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Give them what they want: The benefits of explicitness in gift exchange

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Abstract

Five studies show that gift recipients are more appreciative of gifts they explicitly request than those they do not. In contrast, gift givers assume that both solicited and unsolicited gifts will be equally appreciated. At the root of this dilemma is a difference of opinion about what purchasing an unsolicited gift signals: gift givers expect unsolicited gifts will be considered more thoughtful and considerate by their intended recipients than is actually the case (, and ). In our final two studies, we highlight two boundary conditions for this effect: identifying a specific gift and using money as a gift. When gift recipients request one specific gift, rather than providing a list of possible gifts, givers become more willing to purchase the requested gift (Study 4). Further, although givers believe that recipients do not appreciate receiving money as much as receiving a solicited gift, recipients feel the opposite about these two gift options (Study 5).

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... In contrast, unwanted gift figures are not widely reported in Vietnam, perhaps, because not keeping a gift or returning it to the retailer is culturally unacceptable and commercially untenable. In an earlier study, Gino and Flynn (2011) indicated that when gifts are explicitly requested, they have a greater chance of being appreciated and therefore would result in lower return rates or deadweight loss. Because the national culture and societal orientation are classified as collectivist for Vietnamese (Hofstede, 2001;Hofstede & Minkov, 2010) most members of its society will likely know each other better in terms of gift preferences and tastes. ...
... In Vietnam, the closeness of family, friends and neighbors makes it easier to predict what is appropriate to offer as a gift during Tet. Although Gino and Flynn (2011) observed that gift appreciation improves when gifts are purchased from a registry created by recipients [overt communication], Tet gifts are quite specific, and their nature and probability of acceptance learned over time by group members through cultural subtleties [covert communication], making it easier to predict what to give during Tet. Fisher and Katz (2000) postulated that it is almost impossible to isolate sentimentality from the measurement of gift value and that social desirability often biases the gift value. ...
... Following from previous studies, this paper's aim was to estimate the deadweight loss resulting from Tet gifts and explore what factors lead to poor allocation of Tet gifts in Vietnam. The data returned no evidence of undervaluation of Tet gifts received, confirming a previous similar finding by Gino and Flynn (2011). ...
Article
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The question of whether gifts are undervalued or overvalued has long been the subject of investigation among psychologists and economists. At the root of this dilemma is the influence of perception and culture which sometimes affects people's sentimentality regarding gift giving or receiving. In a previous study by Joel Waldfogel, the case was made that gift giving can result in deadweight loss, especially when the giver and the receiver have not collaborated on determining the gift choices. The deadweight loss (DWL) resulting from undervaluation can reduce the economic efficiency of the exchange. Although this phenomenon is widely reported in the United States, the scenario is different in Vietnam. This study has revealed that gifts received or given during Tet festivities are generally overvalued, and cultural orientation is not necessarily the reason.
... According to Gino and Flynn (2011), money can be considered a unique category of gifts. The conclusion drawn here is that although most recipients rarely express intention to receive money compared to specific products or services of a wish list, they appreciate cash more than the level givers often assign. ...
... In situations where loved ones and friends are not significantly familiar with gift preferences (Dunn et al., 2008;Clarke and McAuley, 2010) the gift will likely result in returns or undervaluation ) whereas gifts that have emotional content to them (Ruth et al., 2004) or have been discussed prior to purchasing (Gino and Flynn, 2011) will likely reduce DWL. Hence, H 2 : Gifts received on Valentine's Day would generate deadweight loss if preferences are not discussed prior to purchasing. ...
... First, the depth of literature on the subject of DWL and gift-giving is limited as can be observed from the background and literature Second, it should be noted that the experimental results do not fully agree with the hitherto assertion that gifts are always undervalued (Waldfogel, 1993) hence the first two hypotheses (H 1 and H 2 ) support the opponents' position as espoused by (Sunwolf, 2006;Gino and Flynn, 2011). ...
Article
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Contrasting views on whether gifts are undervalued or overvalued have featured in the Western literature. Most previous studies point to gift undervaluation, which leads to receivers re-gifting or returning what they have received from their loved ones. This study takes the discussion further by investigating the existence of Deadweight Loss (DWL) in gifts received during Valentine's Day. The study finds no evidence of DWL in the assessment of gifts, although, face-saving plays a role in the evaluation of cash-gifts. The absence of DWL in the valuation of gifts significantly implies that post-purchase returns of unwanted gifts are unlikely in the context of Vietnamese Valentine's gifts.
... However, we were unclear as to whether recipients perceive the designed products to be unique and, if they do, whether they would link product uniqueness to creator thoughtfulness. Previous research suggests that gift recipients and gift givers often hold different beliefs about which gifts will be more appreciated: more expensive versus less expensive gifts or gifts on a wish list versus those not on a wish list, for example (Flynn and Adams 2009;Gino and Flynn 2011). We therefore wanted to examine perceived product uniqueness from the gift recipient's perspective and the relationships between recipient perceptions of product uniqueness, recipient perceptions of creator thoughtfulness, and recipient feelings of appreciation. ...
... This research also contributes to the literature on gift giving. Previous research shows that gift givers have numerous ways to convey thoughtfulness toward a recipient: purchasing more expensive gifts, selecting unique but less preferred gifts, and spending more effort in gift selection (Flynn and Adams 2009;Gino and Flynn 2011;Robben and Verhallen 1994;Ward and Broniarczyk 2016). Extending this line of work, our research suggests that creating a one-of-a-kind gift is a new, effective way to convey thoughtfulness. ...
... Gift givers believe that accepting gift suggestions from the intended recipient will be interpreted as lacking thoughtfulness; they thus tend to purchase an unrequested item to convey a sincere concern for the recipients because they have gone out of their way to identify the gift. Recipients, however, believe that when they are given gifts that they have requested, it shows that the gift giver is more thoughtful, attentive, and responsive than when they are given gifts they did not request (Gino and Flynn 2011). Our research finds that gift recipients perceive customized gifts as more unique than gift givers do, and these perceptions enhance recipient feelings of appreciation via the mediating effect of perceived thoughtfulness of gift givers in product design. ...
Article
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Customers of mass customization websites measure the utility of the site by the uniqueness of the products they design, yet the factors influencing customizer perceptions of product uniqueness are underexplored. We examine the effect of the intended recipient (self vs. close others) in three studies involving real customization tasks. We show that creators (i.e., product customizers) perceive products designed for close others (vs. for themselves) to be more unique, with thoughtfulness in design as the mediator. This recipient effect is not found when third parties evaluate product uniqueness, suggesting that recipient identity does not influence design outcomes but merely creator perceptions of those outcomes. In the design-for-others context wherein creators are usually gift givers, gift recipients perceive designed products to be more unique than do the gift givers (i.e., creators), and these perceptions enhance the recipient’s feelings of appreciation via the mediating effect of the perceived thoughtfulness of gift givers. We close by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of these findings.
... Gift giving is inherently about making other people happy. Indeed, consumers spend a great deal of money (Flynn & Adams, 2009), time (Gino & Flynn, 2011), and effort (Zhang & Epley, 2012) when gift giving to ensure that they deliver joy and happiness to their recipients. In the present research, however, we document a situation in which consumers willingly forego gifts that will maximize their recipients' happiness. ...
... However, note that the lottery system we employed is useful in gift giving research, as it allows for the observation of giver behavior when givers are considering expensive gifts (which makes it unrealistic, from a financing perspective, to have every participant's choice realized). Indeed, similar lotteries have been employed several times in earlier gift giving research (Gino & Flynn, 2011;Ward & Broniarczyk, 2011). Another limitation is that, in our decorations studies, the vignette stated only that the two decoration packages were on sale, but did not state that they cost the same (in all other studies, it was stated that the gifts cost the same). ...
... Previous gift giving research has successfully employed lottery systems (e.g.,Gino & Flynn, 2011;Ward & Broniarczyk, 2011). ...
Article
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Past research in gift giving has largely treated asymmetries between the types of gifts givers give and the ones recipients prefer to receive as unintentional errors on the part of givers. In contrast, we show that givers sometimes intentionally bypass gifts that they know will bring the most joy and happiness to their recipients. Specifically, we demonstrate that givers dislike giving gifts that compare favorably to their own possessions, because they feel that doing so would lead them to experience envy and thus become less satisfied with their own possessions. Consequently, they instead opt for other gifts that are not superior to their own possessions and thus do not negatively impact their liking of their own possessions. Critically, givers sometimes opt for these alternative gifts even in cases where they know they are less preferred by recipients. Theoretical contributions and practical implications are discussed. (144/150 words)
... Extending Belk's understanding, Ruth et al. (1999) pointed out another characteristic of a perfect gift: it must be suitable for the relationship between the gift and the recipient. There are also studies that suggest that gifts need to be related to the recipient's personal preferences and tastes (Gino & Flynn, 2011), or that gifts need to be used to remind the recipient of a particular life event and the relationship between the two parties (Belk, 1991). These are local features of the perfect gift considered from the personal point of view of the recipient. ...
... Specifically, in a gift, the gift giver may not pay close attention to the list of gifts directly listed by the recipient. Gift givers believe that gifts that are not on the list are more considerate and more powerful signals of relationship value (Gino & Flynn, 2011). Unexpected gifts are more likely to trigger more intense surprises, which in turn lead to greater happiness and appreciation (Ward & Broniarczyk, 2011). ...
... Contrary to this, the recipients are more willing to accept the cash or gifts they explicitly request (Gino & Flynn, 2011;Ward & Broniarczyk, 2016); if the giver prepares the gift exactly as the giftor asks, instead of trying to "Thoughtful and thoughtful" is the origin of the gifts they don't explicitly ask for (Gino & Flynn, 2011), and the recipients will be happier; other studies also show that what really makes the recipient happy is the explicit request rather than the gift list. Gifts inside (Bradford & Sherry Jr., 2013;Ward & Broniarczyk, 2011). ...
... For instance, choosers choosing for a close friend may desire to signal a close relationship, making them reluctant to choose based on the recipient's explicitly specified preferences. Indeed, in the gifting context, choosers sometimes avoid explicitly requested gifts, hoping instead to surprise the recipient with a gift that conveys thoughtfulness and understanding of the recipient-a signal of closeness (Gino and Flynn 2011). Recent work shows that even when recipients provide a gift registry, close givers choose not to give from it, hoping to convey greater interpersonal knowledge and closeness by choosing unrequested gifts (Ward and Broniarczyk 2016). ...
