Article

Tree protection legislation in European cities

Authors:
  • International Society for Environmental Protection
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Abstract

In this study, a survey on regulations and legal requirements concerning tree protection in European cities has been elaborated. It is designed as an information source for decision support in legal development, city planning and nature conservation. The survey is based on questionnaires on the one hand and on laws, ordinances and regulations on the other. Out of the 34 cities which were contacted or for which legal documents were found on the Internet, 25 (74%) have laws protecting trees in public and/or private areas. Against the background of rising ecological awareness, most of the laws were adopted from the 1970s onward.In most cases the protection of a tree is regulated by means of the circumference or the diameter of the stem, while sometimes the height of the tree is the criterion on which protection depends. In other cases, protection is granted if a tree is growing in a protected area or if the tree is submitted to a “Tree Preservation Order”. In all 25 cities the felling of protected trees is subjected to an official authorisation. In many laws interdictions concerning trees are listed. Most frequently, it is prohibited to cut down, to remove, to fell, to damage, to destroy, to modify, and to prune protected trees, and to enhance their decay.A law concerning tree protection seems to make sense, if it can be implemented in a non-bureaucratic, professional and efficient way, respecting the protection and conservation of nature. It should be structured simply and equitably, and its administration and implementation should be simple and efficient.

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... These mechanisms can be classified in two ways: 1) regulations, which are specific rules that prevent the removal of trees or require tree replacement and/or planting, and involve penalties for non-compliance; and 2) incentives, characterized by specific programs that encourage the voluntary retention or planting of trees. These mechanisms vary widely across cities and countries, where they are influenced by different legal frameworks, governance structures, cultural norms, and land ownership laws (Coughlin et al., 1988;Profus and Loeb, 1990;Schmied and Pillmann, 2003;Conway and Urbani, 2007;Hill et al., 2010). Adding to the complexity, property rights, planning and regulatory terms change from country-to-country. ...
... Local governments act as planning authorities, applying these state-defined provisions as well as setting and applying local provisions. In Australia, as in other countries (e.g., Europe, see Schmied and Pillmann, 2003;Lawrence et al., 2013;US, see Coughlin et al., 1988;Watson, 2015;Canada, see Conway and Urbani, 2007), the federal government has a limited role in land use planning provisions, policies, or regulations. For example, federal legislation on endangered species may trigger local regulations aimed at protecting somes species of trees. ...
... In addition to land use planning systems, local governments may establish local laws or ordinances to regulate tree removals that require an application for a tree removal permit. Local laws vary significantly across countries and cities (Profus and Loeb, 1990;Schmied and Pillmann, 2003;Clark et al., 2020). Jurisdictions that use local laws to regulate trees on private urban land include US (Landry and Pu, 2010;Sung, 2012;Watson, 2015), Canada (Conway and Urbani, 2007), most European countries (Profus and Loeb, 1990;Schmied and Pillmann, 2003), Australia (Kelly, 2014), and China (Jim and Liu, 2000;Jim, 2004). ...
Article
Most studies of urban forest management look at vegetation on public land. Yet, to meet ambitious urban forest targets, cities must attempt to maintain or increase trees and canopy cover on private urban land too. In this study, we review and evaluate international approaches to protecting and retaining trees on private urban land. Our study combines a systematic academic literature review, two empirical social science studies on the views of urban forest professionals, and a global case study review of innovative regulations and incentives aimed at protecting and retaining trees on private urban land. Case studies were evaluated for the extent they exceeded minimum standards or went beyond ‘business-as-usual’. We found that the most innovative mechanisms combine many regulations, instead of relying on a single regulation, and use financial incentives to retain or plant trees in newly developed or re-developed sites, as well as private residences. We did not find any cases where appropriate monitoring was in place to determine the efficacy and efficiency of these mechanisms. We also found no single simple solution that could effectively and efficiently protect and retain trees on private land. Only by combining policies, planning schemes, local laws, and financial incentives with community engagement and stewardship will cities protect and retain trees on private land. Useful and innovative ways to protecting and retaining trees on private land involves providing solutions at multiple governments levels, embedding trees in existing strategic policy and management solutions, incentivising positive behavior, creating regulations that require payment up front, and engaging the broader community in private tree stewardship.
... Maintaining urban greenspaces will be an ongoing challenge as urban areas continue to expand and densify with infill development (Haaland and Konijnendijk van den Bosch, 2015;Daniel et al., 2016;Guo et al., 2019). In addressing this issue, local decision makers often adopt policies, codes, and ordinances to prevent or mitigate tree loss during development (Schmied and Pillmann, 2003;Zhang et al., 2009;Lavy and Hagelman, 2019;Wirtz et al., 2021) as part of their broader urban forest governance activities. ...
... While not as common as some of the other ordinances identified in this study, the number of cities in our sample that regulated the removal of private trees (46%) was nearly double the national (United States) average of 25% (Hauer and Peterson, 2016) and greater than reported by Zhang et al. (2009) in their assessment of 81 Alabama cities (39.5%). Beyond the United States, regulation of privately-owned trees was more common (56%) in a survey of 34 major European cities (Schmied and Pillmann, 2003). Though governmental protection and regulation of trees on private property is a somewhat recent phenomenon, our data reflects past research which identified Florida as an early and widespread adopter of these provisions (Coughlin et al. 1988). ...
Article
Many cities actively manage their urban trees in an effort to increase canopy coverage, manipulate species and size distributions, and maximize associated environmental and social benefits. As development is one of the most significant factors limiting tree abundance and health, many local governments have enacted policies or ordinances which attempt to reduce tree loss during construction activities through preservation or replacement requirements. Recently, the state of Florida passed a state statute which significantly limits local government oversight of trees on private residential properties-a land use type which can often account for the majority of a municipality's urban forest. In this study, we accessed ordinance databases to assess the potential impact of this law on urban forest governance in Florida's 300 largest cities (by population). We also surveyed urban tree managers in the largest 150 cities to assess the range of strategies being developed to function under this new political normal. Ordinances that regulate the removal of urban trees were the most likely to be impacted by the new state legislature and were in place in 46% of the communities assessed. Despite this, very few responding cities had changed their ordinances to comply with the new statute-though several indicated such changes were in progress. Other changes in policies and ordinances ranged from maintaining business as usual to actually investing more into urban forest management through increased inventory and management plan activities.
... These local laws vary significantly among cities and, besides aiming to reduce tree removals, they can also serve to identify what is to be protected (Clark et al., 2020). Local laws to regulate tree removal are common in cities in the US (Landry & Pu, 2010;Sung, 2012;Bardon & King, 2019), Canada (Conway & Urbani, 2007), New Zealand (Watson, 2015), Europe (Profus & Loeb, 1990;Schmied & Pillmann, 2003), and China (Jim & Liu, 2000). ...
... Throughout this project, we have found many arguments against stick mechanisms (see Ordóñez et al., 2019a;see also Coughlin et al., 1988;Profus & Loeb, 1990;Cooper, 1996;Schmied & Pillmann, 2003;City of Melbourne, 2011;Mincey et al., 2013;Kelly, 2014;Watson, 2015;Wyse et al., 2015;Brown et al., 2018;Clark et al., 2020; see also Seattle sources in Appendix 3), including: ...
