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Journal of College Teaching & Learning December 2009 Volume 6, Number 8
Stress Management Strategies For Students:
The Immediate Effects Of Yoga, Humor,
And Reading On Stress
Denise Rizzolo, Seton Hall University, USA
Genevieve Pinto Zipp, Seton Hall University, USA
Doreen Stiskal, Seton Hall University, USA
Susan Simpkins, UT Southwestern Medical Center, USA
Background: Health science programs can be demanding and difficult for many students, leading
to high levels of stress. High levels of stress can have a negative effect on students and
subsequently the practicing clinician. Research suggests that yoga, humor, and reading are
simple, effective methods to help reduce stress. To date no research compares the acute effects of
yoga, humor, and reading in doctor of physical therapy and master’s of occupational therapy
students. Additionally, it is undetermined if one technique is more effective than the other in
reducing stress. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to compare the immediate effects of yoga,
humor, and reading on acute stress in students enrolled in doctor of physical therapy and master’s
of occupational therapy programs. It was hypothesized that following a 30-minute yoga, humor,
and reading intervention session, students would demonstrate a reduction of stress on the Daily
Stress Inventory (DSI) and a decrease in blood pressure and heart rate. Subjects: Twenty-two
students from the School of Graduate Medical Education Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT)
program (n=14) and Master’s of Science in Occupational Therapy (OT) program (n=8)
volunteered to participate in the study. Methods: At baseline subjects completed a demographic
survey. All subjects participated in a yoga, humor, and reading intervention session, once a week
on the same day and at the same time for a total of three weeks. Intervention sessions were
randomized and counterbalanced across subjects. Before and after each intervention session,
stress was measured using the Daily Stress Inventory, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic
blood pressure (DSP), and heart rate (HR). Results: A repeated one-way ANOVA indicated that
all three interventions significantly decreased SBP, DBP, and HR and no one intervention was
more effective than the other in reducing these dependent variables (p = . 058, p = .315 and p=
.180 respectively). There was no significant main effect or interaction of the yoga, humor, or
reading intervention session on the DSI scores (p = .362). Conclusions: The results of this study
indicate that one 30-minute session of yoga, humor, and reading had similar effects in decreasing
acute stress in health science students. This finding is important since these interventions resulted
in a significant reduction in stress in a relatively short amount of time, allowing educators to
begin to consider different stress management strategies to offer to students.
Keywords: stress, humor, yoga, reading
tress is a growing public health concern, affecting many individuals both physically and psychologically
(Sobel, 1995). Many individuals are able to cope with small exposures to stress, and some people even
become more productive when under pressure (Folkman, 1984; Rowe, 2006). However, it is problematic
when stress becomes overwhelming and a person begins to suffer from its adverse consequences including increased
anxiety and depression, multiple somatic complaints without an organic cause, or engaging in unhealthy behaviors
including smoking, poor dietary habits, and poor sleep habits( Friedman, Sobel, Myers, Caudill, & Benson, 1995;
Journal of College Teaching & Learning December 2009 Volume 6, Number 8
Seyle, 1956; Sobel, 1995). Stress can equally affect all college students; however, the effects of stress are of
particular interest in students enrolled in health science programs. Students in health science programs have an
intensive academic curriculum and also participate in patient care which can cause an increase in their stress levels
(Malathi, & Damodaran, 1999; Mosley, Perrin, Neral, Dubbert, Grothues, & Pinto, 1994; O’Meara, Kostas,
Markland, & Previty 1994). While all programs in health science have their own unique stressors, it has been
suggested that increased levels of stress are commonly seen in physical therapy students (Frazer & Echternach,
1995; O’Meara, et al. 1994). For example, Frank and Cassady (2005) found mean stress levels to be higher on the
Perceived Stress Scale in 163 doctor of physical therapy (DPT) students compared to a general population of
working peers. Not only are levels of stress higher in DPT students, occupational therapy (OT) students experience
high levels of stress as well. Tyrell and Smith (1996) found that compared to a group of age matched working
adults, occupational therapy students had higher levels of psychological stress on the General Health Questionairre-
28 (43% compared to 5% respectively). PT and OT students consistently report the following factors increase their
stress levels: clinical rotations, long hours of studying, lack of free time, and the amount of class work they had to.
Furthermore, research suggests that as stress increases so do the number of reported incidences of illnesses,
infections, gastrointestinal complaints, neurological, and emotional disorders along with other health problems
complete (O’Meara, et al., 1994).
