Article
To read the full-text of this research, you can request a copy directly from the authors.

Abstract

The metalworking, metal import, and use of metal in medieval Iceland is still little understood. When the Scandinavian settlers colonized Iceland in the 9th c. AD, the island was found to contain no useful metal deposits save for bog iron, and the deforestation that followed the settlement resulted in a scarcity of wood. Only in the last decades have archaeological excavations begun to unravel how the first Icelanders dealt with this lack of resources. This paper presents the metallurgical findings from a Viking Age chieftain's farmstead at Hrísbrú in the Mosfell valley, located just outside Iceland’s present-day capital Reykjavik. The excavated metal objects had all been crafted with good workmanship employing technology similar to that used in mainland Scandinavia. However, most excavated metal finds show evidence of re-use, which together with the second-grade metal in some of the objects indicates a shortage of raw material that prompted the Icelandic colonizers to improvise and make do with whatever material was at hand.Even though this chieftain’s farm was materially poorer than contemporaneous high-status farms in mainland Scandinavia, it was wealthy by Icelandic standards. The analytical results show that some excavated objects were imported trade goods deriving from both neighboring and far-away localities, proving that the farm was part of the extensive trade network of the Viking world. Most likely, this farm represents the upper limit to what a Viking Age farm in Iceland could afford in terms of material objects and trade goods.

No full-text available

Request Full-text Paper PDF

To read the full-text of this research,
you can request a copy directly from the authors.

... This was confirmed by XRD analysis, where the recorded diffractogram showed a perfect match with reference data for KMnO 4 crystals (Fig. 3b). The latter analysis confirmed also that even though SEM-EDS analysis is useful when characterizing unknown materials [23][24][25][26][27][28], it is only the combination with XRD analysis that allows for unambiguous identifications of inorganic compounds [29][30][31][32][33]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by motor neuron loss and widespread muscular atrophy. Despite intensive investigations on genetic and environmental factors, the cause of ALS remains unknown. Recent data suggest a role for metal exposures in ALS causation. In this study we present a patient who developed ALS after a traditional medical procedure in Kenya. The procedure involved insertion of a black metal powder into several subcutaneous cuts in the lower back. Four months later, general muscle weakness developed. Clinical and electrophysiological examinations detected widespread denervation consistent with ALS. The patient died from respiratory failure less than a year after the procedure. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analyses identified the black powder as potassium permanganate (KMnO4). A causative relationship between the systemic exposure to KMnO4 and ALS development can be suspected, especially as manganese is a well-known neurotoxicant previously found to be elevated in cerebrospinal fluid from ALS patients. Manganese neurotoxicity and exposure routes conveying this toxicity deserve further attention.
... As illustrated earlier, the sand composition, properties of sand (such as pH and conductivity), type of sand etc. are known to alter the corrosion kinetics, and therefore experiments are expected to investigate these factors in the case of Iceland's (as mentioned) ancient artefacts. 53 Egyptian artefacts Under-deposit corrosion is also noticed in ancient Egyptian artefacts that are excavated from two burials in Gerzeh, northern Egypt. 54 Application of time-of-flight neutron diffraction (ToF ND) has elucidated no Bragg diffraction peak, and even the no sign of Fe was noticed. ...
Article
Full-text available
Archaeomaterials suffer from various degradation such as atmospheric corrosion, under-deposit corrosion and underwater corrosion etc.; however, the extent of degradation depends on the composition of materials, environment, manufacturing process and post-processing technology such as surface treatment like carburization etc. The corrosion (degradation) phenomenon of ferrous artefacts is very complex and has received significant attention for understanding the ancient metal technology and for designing the conservation pathway of historical artefacts. This review highlights the mechanism of degradation under different environments and also paves a path for the future studies by using different analytical techniques to advance the existing knowledge.
... Various iron and steel blades and tools, mostly knives, dating from the twelfth to fourteenth centuries at Winchester, Chingley/Kent, and Goltho/Lincolnshire, with some dating firmly to the thirteenth century CE, show evidence for production techniques such as homogeneous carbon steels, welding of iron to steel, alternate layering of ferrite and ferrite + pearlite phases, hardened martensite phases, and arsenic enrichment (Tylecote and Gilmour 1986:44-51, 84, 113). As this previous research illustrates, the data presented in the current study provide underrepresented Crusader metallurgical data in the otherwise well-researched field of Medieval European metallurgy (Bjorkenstam 1985; Brewer 1976Brewer , 1981Coghlan and Tylecote 1978;Hayes 1978;Rose et al. 1990;Tholander 1975;Wärmländer et al. 2010). ...