... This desire to predict rather than request information about others' preferences (for relationship-signaling reasons) is likely a main reason why much gift-giving research documents suboptimal gifting occasions in which givers incorrectly predict what recipients would actually prefer to receive (Baskin et al. 2014;Cavanaugh, Gino, and Fitzsimons 2015;Flynn and Adams 2009;Galak et al. 2016;Gino and Flynn 2011;Steffel, Williams, and LeBoeuf 2016a). For instance, Cavanaugh et al. (2015) found that givers mispredicted how much recipients would appreciate receiving socially responsible gifts (e.g., donations to a charity in the recipient's name). ...
... As a third example, various articles have examined the extent to which the recipient's explicit preferences affect choices. For instance, Ward and Broniarczyk (2016) and Gino and Flynn (2011) found that consumers hesitate to choose explicitly requested gifts for recipients. In contrast, Davis (1976) found that wives buying alcohol and shaving cream for their husbands "purchased only those brands that husbands requested" (243). ...
Article
Although most research on consumers’ choices, and resulting insights, have focused on choices that consumers make solely for themselves, consumers often make choices for others, and there is a growing literature examining such choices. Theoretically, how can this growing literature be integrated, and what gaps remain? Practically, why should marketers, consumers, and policymakers care when choices are made for others, and what should they do differently? A 2 × 2 framework of consumers’ choices for others addresses these questions. This framework has two fundamental dimensions: the chooser’s social focus (relationship vs. recipient oriented) and the chooser’s consideration of consumption preferences (highlight the recipient’s preferences vs. the balance recipient’s preferences with the chooser’s preferences). These dimensions generate four cells that represent prototypical choosing-for-others contexts: gift-giving (relationship focus, highlighting recipient’s preferences), joint consumption (relationship focus, balancing recipient’s and chooser’s preferences), everyday favors/pick-ups (recipient focus, highlighting recipient’s preferences), and care-giving (recipient focus, balancing recipient’s and chooser’s preferences). This framework captures most choosing-for-others situations, and each cell involves a distinct profile of motives, ultimately affecting choices. This framework integrates the choosing-for-others literature, which we hope will guide future research, and it also offers practical implications for marketers, consumers, and policymakers.
... While many studies have investigated the factors that impact gifting in the real world (Baskin et al., 2014;Belk, 1976;Gino and Flynn, 2011;Waldfogel, 1993;Yang and Urminsky, 2015;Zhang and Epley, 2012), investigation of the influence of paid gifting in the virtual community, especially in live steaming, has just begun. Status seeking is a popular explanation for paid gifting in virtual communities (Chen et al., 2017;Goode et al., 2014;Lampel and Bhalla, 2007;Toubia and Stephen, 2013). ...
... Prior studies reveal that altruism is one of the most popular explanations for gifting. For example, many researchers point out that sending a gift is a strategy to maximize a recipient's economic utility (Baskin et al., 2014;Gino and Flynn, 2011;Waldfogel, 1993;Zhang and Epley, 2012). Such a utility maximization framework boosts the development of theoretical models in real-word gifting. ...
... Previous literature mainly focuses on gifting in the real world. It shows that altruism (Baskin et al., 2014;Gino and Flynn, 2011;Zhang and Epley, 2012) and reciprocity (Belk, 1976;Sherry, 1983) are two key factors that influence real-world gifting. Although recently a few researchers began to show interest in sending gifts in virtual communities and social media, most of them mainly focus on free gifts (e.g., digital media), which are not paid for with money (Lampel and Bhalla, 2007;Toubia and Stephen, 2013). ...
Article
A novel function of live streaming is that viewers can send paid gifts to broadcasters. In addition, viewers can engage with broadcasters by sending danmaku, a type of comment scrolled across the screen in real time. This paper investigates the role of viewers’ social interaction in paid gifting on live streaming platforms. We argue that viewer-viewer interaction can prompt paid gifting by affecting viewers’ arousal level through stimuli extracted from danmaku. Types of danmaku-related stimuli are presence of others, social competition, and emotional stimuli. Specifically, presence of others is measured by total number of words; social competition by debate level; and emotional stimuli by similarity of danmaku, number of excitement-related words, and number of emoji. Using data from a major live streaming platform in China, empirical results show that except for number of emoji, the other four variables positively affect paid gifting.
... We contribute to this literature by identifying that choices for others can also be seen as goal-progress-generating and that choice recipient (self vs. other) moderates the relationship between salient goals and choice of goal-directed products. Second, our work enriches the choice-for-others literature (Baskin et al., 2014;Cavanaugh, Gino, & Fitzsimons, 2015;Gino & Flynn, 2011;Givi & Galak, 2017, 2020Steffel & LeBoeuf, 2014;Ward & Broniarczyk, 2016;Zhang & Epley, 2012). We contribute by identifying the giver's own salient goal as a novel driver of choice for others, and a novel psychological mechanism that shapes how consumers choose for others-that is, the giver's motivation to make progress on a salient goal. ...
... Goals-based choice (e.g., Carver & Scheier, 1998;Etkin & Laran, 2019;Etkin & Ratner, 2012;Laran & Janiszewski, 2009;van Osselaer & Janiszewski, 2012;van Osselaer et al., 2005) and choice for others (e.g., Baskin et al., 2014;Gino & Flynn, 2011;Givi & Galak, 2017, 2020Steffel & LeBoeuf, 2014;Ward & Broniarczyk, 2016;Zhang & Epley, 2012) both received a great deal of recent attention from scholars, yet extant research to date has not examined goals-based choice for others. Here, we explored how consumers' own salient goals influence choices for others. ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumers frequently make choices and purchase products for other people (e.g., buying a gift for a friend). While extant research identified many factors that influence how choices for others are made, much of this literature focused on product‐specific factors or motivations pertaining to the process of exchange to understand choice‐for‐others phenomena. Little is known about the influence of consumer‐relevant factors on choices made for other people. In the current research we examine how choices for others are influenced by consumers’ own salient personal goals (e.g., to get fit, to succeed professionally). We find that consumers choose goal‐inconsistent options for others to enhance their own perception of progress toward their salient goal. This effect is most robust when a salient goal is held at an individual (vs. group) level and when the choice‐for‐other situation exhibits a relationship (vs. recipient) focus. Results of seven experiments support these claims.
... Gift giving is also a complex consumer decision that is oftentimes different from other consumption decisions because of the symbolism gifts represent (Belk, 1996;Chakrabarti & Berthon, 2012;Komter, 2007;Parsons, 2002). Research indicates that it is also an emotionally loaded process by which a consumer has the opportunity to understand how and to what extent his or her acts of giving influence receivers (Gino & Flynn, 2011). Indeed, anticipatory feelings in receivers are important in choosing gifts that achieve the gift-giving goals (Baskin, Wakslak, Trope, & Novemsky, 2014). ...
... While prior research documents the importance of emotions in gift giving, it is largely silent on the role of a critical individual difference variable-namely, EU. Insofar as gift giving is a complex and emotionally loaded process, the ability for people to understand their own emotions as well as those of the receiver should be an important factor influencing gift giving (Gino & Flynn, 2011;Taute & Sierra, 2015). ...
Article
Gift giving is a complex emotional process that is important in maintaining relationships. However, little is understood about the effects of individual differences in consumers' ability to understand the emotions of the receiver and even themselves in the gift-giving process. A series of three studies reveal that emotional understanding (EU) influences how much money consumers spend on gifts. Study 1 shows that consumers with higher EU are likely to spend more money on buying gifts for others. Study 2 indicates that relationship closeness moderates the effect of EU on gift spending. Finally, Study 3 demonstrates that consumers with higher EU not only spend more money on gifts but also experience greater happiness. These results highlight the important role of EU on gift-giving behaviors and on the subsequent well-being of the giver.
... Participants then completed measures assessing their motivation for giving a gift to their relationship partner and estimated how concerned this person was with having enough time and money (among other goals, such as improving friendships, appearance, or receiving unique or surprising gifts). We included these additional comparisons based on previous research suggesting that consumers are motivated to give unique and surprising gifts (Gino andFlynn 2011, Horne andWinakor 1995), as well as gifts that enhance relationships (Belk 1979) or physical appearance (Much Needed 2018). Therefore, we examined these gift-giving motivations in this study to provide a useful benchmark for gift-giving motivations of consumers to give gifts that save time or money. ...
... This work also contributes to the literature on gift-giving. Research on gift-giving has primarily evaluated the positive benefits of giving-gifts (e.g., Aknin and Human 2015; Chan and Mogilner 2017), evaluating how much recipients appreciate, value, and like the gifts that they receive (e.g.,Flynn and Adams 2009;Gino and Flynn 2011). Our work instead evaluates the cost to status and resulting negative emotions that result as a function of gift-giving motivation. ...
Article
Full-text available
Consumers feel increasingly pressed for time and money. Gifts have the potential to reduce scarcity in recipients’ lives, yet little is known about how recipients perceive gifts given with the intention of saving them time or money. Across five studies (N = 1, 816), we demonstrate that the recipients of gifts intending to save money experience more negative emotions and infer a lower status position than recipients of gifts intending to save time. Recipients experiencing greater financial scarcity (who may benefit most from gifts intending to save them money), experience negative emotions to a greater extent and perceive an even lower status position than recipients who experience relatively little financial scarcity. These findings are the first to directly evaluate the implications of receiving gifts seeking to address time and money scarcity and suggest that recipients may respond negatively to gifts given with the intention of saving money.
... This seems like a good strategy, but people mistakenly believe that gifts chosen from a gift registry will be appreciated less than gifts the giver came up with themselves. Giving requested gifts is seen as less thoughtful and considerate by the giver (Gino and Flynn, 2011), and apparently, giving a gift from a registry undermines the giver's motivation to show with the gift how well they know the other person (Ward and Broniarczyk, 2016). These findings show that in cases where predicting the other person's perspective is seen as a challenge, people may feel like they should not engage in perspective getting because they feel it is not the right way to show their empathic skills. ...
... Another explanation for our findings may be found in the gift-giving literature. Asking what gift someone would like, or simply buying a gift from a registry, is not only thought of as less thoughtful by the giver, but also diminishes the giver's opportunity to show how well they know the other person (Gino and Flynn, 2011;Ward and Broniarczyk, 2016). Perhaps predicting another person's perspective is seen as a challenge, causing people to avoid perspective getting as they feel it is the wrong way to show their empathic skills. ...
