommendations include (a) adding SO/GI measures to federal STEM-census surveys; (b) broadening agencies’ definition of underrepresented groups to include LGBTQ people; and (c) incorporating LGBTQ identity into accountability systems and diversity programs at STEM institutions.
Article
This research documents systematic gender performance differences (GPD) at a top business school using a unique administrative dataset and survey of students. The findings show that women’s grades are 11% of a standard deviation lower in quantitative courses than those of men with similar academic aptitude and demographics, and men’s grades are 23% of a standard deviation lower in nonquantitative courses than those of comparable women. The authors discuss and test for different reasons for this finding. They show that a female instructor significantly cuts down GPD for quantitative courses by raising the grades of women. In addition, female instructors increase women’s interest and performance expectations in these courses and are perceived as role models by their female students. These results provide support for a gender stereotype process for GPD and show that faculty can serve as powerful exemplars to challenge gender stereotypes and increase student achievement. The authors discuss several important implications of these findings for business schools and for society.
Article
We examine the dynamics of the gender earnings gap over the 1979 to 2018 period among full-time workers aged 25–29, focusing on the role of marital status and the presence of children. Using data from multiple years of the Current Population Survey, we find that the earnings gap declined among all groups of men and women, and by 2018 there was earnings parity among the those who were not married and without children. The share of people in this group also grew over the period, and comprised a majority of both men and women by 2018. We also find that while marriage was associated with lower earnings among women in 1979, by 2018 it was associated with higher earnings, suggesting greater positive selection of women with high earnings potential into marriage. The positive association between marriage and earnings among men remained stable. While we found a persistent earnings penalty for having children among women over the period, we found an emerging dampening effect of having children over time among men, which suggests that greater participation in childcare among men has led to lower earnings than in the past (i.e., a causal connection) and/or an emerging selection effect of young men more interested in childrearing over time, perhaps reflecting a cultural shift.
Article
While previous studies have shown that the traits in the FFM are moderately heritable, it is important to examine whether earlier results hold across different contexts. To date, few studies from the Scandinavian context have estimated the heritability of the FFM. We remedy this shortcoming by making use of a large sample of Danish twins who completed a 60-item personality inventory. Our results confirm that previous findings regarding the heritability of personality traits hold in the Danish context. We find that there are differences in mean levels and heritability estimates of personality traits across gender, though the differences in heritability estimates are not statistically significant. We find a significant common environment component for several of the personality traits, which indicates that the rearing environment of Danish twins may influence the development of some personality traits. All scripts for the analyses in this paper will be made available on OSF upon publication. This study's design and its analysis were not pre-registered. We are not allowed to share or post the Danish Twin Registry data used in this paper. However, information on the requirements for getting access to data and how to apply for data can be located here: https://www.sdu.dk/en/om_sdu/institutter_centre/ist_sundhedstjenesteforsk/centre/dtr/researcher/guidelines. We note that data used for this research was provided by the Danish Twin Registry, University of Southern Denmark. The findings, opinions and recommendations expressed therein are those of the author(s) and are not necessarily those of the Danish Twin Research Center. The Danish Twin Registry has been approved by SDU RIO (SDU Legal Services) and the Committee on Health Research Ethics. The participants were enrolled by informed consent. The Danish Twin Registry, SDU RIO notification no. 10.585. We have a conflict of interest with Pete Hatemi and Brad Verhulst because of this publication: Ludeke, S. G. & Rasmussen, S. H. R. (2016). Personality correlates of sociopolitical attitudes in the Big Five and Eysenckian models. Personality and Individual Differences, 98, 30–36.
Article
Full-text available
The current research proposes to incorporate vocational interests into the study of adverse impact (i.e., differential hiring/selection rates between minority and majority groups in employment settings). In the context of high stakes testing (e.g., using cognitive and personality tests), we show how race gaps in vocational interests would correspond to differential rates of job attraction (the attraction process) and various personnel selection outcomes (the selection process), in patterns that are not always intuitive. Using findings from various meta-analyses, we constructed a combined correlation matrix of race, vocational interests, cognitive ability, and Conscientiousness; and provided mathematical formulas to assess the role of vocational interests in determining subgroup differences on predictors in applicant pools. Results and empirical examples suggest: (a) applicant attraction based on vocational interests can reduce adverse impact potential when the interest favors the minority [majority] group and is negatively [positively] related to the predictor; (b) attraction effects of vocational interests on adverse impact potential are modest; (c) if the vocational interest subgroup mean difference is small relative to other predictors in use, personnel selection on the interest will reduce adverse impact potential; (d) attraction effects tend to dampen or remove the selection effects of vocational interests on adverse impact potential, due to variance restriction on interests in the applicant pool; and (e) selection effects tend to be much stronger than attraction effects. These findings have implications for how adverse impact might differ systematically across job types, partly due to attraction and selection effects involving race differences in vocational interests.
Article
Full-text available
The strong overlap of personality traits discussed under the label of “dark personality” (e.g., psychopathy, spitefulness, moral disengagement) endorses a common framework for socially aversive traits over and beyond the dark triad. Despite the rapidly growing research on socially aversive traits, there is a lack of studies addressing age-associated differences in these traits. In the present study (N = 12,501), we investigated the structure of the D Factor of Personality across age and gender using Local Structural Equation Modeling, thereby expressing the model parameters as a quasi-continuous, non-parametric function of age. Specifically, we evaluated loadings, reliabilities, factor (co-)variances, and means across 35 locally weighted age groups (from 20 to 54 years), separately for females and males. Results indicated that measurement models were highly stable, thereby supporting the conceptualization of the D factor independent of age and gender. Men exhibited uniformly higher latent means than females and all latent means decreased with increasing age. Overall, D and its themes were invariant across age and gender. Therefore, future studies can meaningfully pursue causes of mean differences across age and between genders.