... The owner(s) of this homestead, from where fifteen Viking Age (and a similar number of later) 'whetstones' were retrieved (Askvik and Batey 2009), apparently held a leading position (see Lucas 2009). Among comparable sites in Viking Age Iceland, the longhouse at Hrísbrú (see Milek et al. 2014, p. 159-160) has provided up to twenty touchstone candidates (Hansen et al. 2014, p. 124-126), along with evidence of both non-ferrous metallurgy (including four crucibles: Batey 2009, p. 315) and iron metallurgy (Wärmländer et al. 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
From the Early Bronze Age, tools used to determine the nature and value of precious metal have been used as traditional symbols in burial rituals. During the Early Medieval Period, balances, weights and touchstones became widespread in the northern part of Europe, or bullion-economy zone. This paper focuses on a selection of touchstones from Viking Age Iceland, from both graves and settlements. Chemical microanalyses of streaks of metals observed on their surfaces show that not only precious metals, but also other non-ferrous metals, and in particular lead, have been tested on touchstones. The settlement finds come primarily from high-status farms which have produced evidence of working with non-ferrous metals. The disproportion between the low frequency of precious metals and the relatively high representation of touchstones in burials, including the occurrence of clearly ostentatious specimens, is apparent in Iceland. However, due to uncertainty as to the origins of the metal streaks on imported touchstones, the workshop finds are regarded as the more important source for knowledge of both metalworking and social relations in Viking Age Iceland.
... : Hansen 2009, 43-68). Dosavadní archeologická bilance výskytu předmětů z drahých kovů je na Islandu přitom velice omezená a co se metalurgie týče, kromě četnějších dokladů zpracování železa je evidována práce s bronzem -ne náhodou právě v Hrísbrú (Wärmländer et al. 2010). Ani na okamžik nezapomeňme, že skutečné brousky mezi archeologickými nálezy příslušně tvarovaných kamenných artefaktů nepochybně naprosto převažují. ...
Article
Full-text available
The article maps the occurrence of touchstones and artefacts that are candidates for this classification, from Scandinavia to Pannonia, with a particular focus on the period between the 10th and 12th centuries, when trade in one part of Europe was conducted primarily using coins, while precious metal was used as currency elsewhere. The apparent differences in the frequency of tools used for determining the quality of precious metal in various parts of Europe raise questions on the mechanisms of the distribution of these metals in Central Europe. The author finds evidence of an important change in the availability of precious metal in the arrival of silver to rural Bohemia in the final quarter of the 10th century, almost immediately after the commencement of the minting of Premyslid denars. He also sees evidence of the establishment of social classes that were able to accumulate precious metal in the oldest medieval hoards of silver in the Bohemian countryside.
... Even though glass production began around 5,000 years ago in the Levant (Nicholson and Shaw, 2000;Glover et al., 2003), it was still an exotic material in Viking Age Scandinavia. Judging by archaeological finds from pre-historic Scandinavian workshops, it appears that the craftsmen had learned the basics of glass-working, but did not yet master glass-production (Callmer, '77;Glover et al., 2003;Wärmländer et al., 2010). Glass was consequently a prestigious material that had to be imported, either as ready-made objects such as bottles and beakers, or as rods or shattered fragments that the local artisans could work into highly valued colourful beads. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this work we used non-destructive SEM imaging and EDS analysis to characterize the material composition of an Arabic finger ring, which was found in a 9(th) c. woman's grave at the Viking Age (A.D. 793-1066) trading center of Birka, Sweden. The ring is set with a violet stone inscribed with Arabic Kufic writing, here interpreted as reading "il-la-lah", i.e. "For/to Allah". The stone was previously thought to be an amethyst, but the current results show it to be coloured glass. The ring has been cast in a high-grade silver alloy (94.5/5.5 Ag/Cu) and retains the post-casting marks from the filing done to remove flash and mold lines. Thus, the ring has rarely been worn, and likely passed from the silversmith to the woman buried at Birka with few owners in between. The ring may therefore constitute material evidence for direct interactions between Viking Age Scandinavia and the Islamic world. Being the only ring with an Arabic inscription found at a Scandinavian archaeological site, it is a unique object among Swedish Viking Age material. The technical analysis presented here provides a better understanding of the properties and background of this intriguing piece of jewelry. SCANNING 9999:XX-XX, 2015. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
... Examples from the Viking colonies in the North Atlantic and the Danelaw illustrate how inherited dress fittings contributed to the cultivation of local upper class identities, based on the principle of ethnicity (Hayeur Smith 2004, pp. 75-81;Kershaw 2009;Wärmländer et al. 2010). This may explain why the brooches were maintained and re-created over a long period of time, while corresponding items in the Scandinavian motherlands were replaced by new fashions. ...
Article
Three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning is a nondestructive and versatile technique that provides archaeologists with 3D models of archaeological and ethnographic objects. We have previously shown that 3D models facilitate shape analysis of archaeological bones and stone tools, due to the high measurement accuracy inherent in the latest generation of 3D laser scanners. Here, we explore the utility of 3D modeling as a tool for analyzing Viking Age metal artefacts with complex morphologies. Four highly ornate Viking Age brooches from Scandinavia and Russia were digitized with a portable laser scanner, and the resulting 3D models were used in three case studies of (a) artefact reconstruction, (b) tool mark analysis, and (c) motif documentation. The results revealed both strengths and limitations of the employed techniques. 3D modeling proved to be very well suited for artefact reconstruction and was helpful also in the stylistic and motif analysis. The tool mark analysis was only partially successful, due to the resolution limits of the laser scanner used. 3D-based motif analysis of a grandiose Scandinavian-style brooch from Yelets, Russia, identified an anthropomorphic figure with a bird-like body that previously has been overlooked. This figure may be a Rurikid coat of arms, possibly linking the object to a princely household and providing further evidence for a connection between Scandinavia and the Rurikids. As 3D technology keeps improving, we expect that additional applications for 3D modeling in archaeology will be developed, likely leading to many new findings when old objects are re-analyzed with modern techniques. However, our results indicate that 3D modeling cannot completely replace traditional artefact analysis—instead, we argue that the two approaches are best used in combination.