Article
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In general, people tend to rely on egocentric projection when predicting others’ emotions, attitudes, and preferences. However, this strategy is less effective than the more obvious strategy of directly asking others what they feel, think, or desire (‘perspective getting’). In three experimental studies, we investigated how likely people are to ask for others’ perspectives, whether it leads to better predictions, and what factors impede perspective getting. In the first study, we let participants predict how happy another person would be with different money distributions. Only 26% of all people engaged in perspective getting, and it did not lead to better predictions. In the second study, we let people predict how expensive another person would think certain products are. The majority of people engaged in some form of perspective getting, but only 23% of all people did this thoroughly. Perspective getting did lead to better predictions. In the final study, we let people predict another person’s attitudes about a wide range of topics. Here, 70% of the people engaged in perspective getting and 12.5% did so thoroughly. Again, perspective getting led to better predictions. We found that confidence acted as a barrier for perspective getting. We also tested whether pointing out that perspective getting is the best strategy would increase perspective getting. We do not find a positive effect of this intervention. We discuss possible other interventions to increase people’s tendency to get rather than take perspective.
... For example, givers (vs. recipients) are more responsive to the amount of money (Flynn & Adams, 2009), brainstorming (Gino & Flynn, 2011), and effort (Zhang & Epley, 2012) that the giver devotes towards a gift. In other words, when it is clear that their gifting inputs were lacking, givers tend to evaluate their actions more critically than recipients. ...
... Accordingly, our research sheds further light on the importance of thoughtfulness in gift-giving. Moreover, our theorizing suggests that (at least part of) the reason givers construe earmarking as less thoughtful compared to recipients is because givers are more sensitive to their inputs towards a gift (Flynn & Adams, 2009;Gino & Flynn, 2011;Zhang & Epley, 2012 if they are missing the mark. Indeed, the myriad of popular press articles on best practices when giving cash and/or earmarking cash gifts (e.g., Cain, 2021;Martin, 2018) Wu et al., 2021). ...
Article
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Much research has shed light on the what to give facet of gift-giving; that is, which types of products should consumers give as gifts? However, little research has investigated the how to give component of gift-giving; that is, holding the gift itself constant, how should it be given? In the present work, we explore the messaging aspect of how to give, thereby expanding the gift-giving literature. Specifically, we investigate gift-givers' and gift-recipients' preferences regarding the practice of earmarking cash gifts (i.e., suggesting that a cash gift be used on a particular product). Across multiple studies, we demonstrate that givers are less likely to earmark cash gifts than recipients prefer, because givers view earmarking as less thoughtful compared to recipients. Moreover, consistent with a thoughtfulness account, we show that givers are more likely to earmark in situations where they view earmarking as thoughtful. We conclude by discussing how our work offers a unique contribution to the gift-giving literature (as it is the first to document a giver-recipient asymmetry involving how to give), suggests that givers should earmark cash gifts more often, and clears many paths for future research (on other potential giver-recipient asymmetries tied to how to give).
... It is known that a gift serves as a tool to evalu ate relations between the giving and the receiving sides (7). A study suggests that gift recipients pre fer receiving gifts that were requested to those that were not (8). Such gifts are recognized by the re ceiver as thoughtful, while the giver appears to them as attentive and responsive. ...
... On the other hand, if the gift givers are not attentive to the re ceivers requests, they tend to purchase unrequest ed gifts thinking they signal a sincere concern for the gift recipient. Gift recipients prefer money even more than the item they have requested (8). ...
Article
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Background The tradition of celebrating the day of birth of an individual is thought to have existed since the ancient times. Depending on the culture, religious beliefs, and the geographic location, occasions for ritual performance differ greatly. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate how students in Lithuania evaluate the importance of their birthday. Materials and methods An “Invitation to Remember Your Birthday” questionnaire was created by the authors to collect the responses for evaluation. The questionnaire consisted of 15 questions divided into four parts. It assessed how and what the respondents felt on their annual birthday, about the organization of the celebration, gift-receiving, and the value of the ritual. Results A total of 309 medical students of Vilnius University completed the survey (n = 146 year 4, n = 163 year 5). The results suggested that the birthday is an important individual occasion, which students tend to celebrate annually. The respondents tend to feel better and more loved on the day of their birthday. Conclusions Birthday is seen as an opportunity to spend time with friends and family, have a break from daily responsibilities, and receive attention from people around them. Birthday celebration of medical students is affected by their social and cultural context. The findings of this study may be relevant for future studies when searching for age- and culture-appropriate ways to use birthday celebration as possible means of improving mental health. The current data can be used for longitudinal and cross-cultural comparisons.
... In some cases, recipients make it clear up front what type of gift they prefer. It seems easy enough, then, to select the perfect gift, but givers are reluctant to follow that advice as they assume that this may signal lack of thoughtfulness on their part to the recipient [14]. This reluctance may be especially prominent among close friends who want their gift to reflect their intimate knowledge of their friends' preferences [15]. ...
... This reluctance may be especially prominent among close friends who want their gift to reflect their intimate knowledge of their friends' preferences [15]. However, givers overestimate the extent to which recipients factor in (lack of) thoughtfulness in their gift appreciation [14]. Correspondingly, gift givers tend to prefer novel gifts, even when recipients would prefer repeated gifts [16]. ...
Article
One core fundamental need that people may try to address through consumption is that of affiliation, or the need to belong. First, giving gifts may serve that goal, but it may also potentially hurt the formation of affiliative bonds if it creates a sense of indebtedness. Second, experiential consumption serves the need to belong if it is enjoyed socially. Third, symbolic consumption may help craft a prosocial image, but may also hinder it if one engages in conspicuous consumption to demonstrate one’s wealth. Finally, consumption of media, which allows the formation of parasocial relations with influencers and celebrities, and presence and activity in online communities can act as a surrogate for offline satisfaction of the need to belong.
... Simply giving people money or inquiring others about their own presents is often inappropriate , therefore, when deciding for a gift, givers oftentimes attempt to guess what the receiver would like to be given. Several aspects of givers' gift choices have been investigated, such as how givers evaluate what receivers would appreciate (Gino & Flynn, 2011;Goodman & Lim, 2018); and what situational factors influence givers' choices (Steffel & Le Boeuf, 2013;). ...
Article
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Objective: The purpose of this paper is to investigate how individuals resolve a conflict between reciprocity and social norms when choosing the price of a gift, and to investigate whether gift exchanges conducted in public or private and people’s appreciation for past gifts play a moderating role in this decision.Method: We ran two web-based survey experiments.Main results: Results showed that when people must choose between reciprocity and social norms, people tend to be reciprocal. However, there are some exceptional circumstances: people preferred to follow social norms when they received a cheaper gift in public, and when they were displeased with a prior expensive gift.Contributions: These findings help shed light onto how people make price decisions when choosing a gift.Relevance/Originality: Understanding price decisions in the gift-giving context is surprisingly an underexplored topic in the marketing literature.Managerial Implications: Understanding how people make price choices is important to practitioners. For instance, retailers can adjust their assortments to offer products across different price ranges, and sales people can make better offers to customers based on how much they are willing to spend.
... Much of the recent empirical work on gifting behavior has focused on specific gift characteristics and their effects on recipients' downstream evaluation of the gift, such as how much recipients like and appreciate gifts. For example, givers believe that a gift that is explicitly requested or unrequested would be equally appreciated but recipients actually appreciate gifts that they had requested more (Gino & Flynn, 2011). In particular, close (vs. ...
Article
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Gift-giving is a common form of social exchange but little research has examined how different gift types affect the psychological distance between giver and recipient. We examined how two types of gifts influence recipients’ perceived psychological distance to the giver. Specifically, we compared desirable gifts focused on the quality of the gift with feasible gifts focused on the gift’s practicality or ease of use. We found that feasible (vs. desirable) gifts led recipients to feel psychologically closer to givers (Studies 1 – 4). Further clarifying the process by which receiving a desirable versus feasible gift affects perceived distance, when recipients were told that the giver focused on the gift’s practicality or ease of use (vs. the gift’s overall quality), while holding the specific features of the gifts constant, they felt closer to the gift-giver (Study 5). These results shed light on how different gifts can influence interpersonal relationships.
... Biased estimates of recipient preferences lead to giver-receiver mismatches in the evaluation of gifts. Gift-givers believe that receivers would dislike requested gifts more than receivers actually do (Gino and Flynn 2011), and gift-givers wish to maximize immediate emotional reactions of the recipient, while recipients wish to maximize long-term use of the gift (Yang and Urminsky 2018). While givers prefer to give material over experiential gifts, recipients tend to prefer experiential gifts over material ones (Goodman and Lim 2018), because experiential gifts foster higher giver-receiver connectedness (Chan and Mogilner 2016) and have higher psychological benefits (Gilovich, Kumar, and Jampol 2014;Kumar and Gilovich 2015). ...
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Six experiments (total n = 3,552, four preregistered, three incentivized) show that consumers believe similar others would use the same products more often and would find them more useful than they themselves would. Overestimation of usefulness of the same product to others is caused by the overestimation of other people’s materialism: we find that this bias reverses when consumers estimate products’ usefulness for someone very low on materialism, and is muted for less materialistic purchases. Overestimation of usefulness is muted for well-known others, as estimation accuracy increases with personal knowledge. Our findings help explain the “X effect,” which is the belief that others are willing to pay more for products (Frederick 2012). These findings connect previously parallel literature streams about self-serving bias in social comparison and biases in self-other monetary evaluations. We discuss theoretical implications for consumers’ above and below average biases, materialism, and the X effect. We discuss practical implications for pricing, negotiation, proxy decision-making, and gift-giving.
... Thus, consumption-related decisions that suggest a lack of understanding or concern about another's opinions and preferences are dangerous territory. For instance, Ruth, Otnes, and Brunel (1999) found that gifts that do not take into account a recipient's preferences (e.g., an impersonal gift or a gift that defied the recipient's request) were associated with weak relationship ties, and Gino and Flynn (2011) and Ward and Broniarczyk (2016) found that unsolicited (vs. registry) gifts were deemed less thoughtful and less satisfying. ...
Article
When do consumers experience offense due to another individual’s choice, use, display, gifting, sharing, or disposal of a product? Why do they experience offense, and does it matter if they do? In this article, we first draw from past work in multiple disciplines to offer a unique conceptualization of consumption-based offense. We then develop a framework of types of violations that may generate consumption-based offense and propose a set of affective, consumption, and cognitive outcomes we anticipate may follow. We close by offering an agenda for future research that may establish the antecedents and consequences of different types of consumption-based offense, glean new insights from past findings through integration of this novel construct, and offer practical insights into the effects and management of consumption-based offense both in consumers’ lives and in the marketplace.