Article
This study examined the intrapersonal and interpersonal effects of vocational interests (VI) on two indicators of romantic relationship satisfaction (RS), specifically women and men's perceived relationship quality and their satisfaction with partner attributes. We hypothesized investigative, artistic, social, and enterprising interests would predict higher own or partner's RS. Additionally, we explored the role of interest profile attributes: differentiation and elevation. The study employs actor-partner interdependence modeling on data of 215 heterosexual romantic couples. Results from both RS measures converged on several findings: realistic and enterprising interests in women, and investigative interests in men positively predicted own RS. Women were more satisfied if their partner had higher investigative interests, artistic interests, higher interest elevation and a lower differentiation of interest profile. Although the effects were relatively small, the present results contribute to the literature by showing that VI, which has been previously investigated principally for the prediction of career outcomes, are also relevant for romantic relationship outcomes.
Article
Despite studies claiming gender inclusion is beneficial for organizations, the under-representation of females in the workforce is a reality. As recruitment practices impact employees’ entry into organizations, examining the salient predictors of job pursuit intention might foster gender inclusivity. Based on a mixed-method study conducted in two phases (Phase 1: a sample of 2084 professionals; Phase 2: interviews of 20 senior HR professionals; and interviews with 26 women professionals), we examine the key predictors of job pursuit intention of women. We employed a qualitative study as Phase 2 of our study to understand why some of our hypotheses were not supported. We found that work-life balance, perceived job security, and perceived ethical behavior of organizations were more important for female than the male applicants in influencing their job pursuit intention. Also, the type of work and person-organization fit were found to be equally important for both the gender groups. The implications of the study to theory and practice were discussed. Our study extends the existing literature by identifying salient factors (such as work-life balance, perceived job security, and ethical citizenship) that are found to be more important for female applicants compared to their male counterparts while pursuing a job. Also, females were found to worry more about losing or not finding a job than males. Our results further indicate that type of work and P-O fit have a significant effect on job pursuit intention for both male and female applicants. The study addresses the need for research on targeted recruitment to increase gender inclusion. The contribution of this paper lies in identifying critical factors relevant to the female applicants in India who potentially constitute a large talent pool waiting to be leveraged. It adds to the body of knowledge on enabling inclusivity and affirmative action for increasing gender diversity through recruitment. By highlighting the factors that should be given prominence in job promotions to attract more female candidates and emphasizing the gender-focused HR policies and practices and through internal and external communication, it helps practitioners attract and retain female applicants in an emerging economy like India. Our study contributes in three ways. First, it attempts to plug the gap by investigating gendered preferences in job pursuit intentions between male and female applicants, especially in different cultural environments and in emerging markets such as India. Second, existing studies on job pursuit intentions were based mostly on inputs from student respondents. Our study has collected data from professionals working in organizations who have worked and experienced gender-related HR practices in organizations. Third, our study used a mixed-method approach to get a nuanced understanding of female talent expectations and preferences during the job-seeking behavior.
Article
Full-text available
Boiled salted fish is one of the favorite fish processing commodities in Bogor. Every year its production increase in line with potential health hazards for consumers, one of which is caused by contamination of raw materials by microplastics. The socio-economic of people were suspected of having influenced the occurrence of the contamination. The study area took place in Bogor, aiming to analyze the correlation between socio-economic and microplastic contamination in boiled salted fish. The purposive sampling method was used in this study on 150 consumers representing gender, age, education, occupation, and income. The result was analyzed with descriptive and inferential statistics using the likelihood ratio, wald, and odds ratio test to determine which variables had the most influence. The analytical results showed that the variables of gender and education had a significant correlation (95%) with 0.5-7 times of risk. It is shown in the wald result, and the odds ratio is 2.619-17.182 (more than x ² (df ,a) value) and 0.453-7.044. It can be concluded that the potential of microplastic contamination in boiled salted fish correlated with gender and level of education and can be controlled by enhancing the understanding of gender groups through improving public education to a higher level.
Article
Full-text available
A diverse U.S. sample comprising 1437 men and 1474 women was assessed on sexual orientation, masculinity–femininity of occupational preferences (MF-Occ), self-ascribed masculinity–femininity (Self-MF), Big Five personality traits, sex drive, and sociosexuality (positive attitudes toward uncommitted sex). Discriminant analyses explored which traits best distinguished self-identified heterosexual, bisexual, and homosexual individuals within each sex. These analyses correctly classified the sexual orientation of 55% of men and 60% of women, which was substantially better than a chance rate (33%) of assigning participants to one of three groups. For men, MF-Occ and Self-MF distinguished heterosexual, bisexual, and gay men, with heterosexual men most gender typical, gay men most gender atypical, and bisexual men intermediate. Independently, higher sex drive, sociosexuality, and neuroticism and lower conscientiousness distinguished bisexual men from other groups. For women, gender-related interests and Self-MF distinguished lesbians from other groups, with lesbians most gender atypical. Independently, higher sociosexuality, sex drive, and Self-MF distinguished non-heterosexual from heterosexual women. These findings suggest that variations in self-reported sexual orientation may be conceptualized in terms of two broad underlying individual difference dimensions, which differ somewhat for men and women: one linked to gender typicality versus gender atypicality and the other linked to sex drive, sociosexuality, and various personality traits.