... The presence of bronze traces in the crucible from Baffin Island is notable, as brass (copper-zinc alloy) is more characteristic of finds from Scandinavia. In a recent study of bronze artifacts from a Viking/Mediaeval site in Iceland, it is argued that the presence of tin and absence of zinc may indicate links with the British Isles, a tin-rich region (Wärmländer et al., 2010). ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper examines new evidence related to an early (pre-Columbian) European presence in Arctic Canada. Artifacts from archaeological sites that had been assumed to relate to pre-Inuit indigenous occupations of the region in the centuries around A.D. 1000 have recently been recognized as having been manufactured using European technologies. We report here on the SEM-EDS analysis of a small stone vessel recovered from a site on Baffin Island. The interior of the vessel contains abundant traces of copper–tin alloy (bronze) as well as glass spherules similar to those associated with high-temperature processes. These results indicate that it had been used as a crucible. This artifact may represent the earliest evidence of high-temperature nonferrous metalworking in the New World north of Mesoamerica.
... Cannonballs were the artefact of interest to Mentovich et al., 397 specifically originating from the wreck of a small Mediterranean naval vessel discovered in Akko harbour, Israel. Historic and archaeological evidence obtained by optical microscopy, ED-SEM, XRF and microhardness, including a petrographic study of casting sand remaining in the voids of the cast iron, dated the vessel to circa 1840.Warmlander et al. 398 undertook a metallurgical investigation of metal objects found at a Viking-age chieftain's farmstead located just outside Iceland's present day capital of Reykjavik. The authors identified evidence of the reuse of materials and second grade metal in some objects interpreted as Iceland's colonisers having to improvise because of shortage of materials. ...
Article
This review offers the reader a wealth of information published between April 2010 and March 2011 concerning analytical endeavours using the range of conventional and hyphenated XRF techniques that encourage the user to ensure the potential for high spectral sensitivity and, where appropriate, spatial resolution is achieved. The development of advanced micro-beam set ups and new X-ray optics driven by third generation synchrotron based XRF techniques provide nano-imaging and the detection of nano-particles on single cells whilst TXRF coupled with GIXRF and GEXRF offer great potential for non-destructive investigations of thin layers on reflecting surfaces as well as depth profiling of implants. A new portable XRF system is described as an alternative for the traditionally applied K-X-ray fluorescence technology for in vivo measurements of lead in bone. Cryogenic cooling of heat sensitive biological samples is offered as a method to mitigate possible damage by the use of the more powerful μ-XRF technique. Other new preparation methods are also reviewed for the presentation and analysis of industrial, environmental and archaeological samples. One of the more unusual contributions available this year in the characterisation and use of industrial minerals showed that a semi-precious stone, amethyst, is more effective at shielding radiation than concrete.
Article
Current studies on, and translations of, Egils saga Skallagrímssonar approach weapons, in particular their metallurgical composition and forged details, with little reflection of recent advances in archaeology, both classic and experimental. This results in an impoverished appreciation of both the detail of the episode in which Skallagrímr Kveldúlfsson tests a richly decorated battle axe given to him by the king of Norway and the treatment and symbolism of axes throughout the saga. This episode, complemented by subsequent axe references, reflects and reinforces the founding narrative of the settlement of Iceland and the strained relationship between Iceland and hegemonistic Norway in the thirteenth century, the likely date of the saga’s composition.
Article
An archaeometallographic analysis of the iron tools from Ancient Russian sites enabled the authors to conclude that the manufacturing of high-quality items from black metal in Ancient Rus’ was based on the technological welding of the iron base and steel blade. The analysis allowed for changes in the production technology to be traced over time. Thus, it was typical for 10th–11th-century blacksmiths primarily to use three-fold technology, while welding-on was more typical during the 12th–15th centuries. Such technologies reflect different production traditions. One of these technologies, the Scandinavian (three-fold welding technology), brought the most remarkable results in the evolving urban craft. Its implementation was explosive, indeed, but had no essential impact on the further development of Russian iron processing. The other technology – the Slavic – was distinguished by the application of welding-on technology and spread gradually, but turned out to be more sustainable and kept its importance until the beginning of the industrial production of ironware. The interaction of these two traditions determined the character of the Ancient Russian model of blacksmithing.
