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The role of IQ in the use of cognitive strategies to learn information from a map

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... 14,15 The pictorial storytelling may play a greater role by combining verbal and pictorial media 16 Preparatory storytelling has been used as a means to improve children's knowledge of venous blood sampling and help them develop strategies to cope with the procedure. 15 In studies providing preparatory information, child's comprehension-a function of intelligence quotient (IQ) 17 and the presence of childhood-anxiety related disorders, or high-trait anxiety-significantly related with dental anxiety 18 -can be considered as confounding factors. Such studies should take an in-depth look at children's intellectual capacity and childhood-anxiety related disorders along with other evaluations. ...
... An important cognitive factor, which can have a great role in learning, comprehension, and knowledge acquisition, is intelligence quotient (IQ), which has been referred to as "psychometric measure of general intelligence" in several studies. 17 The subjects' IQ was considered as a covariate factor in evaluating study outcomes to eliminate the effect of this confounding factor because the subjects had different IQ levels. This way, the effect of IQ on the child's comprehension was eliminated and the effect of the pictorial story was highlighted. ...
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The present study evaluated the effect of listening to a pictorial story about going to the dentist on pain perception, situational anxiety and behavioral feedback during dental treatment in pediatric dental patients. Eighty, 6-7-year-old children were included The childhood anxiety-related disorders using Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders (SCARED) Parent Version scale and intelligence quotient using Raven's Progressive Matrices were evaluated The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups, listening to a pictorial story about going to a dentist (test), or listening to a pictorial story about going to a barbershop (control). A dental treatment was performed on each subject, during which, behavior was assessed using Sound, Eye, and Motor Scale. Pain perception and situational anxiety were then assessed using Wong-Baker Fasces Pain Rating Scale and Faces version of the Modified Child Dental Anxiety Scale, respectively. There was a significant decrease in pain perception (P=0.02) and situational anxiety (P<0.001) in the test group. In addition, the test intervention significantly improved children behavioral feedback during dental treatment (P<0.001). Preparation of children with pictorial story can be effective in decreasing pain perception and situational anxiety as well as improving behavior during dental treatment.
... In Several researchers academics have revealed in recent years that cognitive ability alone is insufficient to predict success, and that morals, talent, attitude, and behaviour all play a role. (Cho, 2010jaining J, 2001, lazin, 1991, Goleman, 1995,Wong, 2002. Salovey and Mayer investigated the reasons why many clever people failed in life more than a decade ago. ...
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Introduction: Several researchers academics have revealed in recent years that cognitive ability alone is insufficient to predict success, and that morals, talent, attitude, and behaviour all play a role. Salovey and Mayer investigated the reasons why many clever people failed in life more than a decade ago. Their research led to the identification of an intelligence subset known as emotional intelligence (EI). EI, as a sort of social intelligence, is more important than cognitive intelligence in terms of success. Objective: The aim of the present study was to determine the correlation of EQ and IQ with Academic performances. Methods: The present cross-sectional study was conducted in Baqai Dental College from July 2021-September 2021 after getting ethical approval from Ethical review board, Baqai Dental College. Dental students from 2nd year, 3rd year and Final year were invited to participate through census sampling technique. The study included all students from each class who were present on the day of data collection whereas those absent from each class were excluded from the study. Results: A total of 165 dental students participated in the study. Majority of the dental students fall in the domain of emotional awareness and management within 25-34 range of effective functioning. Frequency and percentages were also calculated for level of intelligence and 72 (43.6%) of the dental students scored 90-109 which is considered as Normal. Association of students marks from the last examination with IQ score was calculated and 48(39.7%) students with <60% in the last examination fall in the Normal range of IQ. Correlation between EQ, IQ and academic performance was calculated and showed that a negative correlation was found between Academic performance and IQ. Conclusion: The present study concluded that emotional intelligence is positively correlated with academic performance and
... Indeed, emotional intelligence embraces a set of emotions, social knowledge, and abilities that help us react to environmental factors and pressures. Also, it leads to enhanced performance in the realm of self-awareness, social awareness, relationship management and self-management (Cho, 2010). ...