Article
Full-text available
Secondary analyses of Revised NEO Personality Inventory data from 26 cultures (N = 23,031) suggest that gender differences are small relative to individual variation within genders; differences are replicated across cultures for both college-age and adult samples, and differences are broadly consistent with gender stereotypes: Women reported themselves to be higher in Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Warmth, and Openness to Feelings, whereas men were higher in Assertiveness and Openness to Ideas. Contrary to predictions from evolutionary theory, the magnitude of gender differences varied across cultures. Contrary to predictions from the social role model, gender differences were most pronounced in European and American cultures in which traditional sex roles are minimized. Possible explanations for this surprising finding are discussed, including the attribution of masculine and feminine behaviors to roles rather than traits in traditional cultures.
Article
Full-text available
A comprehensive evolutionary theory of sex differences will benefit from an accurate assessment of their magnitude across different psychological domains. This article shows that mainstream research has severely underestimated the magnitude of psychological sex differences; the reason lies in the common practice of measuring multidimensional differences one dimension at a time, without integrating them into a proper multivariate effect size (ES). Employing the Mahalanobis distance D (the multivariate generalization of Cohen's d) results in more accurate, and predictably larger, estimates of overall sex differences in multidimensional constructs. Two real-world examples are presented: (1) In a published dataset on Big Five personality traits, sex differences on individual scales averaged d = .27, a typical ES conventionally regarded as "small." However, the overall difference was D = .84 (disattenuated D = .98), implying considerable statistical separation between male and female distributions. (2) In a recent meta-analytic summary of sex differences in aggression, the individual ESs averaged d = .34. However, the overall difference was estimated at D = .75 - .80 (disattenuated D = .89 - 1.01). In many psychological domains, sex differences may be substantially larger than previously acknowledged.
Article
Full-text available
The origins of sex differences in human behavior can lie mainly in evolved dispositions that differ by sex or mainly in the differing placement of women and men in the social structure. The present article contrasts these 2 origin theories of sex differences and illustrates the explanatory power of each to account for the overall differences between the mate selection preferences of men and women. Although this research area often has been interpreted as providing evidence for evolved dispositions, a reanalysis of D. M. Buss's (see record 1989-32627-001) study of sex differences in the attributes valued in potential mates in 37 cultures yielded cross-cultural variation that supports the social structural account of sex differences in mate preferences. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Social dominance theory assumes transsituational and transcultural differences between men and women in social dominance orientation (SDO), with men showing higher levels of SDO than women. SDO is a general individual-difference variable expressing preference for superordinate in-group status, hierarchical relationships between social groups, and a view of group relations as inherently 0-sum. Data from a random sample of 1,897 respondents from Los Angeles County confirmed the notion that men have significantly higher social dominance scores than women and that these differences were consistent across cultural, demographic, and situational factors such as age, social class, religion, educational level, political ideology, ethnicity, racism, region of national origin, and gender-role relevant opinion. The theoretical implications are discussed. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
Schmitt's study provides strong support for sexual strategies theory (Buss & Schmitt 1993) – that men and women both have evolved a complex menu of mating strategies, selectively deployed depending on personal, social, and ecological contexts. It also simultaneously refutes social structural theories founded on the core premise that women and men are sexually monomorphic in their psychology of human mating. Further progress depends on identifying evolved psychological design features sensitive to the costs and benefits of pursuing each strategy from the menu, which vary across mating milieus. These design features, like many well-documented mating adaptations, are likely to be highly sex-differentiated.
Article
Full-text available
This study examined the nature of sex stereotypes of occupations as they exist among college students today. The method of eliciting sexual stereotypes of occupations was distinctive in that three types of rating criteria were used, each emphasizing a different aspect of perception, on the basis of which the ratings of occupations as masculine, feminine, or neutral were subsequently made. The results indicate that sexual stereotypes of occupations are clearly defined and held in agreement by both college men and college women. The study yielded information about the mean rating of each of 129 occupations in terms of its masculinity, femininity, and neutrality.
Article
Full-text available
Of the offensive yet non-pathological personalities in the literature, three are especially prominent: Machiavellianism, subclinical narcissism, and subclinical psychopathy. We evaluated the recent contention that, in normal samples, this ‘Dark Triad’ of constructs are one and the same. In a sample of 245 students, we measured the three constructs with standard measures and examined a variety of laboratory and self-report correlates. The measures were moderately inter-correlated, but certainly were not equivalent. Their only common Big Five correlate was disagreeableness. Subclinical psychopaths were distinguished by low neuroticism; Machiavellians, and psychopaths were low in conscientiousness; narcissism showed small positive associations with cognitive ability. Narcissists and, to a lesser extent, psychopaths exhibited self-enhancement on two objectively scored indexes. We conclude that the Dark Triad of personalities, as currently measured, are overlapping but distinct constructs.
