Structures of Lysenin Reveal a Shared Evolutionary Origin for Pore-Forming Proteins And Its Mode of Sphingomyelin Recognition
Division of Structural Biology, Wellcome Trust Centre for Human Genetics, University of Oxford, Roosevelt Drive, Oxford OX3 7BN, UK.Structure (Impact Factor: 5.62). 07/2012; 20(9):1498-507. DOI: 10.1016/j.str.2012.06.011
Pore-forming proteins insert from solution into membranes to create lesions, undergoing a structural rearrangement often accompanied by oligomerization. Lysenin, a pore-forming toxin from the earthworm Eisenia fetida, specifically interacts with sphingomyelin (SM) and may confer innate immunity against parasites by attacking their membranes to form pores. SM has important roles in cell membranes and lysenin is a popular SM-labeling reagent. The structure of lysenin suggests common ancestry with other pore-forming proteins from a diverse set of eukaryotes and prokaryotes. The complex with SM shows the mode of its recognition by a protein in which both the phosphocholine headgroup and one acyl tail are specifically bound. Lipid interaction studies and assays using viable target cells confirm the functional reliance of lysenin on this form of SM recognition.
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- "Recently, the mushroomderived , structurally homologous proteins of the aegerolysin family  were employed to visualize CPE, independently of the lipid envi- ronment  . Crystallographic analysis combined with point mutagenesis studies has facilitated the precise mapping of SL-binding domains and the development of non-toxic derivatives suitable for live-cell im- aging [106,107]. Antibodies and toxins have also been used to visualize SM and CPE distribution through EM. Based on rapid freezing and freeze fracture techniques, the intracellular distribution and asymmetry of the lipids between the two leaflets of the plasma membrane have been revealed [47,91]. "
ABSTRACT: Pore-forming toxins (PFTs) represent a unique class of highly specific lipid-binding proteins. The cytotoxicity of these compounds has been overcome through crystallographic structure and mutation studies, facilitating the development of non-toxic lipid probes. As a consequence, non-toxic PFTs have been utilized as highly specific probes to visualize the diversity and dynamics of lipid nanostructures in living and fixed cells. This review is focused on the application of PFTs and their non-toxic analogs as tools to visualize sphingomyelin and ceramide phosphoethanolamine, two major phosphosphingolipids in mammalian and insect cells, respectively.
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- "Eisenia fetida expels its coelomic fluid when attacked, and the fluid is known to be toxic to vertebrates, probably as a result of the presence of Lysenin (Kobayashi et al. 2001). Lysenin is hemolytic and can lyse cells by inserting into cell membranes, an ability which probably also allows it to play a role in innate immunity as it is able to attack the cell membranes of parasites (De Colibus et al. 2012). "
ABSTRACT: Glycerids are marine annelids commonly known as bloodworms. Bloodworms have an eversible proboscis adorned with jaws connected to venom glands. Bloodworms prey on invertebrates, and it is known that the venom glands produce compounds that can induce toxic effects in animals. Yet, none of these putative toxins has been characterized on a molecular basis. Here we present the transcriptomic profiles of the venom glands of three species of bloodworm, Glycera dibranchiata, Glycera fallax and Glycera tridactyla, as well as the body tissue of G. tridactyla. The venom glands express a complex mixture of transcripts coding for putative toxin precursors. These transcripts represent 20 known toxin classes that have been convergently recruited into animal venoms, as well as transcripts potentially coding for Glycera-specific toxins. The toxins represent five functional categories: Pore-forming and membrane-disrupting toxins, neurotoxins, protease inhibitors, other enzymes, and CAP domain toxins. Many of the transcripts coding for putative Glycera toxins belong to classes that have been widely recruited into venoms, but some are homologs of toxins previously only known from the venoms of scorpaeniform fish and monotremes (stonustoxin-like toxin), turrid gastropods (turripeptide-like peptides), and sea anemones (gigantoxin I-like neurotoxin). This complex mixture of toxin homologs suggests that bloodworms employ venom while predating on macroscopic prey, casting doubt on the previously widespread opinion that G. dibranchiata is a detritivore. Our results further show that researchers should be aware that different assembly methods, as well as different methods of homology prediction, can influence the transcriptomic profiling of venom glands.
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- "This experiment provided supplementary evidence for the channels not being pulled out from the supportive BLM by the cationic polymers. Given the particular structure of the lysenin monomer interacting with SM in a BLM , the asymmetric shape, and the hydrophilic C-terminus, it is unlikely that either of the charged polymers could successfully pull the lysenin channels in either direction through the BLM. Nonetheless, this experiment led us to conclude that the hypothesis of a unique binding site closer to the trans side may be no longer valid. "
ABSTRACT: The pore-forming toxin lysenin self-assembles large and stable conductance channels in natural and artificial lipid membranes. The lysenin channels exhibit unique regulation capabilities, which open unexplored possibilities to control the transport of ions and molecules through artificial and natural lipid membranes. Our investigations demonstrate that the positively charged polymers polyethyleneimine and chitosan inhibit the conducting properties of lysenin channels inserted into planar lipid membranes. The preservation of the inhibitory effect following addition of charged polymers on either side of the supporting membrane suggests the presence of multiple binding sites within the channel's structure and a multistep inhibition mechanism that involves binding and trapping. Complete blockage of the binding sites with divalent cations prevents further inhibition in conductance induced by the addition of cationic polymers and supports the hypothesis that the binding sites are identical for both multivalent metal cations and charged polymers. The investigation at the single-channel level has shown distinct complete blockages of each of the inserted channels. These findings reveal key structural characteristics which may provide insight into lysenin's functionality while opening innovative approaches for the development of applications such as transient cell permeabilization and advanced drug delivery systems.