Book
Full-text available
This chapter discusses the research approach and results of the Mosfell Archaeological Project (MAP). Our work in Iceland’s Mosfell Valley (Mosfellsdalur) is documenting human habitation and environmental change over the course of the Old Icelandic Free State from the ninth to the thirteenth century. During the first centuries of Iceland’s settlement, the glaciated and once wooded Mosfell Valley was home to an extended family of chieftains, the Mosfellsdælingar (the people or men of Mosfell Valley). Among their numbers, the Mosfellsdælingar counted settlers, chieftains, warriors, farmers, and legal experts. They worshipped the old gods and around the year 1000 became Christian. We have found the remains of pagan mortuary ritual and Christian mortuary ritual. In excavating in the Mosfell Valley, we seek data to provide an in-depth analysis of how this countryside or sveit evolved from the earliest Viking Age settlement during Iceland’s ninth-century landnám (landtaking) period. Our excavations and research are bringing into view a chiefly farm of the Viking Age that disappeared centuries ago. This powerful landscape was only remembered in Iceland’s medieval writings and in modern place-name memory. --Jesse Byock
Article
Full-text available
European archaeological collections record hundreds of thousands of stone artefacts from the Early Middle Ages described as whetstones. However, traces of non-ferrous metals, including precious metals preserved on a number of such artefacts. Many of the finds served in fact as touchstones – tools to test the quality of a particular metal. These artefacts are concentrated mainly in Vendel and Viking Age and Slavic coastal settlements and trade centres in the Baltic Sea basin, the coast and islands of Northwestern Europe, at Central and Eastern European fortresses and suburbia. Many finds also come from rural settings. In early medieval graves the touchstones join balance scales and weights as a sign of the buried individual’s access to precious metals. Especially the rural finds with traces of precious metal provide a strong reason for a revision of present views on the social stratification of the early medieval society in Europe. Chemical microanalysis allows identifying the composition of the alloys. Besides new perspectives on the fields of the social history and the circulation of precious metals, the method also provides new information for the field of archaeometallurgy.
Article
Full-text available
The Norse settlement of Iceland established a viable colony on one of the world's last major uninhabited land masses. The vast corpus of indigenous Icelandic traditions about the country's settlement makes it tempting to view this as one of the best case studies of island colonization by a pre‐state society. Archaeological research in some ways supports, but in other ways refutes the historical model. Comparison of archaeological data and historical sources provides insights into the process of island colonization and the role of the settlement process in the formation of a culture's identity and ideology.
Article
Full-text available
In many places along the extensive coastline of Iceland driftwood has been washed ashore over a long period of time. Although the amount of driftwood varies from place to place it is found on almost every beach along the coast. The wood originates in the boreal forest regions of Russia/Siberia. Rivers which drain these forested areas can)' driftwood into the Arctic Ocean, where it is caught in drifting ice and transported by the oceanic currents. A total of 343 samples of driftwood were collect from 3 areas in Iceland and analysed by wood anatomical-and dendrochronological methods, aimed at identifying the origin and age of the wood. A total qf'24% of the Picea samples and 5% of the Pinus samples could be directly dated via tree-ring chronologies from the White Sea region in western Russia. Additionally 54% of the Pinus samples could be grouped together into a mean curve, that could be dated via tree-ring chronology from the middle drainage area of the Yenisey river in Siberia. At present most of the Pinus and Picea driftwood reaching Iceland are fogs that came loose during timber floating on the Russian/Siberian rivers, whereas most of the Larix driftwood has a "natural" origin, with their root system preserved. Although North American driftwood has been found in East Greenland it has not been encountered in Iceland, which suggests a partly different origin for the ice drifting south in the western and eastern parts, respectively, of the East Greenland Current. Because of the relatively short buoyancy time of the driftwood - most of its travel must have taken place frozen in sea ice - it can be concluded that some of the drift-ice reaching Iceland has the same origin as the driftwood i.e. the Barents and Siberian seas. The youngest dated sample indicates that it is possible for arctic driftwood to reach the coasts of Iceland in less than six years.
Article
Full-text available
The Norse settlement of Iceland established a viable colony on one of the world's last major uninhabited land masses. The vast corpus of indigenous Icelandic traditions about the country's settlement makes it tempting to view this as one of the best case studies of island colonization by a pre‐state society. Archaeological research in some ways supports, but in other ways refutes the historical model. Comparison of archaeological data and historical sources provides insights into the process of island colonization and the role of the settlement process in the formation of a culture's identity and ideology.
Article
Full-text available
This paper aims to view the implications of an identification of wood species found during an archaeological excavation on a medieval church building and a surrounding graveyard at Thorarinsstadir in Seydisfjordur, east Iceland. The excavation in Seydisfjordur is a part of a project entitled 'The transition from paganism to Christianity in Iceland' sponsored by The East Iceland Heritage Museum, the Research Council of Iceland and The European Commission. It started in 1997 and from 1998 it has been a part of the PARABOW project, in the frame of the Raphael project. The project involves archaeological researches on pagan and Christian remains from the early medieval times in Iceland. The aim is to examine the origin and development of the Christian religion in Iceland. Furthermore, it is the intention to investigate how Christianity evolved alongside paganism assuming the conversion to Christianity was a long process, climaxing in the year 1000 when Christianity was adopted as a national religion. The wood identification uncovered evidence concerning church architecture, limiting actors for building traditions, Icelanders' ritual practices as well as their contacts with the foreign countries during the Viking Age and early medieval times. It did show that the native species were mainly used as fuel but drift timber was probably mainly used for construction purposes and for making coffins. According to the results from the wood identification, for instance, the excavation at Thorarinsstadir in Seydisfjordur revealed a wooden church made of drift timber.