Technical Report
Local government strategies and policies aimed at increasing tree planting and canopy-cover have become a familiar feature in many cities. However, the role of private urban land areas in a city’s ambitious plans to retain and increase the number of trees and canopy-cover is usually overlooked. In 2019, the University of Melbourne was funded by Horticultural Innovation Australia and partnered with a reference group of local experts, including academics, local government and industry partners, to investigate the mechanisms (regulations and incentives, or “sticks and carrots”) that cities have to retain, protect, and plant trees in private lands. This academic literature review forms the first milestone of this project. The review highlights the importance of private property rights and planning laws for determining how cities influence what happens to trees on private land. Most urban jurisdictions where private property comes with strong rights and planning laws based on a hierarchical, top-down model, cannot protect trees over an owner’s right to protect their interests which may involve tree removal. However, many Canadian, Australian, US, and European cities have created local laws to protect private trees from being removed or altered. These provisions include regulatory mechanisms, such as requiring tree removal permits, maintaining significant tree registries, applying compensatory value formulas, or requiring arborist reports or building standards, as well as educational and social mechanisms, such as sponsoring volunteer programs and tree-give-away programs. Some researchers have argued for jurisdictions to remove strict individual tree protections (i.e., those that protect specific trees to be removed, as in significant tree registries, or blanket laws that protect all trees from removal or alteration) because they are not effective. To support this, they have highlighted their limited coverage, such as exclusion of major land uses and medium/small trees, and the high approval rates of tree-removal permits. Enforcing existing regulations continues to be a challenge for many local governments. The effectiveness of existing regulations is dependent on the ability, willingness, and resourcing capacity of the authority that enforces it. Researchers have lauded the use of other mechanisms, such as education, to help protect trees in private lands. However, not only have these mechanisms not been described adequately, but their effectiveness has not been directly measured. Only a few empirical studies have assessed the effectiveness of tree-protection laws in terms of increased tree numbers or tree-canopy cover. The usual approach is to compare tree-cover or tree numbers among cities with and without these protections between two points in time. These studies have shown mixed results. In the US, tree-protection laws appear to be effective, which means that cities with tree-protections have increased or retained tree-cover over two points of time. However, in other contexts, tree protections are not as effective, since increased tree-cover cannot be explained solely by the effect of these protections. The different context of cities and the different types of tree-protection specifications makes this type of research difficult to conduct. This research will be complemented by a review of progressive case studies, mining information from non-academic sources, and by a synthesis of the opinions and experiences of international experts on the efficacy of tree-protection mechanisms through interviews and international workshops carried out in during 2019.
... All levels of government can impact on the urban forest, from national (administrations and policies relating to forestry, environmental protection, natural resources, nature conservation, but also transport or road works), to various scales of local government (land use planning/zoning) (e.g. Schmied & Pillmann, 2003;Van Herzele et al., 2005b). The urban forest is intensively used for a wide range of purposes, with recreational and aesthetic often dominant. ...
... Many cities also have their own ordinances and regulations, particularly in relation to tree protection (Schmied & Pillmann, 2003). Vienna, for example, has a long history of tree protection activities and issued its first tree protection ordinance in 1974. ...
Presentation
Full-text available
Overview on the governance of urban and peri-urban forestry in Europe
... Management responsibilities and liabilities shared between public agencies and abutting property owners can vary between and within cities (e.g., Ehrenfeucht and Loukaitou-Sideris, 2007;Fischer and Steed, 2008;Grey and Deneke, 1986). Regulations governing tree protection and management is also variable and adds an additional dimension of complexity affecting the distribution of street trees (e.g., Coughlin et al., 1988;Lapping and Kurtz, 1976;Schmied and Pillmann, 2003). The interaction among these dimensions potentially affects not only the material characteristics of the PROW, but also how human management agents envision their role in the production of street trees (Lefebvre, 1991;Purcell, 2001). ...
... The distribution of street trees is also affected by the regulatory and urban forest management role of public agencies (Buckley, 2010;Campanella, 2003;Fischer and Steed, 2008;Grey and Deneke, 1986). Tree protection regulations have increased since the 1970s (Fischer and Steed, 2008) to include restricting the removal, pruning or planting of PROW trees and protection and planting requirements for new development (Coughlin et al., 1988;Grey and Deneke, 1986;Lapping and Kurtz, 1976;Schmied and Pillmann, 2003). Regulations also impact how trees will be affected by PROW infrastructure management activities and govern where new street trees can be planted. ...
Thesis
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Street trees are an important component of the urban forest that can provide direct and indirect benefits to social and ecological sustainability in cities. Temporal and spatial interactions between human and non-human management agents determine the distribution and health of street tree populations in urban areas. This dissertation seeks to enhance our understanding of the spatial patterns and processes affecting street trees by investigating the agents and social-ecological determinants of changes to street tree distributions in urban residential neighborhoods. The research was guided by three primary questions: (1) Are recent changes to the spatial distribution of street trees influenced by socio-demographic household and neighborhood characteristics? (2) Which management agents are the strongest predictors of recent changes to street tree distributions and does the contribution of these agents vary in relationship to social-ecological patterns within a city? (3) To what extent are household street tree management decisions related to the built and bioecological material characteristics of the public right-of-way? These questions were investigated in a case study that examined street tree management and public right-of-way (PROW) canopy change associated with single-family residential areas in and near the City of Tampa, Florida. The methodological approach employed a multi-method design using a conceptual framework developed to capture the complexity of management within human ecosystems. Urban remote sensing and spatial analytical techniques were used to examine the geographic association between patterns of street tree change and socio-demographic characteristics. Household survey techniques were utilized to examine the determinants of street tree management; specifically planting, removal, and trimming. Interviews with key informants familiar with urban forest management provided additional insights to complement the location specific knowledge of household survey respondents. Street tree change was examined for the period of 2003 to 2006, and information about household management actions also included recent years (i.e., 2009-2011). A citywide pattern of street tree increases was disproportionately distributed with respect to socioeconomic status; with greater increases in affluent neighborhoods. Patterns of change within local portions of the study area revealed significant and spatially variable relationships with socioeconomic status, as well as race/ethnicity variables and indicators of lifestyle differences. The findings suggest that the citywide pattern of change associated with socioeconomic status may perpetuate an inequitable outcome in the distribution of street trees at the expense of less affluent neighborhoods. The local patterns of change indicate that the processes driving street tree distributions may also reflect differences in attitudes toward trees. The case study did not find sufficient evidence to link the actions of individual agents with street tree change. Street tree increases were more likely in areas where tree trimming had been reported and where property market values were greater, but less likely in PROW segments with overhead power lines. Households, public agencies and builders, but not neighborhoods, were the primary human street tree management agents. Past and ongoing land development and redevelopment decisions, including the configuration of PROW infrastructures, may be one of the most important factors affecting patterns of street tree change. Landscape decisions and practices influenced by household and neighborhood group dynamics also appear to be important factors affecting street tree change. Damages caused by storm event and differences in tree species lifecycle characteristics represent important non-human agents of street tree change. The findings indicated that public agencies are not the only managers of street trees and household tree management does not stop at the boundary of private property. There was no evidence of a relationship between household management actions and the material conditions of the PROW. However, there was a relationship between the presence of either power lines or sidewalks and household survey responses about who should bear responsibility for street tree management and the liability. Household respondents expressed an increased sense of personal responsibility for street tree management when a sidewalk was in front of their home. This dissertation addressed an important gap in understanding about the factors driving street tree change. Planting, removal, and trimming of street trees in Tampa is a shared responsibility with complex spatial patterns and multi-scalar drivers. An important conclusion is that the sustainability of street tree populations within the urban forest will require urban planners and managers to better understand how these management agents cooperate if they are to promote healthy, safe and beneficial street tree populations as a part of the urban forest.
... Various rules and regulations have been created at national to local levels to regulate development and construction activities near trees [6,[14][15][16][17][18]. The temporal development of regulations was predicated on the removal of trees either during construction or their later decline and death as a result of construction processes [6,19]. ...
Article
Full-text available
Preservation of existing trees is one of the few tools available to communities seeking to maintain or increase tree canopy coverage. This study compared the knowledge and activities of builders in an urban locale with a strict tree preservation ordinance and rigorous enforcement against a rural locale with no tree preservation ordinance. Overall, there were more similarities than differences between the two groups though some of those differences are very important. Urban builders and rural builders scored a very similar average of correct responses on questions testing their knowledge: 63% and 65%, respectively. The major difference between urban and rural appears to be in activities as dictated by ordinance. Urban builders were more likely to consult tree preservation experts and use tree fence to create tree protection zones. The successful tree preservation outcomes in the urban community are likely a direct result of ordinance requirements and enforcement by the City Forester, not builders' knowledge or their conscious decisions.