... However, gift recipients have very different perspectives making it difficult for givers to understand what receivers perceive as a better gift. Recent research, for example, has argued that gift receivers would be happier if givers gave them exactly what they requested rather than attempting to be "thoughtful and considerate" by buying gifts they did not explicitly request (Gino and Flynn 2011). ...
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Gift cards account for a $200 billion market in the US, yet little is known about consumers’ preferences and valuations of different gift cards. We examine how average US consumers feel about exchanging luxury brand gift cards (LGCs) versus non-luxury brand gift cards (NLGCs). Using secondary data analyses, surveys, and experiments, we demonstrate two asymmetries: between valuations of LGCs versus NLGCs and between valuations of gift cards by givers versus recipients. We show that LGCs are valued less than NLGCs with identical price tags. LGCs are more likely to be swapped or sold. Resellers demand and buyers pay lower prices for LGCs. These effects are mediated by the perceived utility of the gift cards as gifts and moderated by a person's role in the gifting process. Gift givers value and prefer to give LGCs more, whereas recipients prefer and value NLGCs more.
... The issue of mis-predicting the recipient's expectations and the implications of this have been examined in multiple studies (Belk, 1976(Belk, , 1979Leary, 1983;Sherry et al., 1993;Wooten, 2000;Zhang and Epley, 2012;Galak et al., 2016 etc.). The giving of requested gifts eliminates the problem of expectation mismatch (Teigen et al., 2005;Gino and Flynn, 2011) but also eliminates surprise, which is an indispensable attribute of successful gifts (Belk, 1996;Durgee and Sego, 2001;Clarke, 2006Clarke, , 2007. To retain the surprise element of gift-giving, or to express a relational signal, or for some other reason thus far not identified, the giver may choose not to select the requested gift in favour of another gift that she thought more suitable for the recipient. ...
Article
Purpose This paper aims to investigate the impact of gift-givers’ perception of relational closeness on their gift-selection attitude and eventual selection when the gift is not a requested-gift. Design/methodology/approach A conceptual framework was constructed on the basis of five hypotheses, which were tested by field data collected through surveys of urban Indian gift-givers while they shopped for a gift. Logistic regressions were used for validating hypotheses. Mediation effect was computed using the PROCESS macro in SPSS. Findings The giver may have either a “recipient-centric” or a “giver-centric” attitude towards gift-selection. It was found that givers who feel greater closeness towards recipients are less likely to be “giver-centric” and more likely to believe that the recipient’s preferences are similar to their own. The givers’ belief that the recipient’s preferences are similar to their own mediates the effect of closeness on attitude. Closeness reduces the odds of making a “preference-contrary” selection among “recipient-centric” givers because of a perceived similarity of preferences. Research limitations/implications The study was conducted among urban Indian gift-shoppers. Cross-cultural study may be required for general interpretation of the results. In addition, the role of reciprocity in determining giver’s attitude and gift-selection was not studied. Practical implications The study found that the odds of making “preference-contrary” gift-selection depend on the closeness of the dyadic relation. This understanding can be used in advertising and promoting products that are used as gifts between close relations. Originality/value Previous studies postulated and demonstrated that relational closeness affects gift-giving behaviour, but none connected closeness to gift-selection. This research conceptualised gift-giver’s attitude, which influences giver’s selection.
... People often have opportunities to infer other peoples' taste preferences during the process of gift-giving. People give gifts of food to friends, family, or romantic partners by inferring the receiver's taste on occasions such as anniversaries and annual events (birthdays, Christmas, or Valentine's Day) (Gino & Flynn, 2011). In addition, inference of food preferences may have evolved from an adaptive advantage born of food sharing (i.e., an instance of reciprocal altruism) and may later have extended to the domain of mate selection (Saad & Gill, 2003). ...
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In retail settings, social perception of other peoples’ preferences is fundamental to successful interpersonal interactions (e.g., product recommendations, gift-giving). This type of perception must be made with little information, very often based solely on facial cues. Although people are capable of accurately predicting others’ preferences from facial cues, we do not yet know how such inferences are made by crossmodal correspondence (arbitrary sensory associations) between facial cues and inferred attributes. The crossmodal correspondence literature implies the existence of sensory associations between shapes and tastes, and people consistently match roundness and angularity to sweet and sour foods, respectively. Given that peoples’ faces have dimensions characterized by roundness and angularity, it may be plausible that people infer others’ preferences by relying on the correspondence between facial roundness and taste. Based on a crossmodal correspondence framework, this study aimed to reveal the role of shape–taste correspondences in social perception. We investigated whether Japanese participants infer others’ taste (sweet/sour) preferences based on facial shapes (roundness/angularity). The results showed that participants reliably inferred that round-faced (vs. angular-faced) individuals preferred sweet foods (Study 1). Round-faced individuals and sweet foods were well matched, and the matching mediated the inference of other person’s preferences (Study 2). An association between facial roundness and inference of sweet taste preferences was observed in more natural faces, and perceived obesity mediated this association (Study 3). These findings advance the applicability of crossmodal correspondences in social perception, and imply the pervasiveness of prejudicial bias in the marketplace.
... A gift failure is said to occur when the gift does not meet the recipient's expectations in some way (Roster, 2006). This could happen for a range of reasons, which include giver-receiver differences in perceptions of their relationship and discrepancies in gift preferences (Galak et al., 2016), different evaluations of the gift (Baskin et al., 2014), and giver's failure to focus on the receiver's perspective (Gino and Flynn, 2011;Givi and Galak, 2019). ...
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Purpose This paper aims to examine coping approaches used by receivers to deal with failed gift experiences, thereby dealing with misperceptions between givers and receivers that could affect their relationship. Design/methodology/approach This study uses a sequential, multimethod methodology using background questionnaires, online diary method and 27 semi-structured interviews. Findings Receivers cope with failed gift experiences through concealing, disclosing or re-evaluating the gift experience. These approaches encompass several coping strategies, allowing receivers to deal with their experiences in ways that help them manage their relationships with givers. Research limitations/implications Informants described gift experiences in their own terms without being prompted to talk about coping, thus some insights of coping with failed gifts may have been missed. Multiple data collection methods were used to minimise this limitation, and the research findings suggest new avenues for future research. Practical implications The present research helps retailers and brands to minimise gift failure by promoting gifts that emphasise aspects of the giver–receiver relationship, assists givers in their learning from gift failure by making them aware of the receiver’s preferences and reduces the cost of gift failure by offering further opportunities to dispose of unwanted gifts. Originality/value This paper contributes to the emerging topic of consumer coping by providing a novel and rounded understanding of coping in the context of failed gift events, identifying new reasons for gift failure, highlighting receivers’ ethical considerations when responding to failed gifts and proposing new insights for the coping literature.
... Gift giving serves multiple functions: gifts signal relationships and information, strengthen social bonds, and fulfill social norms, just to name a few (Belk 1996;Camerer 1988;Huang and Yu 2000;Schwartz 1967;Teigen, Olsen, and Solas 2005). Gifts also demonstrate unselfish, agapic love (Belk and Coon 1993), and people often give gifts with the intention of increasing the happiness and enjoyment of their recipients (Baskin et al 2014;Gino and Flynn 2011;Otnes, Lowry, and Kim 1993;Teigen et al. 2005). ...
Article
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Although previous research suggests that there are hedonic and interpersonal benefits to gifting experiences, consumers often give material gifts rather than experiential gifts. Exploring this mismatch, the current research examines when and why consumers prefer to give material versus experiential gifts. The authors propose that gift givers are more likely to give experiential gifts to socially close recipients than socially distant recipients. Since experiences are perceived as more unique than material goods, givers perceive that choosing an experiential gift requires more specific knowledge of a recipient's preferences to avoid the greater social risk of giving a poorly matched gift. Eight studies provide converging evidence for the proposed effect of social distance on gift preference and demonstrate that this effect is driven by a giver's knowledge of a recipient's preferences. Further supporting the mechanism of preference knowledge, the effect of social distance is moderated by the social risk associated with experiential gifts. When experiences contain little social risk-and thus require less knowledge of a recipient- the effect of social distance is significantly mitigated. Together, these results provide answers for why consumers often prefer to give material gifts over experiences, despite the advantage of giving experiences. © The Author(s) 2018. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Journal of Consumer Research, Inc. All rights reserved.
... Therefore, the likelihood of maintaining a relationship is not guaranteed by the attempt to please the receiver, as the excessiveness or scarcity of gifting also plays an important role in this process. Moreover, some people prefer to receive gifts that are exactly what they have requested rather than receiving gift guided by the "thought that counts" dictum (Gino and Flynn 2011). So, the process of choosing a gift is not always done by the giver, but there are some situations in which the gift is suggested by the recipient, and some of them-as the gift registry (Bradford and Sherry 2017)-has been recently explored. ...
Article
Research on financial vulnerability has largely focused on the relationships between the economic environment, consumer financial activities and indebtedness, limiting our understanding of the role assumed by interpersonal relationships that underlie this socially embedded phenomenon. Using the common Brazilian practices of borrowing–lending amongst family and friends as the research context, we show that these practices can be viewed as a gift guided by the logic of a moral economy. Our findings show that individuals resort to the market economy to maintain a moral economy of credit which can be a blessing (when the extension of financial help to important others alleviates financial vulnerability by negotiating the marketplace) or a curse (when extension of financial help to others leads to one’s own financial constraints). This study illustrates an inverted gift giving process whereby the recipients’ own indulgence is presented as a monadic gift in accessing the dyadic gift giving relationship.
... Givers primarily base their gift choices on the affective reactions they anticipate from receivers, even when they predict that receivers will be more satisfied with alternate options. These findings can shed light on social phenomena that have puzzled receivers and researchers, such as givers' reluctance to give cash even though receivers would welcome it (Gino & Flynn, 2011;Waldfogel, 1993) Fig. 4. Results of the mediation analyses in Study 2: effects of givers' and receivers' choices for the reaction-maximizing option, as mediated by the difference in anticipated affective reaction between gifts but not the difference in anticipated satisfaction between gifts. Along the middle arrow, the number above the arrow shows the result when no mediator is included, and the number below the arrow shows results when both mediators are included. ...