The inability of students to successfully cope with stress may lead to a cascade of negative consequences
on both a personal and professional level. Stress can lead to academic decline, poor relationships with peers and
family members, and overall dissatisfaction with life (Linn & Zeppa, 1984). It is postulated that stress begins during
the educational process and continues throughout one’s professional career (Rowe, 2006). It would therefore be
beneficial to encourage the use of stress management techniques at the start of a student’s education, thereby
assisting them in developing a foundation from which healthy behaviors can be created (Wolf & Kissling, 1984).
While a variety of techniques have been investigated to help reduce stress, three particular adjunctive stress
management techniques of interest are yoga, humor, and reading because they are relatively simple and easily
accessible. Given that individuals may prefer different stress management techniques or may have different ones
available to them assessing if a difference exists in the effectiveness of yoga, humor, and reading is imperative.
Furthermore, it would be counter-productive to recommend a technique for stress reduction if the student has no
interest in that activity.
Yoga is one of the most recognized forms of exercise, stretching, and mediation. Yoga has been found to
modify stress responses and a person’s attitude towards stress, while improving self-confidence, increasing one’s
sense of well-being, and creating a feeling of relaxation and calmness (Malathi, & Damodaran, 1999; Taylor, 2003).
For example, Schell, Allolio and Schonecke (1993) found that after 25 healthy adult females participated in a one-
hour session of hatha yoga (n=12) stress scores significantly decreased on the Stress Coping Questionnaire and their
heart also decreased compared to a control group (n=13). Malathi and Damadoran (1999) determined that a one-
hour yoga program, twice a week, for three months significantly decreased medical students’ (n= 25) anxiety levels
on the Spielberger’s Anxiety Scale compared to a control group (n=25). Students who participated in the yoga
group also reported improved concentration and an optimistic outlook on life.
While yoga can decrease stress, humor can be a stress modifier as well. The use of humor to help reduce
stress has received increased attention by both health care providers and the general public because of its
psychological and physiological benefits (Martin, 2001). Humor is defined as the capacity to perceive, appreciate, or
express what is funny, amusing, or ludicrous ( Accessed September 5, 2009). To determine the
effects of humor on stress, White and Camarena (1989) recruited 93 college students and compared the effects of
three different interventions on stress: laughter (n=26), relaxation training (n=36), and a control (n=33), all
performed for a period 90 minutes. After the students participated in the interventions for 6 weeks the researchers
found that the laughter group demonstrated a decrease in anxiety on the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety scale, a
decrease in systolic blood pressure, and a decrease in heart rate compared to a comparable control group. Similar to
these findings, White and Winzelberg (1992) found that after 74 college students participated in 20-minutes of
laughter, relaxation training, or a control session, the laughter intervention was as effective as the relaxation session
in significantly reducing psychological stress on the Spielberger State Trait Anxiety Inventory and also clinically
decreased heart rate.
Journal of College Teaching & Learning December 2009 Volume 6, Number 8
While there have been many studies examining the effects of yoga and humor on stress very few have
looked at the effects reading has on stress. In one of the few studies on this topic, Jin (1992) found that after a
group of 24 healthy adults participated in a stressful task then read for 60-minutes, they experienced a significant
reduction in anxiety, heart rate, and blood pressure. Given the limited data on the affects of reading on stress
reduction future work investigating its effects are warranted.
Since researchers have determined that some students in health science graduate programs experience high
levels of stress which may affect their academic performance it is important for educators to identify a variety of
stress management techniques that students can use to manage the stress during graduate school and in the future.
Literature on yoga and humor suggests that individually these two methods decrease stress and strengthen coping
mechanisms; however, the findings are still limited and many have been equivocal. There has been even less
research on the effects of reading on stress. To date no research has compared the acute effects of yoga, humor, and
reading on stress in students enrolled in health science programs and more specifically on students enrolled in doctor
of physical therapy and master’s in occupational therapy programs. Additionally, no research has compared the
effects of yoga, humor, and reading on stress to determine if one method is more effective compared to another.
Therefore, the purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to determine the acute effects of yoga, humor, and reading on
physical and psychological stress in students enrolled in doctor of physical therapy and master’s of occupational
therapy programs and (2) to determine if one intervention was more effective then the other in reducing stress. The
hypothesis was that immediately following one 30-minute session of yoga, humor, and reading, students would
demonstrate a reduction in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, and psychological stress.
The study was a quasi-experimental within subject repeated measure design.