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This research aims to provide a theoretical model to explain addiction to social network using media literacy and emotional intelligence as independent variables and social support as the mediator. The study population includes all students of Bojnord's university in 2017-2018 academic year. It was determined based on three indices: a medium effect size of 0.30, a test power of 0.85, and an alpha of 0.05. A sample of 160 people was determined by G-Power software, and 178 questionnaires were completed. The sampling was conducted using available sampling method. To do so, the link of research questionnaires was offered to volunteer students. The main research instruments were: social support questionnaire, addiction to social network questionnaire, emotional intelligence questionnaire and multidimensional social support questionnaire. The exploratory nature of research data was analyzed by partial least squares method and PLS software. Results showed the reliability of the measurement model, the structural model and the overall research model (GOF=0.66). According to the results, all direct effects were significant. That is, social support(r=0.84, P<0.0001), media literacy (r=0.698, P<0.0001) and emotional intelligence (r=0.798, P<0.0001) were significantly correlated with addiction to virtual social network. Also, Sobel statistics and its significance level suggested the indirect effect of media literacy (P<0.024) and emotional intelligence (P<0.011) on addiction to social network through social support. Emotional impulse control, awareness of media content and processes, and a sense of belonging and relationship with other people in the real world predict addiction to virtual social networks. Hence, the social support of government and authentic sources can mediate the association between addiction to social network and emotional intelligence in university students and improve their media literacy.
... When preparing a research design, it should now be possible to choose approaches systematically according to research objectives and independent variables, so that the results could complement the knowledge from previous studies. Table S1: Main characteristics of reviewed studies [7][8][9]11,41,42,45,48,49,58,59,62,66,[68][69][70][71][72][73][74][75][76][77]80,[140][141][142][143][144][145][146][147][148][149][150][151]. The following are available online at http://www.mdpi.com/2220-9964/9/4/271/s1. ...
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Spatial perception is formed throughout our entire lives. Its quality depends on our individual differences and the characteristics of the environment. A sketch map is one way of visualising an individual's spatial perception. It can be evaluated like a real map, in terms of its positional accuracy, content frequency and choice of cartographic methods. Moreover, the factors influencing the sketch map and/or its individual parameters can be identified. These factors should be of interest to geographers, cartographers and/or (geography) educators. The aim of this paper is to identify and describe the factors that clearly affect sketch map quality, by conducting a systematic review of 90 empirical studies published since 1960. Results show that most empirical studies focus on individual differences more than on environmental characteristics or information sources, even though the importance of these overlooked factors, especially source map characteristics and geographical education, has been proven in most analysed studies. Therefore, further research is needed in the field of sketch map quality parameters, especially in the use of cartographic methods. This paper could serve as a framework for such research.
... Therefore, future studies could focus on identifying other independent variables that substantially influence the map user's choice of strategy, thus enabling these unexplained differences to be clarified or even enabling all the differences identified to be better understood. The potentially appropriate variables can be derived from the results of studies similarly focusing on the characterization of solvers' strategies, and not only in the field of cartography (e.g., [82][83][84][85]). From their perspective, the influence of gender, IQ, and cognitive (thinking) style should be explored in future studies. ...
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Thematic map analysis is a complex and challenging task that might result in map user failure for many reasons. In the study reported here, we wanted to search for differences between successful and unsuccessful map users, focusing—unlike many similar studies—on strategies applied by users who give incorrect answers. In the eye-tracking study, followed by a questionnaire survey, we collected data from 39 participants. The eye-tracking data were analyzed both qualitatively and quantitatively to compare participants’ strategies from various perspectives. Unlike the results of some other studies, it turned out that unsuccessful participants show some similarities that are consistent across most analyzed tasks. The main issues that characterize bad solvers relate to improper use of the thematic legend, the inability to focus on relevant map layout elements, as well as on adequate map content. Moreover, they differed in the general problem-solving approach used as they, for example, tended to choose fast, less cautious, strategies. Based on the collected results, we developed tips that could help prevent unsuccessful participants ending with an incorrect answer and therefore be beneficial in map use education.
... Various factors can affect students' academic achievement. These factors include the use of good teachers, the appropriate educational environments, the use of quality books and, most importantly, the proper study habits [3]. Some students have found their academic failures to be some factors like lacking talent, lack of facilities and bad luck, while it is safe to say that the most important factor in academic achievement is the familiarity with learning and study skills, and the reason for the low productivity of some students is their bad habits of studying [4]. ...
