Some naturally occuring flavonoids, such as 3-methyl quercetin and Ro-090179, show potent anti-picornavirus activity. They inhibit poliovirus replication at concentrations 100-fold or 1000-fold lower than hydroxybenzyl-benzimidazole (HBB) and guanidine, respectively. Ro-090179 selectively blocks viral RNA synthesis in poliovirus-infected HeLa cells more strongly than 3-methyl quercetin and is therefore the most potent and selective inhibitor of poliovirus RNA synthesis described until now. In addition, Ro-090179 discriminates in its inhibition between plus- and minus-stranded RNA synthesis. Thus, analysis of the viral RNA made in poliovirus-infected cells when the compound is added late in the infection cycle, indicates that the synthesis of genomic RNA is potently blocked, whereas minus-stranded RNA synthesis is not inhibited. These findings make Ro-090179 a valuble compound for obtaining insight into the molecular mechanism of poliovirus RNA replication.
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"In some other studies revealed that "Natural and synthetic flavonoids and interfere with picornavirus replication leading to preventing of decapsidation of viral particles and RNA release within cells or blocking viral RNA synthesis" (Conti et al., 1990; Genovese et al., 1995; Gonzalez et al., 1990; Salvati et al., 2004). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Avicenniaceae family is a member of true mangrove plants which has one genus, 11 species and several subspecies. Avicennia marina is the most current species among these plants in Iranian mangrove forest. Regarding to the presence of many active biological constituents in this plant and their applications in traditional and alternative medicine, the in vitro antiviral activity of its leaf extract on herpes simplex virus type-1 (HSV-1) and vaccine strain of polio virus (Sabin) in Vero cell line were determined. The CC50 of the extract was 5750.96 for Vero cells. The antiviral effect of the extract on HSV-1 and vaccine strain of polio virus before and after the attachment of the virus particles to Vero cells were assessed. The IC50 values of the extract were 66 µg/ml and 137.24 µg/ml for before and after virus attachment stages of HSV-1 replication cycle respectively. The IC50 values of extract for vaccine strain of poliovirus were 145.7 and 314.3 µg/ml for before and after attachment stages of virus replication respectively. The SI values of the extract for the before and after virus attachment stages of viral replication cycle were 87.1 and 41.9 for HSV-1. The SI for the vaccine strain of poliovirus were calculated 39.5 and 18.3 for before and post attachment stages of this virus replication cycle ordinarily. The obtained SI values indicate that hot glycerin extract of A. marina leaves could be a good candidate for further studies in the area of antiviral compound developing.
"Effect of 3-methylkaempferol on viral RNA synthesis Since a direct action of some flavonoids on viral RNA replication has been previously reported (Castrillo et al., 1986; Castrillo & Carrasco, 1987; Gonzalez et al., 1990; "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The search for antiviral agents against vesicular stomatitis virus, herpes simplex virus type 1 and poliovirus type 2 in plants extracts, led to the isolation of two antipoliovirus flavonoids from the medicinal plant Psiadia dentata (Cass.) DC, Asteraceae: 3-methylkaempferol and 3,4'-dimethylkaempferol. The antipoliovirus activity of both compounds was estimated by comparison with 3-methylquercetin, guanidine and Ro-090179. The most potent inhibitor of poliovirus replication was 3-methylkaempferol, and therefore we investigated its mechanism of action. We showed, using the inhibition of [3H]uridine incorporation in viral RNA and performing a dot-blot with one RNA probe specific for the poliovirus genomic strand RNA, that 3-methylkaempferol inhibits the genomic RNA synthesis of poliovirus.
"Beside an effect on HRVs, 4′,5-dihydroxy-3,3′,7- trimethoxyflavone (Ro-09-0179) also exerted an inhibitory activity against coxsackieviruses in tissue cultures (Kaul et al., 1985). The mechanism of action of flavonoids has been attributed to interference with an early stage of viral infection , probably represented by viral RNA synthesis (Castrillo et al., 1986; Gonzales et al., 1990). "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: The in vitro antiviral activity against picornaviruses (rhinovirus serotype 1B and 14, and poliovirus type 2) of new synthetic 3-hydroxyflavones, 3-acetoxyflavones, and substituted cinnamic and benzoic acid flavon-3-yl esters was evaluated. The maximum non-toxic concentration of compounds was determined in a human cell line (HeLa) suitable for the replication of the three viruses. Their antiviral potency was measured by a plaque reduction assay. Generally, rhinoviruses exhibited a higher sensitivity to the new flavonoids than poliovirus. Flavones, with sterically small substituents in position 3, showed good activity against both rhinoviruses tested. However, the introduction of bulky substituents in the same position resulted in analogues with a higher toxicity and often with a lower efficacy.