All students from the Seton Hall University Doctor of Physical Therapy (DPT) and Masters of Science in
Occupational Therapy (OT) were asked to participate in this study. The Seton Hall University Institutional Review
Board (IRB) approved the research proposal.
Inclusion criteria consisted of any student enrolled in the SHU DPT or OT program. Exclusion criteria
included the following: (1) pregnancy, (2) baseline systolic blood pressure less than 90 mmHg and/or diastolic blood
pressure less than 60 mmHg, (3) a yes response to any question on the Physical Activity Readiness Questionnaire
(PAR-Q), (4) students who actively practiced in restorative hatha yoga exercises, similar to the yoga exercises
performed in the video instruction, or (5) any subjects with musculoskeletal conditions that would prevent them
from practicing light stretching techniques. Based on the above criteria a homogeneous sample of convenience of
22 subjects was recruited.
The dependent variables were psychological stress scores as measured by the Daily Stress Inventory and
SBP, DBP, and HR which were measured simultaneously using a Critikon Dinamap XL 9340 Vital Signs Monitor.
The independent variables were the 3 interventions: (1) yoga intervention, (2) humor intervention, and (3) reading
Demographic Data
The demographic survey collected general information from the students and obtained additional
sociodemographic data which could account for any confounding effects that were observed on the dependent
variables. Questions regarding prescription medication, over the counter medication, herbal supplements, along
with whether the student uses a rescue medication during and/or after exercise were included in the survey.
Journal of College Teaching & Learning December 2009 Volume 6, Number 8
Hypertensive agents, psychotropic agents and inhaled short-acting bronchodialators may or may not affect
psychological stress levels, blood pressure, and heart rate so it was important to determine if the students were using
any of these medications (American College of Sports Medicine, 2006).
Stress Survey
The Daily Stress Inventory (DSI) is a 58 item self-report measure that allows a person to indicate how often
a specific stressful event has affected him or her over the past 24 hours (Brantley, Waggoner, Jones, & Rappaport,
1987). After identifying which events occurred, the individual rates the stressfulness of those events on a Likert
scale from 1 (“occurred but was not stressful”) to 7 (“caused me to panic”). For the present study only the SUM
score was analyzed with the lowest and highest score possible being 0 to 406 respectively. The authors chose only to
analyze the SUM score since it demonstrates the total impact the stressors had on the individual in the past 24 hours
and subsequently the SUM score can be compared between subjects. The SUM measurement of the DSI is
significantly correlated to the Daily Hassles and Uplift Scale (0.57 for hassle frequency and 0.56 for hassles
intensity) demonstrating concurrent validity. The SUM measurement is correlated to the State-Trait Inventory
(0.42) supporting the construct validity of the SUM measurement. The reliability across items for the SUM is 0.87.
Higher scores on the scale indicate a greater psychological stress (Brantley, et al., 1987).
Coping Surveys
The coping surveys were distributed during the screening session and the results were used as part of
another study. The Coping Humor Scale (CHS) is seven item self-reported scale that assesses the degree to which
subjects report using humor to cope with stress (Martin, 1996). The Coping Style Scale (CSS) is a 20- item self-
reported scale which is part of the Stress Profile published by Western Psychological Services (WPS) (Nowack,
1990; Nowack, 1999). The CSS lists common ways of coping with daily stressors, irritants, annoyances, and
Physiologic Measurements
Systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR), were taken before and after
the interventions simultaneously using an automatic Critikon Dinamap XL 9340 Vital Signs Monitor. SBP, DBP, and
HR were measured with the patient in a seated position both feet flat on the floor. Since laughter can initially stimulate
the sympathetic nervous system causing an immediate elevation in heart rate and blood pressure, a ten minute delay after
each intervention occurred before re-recording SBP, DBP, and HR (Forghieri-Santaella, et al; Fry, 1994).
All subjects participated once in each of the following three interventions over the course of three weeks
with each intervention session lasting 30-minutes.
Three sections from the Yoga for Meditation DVD, with Rodney Yee, developed by GAIAM, were used. The
entire 30-minutes of the DVD is narrated by Rodney Yee and includes soft music in the background. Only clips that
practiced restorative yoga, which included light stretching, deep breathing, and meditation were taken. The sections
of the DVD that included active aerobic types of yoga techniques were excluded.
The subjects selected one of the following videos to watch: The Best of Saturday Night Live with Will
Farrell, Chris Farley, or Jimmy Fallon.
Journal of College Teaching & Learning December 2009 Volume 6, Number 8
During the reading intervention session the subjects read articles about historical events and innovative
technology. Articles were taken from Newsweek and various internet sites. The material was non-provocative and it
did not relate to any health maintenance topics.