Book
Full-text available
• Why do girls tend to earn better grades in school than boys? Why are men still far more likely than women to earn degrees in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics? And why are men on average more likely than women to be injured in accidents and fights? These and many other questions are the subject of both informal investigation in the media and formal investigation in academic and scientific circles. In his landmark book Male, female: The evolution of human sex differences (see record 2000-07043-000 ), author David C. Geary provided the first comprehensive evolutionary model to explain human sex differences. Now, over 10 years since the first edition, Geary has completed a massive update, expansion, and theoretical revision of his classic text. New findings in brain and genetic research inform a wealth of new material, including a new chapter on sex differences in patterns of life history development; expanded coverage of genetic research (e.g., DNA fingerprinting to determine paternity as related to male-male competition in primates); fatherhood in humans; cross-cultural patterns of sex differences in choosing and competing for mates; and genetic, hormonal, and sociocultural influences on the expression of sex differences. Finally, through his motivation to control framework, Geary presents a theoretical bridge linking parenting, mate choices, and competition with children's development and sex differences in brain and cognition. The result is a lively and nuanced application of Darwin's insight to help explain our heritage and our place in the natural world. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved) • Why do girls tend to earn better grades in school than boys? Why are men still far more likely than women to earn degrees in the fields of science, technology, engineering, and mathematics? And why are men on average more likely than women to be injured in accidents and fights? These and many other questions are the subject of both informal investigation in the media and formal investigation in academic and scientific circles. In his landmark book Male, female: The evolution of human sex differences (see record 2000-07043-000 ), author David C. Geary provided the first comprehensive evolutionary model to explain human sex differences. Now, over 10 years since the first edition, Geary has completed a massive update, expansion, and theoretical revision of his classic text. New findings in brain and genetic research inform a wealth of new material, including a new chapter on sex differences in patterns of life history development; expanded coverage of genetic research (e.g., DNA fingerprinting to determine paternity as related to male-male competition in primates); fatherhood in humans; cross-cultural patterns of sex differences in choosing and competing for mates; and genetic, hormonal, and sociocultural influences on the expression of sex differences. Finally, through his motivation to control framework, Geary presents a theoretical bridge linking parenting, mate choices, and competition with children's development and sex differences in brain and cognition. The result is a lively and nuanced application of Darwin's insight to help explain our heritage and our place in the natural world. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Full-text available
The magnitude and variability of sex differences in vocational interests were examined in the present meta-analysis for Holland's (1959, 1997) categories (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional), Prediger's (1982) Things-People and Data-Ideas dimensions, and the STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) interest areas. Technical manuals for 47 interest inventories were used, yielding 503,188 respondents. Results showed that men prefer working with things and women prefer working with people, producing a large effect size (d = 0.93) on the Things-People dimension. Men showed stronger Realistic (d = 0.84) and Investigative (d = 0.26) interests, and women showed stronger Artistic (d = -0.35), Social (d = -0.68), and Conventional (d = -0.33) interests. Sex differences favoring men were also found for more specific measures of engineering (d = 1.11), science (d = 0.36), and mathematics (d = 0.34) interests. Average effect sizes varied across interest inventories, ranging from 0.08 to 0.79. The quality of interest inventories, based on professional reputation, was not differentially related to the magnitude of sex differences. Moderators of the effect sizes included interest inventory item development strategy, scoring method, theoretical framework, and sample variables of age and cohort. Application of some item development strategies can substantially reduce sex differences. The present study suggests that interests may play a critical role in gendered occupational choices and gender disparity in the STEM fields.
Article
Full-text available
Secondary analyses of Revised NEO Personality Inventory data from 26 cultures (N = 23,031) suggest that gender differences are small relative to individual variation within genders; differences are replicated across cultures for both college-age and adult samples, and differences are broadly consistent with gender stereotypes: Women reported themselves to be higher in Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Warmth, and Openness to Feelings, whereas men were higher in Assertiveness and Openness to Ideas. Contrary to predictions from evolutionary theory, the magnitude of gender differences varied across cultures. Contrary to predictions from the social role model, gender differences were most pronounced in European and American cultures in which traditional sex roles are minimized. Possible explanations for this surprising finding are discussed, including the attribution of masculine and feminine behaviors to roles rather than traits in traditional cultures.
Article
Full-text available
The Sociosexual Orientation Inventory (SOI; Simpson & Gangestad 1991) is a self-report measure of individual differences in human mating strategies. Low SOI scores signify that a person is sociosexually restricted, or follows a more monogamous mating strategy. High SOI scores indicate that an individual is unrestricted, or has a more promiscuous mating strategy. As part of the International Sexuality Description Project (ISDP), the SOI was translated from English into 25 additional languages and administered to a total sample of 14,059 people across 48 nations. Responses to the SOI were used to address four main issues. First, the psychometric properties of the SOI were examined in cross-cultural perspective. The SOI possessed adequate reliability and validity both within and across a diverse range of modem cultures. Second, theories concerning the systematic distribution of sociosexuality across cultures were evaluated. Both operational sex ratios and reproductively demanding environments related in evolutionary-predicted ways to national levels of sociosexuality. Third, sex differences in sociosexuality were generally large and demonstrated cross-cultural universality across the 48 nations of the ISDP, confirming several evolutionary theories of human mating. Fourth, sex differences in sociosexuality were significantly larger when reproductive environments were demanding but were reduced to more moderate levels in cultures with more political and economic gender equality. Implications for evolutionary and social role theories of human sexuality are discussed.