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Introduction: Students' enjoyment from proper study habits plays an important role in their educational performance and academic achievement. For this purpose, a mobile educational application was designed by the researcher entitled "Appropriate Methods of Study and Learning for Students"; this research has been conducted to investigate the impact of using the application in enhancing students' awareness of proper study habits. Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was conducted during the academic year 2017-2018 among students of Ahvaz Jundishapur University of Medical Sciences in southwest of Iran. To measure and compare students' study habits (before and after using the application), the Palsani and Sharma’s 45-question standard questionnaire of study habits was used (with maximum mean score of 90). The method was simple random sampling. Descriptive and inferential statistics were used to analyze the data and the SPSS software version 22 was used. Results: Finally, 30 BSc (Nursing, Radiology, Physiotherapy, Occupational Health and Environmental Health) and professional doctorate students (Medicine, Dentistry and Pharmacy) participated in this study. The results showed that the application was effective in improving the students' awareness of the correct habits of study, so that after using, their habits were promoted from relatively favorable or moderate (52.5 ± 13.70) to favorable (76.87 ± 4.58) (P=0.012). According to the results, radiology students have had the highest impact and dental students the least impact on their study habits. Discussion and Conclusion: This app can be considered as an effective tool that in the shortest time created the most effective learning and academic achievement among students; it can be benefited as a new educational opportunity, to educate the correct study skills.
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This book has been widely acclaimed, and rapidly found a place on reading lists and in citations following its first publication in 1996. Its strengths are evident from the comments of reviewers, e.g. "The Chinese Learner lives up to its title as the reader with insights into Chinese students from the various perspectives of the investigator, the tutors of Chinese students, as well as the students themselves." Katherine Yip, Asia Pacific Journal of Education
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The data used for this study draw on and extend the research results of a longitudinal project, the Cognitive Education Project, which evaluated the long-term impact on student performance of two cognitive education programs, the Strategies Program for Effective Learning/Thinking (SPELT, Mulcahy, Marfo, Peat, & Andrews,1987) and Instrumental Ertrichment (IE) (Feuerstein, Rand, Hoffman, & Miller, 1980). For the present study, which was a reanalysis of selected data fram the above project, results indicated that after two years of SPELT strategy-based instruction, a larger percentage of students categorized as learning disabled at pretest were no longer dassified as learning disabled three years later, as compared with the control condition. This suggests that strategy-based instruction can substantially increase students'levels of achievement, particularly when those students have learning difficulties or disabilities.
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Reviews the book "Intelligence Refrained: Multiple Intelligence in the 21st Century" (see record 1999-04335-000 ), stating that this book is the latest in several amplifications of Howard Gardner's Theories of Multiple Intelligences (TMI), as first set forth in "Frames of Mind" (1993). The basic proposition of TMI is that the concept of "intelligence" should be applied to a much broader arena than the behaviors evaluated in a three-hour mental test. Why have many psychologists, and especially psychometricians, ignored TMI? Gardner argues that conventional students of intelligence have defined their topic too narrowly, as an analysis of the behaviors exhibited during Drop in From the Sky (DIFS) testing. He acknowledges that psychometricians have done a reasonably good job of accounting for those behaviors. His criticism of psychometricians is that the behaviors they study are simply too narrowly defined to qualify as human intelligence. In this critique, the reviewer addresses two questions: Is TMI an acceptable scientific theory and is the evidence for successes in schools that follow Gardner's recommendations evidence for the validity of TMI as a guide to educators? (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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Group differences according to giftedness and academic achievement were examined for the acquisition and transfer of a strategy. 101 high achieving gifted, underachieving gifted, high achieving nongifted, and average achieving nongifted middle-school students orally solved sets of verbal and figural analogies across several phases: before being trained to use a strategy (baseline), after training, at proximal transfer (analogies from the trained domain), and at distal transfer (analogies from the non-trained domain). Group differences between the two gifted classifications, two achievement groups, and four gifted classification x achievement groups, were remarkably parallel. That is, students who excel on measures of intelligence, achievement, or both, tended to exceed their peers in spontaneous strategy implementation, strategy acquisition and generalization, and the number of analogies solved. These results also suggest that deficits in strategic functioning are one source of underachievement in the gifted population.
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Five experiments investigating the manner in which information is acquired from maps are reported. In Experiments 1 and 2, map elements placed more toward the periphery of the map were better learned than internally placed elements (called a peripheral learning bias). This result was replicated using both directional errors and map drawings as measures of participants' learning. In Experiments 3 to 5, map structure was varied to determine if this learning pattern resulted from the structure of the map or from a general learning strategy applied to a variety of maps. The results showed that both processes were evident. The results are discussed in terms of the difficulties people have in organizing maps into whole, coherent images.