During a screening visit students completed the PAR-Q followed by blood pressure measurements to
determine inclusion status. If the student met the inclusion and exclusion criteria, they then completed the baseline
scales including the demographic survey, the Coping Style Scale, and Coping Humor Scale. Following the scales the
students were assigned to a different intervention session sequence to control for order effects.
During the three intervention sessions stress was initially assessed using the Daily Stress Inventory, SBP,
DSP, and HR. Immediately following the intervention the DSI was completed and 10 minutes later SBP, DSP, and
HR were recorded. Each subject was exposed to each of the independent variables and performance was compared
across treatment conditions within each subject to help control for intersubject differences. Over a three week
period each student participated each of three interventions. All data and intervention sessions were recorded and
performed on the same day of the week and at the same time of day in order to control for possible weekly and daily
fluctuations in SBP, DSP, HR and stress levels. Data collection occurred during the first four weeks of the semester
in attempt to avoid the confounding effects of midterms
Data Analysis
Frequency counts and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the demographic data. After mean
psychological stress scores were calculated from the DSI they were found to have a high standard deviation
suggestion there scores were extremely variable. Therefore the scores from the DSI were entered into a logarithmic
regression model in order to normalize the data prior to the ANOVA analysis. To determine the effect of yoga,
humor, and reading on stress a One-Way Within Subjects Repeated Measures ANOVA was computed using a p
value of less then 0.05 to determine significance (Munro, 2005; Portney & Watkins, 1993). The Statistical Package
for the Social Sciences (SPSS) software, version 15.0 for Windows (2007), was utilized for all computations.
Demographic Profile
Twenty-four full-time students with a mean age of 23 years (range 20 to 37 years) volunteered for the
study. After the initial screening visit, one student withdrew at the beginning of the first session for an unspecified
reason. One student did not complete the yoga intervention nor yoga post-tests due to cervical pain unrelated to the
present study. Eight students (36%) used prescription medications including birth control, cetirizine HCl (Zyrtec),
and one student took sertraline hydrochloride (Zoloft). Two students (9%) used over the counter medication, none
of the students used medication before or after exercise, and 2 (9%) students stated they used some form of herbal
supplements. Seventeen (77%) students exercised at least three days a week, for an average of 50 minutes per
session. Types of exercise included predominately running, walking, elliptical machine, and strength training. Only
3 students (14%) participated in an aerobic form of yoga once per week. The 12 students (54%) who reported
drinking alcohol on average consumed only one drink per week. The results indicated that the sample consisted of
healthy college students that exercise regularly, do not abuse alcohol nor smoke tobacco, and do not use medications
to control blood pressure. A summary of the remaining demographic and personal habits is presented in Table 1.
Journal of College Teaching & Learning December 2009 Volume 6, Number 8
Table 1: Demographic Data
Physical Therapy
Occupational Therapy
Marital Status
Alcohol intake
Read to Reduce Stress
Psychological and Physiological Measures
Calculated means and standard deviations for the DSI scores SBP, DBP, and HR appear in Table 2. The
mean blood pressure and heart rate levels indicate that these variables were normal to low at baseline, suggesting
that this sample consisted of healthy young students (Chobanian, et al. 2003).
Table 2: Summary of Pre and Post Mean DSI Scores, Blood Pressure and Heart Rate by Intervention
Mean (SD)
Mean (SD)
Mean (SD)
Pre DSI Score
58.64 (60.63)
65.41 (74.00)
61.00 (71.21)
Post DSI Score
39.36 (52.33)
74.00 (58.18)
49.27 (63.72)
Pre Systolic BP
117.00 (10.88)
113.95 (10.03)
110.68 (11.21)
Post Systolic BP
108.14 (11.42)
110.45 (12.08)
105.82 (12.88)
Pre Diastolic BP
68.09 (8.06)
70.05 (7.72)
65.18 (7.76)
Post Diastolic BP
64.77 (8.74)
65.09 (8.83)
62.05 (6.58)
Pre HR
73.73 (11.33)
77.41 (9.64)
70.09 (12.25)
Post HR
70.09 (10.64)
73.41 (8.75)
68.73 (9.94)
Note. BP=Blood pressure in mm/Hg
HR=Heart rate in beats/min
A repeated measures analysis of variances (ANOVA) indicated there was no significant main effect of
intervention on the DSI scores. A significant main effect of time on DSI scores was found (F (1) = 18.56, p = .000).