Article
People making decisions for others often do not choose what their recipients most want. Prior research has generally explained such preference mismatches as decision makers mispredicting recipients’ satisfaction. We proposed that a “smile-seeking” motive is a distinct cause for these mismatches in the context of gift giving. After examining common gift options for which gift givers expect a difference between the recipients’ affective reaction (e.g., a smile when receiving the gift) and overall satisfaction, we found that givers often chose to forgo satisfaction-maximizing gifts and instead favor reaction-maximizing gifts. This reaction-maximizing preference was mitigated when givers anticipated not giving the gift in person. Results from six studies suggest that anticipated affective reactions powerfully shape gift givers’ choices and giving experiences, independently of (and even in spite of) anticipated recipient satisfaction. These findings reveal a dominant yet overlooked role that the display of affective reactions plays in motivating and rewarding gift-giving behaviors and shed new light on interpersonal decision making.
... For instance, our coding of over 2,500 prosocial spending memories indicates that 65% reference a gift while only 4% mention providing a personal necessity. Considering past research suggesting that givers systematically misestimate what recipients truly want, such as by overlooking practical and requested gifts in favor of the unfeasible and unrequested items (Galak et al., 2016;Gino & Flynn, 2011), these data may shed light on the frequency of this mismatch. ...
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People frequently spend money on others and research shows that such prosocial spending often promotes the benefactor’s happiness, even sometimes when reflecting upon past prosocial purchases. But on whom and what do people generally spend their money? And what features of prosocial spending memories are associated with greater post-recall happiness? In a pre-registered examination, human coders and a text analysis software coded over 2,500 prosocial spending recollections for information regarding the target, content, and presence of five theoretically motivated dimensions: affiliation, volition, impact, authenticity, and level of detail. Exploratory analyses revealed that people often recalled buying gifts or food and typically spent money on significant others, friends, or children. Consistent with the pre-registered hypotheses, higher levels of volition and impact were associated with greater post-recall happiness (rs: .05 – .07), controlling for pre-recall happiness. However, in contrast to the pre-registered hypotheses, affiliation, authenticity, and level of detail did not predict greater happiness. These findings illuminate some key characteristics of prosocial purchases and the most rewarding features of people’s prosocial spending recollections.
... At the macrolevel, such gifts create deadweight losses in the economy (Waldfogel, 1993) and reinforce outdated social norms (Sherry, 1983). At the individual level, research has likewise illuminated a less rosy view of gift giving (Sherry et al., 1993), demonstrating that givers sometimes feel negative emotions when choosing gifts (Cheng et al., 2020;De Hooge, 2014, 2017Givi & Galak, 2017;Wooten, 2000) and possess conflicting preferences, mindsets, or motives compared to recipients' own (Aknin & Human, 2015;Baskin et al., 2014;Cavanaugh et al., 2015;Chan & Mogilner, 2017;Gino & Flynn, 2011;Givi & Galak, 2017;Goodman & Lim, 2018;Paolacci et al., 2015;Polman & Emich, 2011;Steffel & LeBoeuf, 2014;Ward & Broniarczyk, 2016;Yang & Urminsky, 2018; for a review, see Galak et al., 2016). In complement to these findings, our studies point to a unique case whereby giving even a "good" gift can have negative consequences for an interpersonal relationship. ...
Article
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How people choose gifts is a widely studied topic, but what happens next is largely understudied. In two preregistered studies, one field experiment, and an analysis of secondary data, we show that giving gifts has a dark side, as it can negatively affect subsequent interpersonal behavior between givers and receivers. In Study 1, we found that giving a gift to one's romantic partner changes givers' interpretation of which behaviors constitute infidelity. Specifically, we found that givers (vs. nongivers) classified their questionable behaviors (e.g., sending a flirtatious text to someone other than their partner) less as a form of cheating on their partner. In Study 2, we examined how politely participants behave when delivering bad news to a friend. We found that givers (vs. nongivers) wrote significantly less polite messages to their friend. In Study 3, we tested real gifts that people give to friends and found givers (vs. nongivers) subsequently made more selfish decisions at their friends' expense. In all, our research refines the oft‐cited axiomatic assumption that gift giving strengthens relationships and illuminates the potential for future research to examine how decision making can alter interpersonal, romantic relationships.
... First, Study 2 tests whether the basic effect extends to a case in which participants are picking up a product for another person with the other person's own money (i.e., clearly a non-gift-giving context). When gift-giving is involved, additional considerations such as a desire to show thoughtfulness and relational signaling may affect choices for others but not the self (Galak et al., 2016;Gino & Flynn, 2011;Steffel & LeBoeuf, 2014). Our focal process, however, is based on self-presentational concerns and is thus nonspecific to giftgiving. ...
Article
The trade-off between quality and quantity pervades many domains of life, including that of making product choices for ourselves and others, whether as gifts or as everyday favors. In five studies (four pre-registered), participants preferred quality over quantity when choosing for a friend versus for themselves. We demonstrate that one reason why this difference in choice for self and other arises is because of heightened self-presentation concerns: People choosing for friends (vs. self) are more concerned about conveying poor taste, thus increasing choice of quality (vs. quantity). Consistent with this process, the effect is mitigated when choosing for a nonjudgmental friend or when choosing for a person whom one does not highly value. Finally, this effect is particular to quality-quantity trade-offs; it does not occur for flavor-quantity trade-offs, indicating that the effect is driven by the quality aspect rather than by the quantity aspect or by cost-per-unit considerations.
... Givers try to please receivers with a well-received gift, but too often give gifts that receivers do not want. For example, research has shown that gift receivers appreciated gifts that they requested more than "thoughtful and considerate" gifts that they did not explicitly request (Gino and Flynn, 2011). Gift-giving can be very challenging since there are discrepancies between givers' and receivers' perspectives on what constitutes a "good gift" (e.g., Galak et al., 2016;Givi et al., 2021). ...
Article
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The present research explored differences in gift evaluation between gift givers and receivers. Three studies were conducted to test how the pricing influenced the gift evaluations of givers and receivers, and whether the price-quality and price-monetary sacrifice inferences were the underlying mechanisms. The results showed that: givers evaluated high-priced gifts as better than low-priced gifts, whereas receivers evaluated low-priced gifts as better than high-priced gifts; price-quality inference mediated the effect of pricing on gift evaluations, but only for givers. Furthermore, the effect of pricing on gift evaluation was moderated by the gift type: givers evaluated the high-priced gift as better only for the desirable gift (but not for the feasible gift); receivers evaluated the low-priced gift as better only for the feasible gift (but not for the desirable gift). The results demonstrate the effect of pricing on gift evaluation and could contribute to understanding the differences between givers’ and receivers’ perception of what a “good gift” is, and the underlying psychological mechanisms.
... Akerlof (1982), who viewed labor contracts partially as gift exchanges, highlighted the reciprocal nature of the relationship when he noted that wages are determined and influenced by workers' effort and that this is partially determined by wages (Akerlof, 1984). Fehr et al. (1998) built on the notion of gift exchange in labor markets and concluded that reciprocal behavior in the labor market is a stable phenomenon (Gino & Flynn, 2011). Reciprocity is critical because secure work is used to set the level of expectations for the entire workforce (both secure and precarious) in terms of monetary rewards and security, as well as fostering a sense of belonging among workers towards their organization. ...
Article
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Precarious work, or employment that is associated with temporary contracts, low earnings and limited or no employee representation, is on the rise. From an operations perspective, these practices should enable flexibility and reduce costs. However, from the perspective of most other social sciences, precarious work harms workers and should harm firm performance. The objective of this research is to provide a comprehensive analysis of the performance implications of precarious work. We collected survey data in the UK from multiple respondents (operations and human resource managers) along with secondary data to explore how the use of precarious work affects a company's financial, operational and occupational health & safety performance. The results were mixed. Precarious work did not have a significant influence on occupational health & safety performance and had a negative relationship with cost performance. We also established an inverted u-shaped relationship between precarious work and flexibility and financial performance; low levels of precarious work improve flexibility and financial performance and high levels of precarious work harm both. Finally, we explored if high-performance work practices could moderate these relationships, but the results were mostly insignificant. The results suggest that firms only benefit from relatively low levels of adoption of precarious work. K E Y W O R D S occupational health & safety, operational performance, precarious work, sustainability
Article
Purpose Gift-givers are often confronted with the possibility of choosing gifts that are inconsistent with their own attitudes (“attitude-inconsistent gifts”). For example, a gun opposer may be faced with the possibility of choosing gun paraphernalia as a gift, and a vegetarian might be forced to consider the possibility of choosing a steakhouse gift card as a gift. This study aims to compare givers’ decision-making when they are confronted with the possibility of choosing attitude-inconsistent gifts with their decision-making when they are faced with the possibility of choosing gifts that are neither inconsistent nor consistent with their attitudes (“attitude-neutral gifts”). Design/methodology/approach Seven experimental studies test the hypotheses. These studies have participants make decisions as givers and use a variety of gifts, giver-recipient relationships, gifting occasions and dependent variables, as well as both consequential and hypothetical decisions. Findings Givers strategically avoid choosing attitude-inconsistent (vs attitude-neutral) gifts, even when they believe that these kinds of gifts are the ones that recipients desire the most. This aversion emerges because givers anticipate that choosing an attitude-inconsistent (vs attitude-neutral) gift would cause them to experience a higher level of psychological discomfort. Research limitations/implications This research documents a novel gift-giving phenomenon (givers’ aversion to attitude-inconsistent gifts), one of the most widespread forms of intentional preference-mismatching in gift-giving (givers’ avoidance of attitude-inconsistent gifts when they believe that these kinds of gifts are the ones that recipients desire the most), and a psychological mechanism that has a strong influence on givers’ decision-making but was yet to be explored in the gift-giving literature (givers’ anticipations of psychological discomfort). Collectively, these facets improve the field’s understanding of consumer gift-giving and call into question the assumption that gift-giving is aimed predominantly at pleasing the recipient. Practical implications This research suggests that if gift-givers want to be more financially efficient, they should refrain from contemplating the feelings of psychological discomfort that they would experience from choosing an attitude-inconsistent gift and instead focus on selecting the gift that the recipient desires the most. Moreover, it indicates that gift-givers’ tendency to avoid preferred, attitude-inconsistent gifts can have undesirable social and well-being consequences. Finally, it suggests that firms’ bottom lines may be harmed by givers’ aversion to attitude-inconsistent gifts, and that firms selling products that are likely attitude-inconsistent for segments of consumers should think carefully about advertising those products as gifts. Originality/value The gift-giving literature has recently documented multiple cases of givers intentionally refraining from choosing the gifts that they believe best match recipients’ preferences. Yet, the present work shows that there was a considerable gap in this segment of the gift-giving literature. Specifically, the present research documents a previously unexplored, but highly common, instance in which intentional preference-mismatching in gift-giving occurs: whenever a potential gift is attitude-inconsistent. Moreover, this work sheds light on a psychological mechanism that plays an important role in givers’ decision-making but was yet to be explored in the gift-giving literature: givers’ anticipated feelings of psychological discomfort.