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Recent research in many different domains of expertise has shown that the large differences in performance between experts and novices are frequently reproducible under standardized conditions and can often be captured with representative tasks in the laboratory. Furthermore, these differences in performance are predominantly mediated by complex skills acquired over a decade, as a result of high daily levels of activities which are specially designed'to improve performance (deliberate practice). The effects of extended deliberate practice are remarkably far‐reaching and include physiological adaptations and qualitative changes in performance mediated by acquired cognitive skills. Most importantly, expert performers have acquired mental representations that allow them to plan and reason about potential courses of action and these representations also allow experts to monitor their performance, thus providing critical feedback for continued complex learning. The study of elite performance also reveals how acquired representation and skills provide the necessary tools for the ultimate eminent achievement, namely the generation of creative innovations to the domain. This paper is a revised and updated version of my keynote address at the international conference on Creativity & culture: Talent development in the arts and sciences sponsored by European Council on High Ability, Vienna, Austria, 19-22 October (22 October).
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The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between flexible strategic thinking and problem solving performance. In the first experiment, gifted, average, and poor problem solvers performed a number of tasks which were designed to provoke rigidity. The results indicated that the average and poor performance groups did not differ in the number of answers indicating response and perceptual set. On the other hand, creative and intelligent students showed fewer rigid answers than the other two groups. In the second experiment, gifted and average students were asked to think aloud while solving different problems with open and closed solution situations. The thinking aloud protocols were analyzed by classifying the statements into different strategy types. Gifted students used a variety of strategies when solving problems, as well as different strategies for different problem types. No such differences were observed with the average problem solvers. The results of both experiments demonstrated consistent evidence for the role of flexible strategic thinking in gifted problem solving, as well as less direct evidence of the importance of metacognitive knowledge.
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Traditional conceptions of giftedness assume that only talented individuals possess the necessary gifts required to reach the highest levels of performance. This article describes an alternative view that expert performance results from acquired cognitive and physiological adaptations due to extended deliberate practice. A review of evidence, such as historical increases in performance, the requirement of years of daily deliberate practice, and structural changes in the mediating mechanisms, questions the existence of individual differences that impose innate limits on performance attainable with deliberate practice. The proposed framework describes how the processes mediating normal development of ability and everyday skill acquisition differ from the extended acquisition of reproducibly superior (expert) performance and how perceived "giftedness" gives children access to superior training resources, resulting in developmental advantages. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Comments on the book by K. A. Ericsson and H. A. Simon (see record 1980-24435-001) concerning verbal reports as data. The current status of verbal report methodologies in psychological research, and improvements in the methods for collecting and interpreting verbal report data, are discussed. The use of concurrent and retrospective verbal report procedures in conjunction with improved collecting and encoding procedures will continue to yield important data for improving psychological models. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Assessed strategy choice and information-processing differences in gifted, normal, and mathematically disabled 3rd- or 4th-grade children. 14 gifted, 12 normal, and 15 math disabled (MD) children solved 40 simple addition problems. Strategies, and their solution times, used in problem solving were recorded on a trial-by-trial basis, and each was classified in accordance with the distributions of associations model of strategy choices. Group differences were evident for the developmental maturity of the strategy mix and for the rate of verbal counting. The gifted group showed the most mature distribution of strategy choices, followed by the normal and MD groups. In terms of speed of processing, the gifted group showed a verbal counting rate that was at adult levels and less than 50% of the rate of counting for the 2 remaining groups, but group differences were not evident in the rate of retrieving answers from long-term memory. Results were interpreted within the context of the strategy choice model and suggested that a single dimension spanned group differences in the level of mastery of early numerical skills: the maturity of the long-term memory organization of basic facts. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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The development of cognitive strategies for memory has a rich theoretical and empirical history. In the 1960s information processing theory framed studies of the development of children's verbal list learning strategies. Subsequent research has identified strategies of productive preschoolers, and enables a model of intentional, strategic memory to be forwarded, and affords a discussion of strategy use as the coordination of information-processing components. This scholarship elucidates the benefits of strategies instruction that may pertain to exceptional children and, as well, applied strategies instructional research.
Article
This study examined strategic variability and variability-performance relations in intellectually gifted (mean IQ = 142.31; n = 85) and non-gifted (mean IQ = 112.44; n = 81) children who received five trials on an organizational memory task. Children were presented with different sets of categorizable words (e.g., boat, bus, car, banana, apple, orange) on each trial and were asked to remember the words for later recall. Four strategies were coded on each trial: sorting at study, rehearsal, category naming, and clustering at recall. Strategic variability was assessed in terms of fluctuations in the use of single strategies over trials, use of different combinations of multiple strategies over trials, and trial-bytrial switches in strategy use. In general, gifted children showed lower levels of variability (or higher levels of stability) in strategy use and higher levels of recall than non-gifted children. In addition, stability in strategy use was consistently associated with relatively high levels of recall for gifted but not non-gifted children. These findings confirm and extend research on non-strategic elementary cognitive tasks showing that cognitive stability is a prominent characteristic of gifted cognition.