However, there was no significant interaction between intervention x time, indicating that no one intervention
reduced DSI scores more than another.
Journal of College Teaching & Learning December 2009 Volume 6, Number 8
There was a significant main effect of the intervention (F (2) = 5.27, p = .009) and time (F (1) = 32.12, p <
.05) on SBP. The interaction between intervention x time approached but did not reach significance (F (1.511) =
3.403, p = .056), indicating that no one intervention reduced SBP more than another.
There was a significant main effect of the intervention (F (2) = 3.48, p = .04) and time (F (1) = 41.90, p =
.000) on DBP. Yet, there was no significant interaction between intervention x time, indicating that no one
intervention reduced DBP more than another.
A significant main effect of the intervention (F (2) = 5.56, p = .008) and time (F (1) = 12.33, p = .002) on
HR was also found. Yet, there was no significant interaction between intervention x time, indicating that no one
intervention reduced HR more than another.
The results suggest that one 30-minute session of yoga, humor, and reading acutely reduced physiological
and psychological stress in students enrolled in graduate DPT and OT programs. Specifically, participation in a
single session of yoga significantly reduced students’ SBP, DSP, and HR. The observed change in the DSI scores
and the significant decrease in the physiologic variables noted after the yoga session could be attributed to the
decrease in sympathetic arousal that occurs when subjects participate in this type of activity (Schell & Allolio &
Schonecke, 1993). In the present study the light stretching and quiet mediation during the yoga intervention session
could have caused a decrease in physiologic parameters, which in turn may have contributed to a decrease in the
psychological perception of stress.
Similar to the decrease in stress seen after the yoga intervention session, the humor intervention
session clinically decreased psychological and physiologic stress. The results are consistent with some of the
findings White and Winzelberg (1992) who found that after a group of college students watched a humorous video
for 20 minutes a significant decrease on the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) occurred along with an observed
but not significant reduction in blood pressure. The authors (1992) believed blood pressure did not significantly
decrease because during the laughter session, the subjects laughed for less then four minutes, which may have been
an insufficient amount of time to cause a decrease in sympathetic arousal. In comparison, in the present study, the
primary researcher observed that almost all the students laughed throughout the entire length of the 30-minute video
which could explain the significant decrease in SBP, DBP, and HR observed.
After the reading intervention session the students also had a decrease in the stress variables. These results
were not unexpected since over half the students admitted using reading to help reduce stress. However, even
though 12 of the 22 students read to reduce stress, this did not significantly influence the effect of any intervention
on the dependent variables (p = 0.66). The students may have found the neutral reading material to be relaxing,
thereby decreasing the sympathetic nervous system arousal and resulting in a reduction of stress. Since there are
limited studies on the effects of reading on stress, more research is needed to clearly determine why reading reduces
stress levels.
Findings from the present study on graduate health science students demonstrate that individually one 30-
minute yoga, humor, and reading session are equally effective in acutely reducing stress. Thus, supporting the notion
that there are multiple methods one can utilize to help reduce the negative effects of a stressful situation. Since time
constraints are one of the most frequently cited reasons for high stress levels reported by health science students, 30-
minutes of one of these techniques can be easily incorporated into their schedule without diverting a large amount of
time from their studies. Finally, the combination of a significant reduction in acute stress in a short amount of time is
of importance because yoga, humor, and reading can be suggested to students for immediate stress reduction before
examinations, practicals, presentations and even during a highly stressful day.
Limitations and Future Research
The author recognizes there are limitations to the present study. First, a sample of convenience was
recruited that included DPT and OT students from one university, thus limiting the generalizability of the results.
Journal of College Teaching & Learning December 2009 Volume 6, Number 8
The sample size was smaller than initially projected do to the limited recruitment period which was designed to
attempt to avoid the confounding effects of midterms. Although the study was done during the first four weeks of
class to account for increased stress levels as the semester progresses, it was impossible to control for outside
influences that may have increased or decreased the students’ stress levels. Additionally, an unequal number of
students from these two programs volunteered for the study, however, their stress levels were found to be similar at
baseline. In the future, physiological measurements should be taken throughout the intervention and after the
completion of the intervention to determine short and long-term effects of yoga, humor, and reading on stress.
Programs in health science place students in demanding, fast-paced, and stressful academic environments.