Article
Full-text available
THIS is an account of both the history and the recent findings of the Mosfell Archaeological Project. Excavation is part of an interdisciplinary research approach that uses archaeology, history, anthropology, forensics, environmental sciences and saga studies to construct a picture of human habitation, power relationships, religious and mortuary practices, and environmental change in the region of Mosfellssveit in south-western Iceland. The valley system with surrounding highlands and lowland coastal areas has interlocking natural and cultural components which developed from the 9th-century settlement of Iceland into a Viking Age chieftaincy dominated by the family at Mosfell/Hrísbrú. Excavations of both pagan and Christian sites are providing significant information on the changing periods of occupation, with implications for the larger study of Viking North Atlantic. During the Viking Age, Mosfell was a self-contained social and economic unit connected to the rest of Iceland through a network of roads, including a major E.–W. route to the nearby assembly place for the yearly Althing. With its ship's landing or port at Leirvogur, in the bay at the valley's mouth, the region was in commercial and cultural contact with the larger Scandinavian and European worlds.
Article
Full-text available
The role of tin mining in the society of prehistoric Dartmoor and its impact on the local landscape have long been discussed despite equivocal evidence for prehistoric mine sites. A fluvial geomorphological approach, using floodplain stratigraphy, combined with sediment geochemistry and mineralogy, was employed to identify prehistoric tin mining at the catchment scale. Waste sediment, released during hydraulic mining of alluvial tin deposits, caused downstream floodplain aggradation of sands with a diagnostic signature of elevated Sn concentration within the silt fraction. At a palaeochannel site in the Erme Valley, sediment aggradation buried datable peat deposits. A period of aggradation postdating cal. A.D. 1288–1389 is consistent with the 13th century peak in tin production identified in the documentary record. An earlier phase of aggradation, however, occurred between the 4th and 7th centuries A.D., providing evidence of late Roman or early Post Roman tin mining activity on Dartmoor. © 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Article
This paper discusses the occurrence of siderite (FeCO3) on iron artifacts excavated from the waterlogged peat and gyttja sediment of the Danish Iron Age site Nydam Mose. Siderite was identified by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry (SEM-EDS), which showed only minor contents of other minerals in the corrosion scales. The implications of the formation of siderite as a corrosion product are discussed in terms of its possible passivating properties and thermodynamic stability in situ. A Pourbaix diagram adjusted to the actual conditions in Nydam is presented and discussed. Different mechanisms for the formation of siderite in this environment are proposed, based on the results of environmental monitoring in the area.
Article
This paper discusses the evidence for iron smelting and iron smithing in pre‐Conquest England. It contrasts this evidence with the results obtained by metallurgical analyses of iron knives dating to this period. These analyses show that the smiths of the period had four different irons to select from, and were expert in their use and in the heat treatments of steel. The dichotomy between the paucity of iron smelting evidence and the skill of the blacksmiths is investigated.
Article
A Merovingian crucible fragment, with internally adhering yellow glass, and yellow glass beads of the same region and period were investigated by non-destructive XRF, optical microscopy and SEM-EDS. Although the microstructure and chemical composition of the yellow pigment (lead–tin yellow type II, ‘PbSnO3’) are almost identical in both the beads and the crucible, in the latter the pigment occurs in a much higher concentration. However, the glass base in the beads and the crucible is very different, indicating that the beads were not manufactured directly from the crucible. Instead, the crucible most likely served to produce lead–tin yellow, which was subsequently mixed elsewhere with a colourless soda–lime glass to produce yellow glass beads.
Article
Definitions of the terms ‘clench’ and ‘rivet’ proposed by A. E. Christensen are evaluated using the etymology of those terms and recent usage. An alternative definition of ‘clench’, is proposed, and definitions of ‘hooked nail’ and ‘turned nail’ are introduced. It is suggested that the term ‘rivet’ should be restricted to ferrous fastenings used with metal plates. © 2004 The Nautical Archaeology Society
Glass bead making technology
  • Sode
Sode, T., 2004. Glass bead making technology. In: Rasmussen, A.K., Bencard, M., Madsen, H.B. (Eds.), Ribe Excvations 1970e76, vol. 5. Jutland Archaeological Society, Esbjerg, Denmark. Söderberg, A., 2010. Scandinavian bronzecasting in the Viking age and the early middle ages. http://web.comhem.se/vikingbronze/casting.htm.