Article
Incentivized referrals are frequently used by firms to recruit new customers. Currently, most companies use two-sided incentive plans that reward both the referrer and the target. This is sensible and likely popular since both parties (the existing customer and target of the referral) are rewarded, potentially increasing the likelihood of successful referral conversion. That said, a small number of firms use one-sided incentives that reward only the referrer or only the target, which tend to be of lower cost. In the current paper, we examine how to effectively use one-sided incentives from a cross-cultural perspective. Specifically, we posit that reward-target incentives are more effective than reward-referrer plans among consumers who are high (instead of low) in interdependence because reward-target plans can appease social concerns, which are more important to those high (vs. low) in interdependence. Across a series of studies, we confirm these predictions and show that managerially relevant variables that influence social concerns (e.g., opaqueness of the referral information, product-liking risk) moderate our effect.
Article
Recently, consumer behavior research has been focusing on decision‐making in relationships. This research considers an important context, romantic gift giving, in which givers choose gifts that are perceptually consistent with both their own self‐image and the recipients' self‐image. Based on interdependence theory, we investigate how the relationship dependence between romantic couples can affect gift image consistency. According to the results, the giver's level of dependence plays a positive role in the consistency between the recipient's self‐image and the gift image (gift‐recipient consistency) and plays a negative role in the consistency between the giver's self‐image and the gift image (gift‐giver consistency). The mutuality of dependence could strengthen or weaken the effect of the giver's level of dependence on gift image consistency, and this effect is carried through the giver's relationship power.
Article
Six experiments (N = 2,350) uncover a prevalent giver‐recipient preference discrepancy: gift‐givers prefer giving material gifts (vs. experiential gifts) more than gift‐recipients prefer to receive them. The experiments reveal congruent evidence that a mnemonic gifting strategy underlies this preference discrepancy. Givers are more likely than recipients to consider the memory consequences of gift options, as givers intuitively use material gifts as interpersonal mnemonic devices to facilitate the recipient’s retrieval of giver‐related memories. As such, this preference discrepancy occurs in various stages of developing relationships but is mitigated in very close relationships. In addition, two theoretical moderators are identified: the preference discrepancy disappears when the gift would be associated with an unpleasant occasion (instead of a pleasant one), and when the giver and recipient expect an incidental increase in future interactions. This research reveals an interpersonal memory‐management motive that underlies the miscalibrated gift choices, and bridges prior findings on material and experiential gifts. These findings also offer insights for consumers and marketers to mitigate miscalibrated choices and their perverse economic and relationship consequences.
Chapter
Geber können mit Einfühlungsvermögen, Überraschungen und dem Einsatz von Mühen und Opfern ihren Geschenken einen hohen emotionalen Wert verleihen. Dieser Wert ist aber keine objektive Größe, sondern existiert nur in der Vorstellung des Empfängers. Deshalb kommt es für Geber darauf an, die Voraussetzungen dafür zu schaffen, dass ihre einfühlsamen Überlegungen und Gedanken sowie ihre physischen, zeitlichen und finanziellen Anstrengungen und ihre Opfer vom Empfänger auch erkannt und somit gewürdigt werden können. Zudem gilt es für sie, negative Überraschungen zu vermeiden und sicherstellen, dass sie mit dem Geschenk wirklich den Empfänger und nicht sich selbst in den Mittelpunkt rücken.
Chapter
Im Moment der Geschenkübergabe erweist es sich, ob das Ziel, Freude auszulösen, erreicht wird. Schon die gedankliche Vorwegnahme dieses Augenblicks in der Vorbereitungsphase leitet die Entscheidungen des Gebers und seine Aktivitäten. Dazu gehört auch das Verpacken, denn die Art der Verpackung liefert später dem Empfänger einen ersten Eindruck, der die Wahrnehmung des Geschenks beeinflusst und auch Hinweise auf Gedanken und Mühen des Gebers vermittelt. Die Übergabe des Geschenks verlangt von den Beteiligten ein hohes Ausmaß an Aufmerksamkeit. Der Empfänger hat zudem klar definierte Gefühlsregeln einzuhalten und Überraschung, Freude oder Dankbarkeit zu zeigen, selbst wenn die verlangten Emotionen seinen tatsächlichen widersprechen. Diese Gefühlsarbeit erfordert hohe Fähigkeiten der verbalen und non-verbalen Kommunikation.
Article
ABSTRACT Purpose-This paper examines the effects of cultural differences and the types of relationship closeness involved in recipients' emotional and behavioral reactions after receiving disliked gifts. Design/methodology/approach-Collecting data from Thailand and the U.S., two experiments were conducted in a 2 (self-construal: independent/interdependent) x 2 (relationship closeness: close/distant) between-subjects design. Study 1 explores the recipients' feelings and reactions upon receipt of a disliked gift. Study 2 explores the disposition process for a disliked gift. Findings-The results show that a recipient's emotions, reaction, and disposition process can be affected by cultural differences and relationship closeness: specifically, that close and distant relationships moderate the relationship between self-construal and gift-receiving attitudes and behaviors. Research limitations/implications-Future research can investigate representative groups from other countries to broaden the generalizability of the findings. Practical implications-This understanding can guide gift-givers when selecting gifts for close or distant recipients across cultures. Additionally, it can help retailers develop and introduce new marketing strategies by applying self-construal as a marketing segmentation tool for gift purchase and disposition. Originality/value-This research is among the first studies to offer insights into how individuals in different cultures manage disliked gifts they receive from people in either close or distant relationships.
Article
Gift purchasing is an important factor driving the retail industry around the world, and yet, many gift selections do not match recipient preferences. Three studies examine how consumers from different cultures select gifts for multiple recipients and when gifts deviate from recipients’ preferences. Both U.S. and Chinese consumers who are shopping for multiple recipients tend to pass up recipients’ preferred gifts in favor of getting distinct gifts for each recipient, and Chinese givers are more likely than U.S. givers to choose gifts that deviate from recipients’ preferences overall. The criteria that consumers use to decide whose preferences to prioritize differ across cultures. U.S. givers prioritize recipients they like better, but Chinese givers prioritize better-liked recipients less consistently. Chinese prioritize higher-status recipients, but U.S. givers do not. We further show that these national cultural differences in prioritizing higher-status recipients are paralleled by differences in power distance belief.
Purpose Marketers make an effort to affect consumers through scarcity marketing thus shaping the perception of scarcity and creating desirability for consumers. To expand the scarcity-expensiveness-desirability model and to enhance insights for practical applications, this study modifies the causal relationship among two types of scarcity, three types of expansiveness and desirability. Design/methodology/approach This study surveyed 400 Taipei city residents who had purchase experience with luxury brands products in Taiwan. The study employed structural equation modeling as empirical analysis. Findings The empirical results show that limited-quantity scarcity main influences perceived social status and then affects desirability. The second path is that limited-quantity scarcity influences perceived uniqueness and then affects desirability. Therefore, perceived social status and perceived uniqueness dominate the majority of effects on desirability because they are the recognition of the individual compared to others, especially when applied to luxury goods. Practical implications Because limited-quantity scarcity has a greater impact on desirability than limited-time scarcity in the empirical results, marketers can adopt limited-quantity scarcity messages that are better than limited-time scarcity, to increase consumers’ desire to purchase luxury goods. Originality/value The first novelty of this study is dividing scarcity marketing into limited-quantity and limited-time scarcity in the scarcity-expensiveness-desirability model. This study extends expensiveness in the scarcity-expensiveness-desirability model with a complete demonstration, that is, perceived social status, perceived uniqueness and perceived value, which is the second novelty of this study.
The main purpose of this research is to investigate whether, why, and when givers and recipients perceive the value of a discounted gift differently. The studies provide convergent evidence that givers perceive discounted gifts as less valuable than regular-priced gifts whereas recipients do not perceive them as different. Givers' devaluation of the discounted gift is driven by their concern about the thoughtfulness of a gift. Moreover, the giver-recipient asymmetry is mitigated when the in-store interaction with a salesperson is substituted by technology via a service robot. This research contributes to the gift-giving literature and the growing literature on service robots by revealing how promotional offers influence consumers’ evaluation of gifts and how technological advance in retail may affect the proposed effect. Managerial implications for planning and executing price promotions for gifts are also discussed.
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Demut wäre nicht erstrebenswert, wenn sie nicht messbare Effekte zeigen würde. In den letzten zehn Jahren hat die Forschung in hunderten von Projekten messbare, zum überwiegenden Teil positive Ergebnisse von Demut festgestellt. Sie lassen sich in drei Gruppen einteilen: Auswirkungen einer demutsvollen Führungskraft auf die Mitarbeiter (z. B. in Bezug auf Leistung oder Kreativität), Resultate für das gesamte Unternehmen (z. B. in Bezug auf Strategie oder Kultur), sowie Konsequenzen für die Führungskraft selber (z. B. in Bezug auf Leistung oder Stress).
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This dyadic diary study explored how romantic partners benefit from prosocial spending within their relationships. For each of 21 days, couple members indicated whether they spent money on their partner and, if yes, reported the amount of money spent and the type(s) of purchase involved. Participants also completed daily measures of perceived partner responsiveness, and personal and relational well-being. Actor-partner interdependence model analyses showed that (a) the actor’s daily personal and relational well-being were associated with both the actor’s and the partner’s prosocial spending; (b) the actor’s perception of partner’s responsiveness mediated the effect of the partner’s prosocial spending on the actor’s well-being; and (c) experiential purchase (viz., food and other experiences) was associated with both parties’ relational well-being, but material purchase (viz., necessities) was not. Additional analyses suggested that (d) individual differences in prosocial concerns (viz., socioeconomic status and communal motivation) were associated with prosocial spending on one’s partner. (150 words)
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In retail settings, social perception of other peoples’ preferences is fundamental to successful interpersonal interactions (e.g., product recommendations, gift-giving). This type of perception must be made with little information, very often based solely on facial cues. Although people are capable of accurately predicting others’ preferences from facial cues, we do not yet know how such inferences are made by crossmodal correspondence (arbitrary sensory associations) between facial cues and inferred attributes. The crossmodal correspondence literature implies the existence of sensory associations between shapes and tastes, and people consistently match roundness and angularity to sweet and sour foods, respectively. Given that peoples’ faces have dimensions characterized by roundness and angularity, it may be plausible that people infer others’ preferences by relying on the correspondence between facial roundness and taste. Based on a crossmodal correspondence framework, this study aimed to reveal the role of shape–taste correspondences in social perception. We investigated whether Japanese participants infer others’ taste (sweet/sour) preferences based on facial shapes (roundness/angularity). The results showed that participants reliably inferred that round-faced (vs. angular-faced) individuals preferred sweet foods (Study 1). Round-faced individuals and sweet foods were well matched, and the matching mediated the inference of other person’s preferences (Study 2). An association between facial roundness and inference of sweet taste preferences was observed in more natural faces, and perceived obesity mediated this association (Study 3). These findings advance the applicability of crossmodal correspondences in social perception, and imply the pervasiveness of prejudicial bias in the marketplace.