... Many local governments strategically refer to the urban forest as a continuous resource, spanning trees on both public and private urban lands [ 41 , 65 ], and use a combination of regulations and incentives to influence people's decisions related to trees on private urban land [76] . Recently, the literature has documented that traditional regulations and incentives are failing due to the new challenges posed by urban development ( [ 13 , 19 , 48 ]; see also references above in this subsection), but also because many regulations are not based on clear standards ( e.g. , type of trees; trigger to regulation, such as size or intensity of development; locations; etc.), have variable standards, or are subjectively applied [ 95 ]. ...
Article
Urban forest strategies aimed at the retention and protection of existing urban trees are an expression of nature-based solutions (NbS), understood broadly as actions that can address environmental, ecological, and societal challenges. Many cities have established long-term goals to retain and protect already existing urban trees as an NbS, but they also face significant governance challenges related to urban development and community conflicts. While urban greenspaces and urban tree planting programs have been studied extensively to extract NbS governance lessons, complementary lessons can be gained from studying urban forest retention and protection strategies. In this research, we provide a theoretical framework for understanding the governance in the context of urban forest retention and protection and discuss governance lessons emanating from a collaborative knowledge co-production research project carried out with professionals working in an urban forest capacity within local governments in Victoria, Australia. These lessons include: 1) engaging in collective decision making to influence development decisions; 2) enhancing interdepartmental coordination; 3) innovating in regulations and incentives for trees on private urban lands; 4) adopting a multifunctional narrative in urban forestry; and 5) engaging with the community. We suggest that innovative urban forest governance lessons can be elicited when research is empirically grounded on the view of local government stakeholders. In this way, urban forest researchers and professional practitioners can address a wide range of future governance challenges, such as development, community conflicts, climate change and global pandemic effects.
... Possible regulations for them are very general. However more and more cities are introducing their own solutions for mana-gement of forests within their borders (Konijnendijk 2003;Schmied, Pillmann 2003). Sangster et al. (2011) andJaszczak et al. (2017a) think,on the other hand, that there source of information needed for planning and managing urban forests is often, due to functions they perform, too small. ...
Article
Full-text available
Nowadays, improving forest management is done by way of amendments to the forest management instructions, silvicultural rules and forest protection instructions. From the point of view of forest management, the most important is the forest management plan, the basic document prepared for a specific object, containing a description and assessment of the state of the forest, as well as the objectives, tasks and ways of forest management. Before each subsequent revision of the forest management guidelines, new instructions are developed in consultation with the public, based on discussions on the proposed changes that are in each case to serve as the best plan for forest management. The forest management plan is vital as it ties together silviculture, conservation, production and non-production purposes as well as social forestry tasks, but only if the primary and operational nature of the objectives considered at the stage of creating the plan are recognized. Therefore, the role of forest management in shaping and protecting the environment cannot be overestimated. In this work, we outline the basic principles and rights related to both, forest management under various forms of ownership, as well as detailed guidelines for the content of the forest management plan. We found that the specificity of mountain forests requires the use of different rules and methods. Taking into account the existing rich scientific achievements, it is tempting to attempt to develop forest management instructions specifically for mountain forests, whether in the form of a separate chapter or a separate publication. The basic problem with forest management under other forms of ownership (urban, experimental, private forests) is the lack of a detailed legal basis accounting for their specific nature. Therefore, appropriate steps should be taken towards introducing appropriate new or supplementary provisions into the forest legislation, which would allow for the development of modern standards. For the State Forests, forest management instructions should be prepared by a team of experts appointed by the Minister of the Environment who will approve the finished document for official use. The forest management plan should include an economic annex focused on the forecast of the expected financial result, including costs associated with a deviation from the optimal due to social or protective reasons.
... Local laws are commonly seen as a weaker protection than planning overlays because of their legal status as subordinate legislation. Local laws have international equivalents, like tree protection ordinances in US cities (Cooper, 1996), private tree by-laws in Canada (Conway & Urbani, 2007), and similar protections in European cities (Profous & Loeb, 1990;Schmied & Pillmann, 2003). ...
Article
In many cities, private trees dominate urban tree canopy cover, but densification often means fewer private trees and diminishing urban tree canopy cover. Local governments use several mechanisms to protect trees on private land, but their strengths and weaknesses are not well understood. We review private tree protections in six local governments in metropolitan Melbourne, Australia and interview 23 urban planning and urban forest professionals to understand their perspectives on; 1) the causes of private tree removal, 2) the efficacy of significant tree registers, local laws, and planning overlays, and 3) ways to improve the protection of trees on private land. Each local government applies different mechanisms. The professionals interviewed believe these mechanisms are applied too subjectively and are undermined by exemptions, lack of enforcement, and inadequate penalties. They also believe that private landholders exaggerate tree ‘risk’ and that education programs to improve community support for private trees and their retention are critical to reverse canopy loss. More research might show how private landholders value urban trees, and how tree stewardship, better regulations and incentives could reduce tree losses.
... In many laws interdictions concerning trees were listed. Most frequently, it was prohibited to cut down, to remove, to fell, to damage, to destroy, to modify, and to prune protected trees, and to enhance their decay [15]. ...
... Therefore, in this study, we do not specifically refer to the urban forest as a publicly owned resource. This is because administrative boundaries, ownership, and/or tenure specifications for the urban forest are only vaguely addressed in many municipal documents (Schmied and Pillmann, 2003;Mincey et al., 2013;Ordóñez and Duinker, 2013;Watson, 2015). For example, in Australia, it is common for cities to strategically refer to the urban forest as a continuous resource, spanning both public and private areas (Kelly, 2014; Jones and Instone, 2016). ...
Article
Awareness of the benefits of urban trees has led many cities to develop ambitious targets to increase tree numbers and canopy cover. Policy instruments that guide the planning of cities recognize the need for new governance arrangements to implement this agenda. Urban forests are greatly influenced by the decisions of municipal managers, but there is currently no clear understanding of how municipal managers find support to implement their decisions via new governance arrangements. To fill this knowledge gap, we collected empirical data through interviews with 23 urban forest municipal managers in 12 local governments in Greater Melbourne and regional Victoria, Australia, and analysed these data using qualitative interpretative methods through a governance lens. The goal of this was to understand the issues and challenges, stakeholders, resources, processes, and rules behind the decision-making of municipal managers. Municipal managers said that urban densification and expansion were making it difficult for them to implement their strategies to increase tree numbers and canopy cover. The coordination of stakeholders was more important for managers to find support to implement their decisions than having a bigger budget. The views of the public or wider community and a municipal government culture of risk aversion were also making it difficult for municipal managers to implement their strategies. Decision-making priorities and processes were not the same across urban centres. Lack of space to grow trees in new developments, excessive tree removal, and public consultation, were ideas more frequently raised in inner urban centres, while urban expansion, increased active use of greenspaces, and lack of data/information about tree assets were concerns for outer and regional centres. Nonetheless, inter-departmental coordination was a common theme shared among all cities. Strengthening coordination processes is an important way for local governments to overcome these barriers and effectively implement their urban forest strategies.
... An effective forest policy should make it possible to fulfil various needs and solve conflicts between forest nature conservation and use by the society (e.g., [2,29,39,74,75]). In many countries, however, the lack of forest policies and a legal basis for forest management within urban areas is noticeable [27,44,76,77], as the number of legal acts concerning them is excessive [74]. This generates specific problems of urban forest management (Table 1). ...