2000 Years of Zinc and Brass
  • P T Craddock
Craddock, P.T. (Ed.) 1990. 2000 Years of Zinc and Brass. Occasional Paper No 50, British Museum, London
Nails, Rivets, and Clench Bolts: a case for typological clarity
  • Zori
Zori, D., 2007. Nails, Rivets, and Clench Bolts: a case for typological clarity. Archaeologia Islandica 6, 32e47.
Knives from the Late Iron Age in Denmark
  • H Lyngstrøm
Lyngstrøm, H., Knives from the Late Iron Age in Denmark. In: Jansson, I. (Ed.), Archaeology East and West of the Baltic e Papers from the Second Estonian-Swedish Archaeological Symposium, Sigtuna, May 1991. Theses and Papers in Archaeology N.S. A 7, Stockholm, Sweden, 1995.
Anglo-Scandinavian Ironwork from Coppergate. Council for British Archaeology
  • P Ottaway
Ottaway, P., 1992. Anglo-Scandinavian Ironwork from Coppergate. Council for British Archaeology, York, U.K.
TradebeadsandbeadtradeinScandinaviaca.800el000AD.Doctoral dissertation
  • J Callmer
Callmer,J,1977.TradebeadsandbeadtradeinScandinaviaca.800el000AD.Doctoral dissertation. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, 11, Lund University, Sweden
Ancient ironmaking in Iceland, Greenland and Newfound-land. Archaeologia Islandica 6, 47e72. Estaugh, N., 2004. The Pigment Compendium
  • A W Espelund
Espelund, A.W., 2007. Ancient ironmaking in Iceland, Greenland and Newfound-land. Archaeologia Islandica 6, 47e72. Estaugh, N., 2004. The Pigment Compendium. Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann, Oxford, U.K.
Mammen. Grav, kunst og samfund i vikingetid. Jysk arkaeologisk selskabs skrifter 28
  • A.-S Gräslund
Gräslund, A.-S., 1991. Var Mammen-mannen kristen? In: Iversen, M. (Ed.), Mammen. Grav, kunst og samfund i vikingetid. Jysk arkaeologisk selskabs skrifter 28, Aarhus, Denmark.
Metallography and Microstructure of Ancient and Historic Metals. Getty Conservation Institute & Archetype Books Copper and Bronze in Art e Corrosion, Colorants, Conservation Landnám: the settlement of Iceland in archaeological and historical perspective Glass bead making technology
  • I Samset
  • Usa Santa Monica
  • D A Scott
Samset, I., 1991. Nature's Own Transport Technique Solved Resource Problems. Research paper of Skogforsk 5. Norwegian Forest Research Institute, Norway. Scott, D.A., 1991. Metallography and Microstructure of Ancient and Historic Metals. Getty Conservation Institute & Archetype Books, Santa Monica, USA. Scott, D.A., 2002. Copper and Bronze in Art e Corrosion, Colorants, Conservation. Getty Publications, Los Angeles, USA. Smith, K.P., 1995. Landnám: the settlement of Iceland in archaeological and historical perspective. World Archaeology 26, 319e346. Sode, T., 2004. Glass bead making technology. In: Rasmussen, A.K., Bencard, M., Madsen, H.B. (Eds.), Ribe Excvations 1970e76, vol. 5. Jutland Archaeological Society, Esbjerg, Denmark.
Ovala spännbucklor: en studie av vikingatida standardsmycken med utgångspunkt från Björkö-fynden - Oval brooches: a study of Viking Period standard jewellery based on the finds from Björkö (Birka). Doctoral dissertation
  • I Jansson
Jansson, I., 1985. Ovala spännbucklor: en studie av vikingatida standardsmycken med utgångspunkt från Björkö-fynden e Oval brooches: a study of Viking Period standard jewellery based on the finds from Björkö (Birka). Doctoral dissertation, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Lead-tin yellow Studies in Conservation 13, 7e33 Klinknaglarnas Vittnesbörd. Sjöhistorisk Årsbok 1971e1972. Föreningen Sveriges sjöfartsförening i, Stockholm, Sweden. Lyngstrøm, H., Knives from the Late Iron Age in Denmark
  • K Kühn
  • P Lundström
Kühn, K., 1968. Lead-tin yellow. Studies in Conservation 13, 7e33. Lundström, P., 1972. Klinknaglarnas Vittnesbörd. Sjöhistorisk Årsbok 1971e1972. Föreningen Sveriges sjöfartsförening i, Stockholm, Sweden. Lyngstrøm, H., Knives from the Late Iron Age in Denmark. In: Jansson, I. (Ed.), Archaeology East and West of the Baltic e Papers from the Second Estonian-Swedish Archaeological Symposium, Sigtuna, May 1991. Theses and Papers in Archaeology N.S. A 7, Stockholm, Sweden, 1995.
Athugasemdir við Egils sögu Skallagrímssonar
  • Grímsson
Grímsson, M., 1886[1861]. Athugasemdir við Egils sögu Skallagrímssonar. In: Safn Til Sögu Íslands Og Íslenzkra Bókmennta Að Fornu Og Nýju II. Hið íslenzka bókmenntafélag, Copenhagen, Denmark, pp. 251e276.