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This research examines how consumers make unilateral decisions on behalf of the self and multiple others, in situations where the chosen option will be shared and consumed jointly by the group—for instance, choosing wine for the table. Results across six studies using three different choice contexts (wine, books, and movies) demonstrate that such choices are shaped by the decision-maker’s self-construal (independent vs. interdependent) and by the size of the group being chosen for (large vs. small). Specifically, we find that interdependent consumers consistently make choices that balance self and others’ preferences, regardless of group size. In contrast, the choices of independent consumers differ depending on group size: for smaller groups, independents make choices that balance self and others’ preferences, while for larger groups, they make choices that more strongly reflect their own preferences. Via mediation and moderation, the data show that differential attention to others underlies the combined effect of self-construal and group size on the joint consumption choices that consumers make for the self and others.
Article
Purpose In social networking services gift giving, the decision to send a gift is often initiated by spontaneous news about others, who may have recently experienced fortune or misfortune. The purpose of this paper is to show that the valence of the other’s event can affect the empathy experienced by the giver and that the level of empathy affects gift selection behavior. Design/methodology/approach Study 1 investigated the relationship between empathy and valence of other’s event and the underlying mechanism of changes in self-esteem. Study 2 explored how different levels of empathies lead to different gift selection behavior. Study 3 replicated the results of Study 2 using a different measurement approach. Findings Across the three studies, findings consistently suggest that the empathy arising from unexpected news of the others’ fortune was lower compared to that of the others’ misfortune because of threats to self-esteem. In addition, greater empathy prompted gift givers to spend more time and effort in gift selection. Practical implications Understanding how valence of event experienced by others might motivate givers to engage in selecting a gift online can help retailers increase predictive insights for recommendations. Originality/value While past research focused on ritual gift giving, this research examined spontaneous gift giving. The study is also unique in that the empathy gap between the giver and the receiver is a result of the changes in the psychological state of the giver.
Article
Purpose This paper aims to explore how temporal distance influences the evaluation of partitioned pricing. Design/methodology/approach The effect of temporal distance on the effectiveness of partitioned pricing is tested using data collected through experiments in the USA. Findings Study 1 reveals that people perceive partitioned pricing as more attractive than combined pricing, but only for a distant event. Study 2 reveals that individuals predisposed to global information processing perceive partitioned pricing as more attractive than combined pricing. However, for individuals who commonly engage in local processing, combined pricing was equally attractive as partitioned pricing. In Study 3, the authors examine a boundary condition and find that the joint effect of temporal distance and partitioned pricing is attenuated when the purchase is made for a gift in which consumers are assumed to pay less attention to a surcharge. In Study 4, the authors examine how partitioned pricing influences a consumer’s choice in terms of temporal distance. Practical implications The findings provide practical guidelines to business leaders looking for practical guidelines for pricing policy decisions. Originality/value Previous research shows that partitioned pricing is more effective in increasing consumers’ purchase intention and demand than combined pricing. In the present research, the authors introduce temporal distance as an important moderator that affects the effectiveness of partitioned pricing.
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This research explores the effect of gift–image congruence on the recipient's gift appreciation, and the moderating effects of intimacy and the recipient's relationship dependence in romantic relationships. The results show that gift-recipient image congruence has a positive effect on the recipient's gift appreciation, while the effect of gift-giver image congruence on gift appreciation is insignificant or even negative in Chinese and non-Chinese samples. For both Chinese and non-Chinese samples, the intimacy and relationship dependence of recipients attenuate the negative effect of gift-giver image congruence and the positive effect of gift-recipient image congruence on the recipient's gift appreciation. This research advances our understanding of what gifts and under what circumstances gifts are appreciated by recipients. Theoretical contributions to the gift-giving literature and practical implications are discussed.
Chapter
The idea of this chapter is to identify and make use of findings in nature that have a specific relevance for purchasing and supply management. Most of the findings are observed or studied with wild animals such as in birds, wolves, fish, fireflies, bush crickets, chimpanzees, capuchin monkeys, and prairie voles. All of the research that I studied and cited is confirmed to fulfil ethical standards for the care of animals. Beyond learnings from animal behaviour, this chapter discusses characteristic elements of the human brain and concludes on cognition. Also here, all ethical standards are fulfilled. Learnings include findings on memory, memorizing, distraction, the wish for completion of incomplete tasks and pure task orientation. Furthermore, the relevance of contextual information to behaviour in purchasing and supply management tasks is explained. This has implications for observing and understanding the business partner. Other studied aspects are communication and reciprocal expectations. The decisive moment in purchasing is the supplier selection, which is brought into focus, while the understanding of buyer–supplier relationships on different personal levels, structures of trust and help are playing a crucial role for success. Staying healthy in buyer–supplier relationships, consequences of a good breakfast before negotiations and other physiological effects are analyzed. One further aspect is to develop a deeper understanding of cultures and here especially the culture of the business partner and again reciprocal effects on the culture of the discussed business itself. Before concluding, the chapter points out on tricks of our brain that is relevant to purchasing success.
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To communicate effectively, people must have a reasonably accurate idea about what specific other people know. An obvious starting point for building a model of what another knows is what one oneself knows, or thinks one knows. This article reviews evidence that people impute their own knowledge to others and that, although this serves them well in general, they often do so uncritically, with the result of erroneously assuming that other people have the same knowledge. Overimputation of one's own knowledge can contribute to communication difficulties. Corrective approaches are considered. A conceptualization of where own-knowledge imputation fits in the process of developing models of other people's knowledge is proposed.
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Several experiments provided evidence that negotiators make systematic errors in personality-trait attributions for the bargaining behaviors of their counterparts. Although basic negotiation behavior is highly determined by bargaining positions, negotiators primarily interpret their counterpart's behavior in terms of the counterpart's personality, such as his or her level of cooperativeness or agreeableness. Data support a model of 4 processes that contribute to misperceptions: (a) the primacy of situations in determining bargaining behavior, (b) the primacy of personality traits in attributions, (c) the lack of sufficient information about the other's situation to discount personality attributions, and (d) the potentially self-confirming consequences of personality attributions for subsequent interactions. The authors discuss implications for research areas such as social cognition in negotiation, accuracy in social perception, and dynamics of belief confirmation. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Although we tend to think of unhappiness as something that happens to us when we do not get what we want, much unhappiness has less to do with not getting what we want, and more to do with not wanting what we like. When wanting and liking are uncoordinated in this way one can say that a person has miswanted. How is it possible to get what we want and yet not like what we get? According to the authors, at least three problems bedevil our attempts to want well: imagining the wrong event, using the wrong theory, and misinterpreting feelings. The research discussed in this chapter suggests that there are at least 2 flaws in a naïve analysis of happiness: (1) Human wants are, like any other prediction, susceptible to error. (2) Even if we could predict how much we would like an event when it happened, we might still be unable to predict how that event would affect us in the long run. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Gift giving is a universal behavior that still awaits satisfactory interpretation by social scientists. By tempering traditional consumer research with an anthropological perspective, our understanding of gift exchange can be enriched. A model of the gift exchange process intended to stimulate comprehensive research on gift-giving behavior is presented in this paper.
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Many buying decisions require predictions of another person's product attitudes. Yet, consumers are often inaccurate predictors, even for familiar others. We provide strong evidence that target familiarity can even hurt accuracy in the presence of attitude feedback. Although overprojection and lack of product-specific attitude information have been identified as possible reasons for prediction inaccuracy, our results suggest a retrieval explanation. When presented with product-specific attitude feedback, predictors adapted their level of projection and encoded the attitude information, but they did not use this information. Instead, they retrieved less diagnostic, pre-stored information about the familiar targets to predict their product attitudes. (c) 2006 by JOURNAL OF CONSUMER RESEARCH, Inc..
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This article reviews evidence indicating that there is a temporal pattern to the experience of regret. Actions, or errors of commission, generate more regret in the short term; but inactions, or errors of omission, produce more regret in the long run. The authors contend that this temporal pattern is multiply determined, and present a framework to organize the divergent causal mechanisms that are responsible for it. In particular, this article documents the importance of psychological processes that (a) decrease the pain of regrettable action over time, (b) bolster the pain of regrettable inaction over time, and (c) differentially affect the cognitive availability of these two types of regrets. Both the functional and cultural origins of how people think about regret are discussed.
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A cross-sectional study of dating partners and a longitudinal study of college roommates revealed that the confidence and accuracy of their impressions were often dissociated. For example, relationship length and degree of involvement tended to increase the confidence of people's impressions, but neither variable consistently increased the accuracy of their impressions of their partners' sexual histories, activity preferences, and so on. A third study showed that relationship length and involvement increased the richness of impressions, and richness fostered confidence. The authors conclude that although confidence-accuracy dissociations are surely problematic in some instances, their apparent pervasiveness raises the possibility that confidence may sometimes contribute to relationship quality even when it is unrelated to accuracy.
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Three sets of studies provide evidence for an illusion of transparency, or a tendency for people to overestimate the extent to which others can discern their internal states. People often mistakenly believe that their internal states "leak out" more than they really do. The authors attribute this bias to a tendency for people to adjust insufficiently from the "anchor" of their own phenomenological experience when attempting to take another's perspective. Evidence for this illusion is provided by showing that liars overestimate the detectability of their lies (Studies 1a, 1b, and 1c) and that people believe their feelings of disgust are more apparent than they actually are (Studies 2a and 2b). A final pair of experiments (Studies 3a and 3b) explores the implications of the illusion of transparency for people's reluctance to intervene in emergencies. All 3 sets of studies also provide evidence consistent with the proposed anchoring and adjustment interpretation.