Article
Full-text available
This review regards the management and social problems in European urban and suburban forests linked to their maintenance and human use. They can be divided into major categories: forest management problems (e.g., the low priority of urban forestry, various or diffused urban forest management, lack of management plans or lack of sufficient funds); the social reception of forest works and forests (e.g., emotional reactions to total clear-cutting, negative evaluation of logging traces, negative evaluation of poor tourist infrastructure, specific expectations concerning a model forest: e.g., tall, of low density, mixed, old); and relations between forest users (problems related to e.g., crowding, fast-moving people, the presence of dogs, littering, thefts or noisy behaviour). Here, special attention is paid to problems and negative interactions, as they are challenges to forest management, as well as to the development of plans, strategies, and policies, both in relation to existent forests and those planned in various parts of Europe. Taking into account the feelings and expectations of forest users concerning forests, forest works/management, and infrastructure, as well as their attitude to other forest users, may reduce conflicts concerning various kinds of forest perception and use, and (with the support of societal education) may help to increase the sense of social responsibility for the “shared” forests. The presented findings are expected to be practical and useful for the management of urban and suburban forests, regardless of the location, as a type of checklist of possible problems, that may prove to be important and up-to-date in a particular location.
... In Tampa, Florida (US), Landry and Pu (2010) found that UTC was greater on private lots developed after the adoption of a 1974 tree protection ordinance compared to lots developed before the ordinance. Tree ordinances and other aspects of municipal tree management change over time and are not consistent across cities (Schmied & Pillman, 2003;Ricard, 2005;Zhang, Zheng, Allen, Letson, & Sibley, 2009;Rines, Kane, Kittredge, Ryan, & Butler, 2011;Steiner, 2016). Research examining how inter-city variation relates to differences in management and socioeconomic characteristics across municipalities can broaden our understanding of how UTC patterns emerge. ...
Article
Many cities around the world have set ambitious urban tree canopy cover goals, with the expectation that urban forests will provide ecosystem services as functional green infrastructure. Numerous studies have examined intra-city spatial patterns in urban tree canopy (UTC) and found that UTC relates to socioeconomic indicators and urban form. Additionally, a few studies have shown local regulations can be linked to increased tree cover. However, the relationship between UTC and governance across different cities has not been well-explored. To address this gap, we compared the management practices enacted by 43 municipalities in Florida (United States) to investigate their potential impact on tree canopy coverage. UTC was assessed through visual interpretation of aerial images. We used multiple linear regression to predict inter-city variation in UTC based on 1) municipal forestry management practices, including whether the municipality had an arborist, tree ordinances, a municipal tree inventory, and a canopy cover goal, and 2) community sociodemographic data. UTC ranged between 17.6% and 63.3% among the municipalities assessed, with an average UTC of 33.7%. Two factors significantly predicted canopy coverage. Housing density had a negative relationship with tree canopy (P-value = 0.0116). In contrast, municipalities with heritage tree protections had 6.7% more canopy coverage (P-value = 0.0476). Future research should continue to consider the potential impacts of governance structures on the spatio-temporal dynamics of inter-and intra-city UTC patterns.
... In many laws interdictions concerning trees were listed. Most frequently, it was prohibited to cut down, to remove, to fell, to damage, to destroy, to modify, and to prune protected trees, and to enhance their decay [15]. ...
... For example, a benefit-cost ratio of 2.83 indicates that the value of projected benefits is nearly three times the value of projected costs [7]. On the other hand, it is known, also among professionals, that different values and attitudes can cause social conflict between the need to protect urban trees or to cut them down [1,8,9]. Kirkpatrick [1] points out that trees are not necessarily accepted by all people. ...
Article
Full-text available
Sustainable urban forests require tree acceptance and support. Two groups of respondents, professionals (working in urban green areas) and individuals (with no professional connection with trees) revealed their attitudes towards trees by assessing statements in a survey questionnaire. Similar general attitude from professionals and nonprofessionals towards the examined benefits and harms related to urban trees was observed. Tree benefits were perceived as much more important than the annoyance they might cause. However, 6% of nonprofessionals found only negative aspects in trees, proving to be arboriphobes. No arboriphobes and no “Tree sceptics” were among the professionals. Around 40% of the respondents in the two groups found the number of trees in the surrounding areas too low. The nuisance caused by trees was seen as more disturbing by younger and lower-educated professionals. Women tended to assess trees as more attractive and as having a stronger influence on socioeconomic contributions than men. Men dominated the “Tree indifferent” group. The attractiveness of trees and their impact on socioeconomic contributions were related to the place of residence and the level of education among the nonprofessionals. The level of education of the nonprofessionals was also connected to being clustered into one of the four abovementioned groups of respondents. A majority of medium and big city dwellers as well as a minority of villagers were in the “Tree liking” cluster.
... Urban forest is under protection in most European cities (Schmied & Pillman, 2003) but the development of the urban agglomeration results in the changes of the site conditions for plants. Urban changes have an impact on the decrease of the green areas (Szczepanowska, 2015). ...
Article
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Street trees grow in extreme habitat conditions and are exposed to high anthropogenic pressure. This study presents changes that occurred in the resources of street trees in the selected part of Praga-North, a district located near the center of Warsaw, between 2011 and 2016. During this period, the number of dead and removed trees was determined and the assessment of the lost value was conducted. The compensatory value was evaluated as well. The replacement value was estimated in the examined area based on the difference between the value of the removed and newly-planted trees. The study also shows the real number of conducted compensatory planting for the environmental loss. The research was conducted with the objective to determine the changes in the urban forest in the selected, highly-urbanized part of Warsaw. The study evaluated the extent of losses between the removed and newly-planted trees that allowed to assess the range of substitutes needed to be planted.
... Ewentualne unormowania są w większości przypadków przygotowy− wane na poziomie krajowym. Jednak coraz więcej miast wprowadza własne regulacje w zakresie zarządzania lasami czy zagadnień dotyczących ich ochrony [Schmied, Pillmann 2003] [1995]. Rozproszone regulacje prawne poświęcone lasom są zatem podstawowym powodem zgłoszonej propozycji zmiany legi− slacyjnej [Habuda i in. ...
Article
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In Poland, the public believes that the main objective of urban forests is rather to conduct forest management focused on the recreational needs of residents than to produce timber. Considering this belief, it becomes reasonable to distinct the principles of forest management in urban forests from those related to the forests of the State Forests National Forest Holding. Because of the permanent presence of people in the city woods, the managing authorities of such areas should also educate the residents, while forest management should be subordinated to social functions, especially the recreational one. However, Poland lacks the unified system of managing the urban forests, not only at the national scale (there is no central independent organizational unit), but also at the level of individual cities, where various municipal units manage urban woodlands. In practice, each city has its own, individual solutions in this regard. The governing bodies of urban forests face with many problems in their activity. These problems are associated with a strong process of urbanization and human pressure on forest areas, while on the other hand there are no formal legal basis (laws, regulations, instructions) relating the municipal forests. The paper reviews the literature on urban forestry and urban forests worldwide to present the existing legislative frameworks and to propose some changes, based on the current Act on Forest. It was stated that urban forestry in Poland is located in its 'narrow' definition, based on the traditional forestry, giving priority to the multiple social functions. The proposed changes in forest legislation are part of the discussion on municipal forests and urban forestry in Poland, aiming once again to draw attention to the fact that they are almost ignored in the Polish legislation. The indicated areas for improvements and supplements suggest issues the most important and urgent to solve, but they are not a comprehensive solution on this subject. In order to strengthen the supervision of urban forests in Poland, it is essential to consider the restoration of central supervision, coordinating activities of urban foresters by the development and implementation to the practice unified legal regulations, as well as to give wide autonomy to cities.
... Ewentualne unormowania są w większości przypadków przygotowy− wane na poziomie krajowym. Jednak coraz więcej miast wprowadza własne regulacje w zakresie zarządzania lasami czy zagadnień dotyczących ich ochrony [Schmied, Pillmann 2003] [1995]. Rozproszone regulacje prawne poświęcone lasom są zatem podstawowym powodem zgłoszonej propozycji zmiany legi− slacyjnej [Habuda i in. ...