It is well known that students in health science programs perceive their academic environment to be stressful (Frazer
& Echternach, 1995; O’Meara et al., 1994). While professors teach students pathology, diagnosis, and treatment
they do not generally teach them how to cope with the stress frequently encountered in many health science
professions. The stress they face during their education may continue throughout their careers, ultimately leading to
burnout (Balogun et al., 2002). Given the high prevalence of burnout among physical therapists and occupational
therapists as a whole, it is important for programs to begin to focus their attention on the students stress so they can
learn how to cope and manage stress before they enter their professional fields (Rowe, 2006). In addition to
preparing students for their work as clinicians, educators should help student identify stressors. Early self
identification of stress is important in order to develop coping methods essential for managing the high stress
position of a professional practitioner. Hopefully by dealing with stress effectively as a student and then as a
practicing clinician, some of the adverse physiological and psychological effects of stress will be mitigated.
Dr. Rizzolo is an Assistant Professor at the Seton Hall Physician Assistant program. She received her PhD from the
Graduate Programs in Health Sciences at Seton Hall University in 2008. She currently works as a Physician
Assistant at the Care Station in Springfield, New Jersey. Her research interests focus on stress management and
adjunctive techniques to management specifically, yoga and humor.
Dr. Pinto Zipp is Associate Professor and Chair of the Department of Graduate Programs in Health Sciences at
Seton Hall University. She received her EdD from Teachers College Columbia University in 1996. She currently
teaches management of neuromuscular problems in the Doctor of Physical Therapy program. Her research interests
focus on, a) effects of performing dual tasks on walking performance and postural sway in children and adults, and
b) curriculum design issues including the use of mind mapping and video based cases in professional education for
the promotion of clinical decision making skills.
Dr. Simpkins is Associate Professor in the Department of Physical Therapy,UT Southwestern Medical Center. She
received her EdD from Teachers College Columbia University in 2000. She currently teaches management of
pediatrics neuromuscular problems in the Physical Therapy program. Her research interests focus on, a) effects of
obstacles on walking performance in children, and b) curriculum design issues.
Dr. Stiskal-Galisewski is an Associate Professor and Chair of the Seton Hall University Physical Therapy Program.
She received her PhD from the Graduate Programs in Health Sciences at Seton Hall University in 2003. Her
research interests are in osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and the effects on Tai Chi on these conditions.
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... Reading has been shown to be associated with longer sleep duration and shorter time to fall asleep in a Chinese study surveying community members above the age of 40, but the mechanism remains dubious. 36,37 Reading can decrease long-cognitive arousal, reduce stress on similar levels to doing yoga or watching comedy videos, 38 and is associated with a lower risk of insomnia. 38 On the other hand, reading could increase immediate arousal levels due to the requisite comprehension elements such as perspective taking, story mapping, and other anatomical activations that occur in the brain. ...
... 36,37 Reading can decrease long-cognitive arousal, reduce stress on similar levels to doing yoga or watching comedy videos, 38 and is associated with a lower risk of insomnia. 38 On the other hand, reading could increase immediate arousal levels due to the requisite comprehension elements such as perspective taking, story mapping, and other anatomical activations that occur in the brain. 39 Interventional studies are needed to determine if reading-including on an electronic device-is beneficial for sleep. ...
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Objectives: To determine associations between bedtime screen time behaviors and sleep outcomes in a national study of early adolescents. Methods: We analyzed cross-sectional data from 10,280 early adolescents aged 10-14 (48.8% female) in the Adolescent Brain Cognitive Development Study (Year 2, 2018-2020). Regression analyses examined the association between self-reported bedtime screen use and self- and caregiver-reported sleep measures, including sleep disturbance symptoms, controlling for sex, race/ethnicity, household income, parent education, depression, data collection period (pre- vs. during COVID-19 pandemic), and study site. Results: Overall, 16% of adolescents had at least some trouble falling or staying asleep in the past 2 weeks and 28% had overall sleep disturbance, based on caregiver reports. Adolescents who had a television or an Internet-connected electronic device in the bedroom had a greater risk of having trouble falling or staying asleep (adjusted risk ratio 1.27, 95% CI 1.12-1.44) and overall sleep disturbance (adjusted risk ratio 1.15, 95% CI 1.06-1.25). Adolescents who left their phone ringer activated overnight had more trouble falling/staying asleep and greater overall sleep disturbance compared to those who turned off their cell phones at bedtime. Streaming movies, playing video games, listening to music, talking/texting on the phone, and using social media or chat rooms were all associated with trouble falling/staying asleep and sleep disturbance. Conclusions: Several bedtime screen use behaviors are associated with sleep disturbances in early adolescents. The study's findings can inform guidance for specific bedtime screen behaviors among early adolescents.