Article
Full-text available
Psychological differences between women and men, far from being invariant as a biological explanation would suggest, fluctuate in magnitude across cultures. Moreover, contrary to the implications of some theoretical perspectives, gender differences in personality, values, and emotions are not smaller, but larger, in American and European cultures, in which greater progress has been made toward gender equality. This research on gender differences in self-construals involving 950 participants from 5 nations/cultures (France, Belgium, the Netherlands, the United States, and Malaysia) illustrates how variations in social comparison processes across cultures can explain why gender differences are stronger in Western cultures. Gender differences in the self are a product of self-stereotyping, which occurs when between-gender social comparisons are made. These social comparisons are more likely, and exert a greater impact, in Western nations. Both correlational and experimental evidence supports this explanation.
Article
Full-text available
Previous research suggested that sex differences in personality traits are larger in prosperous, healthy, and egalitarian cultures in which women have more opportunities equal with those of men. In this article, the authors report cross-cultural findings in which this unintuitive result was replicated across samples from 55 nations (N = 17,637). On responses to the Big Five Inventory, women reported higher levels of neuroticism, extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness than did men across most nations. These findings converge with previous studies in which different Big Five measures and more limited samples of nations were used. Overall, higher levels of human development--including long and healthy life, equal access to knowledge and education, and economic wealth--were the main nation-level predictors of larger sex differences in personality. Changes in men's personality traits appeared to be the primary cause of sex difference variation across cultures. It is proposed that heightened levels of sexual dimorphism result from personality traits of men and women being less constrained and more able to naturally diverge in developed nations. In less fortunate social and economic conditions, innate personality differences between men and women may be attenuated.
Book
This engaging text presents the latest scientific findings on gender differences, similarities, and variations--in sexuality, cognitive abilities, occupational preferences, personality, and social behaviors. The impact of nature and nurture on gender is examined from the perspectives of genetics, molecular biology, evolutionary theory, neuroanatomy, sociology, and psychology. The result is a balanced, fair-minded synthesis of diverse points of view. Dr. Lippa’s text sympathetically summarizes each side of the nature-nurture debate, and in a witty imagined conversation between a personified “nature” and “nurture,” he identifies weaknesses in the arguments offered by both sides. His review defines gender, summarizes research on gender differences, examines the nature of masculinity and femininity, describes theories of gender, and presents a “cascade model,” which argues that nature and nurture weave together to form the complex tapestry known as gender. Gender, Nature, and Nurture, Second Edition features: *new research on sex differences in personality, moral thought, coping styles, sexual and antisocial behavior, and psychological adjustment; *the results of a new meta-analysis of sex differences in real-life measures of aggression; *new sections on non-hormonal direct genetic effects on sexual differentiation; hormones and maternal behavior; and on gender, work, and pay; and *expanded accounts of sex differences in children's play and activity levels; social learning theories of gender, and social constructionist views of gender. This lively “primer” is an ideal book for courses on gender studies, the psychology of women, or of men, and gender roles. Its wealth of updated information will stimulate the professional reader, and its accessible style will captivate the student and general reader.
Article
Across two Meta-analyses, American women's assertiveness rose and fell with their social status from 1931 to 1993. College women and high school girls' self-reports on assertiveness and dominance scales increased from 1931 to 1945, decreased from 1946 to 1967, and increased from 1968 to 1993, explaining about 14% of the variance in the trait. Women's scores have increased enough that many recent samples show no sex differences in assertiveness. Correlations with social indicators (e.g., women's educational attainment, women's median age at first marriage) confirm that women's assertiveness varies with their status and roles. Social change is thus internalized in the form of a personality trait. Men's scores do not demonstrate a significant birth cohort effect overall. The results suggest that the changing sociocultural environment for women affected their personalities, most likely beginning in childhood.
Article
Four meta-analyses were conducted to examine gender differences in personality in the literature (1958-1992) and in normative data for well-known personality inventories (1940-1992). Males were found to be more assertive and had slightly higher self-esteem than females. Females were higher than males in extraversion, anxiety, trust, and, especially, tender-mindedness (e.g., nurturance). There were no noteworthy sex differences in social anxiety, impulsiveness, activity, ideas (e.g., reflectiveness), locus of control, and orderliness. Gender differences in personality traits were generally constant across ages, years of data collection, educational levels, and nations.
Article
The existence of substantial sex differences in vocational preferences is important, given the prominent role assigned vocational preferences as a link between underlying interests and vocational choice. Strong Interest Inventory (SII) responses of 16,484 males and females, ages 18 to 22, were analyzed to determine whether relationships between measured interests and vocational preferences were equivalent for the two sexes. Using differential item functioning (DIF) analysis techniques, sex-related differentials in responses to 28 SII occupational title items were estimated, after controlling for 1, 3, or 6 General Occupational Theme scale scores. Significant sex-related DIF was found on most of the occupations. Further, the sex-related DIF was strongly correlated with sextype ratings for the occupations. These results suggest that sex differences in vocational preference are not fully explained by differences in measured vocational interests, and that vocational preferences may not be equivalent indicators of underlying interests for males and females.
Article
consider why [gender stereotyping is a ubiquitous process to which we all succumb], what conditions support stereotypes, and what functions they serve / review both theoretical analyses and empirical findings as they relate to the content of gender stereotypes and subtypes, the development of stereotypes, and individual differences in their use / consider possibilities for change, both in cultural endorsement and individual usage (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Schmitt's findings provide little evidence that sex differences in sociosexuality are explained by evolved dispositions. These sex differences are better explained by an evolutionary account that treats the psychological attributes of women and men as emergent, given the biological attributes of the sexes, especially female reproductive capacity, and the economic and social structural aspects of societies.