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S. 2017. Prawne aspekty leśnictwa miejskiego w Polsce. Sylwan 161 (8): 659−668. In Poland, the public believes that the main objective of urban forests is rather to conduct forest management focused on the recreational needs of residents than to produce timber. Considering this belief, it becomes reasonable to distinct the principles of forest management in urban forests from those related to the forests of the State Forests National Forest Holding. Because of the permanent presence of people in the city woods, the managing authorities of such areas should also educate the residents, while forest management should be subordinated to social functions, especially the recreational one. However, Poland lacks the unified system of managing the urban forests, not only at the national scale (there is no central independent organizational unit), but also at the level of individual cities, where various municipal units manage urban woodlands. In practice, each city has its own, individual solutions in this regard. The governing bodies of urban forests face with many problems in their activity. These problems are associated with a strong process of urbanization and human pressure on forest areas, while on the other hand there are no formal legal basis (laws, regulations, instructions) relating the municipal forests. The paper reviews the literature on urban forestry and urban forests worldwide to present the existing legislative frameworks and to propose some changes, based on the current Act on Forest. It was stated that urban forestry in Poland is located in its 'narrow' definition, based on the traditional forestry, giving priority to the multiple social functions. The proposed changes in forest legislation are part of the discussion on municipal forests and urban forestry in Poland, aiming once again to draw attention to the fact that they are almost ignored in the Polish legislation. The indicated areas for improvements and supplements suggest issues the most important and urgent to solve, but they are not a comprehensive solution on this subject. In order to strengthen the supervision of urban forests in Poland, it is essential to consider the restoration of central supervision, coor− dinating activities of urban foresters by the development and implementation to the practice unified legal regulations, as well as to give wide autonomy to cities.
... Understanding of the mechanisms of creation, maintenance, management and conservation has become imperative. The governance of urban forests-a dynamic that makes governments, communities, businesses and landowners, among others, interact in an iterative and co-evolutionary process-is only now just starting to grow (Bentsen et al. 2010;Jim 2011;Kronenberg 2015;Lawrence et al. 2013;Schmied and Pillmann 2003). ...
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The Porto Metropolitan Area is a region in northern Portugal with approximately 2000 km2. Almost 16 % of the Portuguese population lives in the area, which is structured around the municipality of Porto with 16 other municipalities included. The region is a jigsaw puzzle of urban, agricultural, and forest areas. The Porto Metropolitan Area Environmental Strategic Plan, a broad participatory regional planning process conducted from 2003 to 2008, concluded that major challenges ahead included the improvement of the green infrastructure (forest, riverside areas, and natural corridors), the need for education and training for sustainability, as well as more and better interinstitutional coordination. In order to tackle these vital regional issues several institutions, partners within the framework of the Porto Metropolitan Area Regional Centre of Expertise on Education for Sustainable Development, decided to collaborate in order to design and implement a flagship project. The FUTURE—the 100,000 trees project in the Porto Metropolitan Area is the outcome of this process. Its purpose is to create, restore and care for native urban forests in the region with active involvement of the main stakeholders (landowners, citizens, local governments, central government, companies, non-governmental organisations, and schools, among others). Our aim is to present the case study of this project describing its context, scale, institutional framework, actors and partnerships, resources and processes, highlighting its governance model.
... There have been a number of studies that have undertaken indepth reviews of tree protection regulation and its effects in urban areas. These studies have ranged from the country scale, such as the studies by Schmied and Pillmann (2003), and Profous and Loeb (1990), covering cities across multiple countries in Europe, right down to the state and individual city scale (Cooper, 1996;Zhang et al., 2009). These studies outline a range of options for the protection of trees, from hard measures such as laws and ordinances to soft measures such as incentives. ...
Article
Trees in cities supply ecosystem services, including cooling, storm water quality management, habitat, visual screening and softening of built form. There is an expanding interdisciplinary field encompassing biodiversity, ecosystem services, and stewardship networks in cities. However most of this work focuses on public greenspace. While much work has been done to demonstrate that trees on private land are an important complement to the public urban forest, and to understand the social drivers of such, less is known about the governance of private greenspace in cities. Private land contributes to a significant component of a city’s tree cover, particularly in cities characterised by low-density residential suburbs. It is important to understand the mechanisms that govern private tree cover, given the pace and scale of urbanisation globally. We combined policy and spatial analysis to examine the influence of larger and denser forms of residential development on suburban tree cover and the scope of contemporary governance measures. We interrogated tree cover patterns in the rapidly densifying and consolidating city of Brisbane, Australia, to show that private residential tree cover is explained by dwelling density, housing age, terrain slope, high school education, and household income. Results show significantly (30%) less tree cover in low-density residential suburbs developed since the early 1990s. We develop five governance principles for reversing the decline of urban trees on private residential property that may be transferable to other rapidly developing cities in around the world.
... land use planning/zoning) (e.g. Schmied &Pillmann, 2003;Van Herzele et al., 2005b). ...
... Recent studies show an increase in public concern over urban trees (Escobedo et al. 2006;Zhang et al. 2007;Kirnbauera et al. 2009;UEA 2009). Nevertheless, the value of trees to urbanites is generally underestimated (Dwyer et al. 1992), and it currently only becomes necessary to establish the economic value of a tree when: * Legal regulations need to be applied for updating rates, taxes, or re-estimating land value (Schmied and Pillmann 2003). * There has been damage to the trees: wounds inflicted by third parties, disasters, floods, storms, or damages caused by the installation and maintenance of public service networks (Jim 2003). ...
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Urban trees perform a number of basic functions related to the environment and the welfare of city dwellers (ecological, recreational, psychological), although their benefits are not readily quantifiable. However, in certain situations, it is essential to assign an economic value to the trees. There are currently various methods for valuing the benefits of trees and greenspaces in human settlements, including statistical methods, the travel cost method, contingent valuation, the hedonic pricing method, and integrated methods. However, these methods are not used in official valuations of urban trees; in these cases, appraisal methods are used. The aim of this paper is to study the appraisal methods used for their detailed features and the possibilities of their application. The main conclusion of this review is that there are a number of methods with different types of application. The best method is selected according to tree location, type of land ownership, and the availability of data. Methods with a higher degree of applicability are CTLA, a parametric method of low difficulty, and Contato, a mixed method of medium difficulty. In any case, it is advisable to increase efforts to objectify the correction index in the case of parametric and mixed methods.
... In some cases, local laws and planning policies can favour amenity at the expense of biodiversity. For example, tree protection legislation is common in many countries (Schmied & Pillmann, 2003). Tree Preservation Orders (TPOs)-a particular legal mechanism derived from england-was introduced in the UK in 1943 by the Town and Country Interim Development Act (Booth, 2003). ...
Article
Amenity is a long-standing component of town planning and municipal governance. Biodiversity is a far more recent concept, yet interpreting the conservation mandate in a local context is a significant challenge for landscape and urban planners. This article explores the concepts of amenity and biodiversity and investigates their compatibility in an urbanising world. Their historical expression in law and urban planning is considered, and empirical research on the links between human well-being, green environments and biodiversity is reviewed. We argue that amenity is an underutilised vehicle for achieving biodiversity goals in line with new urban greening paradigms because of its long-standing currency with planning professionals. However, conflict between biodiversity and amenity can arise in practice, depending on a city’s social–ecological context. These challenges can be overcome through setting clear objectives, utilising scientific evidence, engaging with local communities and ensuring landscape policy is sufficiently flexible to accommodate local needs and characteristics.
... Laws are necessary both to protect trees from removal and to protect residents from hazardous trees. For example, a large majority of the 34 European cities surveyed by Schmied and Pillmann (2003) had by-laws in place for protecting trees in public and private areas. If trees were protected, through tree preservation orders for example, felling was subject to official authorisation. ...