Article
This paper draws on research from geography and psychology to explain how people learn and remember both reference and thematic maps. The review describes how prior knowledge about maps interacts with task demands to produce mental representations that satisfy the constraints of the human information processing system. The paper then examines research that has used maps to assist people in answering questions about “What happened there” and concludes with some suggestions on directions for future research.
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Advisor: Martin Sharp. Paper (M. Ed.)--Pennsylvania State University, Great Valley, 1995.
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In four experiments, subjects read route or survey descriptions of naturalistic environments and then answered verbatim or inference questions from both perspectives and drew maps of the environments. In all studies, subjects were faster and more accurate to verbatim than to inference questions, suggesting that verbatim questions are verified against a representation of the text of the descriptions. Subjects were as fast and accurate to inference questions from the read perspective as from the new perspective, suggesting that inference questions are verified against a representation of the situation described by the text. Map drawings were very accurate for both description types. A separate group of subjects studied maps instead of descriptions, and their performance was comparable to that of description subjects on all tasks. Readers apparently form the same spatial mental models capturing the spatial relations between landmarks from both survey and route descriptions, and from maps.
Article
Thirty kindergarten children from two classrooms participated in a 3-week curricular unit on dinosaurs designed to teach taxonomic relations and distinguishing features aligned with 15 dinosaur species. Both domain-specific learning and strategic performance on a Twenty Questions game were assessed twice throughout the curriculum, as well as during a postcurriculum assessment involving the comparison domain of birds. Performance on all knowledge measures improved significantly across the 3 weeks, with more substantial knowledge gains for higher-aptitude children. Ninety percent of children asked strategic questions that eliminated multiple items while playing Twenty Questions: Domain-specific knowledge was related to strategic questions focused on the features or behaviors taught during the curriculum, while IQ scores were related to strategic questions that did not pertain to curricular content. Because children did not demonstrate metacognitive awareness of their strategic questioning, we suggest that the curricular content prompted implicit changes in strategy use.
Article
This study investigated the procedures subjects use to acquire knowledge from maps. In Experiment 1, three experienced and five novice map users provided verbal protocols while attempting to learn a map. The protocols suggested four categories of processes that subjects invoked during learning: attention, encoding, evaluation, and control. Good learners differed from poor learners primarily in their techniques for and success at encoding spatial information, their ability to accurately evaluate their learning progress, and their ability to focus attention on unlearned information. An analysis of the performance of experienced map users suggested that learning depended on particular procedures and not on familiarity with the task. In Experiment 2, subjects were instructed to use (a) six of the effective learning procedures from Experiment 1, (b) six procedures unrelated to learning success, or (c) their own techniques. The effective procedures set comprised three techniques for learning spatial information, two techniques for using self-generated feedback to guide subsequent study behaviors, and a procedure for partitioning the map into sections. Subjects using these procedures performed better than subjects in the other groups. In addition, subjects' visual memory ability predicted the magnitude of the performance differential.
Article
This study explores the relationship of intelligence to the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Stroop Color-Word Test, Oral Word Fluency Test, Design Fluency Test, Trail Making Test, contrasted with Rey Complex Figure Test, Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Wide Range Achievement Test, and Underlining Test in average, above average and gifted children. Full-Scale IQ was significantly related to Wisconsin Card Sort Perseverative and Non-Perseverative Errors, Stroop Color-Word Test, Color-Word condition, Controlled Oral Word Fluency, Design Fluency, Rey Complex Figure, and Underlining conditions but not Trails or Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test. MANCOVA's show gifted children outperformed other children on the executive but not the non-executive tests. Finally, the nature of the neuropsychological/IQ relationship was explored by further analyses.
Article
This article provides one example of a method of analyzing qualitative data in an objective and quantifiable way. Although the application of the method is illustrated in the context of verbal data such as explanations, interviews, problem-solving protocols, and retrospective reports, in principle, the mechanics of the method can be adapted for coding other types of qualitative data such as gestures and videotapes. The mechanics of the method we outlined in 8 concrete step. Although verbal analyses can be used for many purposes, the main goal of the analyses discussed here is to formulate an understanding of the representation of the knowledge used in cognitive performances and how that representation changes with learning This can be contrasted with another method or analyzing verbal protocols, the goal of which is to validate the cognitive processes of human performance, often as embodied in a computational model
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