... Studies have also shown a significant decrease in blood pressure and pulse, as well as an increase in oxygen saturation when PEP is used (Ranieri et al., 1993;Zhou et al., 2019). It is well known that reading activities have calming and blood pressure-lowering effects (Rizzolo et al., 2011). It is possible that patients in our study benefited from this calming effect. ...
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statement What is already known about this topic? Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) causes cough, shortness of breath, fatigue and impaired exercise capacity. The most common symptoms are dyspnoea and fatigue. The treatment and prognosis of COPD require skilled nursing care. Breathing exercises guided by nurses relieved the symptoms. Information technologies are increasingly used for COPD monitoring and therapy. Remote patient monitoring, especially the use of wearables, can improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare expenditures. What this paper adds? Reading aloud and positive expiratory pressure (PEP) breathing exercises can improve vital signs and lung function in patients with COPD, with the latter being more effective. Wearable technologies for remote patient monitoring can help manage COPD and improve patient outcomes. The implications of this paper: Wearable technologies for remote patient monitoring can support COPD management and improve patient outcomes. Pulmonary exercise devices improve oxygen saturation, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) and FEV1/forced vital capacity (FVC) in COPD patients while reducing fatigue and dyspnoea. These devices help patients with COPD breathe easily. Reading aloud reduces fatigue, dyspnoea and mean arterial pressure. COPD patients can benefit from reading newspapers, magazines and novels aloud.
... Os resultados encontrados corroboram com a perspectiva de como os clubes de leitura são relevantes e benéficos à sociedade (Álvarez, 2016). O potencial de estimulação cognitiva (Izquierdo, 2018;Wilson, Boyle, Yu, Barnes, Schneider et al., 2013) e de redução expressiva dos níveis de estresse (Rizzolo et al., 2009) (Richards & Deary, 2005). Já, segundo Izquierdo (2018), a perda de memória pode ser explicada pela propriedade neural de perda de função, seguida por atrofia das sinapses, devido à falta de uso. ...
... 10 other studies were mostly inconsistent and findings were not clear, mainly due to methodological flaws, size of samples was small in few cases, control group was lacking, non-randomisation, exclusion criteria was lacking and there were large standard deviations (Li and Goldsmith, 2012). Proposed mechanisms: psychological mechanisms that have been proposed as ways through which yoga ameliorates stress include increases in positive attitudes towards stress (Malathi and Damodaran, 1999;Taylor, 2003;Woodyard, 2011), self-awareness (Arora and Battacharjee, 2008), coping mechanisms (Heilbronn, 1992;Kinser et al., 2013;Rizzolo et al., 2009), appraisal of control (Bonura, 2008;Roehr, 2008), calmness (Brown and Gerbarg, 2005b;Sherman et al., 2013), spirituality (Evans et al., 2011;Moadel et al., 2007), compassion (Braun et al., 2012) and mindfulness (Brown and Ryan, 2003;Chiesa and Serretti, 2009;Evans et al., 2011). Many researchers also found that mindfulness is a powerful link that is been made between yoga practice and stress reduction (Dunn, 2008). ...
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Yoga is continuously being used from long time as scientific way of dealing with various stress and anxiety levels along with many other physical and mental benefits. Still ways in which yoga is helpful to tackle stress and anxiety is not popular and common among teenagers. To understand the role of yoga and meditation in reducing the stress faced by teenagers due to their sudden change and decision phase in life. Adolescents in the present situation do not know about yoga at all because they consider it as a traditional and old practice, but this superstitious mind could be changed by knowing that meditation and yoga are not just postures but more than that and have lifelong benefits. Introduction:
... Reading novels can be entertainment for the students. By reading novels, the students can decrease their stress and keep their mental health that will be beneficial for their living (Rizzolo et al., 2011). Therefore, it is good to consider reading novels to keep the students' mental health. ...
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Novel is one of the literary works that people like to read for several reasons. The readers are not only adults but also teenagers and children. Novels can be a good source of knowledge for everyone including students. Reading novels can give many positive impacts in terms of language and emotions. However, the existence of novels is banned at some schools in Indonesia. The banning is based on several reasons. This paper investigated the perspectives of students and teachers related to the banning of novels in a school in Indonesia. This research used a descriptive qualitative design. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews with students and teachers at the school. The result showed that there were several problems related to the use of the novels in terms of kinds and the reading time of the novels. However, the use of novels is also beneficial in terms of emotion, habits, and knowledge. Considering the advantages and the disadvantages of novels at school, this research provided suggestions related to the ban of novels in terms of kinds of novels and reading time.