Article
Optimisation of the benefits from urban forestry and greening to urban dwellers and the environment rests on proactive and appropriate management planning, implementation and resourcing. Yet, lessons from the developed world show marked variability in development and adoption of urban tree and green space (UTGS) strategic plans and systematic monitoring and maintenance. Although financial and human resources for UTGS may be constrained in developing world contexts, there is no knowledge of the extent to which local authorities engage in appropriate and timely planning, management and monitoring. Here we examine the UTGS resourcing, planning, maintenance and integration across 28 local municipalities in the two poorest provinces in South Africa. It was revealed that most local municipalities were not managing their UTGS in a planned or systematic manner due to constraining factors such as insufficient funds, insufficient personnel, lack of equipment and lack of political support. Only 7% of the surveyed municipalities had an urban tree management plan and an estimate of the urban tree stock; 32% had tree policies; 21% had tree planting schedules; 11% had tree maintenance schedules. Over 65% claimed to engage other stakeholders in tree planting, but much was passive receipt of trees for planting rather than citizen engagement around species, places and values. Generally, the prevalence of most planning and maintenance elements increased with increasing size of the municipality and the presence of personnel specifically for UTGS management. It is likely that the prevalence of planning and maintenance functions will increase with greater political support from municipal councillors which may also decrease funding challenges.
... Most relevant legislation exists at municipal level, and deals with tree protection and restriction of tree removal. For example, the large majority of 34 European cities surveyed by Schmied and Pillmann (2003) have laws in place for protecting trees in public and private areas. If trees are protected, for example through tree preservation orders, felling is subject to official authorisation. ...
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The contributions of forests, trees and other urban green areas to the quality of urban life and the environment can be significant. When existing good practices are built upon, urban forestry has shown significant contributions to the quality of urban life and the environment, together with other types of comprehensive green-space planning and management concepts. Through agroforestry systems, for example, urban forestry and urban agriculture join forces in supporting livelihoods. A review of the current status of urban forestry research and development, policy-making, implementation and education across the globe shows that advances have indeed been made. Urban forestry has been developed in response to the call for innovative, comprehensive concepts that promote the multiple benefits of urban green space. Sometimes named urban and peri-urban forestry, the concept encompasses the planning and management of forests and other tree resources in and close to urban areas and thus integrates different parts of urban green structures.
... These policies address goals such as controlling urban sprawl (Geneletti 2012;McDonald et al. 2009), optimizing urban economic structure (Liu et al. 2011;Economou and Mitoula 2013), and increasing urban space (Bengston et al. 2004;Poggio and Vrščaj 2009). In Europe, urban green space protection regulations and legal requirements are widely established in many cities, e.g., Amsterdam, Berlin, Paris, Hamburg, Cologne, and Milan (Schmied and Pillmann 2003). In American cities, all lands, public or private, are regulated by the American Endangered Species Act (ESA) and are held responsible for protecting imperiled species and subspecies (Olive and Minichiello 2013). ...
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The balance between overall economic growth and protection of the environment is an important research topic of urban sustainable development. In 2005, Shenzhen promulgated the regulations, Administrative Regulations of Shenzhen Municipality on the Essential Area for Protecting Ecology [abbreviated as essential area policy (EAP)], which limited development to protect ecology. In order to evaluate the effects of this policy, a computer model was used to simulate land-use change based on a land-use change survey dataset of Shenzhen, a typical rapid urbanization area, under four scenarios. The writers aimed at developing a clear understanding of not only the effects of land protection policies for urban ecosystems but of a well-grounded prospect for regionally coordinated development as well. Five landscape structure metrics were chosen to describe the landscape pattern, including (1) number of patches, (2) mean patch area, (3) landscape shape index, (4) aggregation index, and (5) contagion index. In calculating and comparing these landscape metrics, the results support the conclusion that facing pressure from urban sprawl, agroecological land, water, and other nature-dominated areas shrink to high-altitude regions, and many small landscape patches disappear altogether, especially in the mixed periurban region in each scenario. The rapid growth of construction zones causes landscape fragmentation and renders the shape of the urban landscape more regular and smooth. However, EAP can keep small land patches from being developed into built-up areas; improve the percentage of agroecological land, water, and other nature-dominated areas within protected zones; and impel the relocation of these kinds of land-use from outside to inside the zone. The EAP affects the landscape pattern by increasing the mean area of each patch and the number of patches. If EAP were implemented in 2008, the number of patches and the landscape shape index would be relatively higher, whereas the aggregation and contagion indices would be lower than those resulting from nonimplementation. If EAP were implemented in 2008 but abolished in 2013, the number of patches and the landscape shape index would decrease, while the aggregation and contagion indices would increase. In contrast, if EAP were implemented in 2013, the number of patches and the landscape shape index would increase, while the aggregation and contagion indices would decrease. Delimitation of the boundary of an essential area is a critical factor in designing an effective policy. This paper enables land planners to understand the effects of EAP and highlights its importance as a tool for policymakers and stakeholders.
... The cumulative and mounting pressure on urban trees due to housing intensification, climate change and the global spread of tree pathogens (Nowak & Greenfield, 2012;Pauleit et al., 2005;Tubby & Webber, 2010), emphasises the importance of policy and legislative mechanisms to protect and enhance urban tree cover. In a number of cities, such as Canberra (Australia), Hamburg (Germany) and Milan (Italy), protection policies involve the blanket protection of all trees above a certain height or trunk size (Schmied & Pillmann, 2003;Stagoll, Lindenmayer, Knight, Fischer, & Manning, 2012). Other cities only protect specific individual trees. ...
Article
As an increasing proportion of the global human population resides in urban areas, urban forests are becoming both more important and more threatened. In many cities urban tree cover conflicts with strategies for urban intensification, and is being reduced due to inadequate protection. Here, we assess the effectiveness of one type of tree protection policy used by a number of cities worldwide: the case-by-case protection of specific individual trees. We use Auckland, New Zealand as a case study, where the main form of urban tree protection is now through Auckland Council's Schedule of Notable Trees. We investigated: (1) the species composition of the listed trees, and (2) the relative contribution of geographical variables (suburb age, dwelling density, socio-economic deprivation, and tree cover) in explaining spatial variation in listed-tree density. Tree cover (>8 m) in central Auckland was 6% of the land area, 63.2% of which was on private land. Of these trees, approximately 15% were protected. The tree species protected reflected cultural heritage; popular species were protected in large numbers, whilst only a single individual of a threatened native species was protected. The highest numbers of listed trees were in older suburbs, those with higher density housing, and those with lower levels of socio-economic deprivation. A low correlation between vegetation cover and listed-tree density shows that the proportion of trees protected varies substantially in different areas. We conclude that this case-by-case tree protection strategy provides insufficient protection for Auckland's urban biodiversity, but better implementation would improve biodiversity and social outcomes.
... Legislation has been widely used to protect trees and to develop urban forests for a very long time in Europe (Schmied & Pillmann, 2003). In the United States, the earliest tree ordinance was drafted around 1700 by William Penn, in order to set standards for tree planting in some of the early settlements around Philadelphia (Zube, 1971). ...
... Many local governments have developed and implemented various policies to protect trees in urban areas, including tree planting and maintenance programs, tree removal regulations, and minimum landscaping area requirements (Schmied and Pillmann, 2003;Conway and Urbani, 2007;Sung, 2012). Previous studies demonstrated that a local tree protection policy helps reduce LST in urban areas. ...
... In a review, Pillmann and Schmied (2003) listed the available information on tree protection legislation in Europe. Seventy-four percent of the investigated cities have laws protecting trees on public and/or private areas. ...
Article
The investigation of the urban street trees was undertaken in the oasis city Mendoza, Argentina. The analysis included 1,680 urban street trees in their structure (species, age, and spatial structure), vitality and irrigation conditions. A questioning of 120 residents analysed the perception and acceptance of the urban trees by urban dwellers. Different urban structures, residential, commercial and residential mixed structures and the city centre were investigated. The results show clearly the insufficient maintenance of the trees (composition, aging, irrigation, pruning etc.) and damaged irrigation system with leads to a loss of vitality. The questioning showed that easily recognisable problems (insufficient pruning etc.) are more reflected by people than long term problems (irrigation). There is a different reflection of urban street tree problems in the different urban areas, related to status, information level and management. The maintenance and relation to urban street trees was best in the residential area. Not only better maintenance of the trees but also a clearer recognition of street tree problems by residents and by the responsible municipal institutions is urgently needed. A public-private partnership and more environmental education could help to overcome the problems.