Article
Depuis quelques 50 ans, les psychologues utilisent le “Strong Vocational Interest Blank” (SVIB) pour mesurer les motivations professionnelles; la longue histoire du SVIB et le récent collationnement d'un grand nombre d‘échantillons de professionnels interrogés avec des versions antérieures du SVIB, ont rendu possible l'analyse des données recueillies sur de longues périodes de temps, déterminant l'impact de l'Histoire sur la société et par voie de conséquence sur les motivations professionnelles. Les résultats de six professions autant féminines que masculines “en général”, furent utilisées pour étudier deux points: le premier, l'identification du changement général des motivations professionnelles dans la société, le second, l'augmentation ou la diminution des différences entre les motivations des femmes et des hommes depuis 50 ans. Les résultats illustrèrent la ténacité et la stabilité des motivations des femmes et des hommes “en général” autant que des individus oceupant des professions particulières, comme ils montrèrent également d'une façon claire l’élasticité des différences sexuelles dans les aptitudes aux changements.
Article
Most research looking at psychological similarities and differences between women and men has been carried out in North America and Western Europe. In this paper, I review a body of cross-cultural evidence showing that it is precisely in these Western countries that women and men differ the most in terms of personality, self-construal, values, or emotions. Much less-pronounced gender differences are observed, if at all, in Asian and African countries. These findings are unexpected from the perspectives of the two most influential frameworks applied to sex differences coming from evolutionary psychology and social role theory. However, recent research related to social comparison and self-categorization theories suggests a promising approach to explain why more egalitarian societies can paradoxically create greater psychological differences between women and men.
Article
Sixty-three samples providing single-sex means on the Bem Sex-Role Inventory [BSRI; S. L. Bem (1974) “The Measurement of Psychological Androgyny,”Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, Vol. 42, pp. 155–162] and 40 reporting similar data on the Personal Attributes Questionnaire [PAQ; J. T. Spence and R. L. Helmreich (1978)Masculinity and Feminity, Austin University of Texas Press] for American undergraduates were located and analyzed. Women’s scores on the BSRI-M and PAQ-M (masculine) scales have increased steadily over time (r’s = .74 and .43, respectively). Women’s BSRI-F and PAQ-F (feminine) scale scores do not correlate with year. Men’s BSRI-M scores show a weaker positive relationship with year of administration (r = .47). The effect size for sex differences on the BSRI-M has also changed over time, showing a significant decrease over the twenty-year period. The results suggest that cultural change and environment may affect individual personalities; these changes in BSRI and PAQ means demonstrate women’s increased endorsement of masculine-stereotyped traits and men’s continued nonendorsement of feminine-steretyped traits.
Article
Holland uses a hexagon to model relationships among his six types of vocational interests. This paper provides empirical evidence regarding the nature of the interest dimensions underlying the hexagon. Two studies are reported. Study 1 examines the extent to which two theory-based dimensions—data/ideas and things/people—fit 27 sets of intercorrelations for Holland's types. Three of the data sets involve the mean scores of career groups (total of 228 groups and 35,060 individuals); 24 involve the scores for individuals (total of 11,275). Study 2 explores the heuristic value of the data/ideas and things/people dimensions by determining whether they contribute to the understanding of why interest inventories work. Two data sets covering a total of 563 occupations are used to calculate correlations between the vocational interests of persons and the tasks which characterize the persons' occupations. Each occupation's principal work tasks are determined from job analysis data obtained from the U.S. Department of Labor. Study 1 results provide substantial support for the theory-based dimensions. Study 2 results suggest that interest inventories “work” primarily because they tap activity preferences which parallel work tasks. Counseling and research applications of the data/ideas and things/people dimensions are suggested and implications for interest assessment are noted.
Article
The abstract for this document is available on CSA Illumina.To view the Abstract, click the Abstract button above the document title.
Article
Using data from over 200,000 participants from 53 nations, I examined the cross-cultural consistency of sex differences for four traits: extraversion, agreeableness, neuroticism, and male-versus-female-typical occupational preferences. Across nations, men and women differed significantly on all four traits (mean ds = -.15, -.56, -.41, and 1.40, respectively, with negative values indicating women scoring higher). The strongest evidence for sex differences in SDs was for extraversion (women more variable) and for agreeableness (men more variable). United Nations indices of gender equality and economic development were associated with larger sex differences in agreeableness, but not with sex differences in other traits. Gender equality and economic development were negatively associated with mean national levels of neuroticism, suggesting that economic stress was associated with higher neuroticism. Regression analyses explored the power of sex, gender equality, and their interaction to predict men's and women's 106 national trait means for each of the four traits. Only sex predicted means for all four traits, and sex predicted trait means much more strongly than did gender equality or the interaction between sex and gender equality. These results suggest that biological factors may contribute to sex differences in personality and that culture plays a negligible to small role in moderating sex differences in personality.