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This research provides evidence that people overestimate the extent to which their actions and appearance are noted by others, a phenomenon dubbed the spotlight effect. In Studies 1 and 2, participants who were asked to don a T-shirt depicting either a flattering or potentially embarrassing image overestimated the number of observers who would be able to recall what was pictured on the shirt. In Study 3, participants in a group discussion overestimated how prominent their positive and negative utterances were to their fellow discussants. Studies 4 and 5 provide evidence supporting an anchoring-and-adjustment interpretation of the spotlight effect. In particular, people appear to anchor on their own rich phenomenological experience and then adjust--insufficiently--to take into account the perspective of others. The discussion focuses on the manifestations and implications of the spotlight effect across a host of everyday social phenomena.
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In 5 studies, the authors examined people's perceptions of the endowment effect, or the tendency to value an object more once one owns it. In the 1st 2 studies, the authors documented egocentric empathy gaps between owners and buyers regarding the endowment effect: Both owners and buyers overestimated the similarity between their own valuation of a commodity and the valuation of people in the other role. The next 2 studies showed that these empathy gaps may lead to reduced earnings in a market setting. The final study showed that egocentric empathy gaps stem partly from people's misprediction of what their own valuation would be if they were in the other role.
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Partners in close relationships can be both accurate and biased in their perceptions of each other. Moreover, sometimes a bias can lead to accuracy. The authors describe a paradigm for the simultaneous measurement of accuracy and bias in 2-person relationships. One prevalent bias in close relationships is assumed similarity: Does the person think that his or her partner sees the world as he or she does? In a study of 238 dating and married heterosexual couples, the authors found evidence for both bias and accuracy: the bias effects were considerably stronger, especially when the measure was linked to the relationship. They found little or no evidence for gender differences in accuracy and bias.
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When people suffer an embarrassing blunder, social mishap, or public failure, they often feel that their image has been severely tarnished in the eyes of others. Four studies demonstrate that these fears are commonly exaggerated. Actors who imagined committing one of several social blunders (Study 1), who experienced a public intellectual failure (Studies 2 and 3), or who were described in an embarrassing way (Study 4) anticipated being judged more harshly by others than they actually were. These exaggerated fears were produced, in part, by the actors' tendency to be inordinately focused on their misfortunes and by their resulting failure to consider the wider range of situational factors that tend to moderate onlookers' impressions. Discussion focuses on additional mechanisms that may contribute to overly pessimistic expectations as well as the role of such expectations in producing unnecessary social anxiety.
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When people commit an embarrassing blunder, they typically overestimate how harshly they will be judged by others. This tendency can seem to fly in the face of research on the correspondence bias, which has established that observers are, in fact, quite likely to draw harsh dispositional inferences about others. These seemingly inconsistent literatures are reconciled by showing that actors typically neglect to consider the extent to which observers will moderate their correspondent inferences when they can easily adopt an actor's perspective or imagine being in his or her shoes. These results help to explain why actors can overestimate the strength of observers' dispositional inferences even when, as the literature on the correspondence bias attests, observers are notoriously prone to drawing those very inferences.
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Studies that combine moderation and mediation are prevalent in basic and applied psychology research. Typically, these studies are framed in terms of moderated mediation or mediated moderation, both of which involve similar analytical approaches. Unfortunately, these approaches have important shortcomings that conceal the nature of the moderated and the mediated effects under investigation. This article presents a general analytical framework for combining moderation and mediation that integrates moderated regression analysis and path analysis. This framework clarifies how moderator variables influence the paths that constitute the direct, indirect, and total effects of mediated models. The authors empirically illustrate this framework and give step-by-step instructions for estimation and interpretation. They summarize the advantages of their framework over current approaches, explain how it subsumes moderated mediation and mediated moderation, and describe how it can accommodate additional moderator and mediator variables, curvilinear relationships, and structural equation models with latent variables.
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Across three studies, we identify an asymmetry between gift-givers’ and gift-recipients’ beliefs about the link between gift price and feelings of appreciation. Gift-givers expected a positive correlation between how much they spent on a gift and the extent to which gift-recipients would appreciate the gift because gift-givers assume that more expensive gifts convey a higher level of thoughtfulness. Gift-recipients, in contrast, reported no such association between gift price and their actual feelings of appreciation. This effect occurred regardless of whether the individual’s role and the magnitude of the gift were manipulated or measured in the field. Taken together, these findings cast doubt on whether gift-givers can draw on their personal experience as gift-recipients in order to identify meaningful gifts for others.
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The authors propose that adaptive selling is influenced by salespeople's knowledge of customer types and sales strategies as well as their motivation to alter the direction of their behavior. Pertinent research in psychology and personal selling is reviewed and specific propositions relating to knowledge, motivation, and adaptive behavior are advanced. On the basis of these propositions, suggestions are made for selecting, training, managing, and compensating salespeople.
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Evidence from 4 studies with 584 undergraduates demonstrates that social observers tend to perceive a "false consensus" with respect to the relative commonness of their own responses. A related bias was shown to exist in the observers' social inferences. Thus, raters estimated particular responses to be relatively common and relatively unrevealing concerning the actors' distinguishing personal dispositions when the responses in question were similar to the raters' own responses; responses differing from those of the rater, by contrast, were perceived to be relatively uncommon and revealing of the actor. These results were obtained both in questionnaire studies presenting Ss with hypothetical situations and choices and in authentic conflict situations. The implications of these findings for the understanding of social perception phenomena and for the analysis of the divergent perceptions of actors and observers are discussed. Cognitive and perceptual mechanisms are proposed which might account for distortions in perceived consensus and for corresponding biases in social inference and attributional processes. (33 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
A series of studies tested whether people underestimate the likelihood that others will comply with their direct requests for help. In the first 3 studies, people underestimated by as much as 50% the likelihood that others would agree to a direct request for help, across a range of requests occurring in both experimental and natural field settings. Studies 4 and 5 demonstrated that experimentally manipulating a person’s perspective (as help seeker or potential helper) could elicit this underestimation effect. Finally, in Study 6, the authors explored the source of the bias, finding that help seekers were less willing than potential helpers were to appreciate the social costs of refusing a direct request for help (the costs of saying “no”), attending instead to the instrumental costs of helping (the costs of saying “yes”).
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Children generally behave more egocentrically than adults when assessing another's perspective. We argue that this difference does not, however, indicate that adults process information less egocentrically than children, but rather that adults are better able to subsequently correct an initial egocentric interpretation. An experiment tracking participants' eye movements during a referential communication task indicated that children and adults were equally quick to interpret a spoken instruction egocentrically but differed in the speed with which they corrected that interpretation and looked at the intended (i.e., non-egocentric) object. The existing differences in egocentrism between children and adults therefore seems less a product of where people start in their perspective taking process than where they stop, with lingering egocentric biases among adults produced by insufficient correction of an automatic moment of egocentrism. We suggest that this pattern of similarity in automatic, but not controlled, processes may explain between-group differences in a variety of dual-process judgments.
Article
We tested the hypothesis that employees are willing to maintain their motivation when their work is relationally designed to provide opportunities for respectful contact with the beneficiaries of their efforts. In Experiment 1, a longitudinal field experiment in a fundraising organization, callers in an intervention group briefly interacted with a beneficiary; callers in two control groups read a letter from the beneficiary and discussed it amongst themselves or had no exposure to him. One month later, the intervention group displayed significantly greater persistence and job performance than the control groups. The intervention group increased significantly in persistence (142% more phone time) and job performance (171% more money raised); the control groups did not. Experiments 2 and 3 used a laboratory editing task to examine mediating mechanisms and boundary conditions. In Experiment 2, respectful contact with beneficiaries increased persistence, mediated by perceived impact. In Experiment 3, mere contact with beneficiaries and task significance interacted to increase persistence, mediated by affective commitment to beneficiaries. Implications for job design and work motivation are discussed.
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This study uses Markowitz mean-variance portfolio theory with forecasted data for the years 2005 to 2035 to determine efficient electricity generating technology mixes for Switzerland. The SURE procedure has been applied to filter out the systematic components of the covariance matrix. Results indicate that risk-averse electricity users in 2035 gain in terms of higher expected return, less risk, more security of supply and a higher return-to-risk ratio compared to 2000 by adopting a feasible minimum variance (MV) technology mix containing 28 percent Gas, 20 percent Run of river, 13 percent Storage hydro, 9 percent Nuclear, and 5 percent each of Solar, Smallhydro, Wind, Biomass, Incineration, and Biogas respectively. However, this mix comes at the cost of higher CO2 emissions.
Article
The purpose of this research was to explore economic dimensions of a consumer gift-giving model. Two dimensions of extrahousehold gift expenditures were modeled: the probability of giving and the expected value of the corresponding expenditures. Data were from 4,139 households in the Quarterly Interview component of the 1984-85 U.S. Continuing Consumer Expenditure Survey. The results demonstrated that both the probability of giving and the value of annual expenditures for gifts given outside the consumer unit are related to total expenditures (a proxy for income), family size, life-cycle stage, and education. In addition, the probability of gift giving is related to the number of female adults, ethnicity, and urbanization, and the value of gift expenditures is related to region. Extrahousehold gift expenditures appear to be a luxury--as income increases, gift expenditures increase more rapidly. Copyright 1991 by the University of Chicago.
Article
Subjects read scenarios where a speaker made a comment that, depending on information that was privileged to the subjects, could have been interpreted as sarcastic or not sarcastic. Their task was to take the perspective of an uninformed addressee and determine whether he or she would perceive sarcasm. Overall, when subjects believed that the speaker was actually being sarcastic they were more likely to attribute the perception of sarcasm to the addressee--even when the message was conveyed in writing and could not have involved disambiguating cues such as intonation. Data from four different experiments suggest that readers do use information that is perspective-irrelevant and thus pose a problem for theories of language use that assume readers only use "relevant" information.
Article
In four studies, subjects were asked whether money was an acceptable gift. In the first study, students stated that they would find it less acceptable to give their mothers a cheque than a gift token or a selected present; and that if they had to send a cheque they would spend more than twice as much on it as on the other sorts of gift. The second study confirmed these results on a larger, non-student sample of young adults, and also showed that it made no difference whether a cheque or cash was specified. In the third study, students were asked about the reasons why they would find it unacceptable to give or receive a cheque as a present. The most important reasons focused on the time and effort that ought to be spent on selecting a present, and the possibility that money sent as a gift might be used for mundane purchases. In the final study, mothers of students were asked about the kinds of presents they would find it acceptable to receive: they indicated that a cheque would be less acceptable than a selected present of a gift token, but they did not expect more to be spent on a cheque than on other gifts. Taken together, these results strongly confirm casual impressions that money is unacceptable as a gift in some contexts, implying both that the element of social exchange is crucially important in gift-giving, and that even in modern societies money is not a universally acceptable medium of exchange.
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