... A few factors are also found to be associated with the unevenness of urban vegetation but their impacts can only be observed on larger scales. At an intra-city administrative level such as a borough, public agencies play an important role in the distribution of trees, for example when tree protection regulations restrict the removal, pruning or planting of street trees (Schmied and Pillmann, 2003). In addition, past or present land-management public policies associated with different jurisdictional units can affect the distribution of urban vegetation (Landry and Pu, 2010). ...
Article
Urban vegetation is shown to be unevenly distributed across cities and there is evidence of disparities in benefits provided by vegetation and of public health problems induced by urban heat islands. In order to improve vegetation cover, it remains crucial to understand the underpinning of such unevenness. In this paper, we investigate in Montreal (Canada) how the built environment, sociodemographic factors and administrative boroughs influence tree and lawn cover in public and residential land. The analysis was conducted at the dissemination area (DA) level, a Canadian census unit containing about 400–700 people. Six vegetation indicators were used as dependent variables: the proportion of a DA covered by trees/shrubs, lawn and total vegetation; the proportion of streets covered by trees/shrubs and the proportion of residential yards covered by trees/shrubs and total vegetation. Three sets of independent variables were studied: the built environment, sociodemographics and borough names. We used spatial autoregressive models to control for dependence and the spatial autoregressive term explained a large amount of variability in vegetation cover. The built-environment variables tend to have higher effects than the socio-demographic variables when predicting the three DA vegetation indicators, backyard vegetation, and to a lesser degree, street tree/shrub cover. In particular, population density is associated negatively to all indicators but positively to street tree cover. Socio-demographics are substantial in the explanation of the distribution of street trees, especially the presence of recent immigrants (negative effect) and of university degree holders (positive effect). These findings call for appropriate greening programs adapted to the local socio-demographic profile. The significance of boroughs also suggests the need for further research on the impact of within-city administrative hierarchies on the unevenness of urban vegetation.
... To protect trees in urban areas, local government has adopted various tree protection policies, such as tree planting program and minimum landscape area (Kim & Ellis, 2009;McPherson, Simpson, Xiao, & Wu, 2011;Schmied & Pillmann, 2003). One of the widely used policies is a tree removal permit regulation that requires a landowner to obtain a permit to remove trees from private lands. ...
... Significant trees are classified using size-based criteria (Table 1) to provide ease of interpretation by leaseholders, whilst recognising that the rapid removal of multiple significant trees would potentially reduce both amenity and ecological values created by large trees (Environment ACT, 2002a). The sizes that define a significant tree are larger than those reported for European countries (Schmied and Pillmann, 2003), which reduces the number of trees that fall subject to the Act, but also reflect the relatively fast growth rate of many Australian tree species. ...
Article
Trees on leased land provide an important contribution to Canberra's urban forest and consequently the Australian Capital Territory (ACT) Government introduced legislation to protect urban trees on leased land from unwarranted removal under the Tree Protection (Interim Scheme) Act 2001. This tree protection legislation applies to significant trees, classified using size-based criteria, on leased land for urban and other non-rural purposes. Responsibility resides with the ACT Government to preserve and protect significant trees on leased land in Canberra, until such time as removal is warranted and prudent. On Saturday 18 January 2003, 2 years after the introduction of the tree protection legislation, Canberra experienced a state of emergency when major bushfires swept through the bush–urban interface and penetrated into the western urban area subsequently destroying or damaging over 500 houses. There was a substantial increase in requests lodged under the Act immediately after the fires, but by February 2004 the number of requests returned to February 2002 levels which suggests leaseholder response to the fire declines relatively quickly. The percentage of requests approved (88%) remained relatively constant which indicates that the increased number of applications were for reasons that were considered valid under the Act although it is unlikely that these concerns only became valid during the month proceeding the fire. Dominant genera removed each February from 2002 to 2004 were similar; however, Eucalyptus species have shown a small but significant relative increase although there are insufficient data to conclude this increase indicates an increased aversion to this genus. Future management needs to consider the community perception of trees and temporal reaction to major events.
... Tim Van de Voorde, William De Genst, and Frank Canters et al., 2000; Flanagan and Civco, 2001; Yang et al., 2003). A comprehensive survey held among 19 large European cities showed that 13 of them already use some form of remotely sensed data, three of which use data from satellite platforms (Schmied and Pillmann, 2003). Thematic mapping from remotely sensed data is typically based on image classification. ...
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In this paper, three post-classification techniques are proposed to improve the information content, thematic accuracy, and spatial structure of pixel-based classifications of complex urban areas. A shadow-removal technique based on a neural network that was trained using the output of a soft classification is proposed to assign shadow pixels to meaningful land-cover classes. Knowledge-based rules are suggested to correct wrongly classified pixels and to improve the overall accuracy of the land-cover map. Finally, a region-based filter is applied to reduce high-frequency structural clutter. The three techniques were successfully applied to a pixel-based classification of a QuickBird image covering the city of Ghent, Belgium, improving the kappa index-of-agreement from 0.82 to 0.86 and transforming the shadow pixels into meaningful land-cover information.
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Among the variety of factors that affect the protection of urban trees, such as public awareness, population density and level of development, legal regulation has an important role. In this chapter, I focus on the protection of street trees under Israeli law and on its implementation. A recent report indicates that more than 375,000 urban trees were removed by license in Israel between 2013 and 2018, a yearly average of more than 60,000 trees. The effectiveness of legal protection depends on three key factors beyond the law itself: (1) the actors who issue permits, (2) the process they follow and (3) enforcement of sanctions against offenders. Looking at these factors may enhance understanding of where improvement can be made in the links within the legal protection of street trees in Israel.
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Objectives: This study evaluated antimicrobial activity of atorvastatin, pravastatin, rosuvastatin, and simvastatin against oral bacteria, and the interaction of simvastatin with standard antimicrobials (amoxicillin and metronidazole). Methods: Minimal inhibitory concentration assays were performed with Porphyromonas gingivalis, Prevotella intermedia, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinomyces odontolyticus, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mitis, Streptococcus salivarius, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Streptococcus gordonii; checkerboard microdilution assays between simvastatin and standard antimicrobials; monospecies and multispecies biofilms. Results: Simvastatin showed the best antimicrobial activity against most species (MIC range from 3.12 to 25 μg/mL), highlighting the sensitivity of P. gingivalis. In the checkerboard assay, synergistic interaction was found between simvastatin and amoxicillin against S. oralis and S. sanguinis. P. gingivalis biofilm was inhibited by simvastatin at 10 and 50x Minimal inhibitory concentration, with similar effects to metronidazole. For multispecies biofilm, SMV reduced the biofilm metabolic activity (79%) and total counts (87%), comparable to amoxicillin. Simvastatin also reduced bacterial counts of Veilonnella parvula, P. gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, P. intermedia, and Capnocytophaga ochracea in the multispecies biofilm. Conclusions: Simvastatin showed antimicrobial and antibiofilm activity against oral bacteria and may contribute to the control of dysbiosis, and may be considered in clinical studies as an adjuvant in the treatment of periodontitis.
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Recent research has indicated an increase in the likelihood and impact of tree failure. The potential for trees to fail relates to various biomechanical and physical factors. Strikingly, there seems to be an absence of tree risk assessment methods supported by observations, despite an increasing availability of variables and parameters measured by scientists, arborists and practitioners. Current urban tree risk assessments vary due to differences in experience, training, and personal opinions of assessors. This stresses the need for a more objective method to assess the hazardousness of urban trees. The aim of this study is to provide an overview of factors that influence tree failure including stem failure, root failure and branch failure. A systematic literature review according to the PRISMA guidelines has been performed in databases, supported by backward referencing: 161 articles were reviewed revealing 142 different factors which influenced tree failure. A meta-analysis of effect sizes and p-values was executed on those factors which were associated directly with any type of tree failure. Bayes Factor was calculated to assess the likelihood that the selected factors appear in case of tree failure. Publication bias was analysed visually by funnel plots and results by regression tests. The results provide evidence that the factors Height and Stem weight positively relate to stem failure, followed by Age, DBH, DBH squared times H, and Cubed DBH (DBH ³ ) and Tree weight. Stem weight and Tree weight were found to relate positively to root failure. For branch failure no relating factors were found. We recommend that arborists collect further data on these factors. From this review it can further be concluded that there is no commonly shared understanding, model or function available that considers all factors which can explain the different types of tree failure. This complicates risk estimations that include the failure potential of urban trees.
