Family Environment and Behavior Problems in Children, Adolescents, and Adults with Fragile X Syndrome

University of Wisconsin-Madison, Waisman Center, Madison, WI 83705, USA.
American Journal on Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities (Impact Factor: 2.08). 07/2012; 117(4):331-46. DOI: 10.1352/1944-7558-117.4.331
Source: PubMed


We examine how the family environment is associated with aspects of the Fragile X syndrome phenotype during childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Mothers of children (n  =  48), adolescents (n  =  85), and adults (n  =  34) with Fragile X syndrome participated in a multisite study. For children and adults with Fragile X syndrome, the presence of warmth and positivity and the absence of criticism were associated with fewer behavior problems. Although a higher level of criticism was significantly associated with greater behavior problems, there were only trend-level associations between levels of warmth and positivity and behavior problems during the adolescent years. The provision of family psychoeducation programs, which can reduce parental criticism, would likely benefit both the individual with Fragile X syndrome and the family.

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Available from: Nancy Brady, Dec 19, 2013
    • "Examining EE is important because negative dimensions of EE (as measured by the FMSS) have been associated with the behaviour problems of children with ASD and/or DD (Orsmond et al. 2006; Greenberg et al. 2012). In longitudinal studies with families of children with DD, behaviour problems in children and young people have been found to increase over time when parental criticism in particular is high (Hastings et al. 2006; Baker et al. 2011). "
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    ABSTRACT: Background Expressed emotion (EE) is a construct used to measure the emotional climate within families. EE is of interest to researchers in the field of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) because of its putative implications for child development. The aim was to explore whether maternal EE differs towards a child with ASD and a non-disabled sibling.Methods We adopted a within-family design with 143 mothers of children with ASD and a non-disabled sibling. EE was measured using the Five-Minute Speech Sample.ResultsWilcoxon signed-rank tests were utilised. Mothers were coded as significantly more critical and less warm towards their child with ASD than towards the sibling. There were no significant differences in maternal emotional overinvolvement or overall EE towards the child with ASD and a sibling.Conclusions The data support the results of previous research suggesting that EE is linked to the relationship a mother has with individual children, rather than being evidence of the character disposition of mothers. More research is needed to understand the emotional dimensions of parent–child relationships in families with children with ASD.
    No preview · Article · Jun 2015 · Journal of Intellectual Disability Research
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    ABSTRACT: Siblings of children with autism are at a greater risk of experiencing behavioral and social problems. Previous researches had focused on environmental variables such as family history of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs), behavior problems in the child with an ASD, parental mental health problems, stressful life events and "broader autism phenotype" (BAP), while variables like parenting style and family function that are shown to influence children's behavioral and psychosocial adjustment are overlooked. The aim of the present study was to reveal how parenting style and family function as well as BAP effect psychological adjustment of siblings of children with autism. The Participants included 65 parents who had one child with an Autism Spectrum Disorder and one typically developing child. Of the children with ASDs, 40 were boys and 25 were girls; and they were diagnosed with ASDs by a psychiatrist based on DSM-IV-TR criteria and Autism Diagnostic Interview-Revised (ADI-R). The Persian versions of the six scales were used to collect data from the families. Pearson's correlation test and regression analysis were used to determine which variables were related to the psychological adjustment of sibling of children with ASDs and which variables predicted it better. Significant relationships were found between Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) total difficulties, prosocial behaviors and ASDs symptoms severity, parenting styles and some aspects of family function. In addition, siblings who had more BAP characteristics had more behavior problems and less prosocial behavior. Behavioral problems increased and prosocial behavior decreased with permissive parenting style. Besides, both of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles led to a decrease in behavioral problems and an increase in prosocial behaviors. Our findings revealed that some aspects of family function (affective responsiveness, roles, problem solving and behavior control) were significantly correlated with behavioral problems and prosocial behaviors in typically developing (TD) siblings of children with ASDs. Siblings of children with ASDs, due to genetic liability, are at a greater risk of psychological maladjustment. Furthermore, environmental factors like parenting styles and family function also have a significant effect on psychological maladjustment.
    Full-text · Article · Apr 2014 · Iranian Journal of Psychiatry
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