Article
A new questionnaire on aggression was constructed. Replicated factor analyses yielded 4 scales: Physical Aggression, Verbal Aggression, Anger, and Hostility. Correlational analysis revealed that anger is the bridge between both physical and verbal aggression and hostility. The scales showed internal consistency and stability over time. Men scored slightly higher on Verbal Aggression and Hostility and much higher on Physical Aggression. There was no sex difference for Anger. The various scales correlated differently with various personality traits. Scale scores correlated with peer nominations of the various kinds of aggression. These findings suggest the need to assess not only overall aggression but also its individual components.
Article
In 3 studies (respective Ns = 289, 394, and 1,678), males and females were assessed on Big Five traits, masculine instrumentality (M), feminine expressiveness (F), gender diagnosticity (GD), and RIASEC (Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, Conventional) vocational interest scales. Factor analyses of RIASEC scores consistently showed evidence for D.J. Prediger's (1982) People-Things and Ideas-Data dimensions, and participants' factor scores on these dimensions were computed. In all studies Big Five Openness was related to Ideas-Data but not to People-Things. Gender was strongly related to People-Things but not to Ideas-Data. Within each sex, GD correlated strongly with People-Things but not with Ideas-Data. M, F, and Big Five measures other than Openness tended not to correlate strongly with RIASEC scales or dimensions. The results suggest that gender and gender-related individual differences within the sexes are strongly linked to the People-Things dimension of vocational interests.
Article
Across two meta-analyses, American women's assertiveness rose and fell with their social status from 1931 to 1993. College women and high school girls' self-reports on assertiveness and dominance scales increased from 1931 to 1945, decreased from 1946 to 1967, and increased from 1968 to 1993, explaining about 14% of the variance in the trait. Women's scores have increased enough that many recent samples show no sex differences in assertiveness. Correlations with social indicators (e.g., women's educational attainment, women's median age at first marriage) confirm that women's assertiveness varies with their status and roles. Social change is thus internalized in the form of a personality trait. Men's scores do not demonstrate a significant birth cohort effect overall. The results suggest that the changing sociocultural environment for women affected their personalities, most likely beginning in childhood.
Article
Gender differentiation is pervasive, and understanding how and why it develops is important for both theoretical and practical reasons. The work described here is rooted in constructivist accounts of gender differentiation. Past research provides considerable support for constructivist predictions concerning (a) developmental changes in gender attitudes and (b) the relation between gender attitudes and information processing. Little work, however, has addressed the more fundamental question of how children's developing gender attitudes about others are related to developing gender characterizations of self. The focus of the current Monograph is on this other-self relation during middle childhood. A brief review of past theory and empirical work on gender differentiation is provided. It is argued that a major explanation of the limitations and inconsistencies evident in earlier work may be traced to restrictions in the measures available to assess key constructs. A conceptual analysis of the specific limitations of past measures is presented. The Monograph then offers alternative models of the developmental relation between attitudes toward others and characterization of self (the attitudinal and the personal pathway models), and identifies conditions expected to influence the strength of the observed other-self relation. Four studies establish the reliability and validity of a suite of measures that provides comparable methods for assessing attitudes toward others (attitude measures, or AM) and sex typing of self (personal measures, or PM) in three domains: occupations, activities, and traits (or OAT). Parallel forms are provided for adults (the OAT-AM and OAT-PM) and for children of middle-school age, roughly 11-13 years old (the COAT-AM and COAT-PM). A fifth study provides longitudinal data from children tested at four times, beginning at the start of grade 6 (approximately age 11 years) and ending at the close of grade 7 (approximately age 13 years). These data are used to examine the developmental relation between children's sex typing of others and sex typing of the self, and to test the predictions concerning the factors hypothesized to affect the strength of the relation between the two types of sex typing. Overall, the data supported the conceptual distinctions among individuals' (a) gender attitudes toward others, (b) feminine self, and (c) masculine self, and, additionally, revealed some intriguing differences across domains. Interestingly, the data concerning the other-self relation differed by sex of participant. Among girls, analyses of concurrent relations showed that those girls who held fewer stereotypes of masculine activities for others showed greater endorsement of masculine items for self, a finding compatible with both the other-to-self attitudinal pathway model and the self-to-other personal pathway model. The prospective regression analyses, however, showed no effects. That is, preadolescent girls' gender attitudes about others did not predict their later self-endorsements, nor did self-endorsements predict later attitudes. Data from boys showed a strikingly different pattern, one consistent with the self-to-other personal pathway model: There was no evidence of concurrent other-self relations, but prospective analyses indicated that preadolescent boys who endorsed greater numbers of feminine traits as self-descriptive early in grade 6 developed increasingly egalitarian gender attitudes by the end of grade 7. The Monograph closes with discussions of additional implications of the empirical data, of preliminary work on developing parallel measures for younger children, and of the need to design research that illuminates the cognitive-developmental mechanisms underlying age-related changes in sex typing.
Article
Stereotyping effects are typically considered to be assimilative in nature: A member of a group stereotyped as having some attribute is judged to have more of that attribute than a member of some comparison group. This article highlights the fact that stereotyping effects can also occur in the direction of contrast--or even null effects-- depending on the nature and form of the outcome being assessed (from the researcher's perspective, the dependent variable of interest). Relying on theory and research from the shifting standards model (M. Biernat, M. Manis, & T. F. Nelson, 1991), this review highlights the different ways in which and the factors that determine how stereotypes influence judgment and behavior toward individual group members.