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Trees are important to human and the environment, and they must be preserved for the benefit of mankind. The Government of Malaysia has realized that the country’s rapid development is killing the trees especially due to construction activities. On that basis, the Tree Preservation Order (TPO) (Act 172) was introduced in 1996. However, from time to time, there were cases whereby the trees that were supposed to be preserved have been cut down for development without consent of the local authorities. This situation has raised questions about the effectiveness of implementing TPOs, especially pertaining to construction projects. Hence, this conceptual paper proposes a framework for the development of effective TPO implementation model in construction projects. It consists of four key components that must be taken into account to ensure better implementation. The formation of this conceptual framework was based on facts and knowledge obtained through literature review and document analysis.
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A total of 128 Polish professionals (active and future designers, construction employees, and public officials) were questioned about their awareness and experience of tree protection practice in a survey conducted during tree diagnostic training sessions. According to the experienced professionals, trees were not protected at all in a significant proportion of projects. In the experience of nearly two thirds of professionals, trees on construction sites were protected in less than 60% of the projects in which they were involved. Half of respondents estimated that in over 60% of the projects where any protection was applied it was insufficient. Constraints related to the shape of the construction site, lack of funds, and insufficient knowledge were the main factors leading to the lack of tree protection. The main reason for any tree protection being in place was the legal regulations. Although respondents did not perceive the regulations as a source of knowledge, they believed that effective enforcement of penalties could be one crucial way to protect trees on construction sites, alongside specialist support. According to the results of the survey, awareness of the value of trees did not lead to tree protection. Respondents rated highly their knowledge about the influence of soil properties on tree survival and development, the growth and reaction of trees to damage, and tree protection in construction projects, but nevertheless admitted that they lacked knowledge of the technical issues of tree protection.
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Sustainable urban forests require tree acceptance and support. Two groups of respondents: professionals working in urban green areas and individuals with no professional connection with trees revealed their attitudes towards trees by assessing statements in a survey questionnaire. Tree benefits were perceived as much more important than the annoyance. However, 6% of the non-professionals found only negative aspects of trees, proving to be arboriphobes. No arboriphobes and no “tree sceptics” were among the professionals. Around 40% of the respondents in the two groups found the number of trees in the surrounding areas too low. The nuisance caused by trees was seen as more disturbing by younger and lower educated professionals. Women tended to assess trees as more attractive and as having a stronger influence on social relations than men. Men dominated the “tree indifferent” group. The attractiveness of trees and their impact on social relations were related to the place of residence and the level of education among the non-professionals. The level of education of the non-professionals was also connected to being clustered into one of the four abovementioned groups of respondents. A majority of medium and big city dwellers as well as a minority of villagers were in the “tree liking” cluster.
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Heritage trees are naturel heritages. Heritage trees are typically a large, individual tree with unique value, which is considered irreplaceable. The major criteria for heritage tree designation are age, rarity, and size, as well as aesthetic, botanical, ecological, and historical value. Today many researcher’s focus on recording,, protection and management strategies of heritage trees. Counties have different strategies about heritage trees. The aims of the study are; (1) Preserving the characteristics of being heritage trees, (2) Present suggestions for record, protection and management strategies of heritage trees in Turkey.
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This work presents a tool for assessing urban trees which allows getting two basic requirements in public management: reduction of costs and simplicity. For this purpose, a methodology based on a multivariate statistical analysis is presented. It allows establishing type-trees in urban trees areas representing and grouping homogenous species and dasometric characteristics simultaneously. Field work was carried out in two different locations: the city of Santiago del Estero (Argentina) and the Arboretum of Madrid Forestry Engineering School (Spain). The methodology groups the trees together in tree groups through the discriminant analysis technique. For each group, the most frequent species in Santiago del Estero were: Citrus auriantum, Tabebuia impetiginosa and Tipuana tipu. In Madrid they were the Ligustrum japonicum, Platanus x hybrida and Populus alba var. bolleana. One type-tree per group was determined, which was representative of all urban trees of that group. The economic value of each type-tree was calculated for each area by the capitalization method. Their unit value is the appraised value of the specimen per unit size. The price per unit of size can be applied to any urban tree in its group, allowing a quick calculation of its basic economic value, low cost and applicable to most valuation formulas. The methodology described allows simplifying the calculation of the economic value of urban trees located in different locations.
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Urban public gardens are key elements in raising life quality in cities. In these human influenced environments plants suffer abiotic stress from different factors, thus their development is rather more conditioned than in natural habitats. Long time conservation of urban forests sometimes is at the decision of current municipal authorities, then the absence of a formal valuation or characterization may be the cause of losing such green areas, despite they have acquired important social, cultural and historical values, even at a local scale. From data field collected like diameter, development stage or threats and alterations, in this work is presented a characterization of an urban forest in the town of Ciutadella de Menorca. The analysis and discussion of this information allows to asses the conservation status and also the proposal of several actions for the improvement of the current situation and for a positive long term management.
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Different traditions of management, planning and design of urban forests and other green spaces each have their own specific information needs and knowledge cultures (see Chap. 13). Management strategies provide a framework for management decisions, based on available information, which means that reliable, comparable and up-to-date information is crucial for decision making. The need for reliable information on various aspects of urban forest resources and their use has led to the development of different methods, tools and systems to help collect, compile and use available information. Information in urban forestry is needed to develop management concepts (see Chap. 13), make policy decisions (see Chap. 5), to determine the benefits of urban green space (see Chap. 4), to determine how green space should look (see Chap. 6), to decide which trees to plant where and how (see Chap. 9-12), and for many other reasons. However, depending on its purpose information is needed on different scales and in different levels of detail. Local, more detailed information about, for example: tree and plant species, the number of users, and management costs, is primarily useful for green-space and tree management. An overview of all green space in a city is more useful for city development plans and city green-space policies. Information on national or even international level can be used in urban development strategies, health strategies, etc. Besides the difference in scale, information is quite often available and used for certain topics only. For example, information on the biodiversity of a city's green spaces can be available and used in great detail, while information on environmental benefits such as reduction of air-pollution is virtually non-existent in the same city.
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Following a brief overview of the historical evolution of tree ordinances in the United States, this paper focuses on the devel- opment of tree ordinances in the state of Alabama to demonstrate how the tree ordinances evolve into law and the role such ordinances have on urban trees. Even though tree ordinances have a long history in the United States, they have been rapidly developing since the 1970s. Among the 100 municipalities that have some type of tree ordinance in Alabama, based on this investigation, the major respon- sibilities of tree ordinances include: having a tree commission (board), defining tree planting, removal and replacement of trees on pub- lic land, public tree protection and care, tree species selection, and dead tree removal on public and private property. Considering the broadness and complexity of urban trees, this paper indicates tree ordinances provide not only a legal framework, but also an effective tool to engage public participation and awareness of urban trees in the process of formulating, implementing, and amending of the tree ordinances. Development of tree ordinances requires government support, citizen participation, and consideration of local resources.
Baumschutz in NRW - Schlechte Zeiten für Stadtbäume
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  • Deutschland
Beyond beautification: environmental benefits of community trees
  • Casey
Urban Green Space Management Information - Processing and use of remote sensing images and scanner data
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  • W Pillmann
  • K Kellner
  • P Stadler
Beyond beautification: economic benefits of community trees
  • Kissinger
Das (Wiener) Baumschutzgesetz — eine politische und naturschützerische Notwendigkeit
  • Stanzl
Wie kÖnnen Gemeinden Baumschutzgesetze gestalten? In: 1. NÖ Baumtag, Schiltern
  • W Suske