Relationship of mental health and illness in substance abuse patients

Department of Psychiatry University of Pennsylvania School of Medicine.
Personality and Individual Differences (Impact Factor: 1.95). 12/2010; 49(8):880-884. DOI: 10.1016/j.paid.2010.07.022


This study examined the latent structure of a number of measures of mental health (MH) and mental illness (MI) in substance use disorder outpatients to determine whether they represent two independent dimensions, as Keyes (2005) found in a community sample. Seven aspects of MI assessed were assessed – optimism, personal meaning, spirituality/religiosity, social support, positive mood, hope, and vitality. MI was assessed with two measures of negative psychological moods/states, a measure of antisociality, and the Addiction Severity Index’s recent psychiatric and family–social problem scores. Correlational and exploratory factor analyses revealed that MH and MI appear to reflect two independent, but correlated, constructs. However, optimism and social support had relatively high loadings on both factors. Antisociality and the family–social problem score failed to load significantly on the MI factor. Confirmatory factor analysis supported the existence of two obliquely related, negatively correlated dimensions. Study findings, although generally supporting the independence of MH and MI, suggest that the specific answers to this question may be influenced by the constructs and assessments used to measure them.

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    • "This model was replicated in several studies that confirmed the latent structure of the indicators of well-being within the psychological context (Gallagher, Lopez, & Preacher, 2009; Keyes, 2002, 2005a, 2007; Keyes, Shmotkin, & Ryff, 2002; Linley, Maltby, Wood, Osborne, & Hurling, 2009). The discriminant validity of the indicators of positive mental health relative to the indicators of psychopathology was assessed with exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses (Alterman et al. 2010; Keyes, 2005a; Massé et al., 1998; Peter, Roberts, & Dengate 2011; Ryff & Singer, 1998; Weich et al., 2011; Westerhof & Keyes, 2010; Wilkinson & Walford, 1998). The application of both techniques showed that the full set of indicators is better represented by a model with two oblique factors instead of models that are unidimensional and have two orthogonal factors. "

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    • "These diseases are common in highly developed societies, in which surrounding environment directly leads to their occurrence. Chronic stress, lack of sleep, rest time, and activities are conducive to the development of psychoemotional disorders, vascular diseases, dermatological problems, gastric disturbances, and neuromuscular disorders [52–55]. Omnipresent chronic stressors in a contemporary society are called civilization stress [56]. "
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    • "What we can claim with more certainty is that various combinations of both MI and MH are possible (Keyes, 2007). Thus, with regard to psychological treatment of clients and considering researches in the realm of mental health we need to take into account the level and characteristics of MH as well as those of MI (Alterman et al., 2010). "

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