Icelandic farmhouse excavations: field methods and site choices Archaeologica Islandica 3, 71e100. Zori, D., 2007. Nails, Rivets, and Clench Bolts: a case for typological clarity
  • O Vésteinsson
Vésteinsson, O., 2004. Icelandic farmhouse excavations: field methods and site choices. Archaeologica Islandica 3, 71e100. Zori, D., 2007. Nails, Rivets, and Clench Bolts: a case for typological clarity. Archaeologia Islandica 6, 32e47. S.K.T.S. Wärmländer et al. / Journal of Archaeological Science 37 (2010) 2284e2290
The production of lead-tin yellow at Merovingian Schleitheim (Switzerland) Archaeometry 45, 33e44. Hreiðarsdóttir, E., 2007. Medieval and early modern beads from Iceland
  • M Heck
  • Rehren
  • Th
  • P Hoffmann
Heck, M., Rehren, Th., Hoffmann, P., 2003. The production of lead-tin yellow at Merovingian Schleitheim (Switzerland). Archaeometry 45, 33e44. Hreiðarsdóttir, E., 2007. Medieval and early modern beads from Iceland. Archae-ologia Islandica 6, 9e31.
Anglo-Scandinavian Ironwork from Coppergate Die vielschichtige Schmiedetechnik in der Herstellung von Klingen für Schneidegeräte im 1.-14. Jahrhundert n. Chr
  • P Ottaway
  • Archaeology
  • U K York
  • J Peets
Ottaway, P., 1992. Anglo-Scandinavian Ironwork from Coppergate. Council for British Archaeology, York, U.K. Peets, J., 1995. Die vielschichtige Schmiedetechnik in der Herstellung von Klingen für Schneidegeräte im 1.-14. Jahrhundert n. Chr. In: Jansson, I. (Ed.), Archae-ology East and West of the Baltic – Papers from the Second Estonian-Swedish Archaeological Symposium, Sigtuna, May 1991. Theses and Papers in Archae-ology N.S. A 7, Stockholm, Sweden.
The Vikings. Penguin Books
  • E Roesdahl
Roesdahl, E., 1999. The Vikings. Penguin Books, London and New York.
Den första båtgraven vid Valsgärde i Gamla Uppsala socken. Fornvännen 25
  • A Fridell
Fridell, A., 1930. Den första båtgraven vid Valsgärde i Gamla Uppsala socken. Fornvännen 25, 217e237.
Metallteknik under Vikingatid Och Medeltid
  • A Oldeberg
Oldeberg, A., 1966. Metallteknik under Vikingatid Och Medeltid. Victor Petterssons Bokindustri AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
Kontinuitet och förändring under folkvandringstid och vendeltid. e Dress Pins and Style of Dress in the Eastern Mälar Region. Continuity and change in the Migration and Vendel periods. Doctoral dissertation
  • J Waller
Waller, J., 1996. Dräktnålar och dräktskick i östra Mälardalen. Kontinuitet och förändring under folkvandringstid och vendeltid. e Dress Pins and Style of Dress in the Eastern Mälar Region. Continuity and change in the Migration and Vendel periods. Doctoral dissertation, Uppsala University, Sweden.
Kan metallanalyser ge en anvisning om när metallurgi blir inhemsk?. H 45 A History of Tin Mining and Smelting in Cornwall Iron nails in iron age and medieval shipbuilding The Sebbersund boat-graves The Ship as Symbol in Prehistoric and Medieval Scandinavia. Publications for the National Museum
  • Kungliga Historie
  • Antikvitets Akademien
  • Stock-Holm
  • Sweden
  • B Arrhenius
  • Icke
  • Malmfyndigheter
  • Metallurgi
  • Jernkontorets
  • Utskott
  • Stockholm
  • Sweden
  • D B D Barton
  • Bradford Barton Ltd
  • Cornwall
  • England
  • J P Bill
  • E Johansen
Kungliga Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, Stock-holm, Sweden. Arrhenius, B., 1989b. Knives from Eketorp. Laborativ Arkeologi 3, 97e124. Arrhenius, B., 1989c. Kan metallanalyser ge en anvisning om när metallurgi blir inhemsk?. H 45. In: Icke-järnmetaller e Malmfyndigheter och Metallurgi. Jernkontorets bergshistoriska utskott, Stockholm, Sweden. Barton, D.B., 1957. A History of Tin Mining and Smelting in Cornwall. D. Bradford Barton Ltd, Cornwall, England. Bill, J., 1994. Iron nails in iron age and medieval shipbuilding. In: Westerdahl, C. (Ed.), Crossroads in Ancient Shipbuilding: Proceedings of the Sixth International Symposium on Boat and Ship Archaeology, Roskilde 1991. Oxbow Books, Oxford, U.K. Birkedahl, P., Johansen, E., 1995. The Sebbersund boat-graves. In: Crumlin-Pedersen, O., Thye, B. (Eds.), The Ship as Symbol in Prehistoric and Medieval Scandinavia. Publications for the National Museum, Copenhagen, Denmark. Byock, J., 2001. Viking Age Iceland. Penguin Books, London and New York. Byock, J., Walker, P., Erlandson, J., Holck, P., Zori, D., Guðmundsson, M., Tveskov, M., 2005. A Viking age valley in Iceland: the Mosfell archaeological Project. Medi-eval Archaeology 49, 196e220. Callmer, J, 1977. Trade beads and bead trade in Scandinavia ca. 800el000 AD. Doctoral dissertation. Acta Archaeologica Lundensia, 11, Lund University, Sweden.
