Article

HIV in men who have sex with men 6: a call to action for comprehensive HIV services for men who have sex with men

Center for Public Health and Human Rights, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.
The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 07/2012; 380(9839):424-38. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)61022-8
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT

Where surveillance has been done, it has shown that men (MSM) who have sex with men bear a disproportionate burden of HIV. Yet they continue to be excluded, sometimes systematically, from HIV services because of stigma, discrimination, and criminalisation. This situation must change if global control of the HIV epidemic is to be achieved. On both public health and human rights grounds, expansion of HIV prevention, treatment, and care to MSM is an urgent imperative. Effective combination prevention and treatment approaches are feasible, and culturally competent care can be developed, even in rights-challenged environments. Condom and lubricant access for MSM globally is highly cost effective. Antiretroviral-based prevention, and antiretroviral access for MSM globally, would also be cost effective, but would probably require substantial reductions in drug costs in high-income countries to be feasible. To address HIV in MSM will take continued research, political will, structural reform, community engagement, and strategic planning and programming, but it can and must be done.

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Available from: Kenneth Mayer, Dec 18, 2013
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    • "Some but not all results from mathematical modelling lend support to the population level use of treatment for prevention (Padian, 2011). Beyrer (2012) observed that while the current scientific evidence supports that ART-based prevention is feasible, it is also expensive and therefore its widespread use will require reduction in drug costs in high income countries. Cremin et al. (2013), in recent mathematical modelling analysis, suggested that earlier ART treatment and use of PrEP had significant cost and reach limitations undermining their effectiveness, but used in combination with other interventions would be the most effective in achieving reductions in HIV. "

    Full-text · Dataset · Dec 2015
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    • "In other settings, higher personal wealth may contribute to delayed marriage and a higher number of lifetime sexual partners [42]. In addition, the criminalization of HIV transmission, sex work, homosexuality and drug use can block access to services in particular settings [43–45]. Interventions that attempt to address the material context may include social protection schemes, changing legislation and capacity building. "
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    ABSTRACT: Introduction Contemporary HIV-related theory and policy emphasize the importance of addressing the social drivers of HIV risk and vulnerability for a long-term response. Consequently, increasing attention is being given to social and structural interventions, and to social outcomes of HIV interventions. Appropriate indicators for social outcomes are needed in order to institutionalize the commitment to addressing social outcomes. This paper critically assesses the current state of social indicators within international HIV/AIDS monitoring and evaluation frameworks. Methods We analyzed the indicator frameworks of six international organizations involved in efforts to improve and synchronize the monitoring and evaluation of the HIV/AIDS response. Our analysis classifies the 328 unique indicators according to what they measure and assesses the degree to which they offer comprehensive measurement across three dimensions: domains of the social context, levels of change and organizational capacity. Results and discussion The majority of indicators focus on individual-level (clinical and behavioural) interventions and outcomes, neglecting structural interventions, community interventions and social outcomes (e.g. stigma reduction; community capacity building; policy-maker sensitization). The main tool used to address social aspects of HIV/AIDS is the disaggregation of data by social group. This raises three main limitations. Indicator frameworks do not provide comprehensive coverage of the diverse social drivers of the epidemic, particularly neglecting criminalization, stigma, discrimination and gender norms. There is a dearth of indicators for evaluating the social impacts of HIV interventions. Indicators of organizational capacity focus on capacity to effectively deliver and manage clinical services, neglecting capacity to respond appropriately and sustainably to complex social contexts. Conclusions Current indicator frameworks cannot adequately assess the social outcomes of HIV interventions. This limits knowledge about social drivers and inhibits the institutionalization of social approaches within the HIV/AIDS response. We conclude that indicator frameworks should expand to offer a more comprehensive range of social indicators for monitoring and evaluation and to include indicators of organizational capacity to tackle social drivers. While such expansion poses challenges for standardization and coordination, we argue that the complexity of interventions producing social outcomes necessitates capacity for flexibility and local tailoring in monitoring and evaluation.
    Full-text · Article · Aug 2014 · Journal of the International AIDS Society
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    • "HIV in men who have sex with men (MSM) influences the overall HIV epidemic in both low and high income countries, which is related to high per-act and per-partner transmission probability of HIV transmission in receptive anal sex [1-4]. According to the sentinel surveillance of the National AIDS Control Organization of India, HIV prevalence in MSM in 2008–2009 was estimated to be 7%, which is about 20 times higher than the overall national adult HIV prevalence rate [5]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Two rounds of integrated biological and behavioural assessment (IBBA) surveys were done among men who have sex with men (MSM) in Andhra Pradesh during 2006 and 2009. Avahan, the India AIDS initiative, funded by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation implemented HIV prevention interventions among MSM starting around the time of the first round of IBBA. Data on socio-demographic, sex behaviour characteristics and HIV status of MSM from the two IBBA rounds were used. Changes in the rates of consistent condom use over the past one month by MSM with various types of partners between the two rounds were assessed. Multivariate analysis was performed to assess associations between various factors and inconsistent condom use for sex with regular partners as well as HIV in MSM. A significant increase in consistent condom use by MSM was noted from 2006 to 2009 for paid male partners (19.5% to 93.8%), occasional male partners (13.2% to 86.2%), and paid female partners (25.9% to 94.2%). Consistent condom use with regular sex partners also increased but remained lower with regular male partner (75.8%) and very low with regular female partners (15.7%). MSM who used condoms inconsistently with their regular male partner were also more likely to use condoms inconsistently with their regular female partner. Multivariate analysis showed MSM who used condoms inconsistently with regular male partner had higher odds of HIV (odds ratio 1.8; 95% CI 1.2-2.7). MSM who received condoms from Avahan had the lowest odds (odds ratio 0.3; 95% CI 0.1-0.5) of inconsistent condom use with regular male partners. Condom use by MSM increased markedly after implementation of Avahan, though a causal association cannot be assessed with the available data. The relatively lower condom use with regular partners of MSM suggests that additional programme effort is needed to address this aspect specifically.
    Full-text · Article · Jan 2014 · BMC Public Health
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