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Any kind of change that puts physical, mental, or psychological strain on a person is consideredstressful. Your body reacts to anything that demands attention or action by causing stress. Stress affects everyone to some extent. However, how you deal with stress has a significant impact on how you feel overall.Stress can lead to the development of many mental health conditions like anxiety, depression, sleep disorders, and many more. This research is conducted to find out how management students experienced stress,and managed it during COVID-19 due to virtual learning. The research objectives are to determine the impact of virtual learning, the role of academic workload in building stress, and the relationship between the big five personality traitsand stress. The sample size of theresearch is 122, which is collected from various management schools across the country. The sampling method used is convenient sampling.The conclusion of the result was established on the basis of tests conducted, namely N-way ANOVA and correlation tests. From the results, we interpret that the level of stress among management students varies with demographic factors and that there is a commonality among the students in stress coping strategies during virtual learning.Research also finds that openness plays an important role in reducing stress as compared to the other personality traits.
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Humor is a significant element in funny stories. This study aims to analyze the types and functions of humor in selected Nasreddin’s short stories from the book Nasreddin’s Funniest Stories (2011) by Yusup Priyasudiarja and Y. Sri Purwaningsih. By using the descriptive qualitative method, the study adopts textual analysis to examine the materials. Based on the analysis result, the types of humor applied in the stories are that joke, sarcasm, satire, replies to rhetorical question, clever replies, and double entendres. However, these writings lack some other typical types of spontaneous conversational humor used in short stories’ texts: puns and self-deprecation. Meanwhile, unintentional humor is also not found in the Nasreddin short stories because it is raised from the speaker’s misspellings, mispronunciations, errors in logic, and Freudian slips. Further reading shows that the underlying usage of humor in these stories is for social management: to control and mediate readers.
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The Situational Humor Response Questionnaire (SHRQ) and the Coping Humor Scale (CHS) are self-report measures of different aspects of the sense of humor that were developed in the context of an investigation of the stress-moderating effects of humor. The SHRQ assesses the degree to which subjects laugh and smile in a wide variety of situations, and the CHS measures the degree to which respondents make use of humor in coping with stress in their lives. Both scales have been translated into more than 10 languages, and a fairly large body of research findings has accumulated, providing evidence for the reliability and construct validity of these measures. This article reviews research on these scales with regard to (1) the stress-moderator hypothesis, (2) correlations with coping-related variables, and (3) the factor space occupied by the measures. The paper addresses the range of usefulness of both measures, as well as their limitations as measures of sense of humor.
All published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health is reviewed. Potential causal mechanisms and methodological issues are discussed. Laboratory experiments have shown some effects of exposure to comedy on several components of immunity, although the findings are inconsistent and most of the studies have methodological problems. There is also some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure to comedy, although similar findings are obtained with negative emotions. Few significant correlations have been found between trait measures of humor and immunity, pain tolerance, or self-reported illness symptoms. There is also little evidence of stress-moderating effects of humor on physical health variables and no evidence of increased longevity with greater humor. More rigorous and theoretically informed research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about possible health benefits of humor and laughter.
This study measured levels of psychological distress among a sample of Irish occupational therapy students. Students from all four undergraduate classes (n=102) were surveyed, using the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28). Over 40% of the students scored as having a ‘just significant clinical disturbance’ on the GHQ-28. Mean GHQ scores (or symptom levels) varied throughout the 4-year course and were highest just before examinations and during fieldwork placements. Students who had unhealthy diets or who smoked had significantly higher levels of psychiatric symptomatology. The prevalence of psychological distress among occupational therapy students was similar to that found in students from four other disciplines; however, the university students had much higher levels of symptomatology than the non-university peer group. The article concludes with some suggestions for dealing with stressful aspects of professional education and some recommendations for further research.
An overview is presented of important issues having to do with relationships between humor and biology, including those having to do with the genetic origin of the sense of humor, physiology of mirthful response to humor, impacts on health of humor physiology. Discussion is provided on theoretical implications derived from the complex relationship between humor and biology.
To investigate the effectiveness of laughter as a stress reducer, 93 students were randomly assigned to one of three groups: laughter, control, and relaxation training. Each group met for 1.5 hours each week for six weeks. Measures of heart rate, blood pressure, mood, and anxiety were taken as indices of changes in stress level. While the laughter group did not experience significantly reduced stress, it did show consistent decreases in stress levels for the two psychological measurements as compared to the control group.