Pagan and christian in the age of conversion
  • Gräslund
Gräslund, A.-S., 1987. Pagan and christian in the age of conversion. In: Knirk, J.E. (Ed.), Proceedings of the Tenth Viking Congress, Larkollen, Norway, 1985. Universitetets Oldsaksamlings skrifter, Ny rekke nr 9, Oslo, Norway.
The finds from the 2008 Hrísbrú excavations
  • Hansen
Hansen, S., 2009. The finds from the 2008 Hrísbrú excavations. In: Byock, J., Walker, P., Zori, D. (Eds.), The Mosfell Archaeological Project 2008 Field Season, Excavation Report: Mosfellssveit, Iceland, July 24eAugust 30. Fornleifavernd Ríkisins, Reykjavík, Iceland.
En kittel av vikingatyp från finnmarkerna
  • Odencrantz
Odencrantz, R., 1937. En kittel av vikingatyp från finnmarkerna. Värmland Förr Och Nu 35, 91e96. Oldeberg, A., 1966. Metallteknik under Vikingatid Och Medeltid. Victor Petterssons Bokindustri AB, Stockholm, Sweden.
The Early History of Metallurgy in Europe
  • R F Tylecote
Tylecote, R.F., 1987. The Early History of Metallurgy in Europe. Longman Archaeology Series, London, U.K.
Knivar från Eketorp-III Eketorp-III e Den Medeltida Befästningen På Öland e Artefakterna Arbeitsmesser aus den Gräbern von Birka
  • B Arrhenius
Arrhenius, B., 1998. Knivar från Eketorp-III. In: Borg, K. (Ed.), Eketorp-III e Den Medeltida Befästningen På Öland e Artefakterna. Kungliga Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, Stockholm, Sweden. Arrhenius, B., 1989a. Arbeitsmesser aus den Gräbern von Birka. In: Arwidsson, G. (Ed.), Birka: Untersuchungen und Studien. 2, Systematische Analysen der Grä-berfunde.
Viking knives from the island of Gotland. www.arkeodok The metallography of some ancient Egyptian implements The metallography of some ancient Egyptian implements
  • D Carlsson
  • Com
  • H Carpenter
  • J M Robertson
Carlsson, D., 2003. Viking knives from the island of Gotland. www.arkeodok.com. Carpenter, H., Robertson, J.M., 1930a. The metallography of some ancient Egyptian implements. Journal of the Iron and Steel Institute 121, 417e454. Carpenter, H., Robertson, J.M., 1930b. The metallography of some ancient Egyptian implements. Nature 125, 859e862. Craddock, P.T. (Ed.) 1990. 2000 Years of Zinc and Brass. Occasional Paper No 50, British Museum, London.
To clench or to rivet: that is the question. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 33, 149e153. Munch, Borg i Lofoten. A Chieftain's Farm in North Norway
  • S G S Mcgrail
  • O S Johansen
  • E Roesdahl
McGrail, S., 2004. To clench or to rivet: that is the question. The International Journal of Nautical Archaeology 33, 149e153. Munch, G.S., Johansen, O.S., Roesdahl, E., 2003. Borg i Lofoten. A Chieftain's Farm in North Norway. Arkeologisk Skriftserie 1. Tapir Academic Press, Trondheim, Norway.
Scandinavian bronzecasting in the Viking age and the early middle ages Västergötlands kristnande e Religionsskifte och gravskickets förändring 700-1200 e The Christianisation of Västergötland e Changing reli-gion and mortuary practice AD 700e1200. Doctoral dissertation
  • A Söderberg
Söderberg, A., 2010. Scandinavian bronzecasting in the Viking age and the early middle ages. http://web.comhem.se/vikingbronze/casting.htm. Theliander, C., 2005. Västergötlands kristnande e Religionsskifte och gravskickets förändring 700-1200 e The Christianisation of Västergötland e Changing reli-gion and mortuary practice AD 700e1200. Doctoral dissertation, Gothenburg University House, Sweden.
Knivar från Helgö och Birka. Fornvännen
  • B Arrhenius
Arrhenius, B., 1970. Knivar från Helgö och Birka. Fornvännen, 40e51.
Birka: Untersuchungen und Studien. 1. Die Gräber: Tafeln. Kungliga Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien
  • H Arbman
Arbman, H., 1940. Birka: Untersuchungen und Studien. 1. Die Gräber: Tafeln. Kungliga Vitterhets Historie och Antikvitets Akademien, Stockholm, Sweden.