Article
The differences model, which argues that males and females are vastly different psychologically, dominates the popular media. Here, the author advances a very different view, the gender similarities hypothesis, which holds that males and females are similar on most, but not all, psychological variables. Results from a review of 46 meta-analyses support the gender similarities hypothesis. Gender differences can vary substantially in magnitude at different ages and depend on the context in which measurement occurs. Overinflated claims of gender differences carry substantial costs in areas such as the workplace and relationships.
Article
BBC Internet survey participants (119,733 men and 98,462 women) chose from a list of 23 traits those they considered first, second, and third most important in a relationship partner. Across all participants, the traits ranked most important were: intelligence, humor, honesty, kindness, overall good looks, face attractiveness, values, communication skills, and dependability. On average, men ranked good looks and facial attractiveness more important than women did (d = 0.55 and 0.36, respectively), whereas women ranked honesty, humor, kindness, and dependability more important than men did (ds = 0.23, 0.22, 0.18, and 0.15). Sexual orientation differences were smaller than sex differences in trait rankings, but some were meaningful; for example, heterosexual more than homosexual participants assigned importance to religion, fondness for children, and parenting abilities. Multidimensional scaling analyses showed that trait preference profiles clustered by participant sex, not by sexual orientation, and by sex more than by nationality. Sex-by-nation ANOVAs of individuals' trait rankings showed that sex differences in rankings of attractiveness, but not of character traits, were extremely consistent across 53 nations and that nation main effects and sex-by-nation interactions were stronger for character traits than for physical attractiveness. United Nations indices of gender equality correlated, across nations, with men's and women's rankings of character traits but not with their rankings of physical attractiveness. These results suggest that cultural factors had a relatively greater impact on men's and women's rankings of character traits, whereas biological factors had a relatively greater impact on men's and women's rankings of physical attractiveness.
Article
By analyzing cross-cultural patterns in five parameters--sex differences, male and female trait means, male and female trait standard deviations--researchers can better test evolutionary and social structural models of sex differences. Five models of biological and social structural influence are presented that illustrate this proposal. Using data from 53 nations and from over 200,000 participants surveyed in a recent BBC Internet survey, I examined cross-cultural patterns in these five parameters for two sexual traits--sex drive and sociosexuality--and for height, a physical trait with a biologically based sex difference. Sex drive, sociosexuality, and height all showed consistent sex differences across nations (mean ds = .62, .74, and 1.63). Women were consistently more variable than men in sex drive (mean female to male variance ratio = 1.64). Gender equality and economic development tended to predict, across nations, sex differences in sociosexuality, but not sex differences in sex drive or height. Parameters for sociosexuality tended to vary across nations more than parameters for sex drive and height did. The results for sociosexuality were most consistent with a hybrid model--that both biological and social structural influences contribute to sex differences, whereas the results for sex drive and height were most consistent with a biological model--that evolved biological factors are the primary cause of sex differences. The model testing proposed here encourages evolutionary and social structural theorists to make more precise and nuanced predictions about the patterning of sex differences across cultures.
Stereotypes and shifting standards Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination Sex differences in the design features of socially contingent mating adaptations
  • M Biernat
Biernat, M. (2009). Stereotypes and shifting standards. In T. D. Nelson (Ed.), Handbook of Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination (pp. 137–152). New York: Psychology Press. Buss, D. M. (2005). Sex differences in the design features of socially contingent mating adaptations. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28, 278–279.
Measuring Sex Stereotypes: A Thirty-Nation Study
  • J E Williams
  • D L Best
Williams, J. E., & Best, D. L. (1982). Measuring Sex Stereotypes: A Thirty-Nation Study. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage.
Social role theory of sex differences and similarities: A current appraisal The Developmental Social Psychology of Gender
  • A H Eagly
  • W Wood
  • A B Diekman
Eagly, A. H., Wood, W., & Diekman, A. B. (2000). Social role theory of sex differences and similarities: A current appraisal. In T. Eckes & H. M. Trautner (Eds.), The Developmental Social Psychology of Gender (pp. 123–174).
Components of gender stereotypes
  • K Deaux
  • L L Lewis
Deaux, K., & Lewis, L. L. (1983). Components of gender stereotypes. Psychological Documents, 13, 25. (Ms. No. 2583).
Cognitive theories of gender development The Devel-opmental Social Psychology of Gender
  • C L Martin
Martin, C. L. (2000). Cognitive theories of gender development. In T. Eckes & H. M. Trautner (Eds.), The Devel-opmental Social Psychology of Gender (pp. 91–121). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.
Gender stereotypes The Social Psychology of Male-Female Relations Toward a broader view of social stereotyping
  • R D Ashmore
  • Del Boca
  • F K Wohlers
Ashmore, R. D., Del Boca, F. K., & Wohlers, A. J. (1986). Gender stereotypes. In R. D. Ashmore & F. K. Del Boca (Eds.), The Social Psychology of Male-Female Relations (pp. 69–119). Orlando, FL: Academic Press. Biernat, M. (2003). Toward a broader view of social stereotyping. American Psychologist, 58, 1019–1027.
Gender, personality, and psychopathology
  • P G Williams
  • H E Gunn
Williams, P. G., & Gunn, H. E. (2006). Gender, personality, and psychopathology. In J. C. Thomas, D. L. Segal & M. Hersen (Eds.); Comprehensive Handbook of Personality and Psychopathology (Vol. 1): Personality and Everyday Func-tioning (pp. 432–442). Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons.