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Learning Potential in high IQ children: The contribution of dynamic assessment to the identification of gifted children

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In recent years, models of giftedness have incorporated personal and social variables which influence IQ, rather than taking IQ into account exclusively. Among the various options presented in this context, authors have proposed dynamic assessment techniques as a method for revealing the potential capacity in different groups, independently of the IQ they present. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in two samples of Spanish children from the urban middle class previously identified as gifted and of normal intelligence, three basic assumptions common to studies in this line of research: (1) that there are significant differences in Learning Potential between gifted children and children with average IQ; (2) that the differences are apparent in diverse tasks, and (3) that Learning Potential significantly predicts the high/average status of the subjects. 127 children from 6 to 11 years old (64 high-IQ and 63 average-IQ) were evaluated using different dynamic tests. Significant intergroup differences were obtained and the tests were shown to have high predictive power.Research Highlights► The Learning Potential Assessment has been used to identify children with high ability in population Disadvantaged. ► This application is based on the assumption that children with high ability are more L P regardless of their IQ. ► These assumptions have not been proven in not-disadvantaged populations. ► This work shows that children with high IQ have a greater potential for learning that children of normal intelligence. ► Moreover, this potential is shown in different tasks. ► These results validate the initial use of these techniques.
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Learning Potential in high IQ children: The contribution of dynamic assessment to
the identication of gifted children
M. Dolores Calero , García-Martin M. Belen, M. Auxiliadora Robles
University of Granada, Spain
abstractarticle info
Article history:
Received 13 September 2009
Received in revised form 24 November 2010
Accepted 30 November 2010
Keywords:
Learning Potential
Dynamic assessment
Giftedness
High-IQ children
In recent years, models of giftedness have incorporated personal and social variables which inuence IQ,
rather than taking IQ into account exclusively. Among the various options presented in this context, authors
have proposed dynamic assessment techniques as a method for revealing the potential capacity in different
groups, independently of the IQ they present. The aim of the present study was to investigate, in two samples
of Spanish children from the urban middle class previously identied as gifted and of normal intelligence,
three basic assumptions common to studies in this line of research: (1) that there are signicant differences in
Learning Potential between gifted children and children with average IQ; (2) that the differences are apparent
in diverse tasks, and (3) that Learning Potential signicantly predicts the high/average status of the subjects.
127 children from 6 to 11 years old (64 high-IQ and 63 average-IQ) were evaluated using different dynamic
tests. Signicant intergroup differences were obtained and the tests were shown to have high predictive
power.
Published by Elsevier Inc.
1. Introduction
When Terman introduced the concept of giftedness in 1916
(Terman, 1925), the criterion for its denition was purely normative
(IQ score), and this shaped the reductionist concept of high capacities
which, in practice, is still prevalent today (Borland, 2005). With
Sternberg and Gardner's contributions (Gardner, 1983; Sternberg,
1985), the most recent models of giftedness establish a network of
interrelations between different types of construct and modulating
variables (Coleman, 1995; Mönks & Katzko, 2005). Thus, Gagné
(2003), Sternberg's WICS model (Sternberg, 2005; Sternberg &
Grigorenko, 2002) and the MMG Munich Model of Giftedness (Heller,
Perleth, & Lim, 2005) conceive giftedness as a multifactor construct of
abilities with social and meta-cognitive modulating parameters, as
well as luck.
Most of these approaches support the view that giftedness
involves the existence of aptitudes which, in conjunction with certain
personality characteristics and a favourable environment, induce in
individuals the need and capacity to learn rapidly and efciently by
themselves in different elds (Calero, García-Martín, & Gómez, 2007;
Coleman & Cross, 2001; Freeman, 2005; Jeltova & Grigorenko, 2005).
Underlying these new conceptualizations is a paradigm of
identication of gifted children in which high capacity is acknowl-
edged to show in different ways and to require more varied and
reliable forms of assessment (Van Tassel-Baska, Feng, & Evans, 2007).
This view also derives from the perception that diverse minorities are
underrepresented in giftedness programs in countries of the devel-
oped world. According to such authors, actual and potential execution
should be distinguished (Cross & Coleman, 2005) and attention
should be paid to concepts such as emergent giftedness(Rea, 2001),
potential giftedness (Babayeva & Voiskunovsky, 2003; Leitis, 2000), or
high-potential children (Lohman, 2005). The implication of this
approach is that intelligence and/or creativity are regulated by other
abilities, such as exibility and self-regulation, and/or by specic
socio-environmental variables which may help to optimize these
qualities or conversely, maintain them at normal or low levels of
functioning. While some authors have developed performance-based
instruments (Van Tassel-Baska, 2005; Van Tassel-Baska, Feng, & de
Brux, 2007), others defend the use of dynamic assessment to identify
children with high capacities in underrepresented communities. This
is based on the assumption that individuals who show poor
performance for cultural or environmental reasons may be detected
if their performance is shown to improve signicantly after intensive
training on the task concerned (Joseph & Ford, 2006; Laing & Kahmi,
2002; Naglieri & Ford, 2005; Noel & Edmunds, 2007; Peña, Gillam,
Malek, & Ruiz-Felter, 2006; Stormont, Stebbins, & Holliday, 2001;
Strong & Delgado, 2005; Swanson, 2006).
Although several dynamic tests focus on specic aspects, partic-
ularly of the educational curriculum, the techniques used in this
context generally involve non-verbal tasks based on inductive
reasoning, probably with the aim of establishing cognitive modi-
ability as a general capacity that each person possesses, as claimed by
Learning and Individual Differences 21 (2011) 176181
Corresponding author. Campus of Cartuja, University of Granada, 18071 Granada,
Spain. Tel.: +34 58243754.
E-mail address: mcalero@ugr.es (M.D. Calero).
1041-6080/$ see front matter. Published by Elsevier Inc.
doi:10.1016/j.lindif.2010.11.025
Contents lists available at ScienceDirect
Learning and Individual Differences
journal homepage: www.elsevier.com/locate/lindif
Author's personal copy
Feuerstein (Feuerstein, Feuerstein, Falik, & Rand, 2002; Feuerstein,
Rand, & Hoffman, 1979). The standard methodological procedure is
pre-testtrainingpost-test. Training uses feedback about implemen-
tation, contingent reinforcement and verbal signs, and effects of the
training have been shown to be task-specic(Brown & Campione,
1984; Fernández-Ballesteros & Calero, 2001). It should be noted that
while some studies show that pretest scores correlate with IQ, gain
scores (measure of Learning Potential) in some samples (low
performance) do not correlate with IQ (Lidz & Van der Aalsvoort,
2005; Resing, De Jong, Bosma, & Tunteler, 2009).
Two types of analyses may be carried out on the results of these
tests: quantitative (gain or transfer score), basically consisting of the
difference between post-test and pre-test, or a typological approach
(Budoff, 1987). This involves classifying participants as Non-gainers,
Gainers and High Scorers, thus differentiating between signicant and
non-signicant gains. This type of statistical calculation has been used
frequently (see Budoff, 1987 or Schöttke, Bartram, & Wield, 1993)to
establish prognostic groups in populations with learning difculties,
and has been shown to be effective and reliable in other groups, such
as old people and patients with schizophrenia (Waldorf, Wiedl, &
Schöttke, 2009).
The use of dynamic assessment in the context of giftedness
originates with studies by Boling and Day (1993) and Passow and
Frasier (1996). Their approach was based on the fact that dynamic
tests had proved to be valid for the identication of children of low
intellectual level and/or with learning difculties, and for planning
subsequent intervention (Strong & Delgado, 2005; Swanson, 1995).
Studies also indicated that training considerably improved the
performance levels of different groups of subjects (e.g. Hickson &
Skuy, 1990; for a review see the meta-analysis by Swanson & Lussier,
2001). As a result, the methodology is increasingly applied in
countries with established attention programs for gifted children
(e.g. the USA). For instance, Borland and Wright (1994), Calvo (2004),
Stanley (1995), Lidz and Macrine (2001), and Matthews and Foster
(2005) used dynamic assessment to identify gifted children (from
minority groups) for participation in gifted programs. The published
research is scarce and focuses on traditionally underrepresented
populations (primarily ethnic minorities). However, the results show
that the methodology was successful at identifying children who
passed unnoticed through traditional intelligence tests.
Kanevsky's (2000) studyofpre-schoolchildrenwithanIQ
between 110 and 150 demonstrated that gifted children possessed a
broader ZPD
1
as well as faster learning capacity and higher
generalization from such learning. Moreover, the learning demon-
strated by the children was associated with high levels of motivation,
meta-cognition, self-regulation and exibility, a nding which has
been conrmed in other studies (Calero, García-Martín, Jiménez,
Kazén, & Araque, 2007). Subsequently, Kanevsky and Geake (2004)
found signicant qualitative and quantitative differences in Learning
Potential between gifted and non-gifted children. However, these
results were not very conclusive due to the small sample size (5
gifted/20 non-gifted). Other authors have proposed applying perfor-
mance tests involving problem-solving processes or based on learning
acquisition, but always as a method for detecting children with high
potential in disadvantaged groups (Van Tassel-Baska, 2005; Van
Tassel-Baska, Feng, & de Brux, 2007; Van Tassel-Baska, Feng, & Evans,
2007).
Two assumptions underlie the dynamic assessment studies to
date: rst, gifted children are those who obtain the highest gain as a
result of the training, independently of their IQ. Second, the potential
learning capacitymeasured by the studies is a global capacity
(manifested in different tasks) and may subsequently be used as a
global indicator of high capacity. The aim of the present study was to
investigate the validity of both these assumptions in a sample of
Spanish children. The children, who were not socially disadvantaged,
had been previously identied as gifted, and were compared with
children of average intelligence.
Working hypotheses were as follows:
(1) Children with high IQ will present a signicantly higher pre-
test score than those of average intelligence in each and all of
the dynamic tests used.
(2) Children with high IQ will present a signicantly higher
Learning Potential, measured through gain scores (post/pre-
test difference) in each and all of the dynamic tests used.
(3) The gain scores obtained in the different Learning Potential
tests employed will be signicantly predictive of the estab-
lished classication status (high IQ vs. average IQ).
2. Method
2.1. Participants
The sample comprised of 127 Spanish middle-class urban-
dwelling children divided into two groups (high-IQ vs. average IQ).
In the high-IQ group, N = 64 (41 female and 23 male, Mage =8.18 -
years (SD= 1.859); age range: 711 years). IQ scores range from 136
to 160 (M IQ= 144.59; SD = 8.01) measured by the K-BIT test
(Kaufman & Kaufman, 1997). In the average IQ group, N = 63 (34
female and 29 male, Mage= 8.25 years (SD=1.859); age range: 7
11 years). IQ scores range from 90 to 120 (MIQ=101.96, SD = 9.29).
2.2. Materials and procedure
2.2.1. Materials
The Brief Intelligence Test (K-BIT)(Kaufman & Kaufman, 1997)
consists of two subtests, Vocabulary and Matrices. Used to evaluate an
age range from 4 to 90 years, the test provides typical scores for each
subtest and a Global Composite IQ. The original version has high
reliability and validity ratings. In the Spanish adaptation, coefcients
of reliability for Vocabulary range from 0.76 to 0.94 in the test age-
range (490 years); from 0.74 to 0.93 for Matrices and from 0.82 to
0.96 for the Composite IQ. With regard to validity, the K-BIT
Composite IQ has a correlation of 0.80 with the WISC-R global IQ,
and of 0.75 with the WAIS-R.
Learning Potential (L.P.) was evaluated using the following three
tests from the LPAD (Feuerstein et al., 1979), one of the few dynamic
assessment techniques adapted to the Spanish population.
Positions Test(Calero & Navarro, 2003). This is a version of the
Position Fixation Test (Rey, 1968) designed to evaluate visualspatial
memory, adapted by Feuerstein et al. (1979) and adapted again for
the Spanish population with a dynamic training-within-test format by
Calero and Navarro (2003). The examiner presents ve crosses drawn
on a grid with 25 squares and the subject attempts to reproduce the
positions by marking them on a blank grid. After each failed the
trainer provides more assistance with increasingly precise strategic
clues. The gain score (equal to posttest) is based on how much
assistance the child does not require to resolve each model.
The Organizer Test(Feuerstein et al., 1979). This test evaluates
the ability to use given information, resolve logic problems through
inferential processes, and deduce connections through analysis of
complex verbal information. Tasks consist of closed logical systems,
with a series of assertions or premises in each item. The test has a pre-
test, training and post-test, with a parallel structure of 20 items in
each phase. During the training, the assessor directs the child towards
ways of compiling data using memory and organization. Three types
of scores are obtained: pre-test, post-test and gain scores.
Stencil Design Test(Feuerstein et al., 1979). This perceptual
structuration task involves the analysis and synthesis of a series of
1
Zone of Proximal Development (Vygotsky, 1978).
177M.D. Calero et al. / Learning and Individual Differences 21 (2011) 176181
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stimuli through the superimposition of patterns of different colors and
shapes. Using a total of 20 items, children are required to construct a
design identical to the one in the colored model, by means of
representation rather than manually. Five items are used for the pre-
test and 15 for the training and post-test. The training focuses on
visual transport and internal transformation of the stimulus. The gain
score is calculated according to the degree of help required to solve
each item.
The reliability of the three Learning Potential tests has been
assessed as part of Feuerstein's LPAD. Internal consistency and test
retest reliability ranged from .70 to .95 (For more details on scoring
and application techniques, see Feuerstein et al., 1979; Feuerstein
et al., 2002).
2.2.2. Procedure
High-IQ children were recruited through a local Association of
Spanish Parents of Gifted Children. Three of the children attended
accelerated learning programs. The others only received complemen-
tary tuition from their usual teacher. The children had been previously
identied as gifted by educational orientation teams using instru-
ments approved by the Autonomous Government of Andalusia
(Spain) (interviews with parents, WISC-R (Weschler, 1994), Raven's
Progressive Matrices (Rave, 1995) and school aptitude tests).
Average-IQ children were randomly selected in various schools
from students with an IQ of between 90 and 110 according to the
government orientation teams, using the WISC-R. Participation was
voluntary and subject to parents' informed consent. Children
presenting learning problems, hyperactivity or other psychological
conditions were excluded from both groups in order to control the
effects of other variables on the results.
All participants carried out the K-BIT and the dynamic tests in
three individual sessions lasting 50 min each. Presentation of the
different tests was counterbalanced to control learning effects.
The study followed a correlational two-group study design. The
independent variable was performance in the K-BIT; dependent
variables were pretest and gain scores in the L. P. tests.
In addition to the pre-test and gain scores, the results were
analyzed typologically. In this case, in line with previous studies
(Fernández-Ballesteros & Calero, 1993; Fernández-Ballesteros &
Calero, 1995), the calculation for the group of Gainers was based on
an improvement score of more than 1.5 SD with respect to the group
mean pre-test score. Calculation for the group of High Scorers was
based on the maximum range score with less than 1.5 SD with respect
to the group mean pre-test score.
The following statistical analyses were carried out: t-test, Chi-
square for classifying groups and Discriminant Analysis. All analyses
were performed using the statistics pack SPSS 15.1.
3. Results
As stated earlier, the objective of the study was to establish
differences in the Learning Potential between high-IQ children and
those of average intelligence in the three different L. P. tests.
Accordingly, we initially carried out an independent group mean
comparison using the t- test analysis. Fig. 1 shows pre and post-test
scores obtained by each group. As may be seen, the high-IQ children
present a signicantly higher initial score (pre-test) and nal score
(post-test) in each and all of the tests. Differences in the Positions
Test are apparent only in the post-test score, since the training-
within-test format does not involve a pre-test. Results of the t-test
statistical analysis for independent samples were as follows: Positions
Post (t
(1/125)
=18.82; p = .0001); Organizer Pre: (t
(1/125)
=11.94;
p= .0001); Organizer Post:(t
(1/125)
=26.36; p b= .0001); Stencil Design
Pre: (t
(1/125)
=1.28; p = 0.0001); Stencil Design Post, (t
(1/125)
=22.80;
pb=.0001).
Table 1 shows inter-group mean differences in gain scores for each
of the L. P. tests. Again, the high-IQ children achieve signicantly
higher gain scores in all three tests. Moreover, while the size of effect
for each score in each test is signicantly high for both groups, the size
of effect for the high-IQ group is considerably superior in all cases.
Table 2 shows group distribution according to the established
categories for each dynamic test. In this case, the high-IQ children
appear as Gainers or High Scorers in the three dynamic assessment
tests. By contrast, children of average IQ are classied as Non-gainers
in some of the tests, and greater variability exists in the more difcult
tests, that is, Organiser and Stencil Design. The Chi-square statistical
analysis is signicant for each classication performed.
Finally, Table 3 shows the results of the Step-by-Step Discriminant
Analysis to determine the predictive capacity of each test with regard
to the initial classication of each subject as Gifted or Non-gifted. As
may be seen, the three tests show predictive capacity, although Wilks
Lambda statistics for Step 3 are relatively low (.184, .165 and .150). In
view of these results, the most reliable predictor would be to take the
three tests together.
4. Discussion
As specied earlier, in addition to determining if there are
signicant differences between high and average IQ subjects in gain
scores in Dynamic tests, the study aimed to establish if such
differences occurred in diverse types of tasks and if the tests
discriminate between the Gifted and Non-gifted status.
Regarding the rst objective, the high-IQ children started with a
signicantly higher performance level in each of the tests. Addition-
ally, they showed a signicantly higher improvement than those of
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50
55
60
65
70
75
HIGH IQ AVERAGE IQ HIGH IQ AVERAGE IQ HIGH IQ AVERAGE IQ
STENCIL DESIGN*ORGANIZER*POSITIONS*
PRE POST
Fig. 1. Pre and post-score differences between high-IQ children and children with average intelligence.
178 M.D. Calero et al. / Learning and Individual Differences 21 (2011) 176181
Author's personal copy
average intelligence in all of the tests, on the basis of simple gain. This
is also conrmed by the fact that if children are classied according to
their gain scores, no gifted child is assigned to the Non-gainers group
in any of the tests, in contrast to some normal-intelligence children.
Following Vygotsky's concept of the Zone of Proximal Develop-
ment (Vygotsky, 1978), which concentrates on what a child may
potentially become rather than what (s)he is, these results show that
high IQ children have a more extensive ZPD than average IQ children.
Accordingly, under the same training conditions, they achieve
markedly superior results in three different tests. It therefore appears
that dynamic assessment is a reliable method of establishing the
Learning Potential of such children, as was maintained in previous
studies (Coleman & Cross, 2001; Heller, 2004; Jeltova & Grigorenko,
2005; Van der Stel & Veenman, 2007; Veenman & Spaans, 2004).
These ndings lend support to recent studies which argue that
intelligence implies capacity for learning and meta-cognition (Calero,
García-Martín, & Gómez, 2007; Calero, García-Martín, Jiménez, et al.,
2007; Kanevsky & Geake, 2004; Morris, 2005). High-IQ children not
only demonstrate high performance in all three tests, but also have a
high capacity to learn in each.
In this study we centered on a non-disadvantaged population in
order to show that children of high intelligence have a signicantly
higher and more general Learning Potential than children with
normal IQ. The results lead us to the view that, as proposed in earlier
studies (Borland & Wright, 1994; Lidz & Macrine, 2001; Matthews &
Foster, 2005), the methodology may be used to identify children
whose high potential is not manifested for environmental reasons,
and who present an average or even a low IQ. After training, such
children will show greater and more general improvement than
children with average capacity. Taken together with previous ndings
(Calero, García-Martín, & Gómez, 2007; Calero, García-Martín,
Jiménez, et al., 2007; Morris, 2005), these results endorse the view
that the criteria for the identication and differentiation of a gifted
child should not be based exclusively on the results of intelligence
tests, but should take other characteristics into account, particularly
when identifying children of potentially high intelligence but with
average or inadequate current performance (Borland, 2005; Brown
et al., 2005).
Regarding the second objective, our study also conrms that
giftedness is a general capacity which is apparent in different contexts
(Gagné, 1985; McCoach & Siegle, 2003; Selby, Shaw, & Houtz, 2005).
In this respect, results show that high-IQ children learn more in each
and every one of the tasks assessed, representing different abilities:
memory of positions, verbal reasoning and perceptual structuration.
By contrast, the performance and Learning Potential of the average IQ
children varies from task to task. In our opinion, these results indicate
that high IQ children learn more than average IQ children in diverse
tasks. This may mean that the high performance of high IQ children in
certain areas is due to contextually-derived learning opportunities
(Sternberg, 2005; Winner, 2000).
Finally, we investigated the capacity of dynamic assessment to
predict the children's established status (Gifted/Non-gifted). In this
respect, our initial hypothesis was conrmed, with the gain scores of
each and all of the tests signicantly predicting the classication
status of the sample as determined by IQ. However, the opposite does
not occur, that is the IQ scores do not predict the gains obtained in the
dynamic tests (in line with previous studies by Kanevsky & Geake,
2004). Results demonstrate the signicantly high predictive power of
the Organizer, Stencil Design and Positions Test, in descending order.
These ndings lend empirical support to the contention that dynamic
tests are capable of accurate identication of gifted children.
To sum up, the results of our study indicate that high-IQ children
not only possess a high level of intelligence (measured by means of
standard tests), but that they learn more and more effectively in all or
most of the tasks undertaken, rather than in just one domain. Finally,
the dynamic assessment tests used in this study have proved to be
reliable instruments for discrimination between high and average IQ
children.
All these results underline the usefulness of dynamic techniques
for assessing the potential of high-ability subjects, a nding which
may improve the process of identifying gifted children in general and
particularly as other authors have suggested of identifying
potential ability in children whose initial performance is low (e.g.
underrepresented groups) (Babayeva & Voiskunovsky, 2003;
Kanevsky & Geake, 2004; Leitis, 2000).
To carry out the Discriminant Analysis in this study, the IQ score
was used as indicative of high ability, and there was no attempt to
analyze other characteristics which determine giftedness. While this
may be viewed as a methodological limitation, in our view it was
necessary to use the IQ classication as a starting point, in order to
show that dynamic assessment can help improve the identication of
intellectually gifted children, as results have indicated. Although
following Vigotsky these tests evaluate a phenomenon distinct from
the manifestperformance measured by IQ tests, they have proved
Table 1
Mean differences in gain scores and effect size in high-IQ children and children with average intelligence.
Group Mean S.D. t (1/126) p d* t(1/63) p
Positions test Gain/effect size Average IQ 23.7 5.78 18.82 .0001 3.32 8.35 .0001
High IQ 38.11 2 4.88 10.81 .0001
Organizer test Gain/Effect Size Average IQ 3.85 1.93 19.74 .0001 2.49 14.08 .0001
High IQ 9.59 1.28 6.37 36.04 .0001
Stencil design test Gain/effect size Average IQ 9 5.67 18.34 .0001 1.54 8.68 .0001
High IQ 30.04 7.15 5.58 31.60 .0001
d*: effect sizes.
Table 2
Contingency table of distribution between IQ level and gain status (with a typological
analysis) in the Learning Potential tests.
Non
gainer
Gainer High
scorer
Total χ
2
(2/124)
p
Positions test Average IQ 1 59 3 63 107.81 .0001
High IQ 0 2 62 64
Organizer test Average IQ 43 20 0 63 67.25 .0001
High IQ 0 59 5 64
Stencil design test Average IQ 24 39 0 63 37.12 .0001
High IQ 0 53 11 64
Table 3
Discriminant Analysis.
Step Introduced Tolerance F to exit Wilks
lambd
F(d.f.) p
1 Gain scores organizer 1.000 389.67 389.67(1/126) .0001
2 Gain scores organizer .999 100.08 .271 351.62(2/125) .0001
Gain scores stencil
design
.999 76.92 .243
3 Gain scores organizer .969 52.34 .184 275.95(3/124) .0001
Gain scores stencil
design
.937 33.80 .165
Gain scores positions .909 19.53 .150
179M.D. Calero et al. / Learning and Individual Differences 21 (2011) 176181
Author's personal copy
capable of predicting such a performance in children for whom a
favourable environment and/or other modulating variables have
made it possible to obtain high scores. The next step is to carry out
longitudinal studies to test the validity of these techniques for
identifying children of high ability who for various reasons do not
currently manifest such potential (Boling & Day, 1993; Borland &
Wright, 1994; Lidz & Macrine, 2001; Sibaya, 1996). In this respect,
future lines of research should include the replication of these results
in previously unidentied populations; that is, in the near future, the
tests should be used in the detection and follow-up of giftedness in
minority groups, and longitudinal studies should be undertaken to
monitor the evolution of children identied as Gifted or Non-gifted on
the basis of this methodology.
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... Dynamic assessment is a relatively new, "interactive" approach to the identification of gifted students that, like the non-verbal ability tests and the curriculumbased assessment approaches, is useful in the identification of gifted students who may not have been traditionally identified (Calero, Belen, & Robles, 2011;Chaffey et al., 2003). The approach assumes that gifted students who perform poorly on identification instruments, for cultural or environmental reasons, may demonstrate their "true" performance on these instruments after the provision of appropriate educational interventions (Calero et al., 2011;Noel & Edmunds, 2007). ...
... Dynamic assessment is a relatively new, "interactive" approach to the identification of gifted students that, like the non-verbal ability tests and the curriculumbased assessment approaches, is useful in the identification of gifted students who may not have been traditionally identified (Calero, Belen, & Robles, 2011;Chaffey et al., 2003). The approach assumes that gifted students who perform poorly on identification instruments, for cultural or environmental reasons, may demonstrate their "true" performance on these instruments after the provision of appropriate educational interventions (Calero et al., 2011;Noel & Edmunds, 2007). While multiple forms of dynamic assessment exist and are available, one that is commonly utilised follows a pre-test -intervention -post-test format, whereby students are initially tested (e.g., an IQ test) before they are offered an educational intervention informed by the results of the pre-test, and tested again following the educational intervention (Calero et al., 2011;Chaffey et al., 2003). ...
... The approach assumes that gifted students who perform poorly on identification instruments, for cultural or environmental reasons, may demonstrate their "true" performance on these instruments after the provision of appropriate educational interventions (Calero et al., 2011;Noel & Edmunds, 2007). While multiple forms of dynamic assessment exist and are available, one that is commonly utilised follows a pre-test -intervention -post-test format, whereby students are initially tested (e.g., an IQ test) before they are offered an educational intervention informed by the results of the pre-test, and tested again following the educational intervention (Calero et al., 2011;Chaffey et al., 2003). The focus of the analyses is not only on the scores obtained during the two administrations of the test but also on the difference in these scores, to allow for an assessment of "learning capacity" (i.e., with the greatest learning capacity being demonstrated for students with the most substantial gains in scores). ...
... De resultaten van recente studies laten zien dat dynamische tests met succes kunnen worden gebruikt om het potentieel om te leren van hoogbegaafden te meten. Zo laten studies zien dat hoogbegaafde kinderen, evenals normaalbegaafde kinderen, vooruitgang boeken na training en in vergelijking met hun normaalbegaafde leeftijdsgenoten hogere scores behalen op zowel de voor-als de nameting (Calero et al. 2011;Vogelaar et al. 2017;Vogelaar en Resing 2016). Deze onderzoeksresultaten suggereren tevens dat deze kinderen, evenals alle andere kinderen, grote individuele verschillen laten zien in hun prestaties op voor-en nameting, maar ook in de mate waarin zij vooruitgang laten zien van voor-naar nameting, en hun behoefte aan instructies tijdens de training. ...
... Er werd verwacht dat de kinderen die een graduated-promptstraining ontvingen meer vooruitgang zouden laten zien in het correct aantal opgeloste analogieën dan de kinderen die alleen aan de voor-en nameting meededen (Resing en Elliott 2011;Resing et al. 2012b;Vogelaar en Resing 2016). Met betrekking tot mogelijke verschillen tussen hoogbegaafde en normaalbegaafde kinderen werd verwacht dat de hoogbegaafde kinderen hogere scores op de voor-en nameting zouden behalen en meer vooruitgang zouden laten zien in het aantal correct opgeloste analogieën dan hun normaalbegaafde leeftijdsgenoten (Calero et al. 2011). ...
... In vergelijking met hun normaalbegaafde leeftijdsgenoten behaalden de hoogbegaafde kinderen, op groepsniveau, zoals verwacht, hogere scores, maar zij gingen, onverwacht in het licht van voorgaand onderzoek (Calero et al. 2011), in dezelfde mate vooruit van voor-naar nameting in het aantal juist opgeloste analogieën. Hoewel in eerdere studies de gelijke mate van vooruitgang van deze twee groepen het gevolg kon zijn van een plafondeffect (Vogelaar en Resing 2016;Vogelaar et al. 2017), leek er bij deze groep kinderen geen plafondeffect te bestaan. ...
Article
This study analysed a newly developed digital dynamic test of analogical reasoning. It investigated whether the new test could be used to measure the potential for learning of a group of gifted (n = 40) and average-ability (n = 63) children aged 7–8 years old. A pre-test-training-post-test design was utilized, with half of the children receiving graduated-prompts training. The results indicated that trained children showed more progression in accurately solved analogy items than those who were not trained. Gifted children had higher scores in pre-test and post-test measurements, but the extent to which they showed progression was similar to that of their average-ability peers. At the group level, they also needed fewer prompts than the average-ability children. Digitized dynamic testing seems a valuable means of obtaining insight into the individual learning paths of gifted and average-ability children.
... In the same vein, some studies have shown an equivalent learning progression in intellectually gifted and average children (Vogelaar et al., 2017a;2017b;Vogelaar et al., 2019). Although there are some contradictory results (Calero et al., 2011;Kanevsky & Geake, 2004), the rapidity of learning in IGC seems not to distinguish from IAC in terms of learning potential. The specificity of intellectual giftedness concerns the high capacity to learn and to generalize their newly acquired knowledge in other contexts (Calero et al., 2011;Vogelaar et al., 2017aVogelaar et al., , 2017bVogelaar et al., , 2019. ...
... Although there are some contradictory results (Calero et al., 2011;Kanevsky & Geake, 2004), the rapidity of learning in IGC seems not to distinguish from IAC in terms of learning potential. The specificity of intellectual giftedness concerns the high capacity to learn and to generalize their newly acquired knowledge in other contexts (Calero et al., 2011;Vogelaar et al., 2017aVogelaar et al., , 2017bVogelaar et al., , 2019. This high learning capacity might be linked to their high performance in reasoning (Caropreso & White, 1994), working memory (Calero et al., 2007;Hoard et al., 2008;Leikin et al., 2013;van Viersen et al., 2014), metacognitive abilities (Oppong et al., 2019) and executive functions (Arffa, 2007). ...
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Intellectually gifted children have higher performance in many domains of attention than intellectually average children. However, these empirical findings are not consistent in the literature. Few studies investigated the characteristics of alerting, orienting, and executive control networks in intellectually gifted children. The aim of our study was to investigate their characteristics of attentional abilities compared to intellectually average children. Fifty‐five intellectually gifted children (age range 8–14 years old) were compared to 55 intellectually average children (age range 8–14 years old) using the Attention Network Test (ANT) to assess these three attentional constructs. Intellectually gifted children made fewer errors than intellectually average children in the processing of the ANT. In terms of attention network scores, they also outperformed intellectually average children in executive control only. Intellectually gifted children do not differ from intellectual average children in terms of the speed of processing in a speeded task such as ANT, but they stand out in terms of accuracy of processing. Intellectually gifted children have better ability to focus volitionally in order to solve a simple perceptual conflict than intellectually average children.
... In addition, the theoretical foundation of high capabilities in the early stages of childhood has not been fully developed. Most research aimed at superior potential detection focuses on children over five years old [4,5], leaving a void in researching detection at an early age [6]. High capabilities can show up in fields so apart from each other, such as music and mathematics, which makes it a complex phenomenon that is hard to define and identify [7]. ...
... The study of which features potentially intervene in the presence of high capabilities for development in children was the first step in this research. For this purpose, pedagogical and sociological research was taken into account [3][4][5]8,16], as well as the professional experience of teaching personnel at the preschool level. In addition, other situations that may influence detection such as environmental and socioeconomic factors were analyzed [2]. ...
Article
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Analysis and prediction of children's behavior in kindergarten is a current need of the Cuban educational system. Despite such an early age, the kindergarten institutions are devoted to facilitate the integral children development. However, the early detection of high capabilities in a child is not always accomplished accurately; due to teachers being mostly focused on the performance of the children that are lagging behind to achieve their age range’s stated goals. In addition, the amount of children with high capabilities is usually low, which makes the prediction an imbalanced data problem. Thus, such children tend to be misguided and overlaid, with a negative impact in their sociological development. The purpose of this research is to propose an efficient algorithm that enhances the prediction in the kindergarten children data. We obtain a useful set of instances and features, thus improving the Nearest Neighbor accuracy according to the Area under the Receiving Operating Characteristic curve measure. The obtained results are of great interest for Cuban educational system, regarding the rapidly and precise prediction of the presence or absence of high capabilities for integral personality development in kindergarten children.
... A dynamic system is of special importance for the underachieving gifted, gifted from economically or culturally disadvantaged backgrounds, or gifted with disabilities (Calero et al., 2011;Kaniel, 2010;Kaniel, & Reichenberg, 1990;Kirschenbaum, 1998;Lidz, & Macrine, 2001). A dynamic assessment provides means for assessing students who have had no experience in ability tests, whose culture is focused on cooperative rather than competitive values (David & Wu, 2009b), and students who are tested in a language which is not their mother tongue and thus need either more time for completing the tasks or some explanations in order to be sure they have understood the directions. ...
... Such students can come from any social class. It is worth noting that those who score significantly higher than the norm in such tests (gifted students) are also often overlooked (Calero, Belen & Robles, 2011;Lidz & Macrine, 2001;Vogelaar, Bakker, Elliott & Resing, 2017). ...
Thesis
Full-text available
The dynamic, multifaceted nature of humans requires an individuated, dynamic approach to evaluation and intervention. The primary purpose of this research is to address issues of evaluating dynamic assessment research and practice. In order to usefully consider a methodology of measurement which aligns with the philosophical foundations of DA it was necessary to propose a widening of the parameters or scope of reference within which DA is situated. The situation of DA within a copasetic framework – Integrated Social Learning Theory (ISLT) clarifies the theoretical basis for research and practice. The novel idiographic methodology developed for this thesis Individual Dynamic Evaluation and Assessment (IDEA) uses open card-sorts to capture the participant’s self-concept. Multidimensional scaling analysis of card-sort data renders a graphical representation of that self-concept in relation to others in the form of a life-space map. General Procrustes analysis of these life-space maps over time allows the evaluation of movement in self-concept for a person over time. DA is primarily concerned with the mediation of learning between the expert and novice. The focus of DA is the person, and the examination of movement or change for that person. Drawing from development and social learning theories which align with this position bolsters the grand theories of dynamic DA posited by Vygotsky, Luria (Luria, 1976; Luria & Cole, 1976; Luria, Cole & Cole, 2006; Luria & Yudovich, 1956, 1959), Haeussermann (1956), Feuerstein (1990, 2003; Feuerstein, Rand & Hoffmann, 1979; Feuerstein, Feuerstein, Falik & Rand, 2002 ) Bruner (1956, 1960) & Rey (1938). The ISLT framework allows for the useful consideration of intraindividual methods of evaluation and measurement. A position has been taken – namely that nomothetic methods of measurement are not best suited to the goal of usefully examining change over time in therapeutic practice contexts. ISLT and IDEA-1 consider the person as a complex, dynamic system. Learning and psychological support are inextricably linked within this paradigm. This has ramifications for practice. A holistic approach to psycho-educational support is recommended, the basis for which is provided within the ISLT framework. This thesis presents a novel N=1 case study design which is wholly idiographic in nature. The methodology for evaluation described here provides a basis for evidence-based practice while maintaining a focus on the progress of the individual under targeted intervention. The repeated measures design described here is one which has a format with which practitioners and researchers are familiar. It stands separate from the intervention procedure unlike integrated scoring systems and is idiographic in focus unlike nomothetic sandwich study designs. The results from the sixteen studies presented here provides the beginnings of an evidence-base for the use of this approach in intraindividual contexts.
... Studies regarding DA/T have also been applied to children at the other end of the intellec tual spectrum. In a study by Calero, García-Martín, and Robles (2011), it was found that gifted children outperformed their nongifted peers on several dynamic instruments, both before and after training, and, additionally, demonstrated more improvements. Interest ingly, children's improvement on the dynamic instruments accurately predicted whether children were classified as gifted or average ability, but, in line with the findings of Swan son and Lussier (2001), the opposite effect did not occur. ...
Article
RESUMO: Este estudo de revisão sistemática teve como objetivo identificar as características de crianças com altas habilidades/superdotação. Os critérios de inclusão foram: artigos científicos sobre pesquisas empíricas, publicados no período de 2010 a 2019, com participantes com altas habilidades/superdotação, menores de 12 anos, e a avaliação de altas habilidades/superdotação deveria ter, pelo menos, um teste de inteligência associado a outros instrumentos. Os critérios de exclusão foram: nenhum grupo composto apenas por crianças com altas habilidades/superdotação, não apresentar resultados exclusivos às crianças com altas habilidades/superdotação ou o grupo de crianças com altas habilidades/superdotação ter participantes com dupla excepcionalidade, deficiência física ou sensorial. A busca dos artigos foi feita nas bases Scopus e Web of Science em janeiro de 2020 e SciELO.org em abril de 2020. Foram analisados 29 artigos, agrupados em cinco categorias. Os resultados são apresentados em síntese narrativa e confirmam o caráter heterogêneo das altas habilidades/superdotação. A maioria dos artigos explorou características da cognição e dos processos de identificação e avaliação das crianças. Dentre as principais limitações, estão a obtenção de artigos com autores repetidos e a obtenção incompleta dos artigos potencialmente relevantes. Esta pesquisa contribui para a visibilidade sobre as características de crianças com superdotação, com um enfoque geral e amplo.
Chapter
Full-text available
One of the main objectives of dynamic assessment (DA) is assessment of learning processes and learning potential of children coming from diverse cultural backgrounds, various socioeconomic (SES) groups, and children with special needs.
Chapter
The concept of organization of dynamic testing allowing a student to materialize their search activity when solving intellectual problems in the form of activities to transform objects in the virtual environment is proposed. Methods of registration of significant quantitative parameters allowing to identify priority ways of carrying out learning activities using the dynamic computer testing simulators are considered. Scenarios used in dynamic computer testing simulators actualizing different types of human intellectual activity are described.
Article
Five issues about giftedness are discussed. First, the origins of giftedness are explored. The view that giftedness is entirely a product of training is critiqued. There is indirect evidence for atypical brain organization and innate talent in gifted children: Many gifted children and savants have enhanced right-hemisphere development, language-related difficulties, and autoimmune disorders. Second, the intense motivation of gifted children is discussed. Third, it is argued that gifted children have social and emotional difficulties that set them apart. Fourth, evidence for the often uneven cognitive profiles of such children is presented. Finally, the relationship between childhood giftedness and "domain" creativity in adulthood is discussed. Few gifted children go on to become adult creators because the skills and personality factors required to be a creator are very different from those typical of even the most highly gifted children.
Chapter
what is giftedness? Most disciplines of psychology have had difficulties with defining their technical terms, and the situation is no different with the term “giftedness.” A definition should give a formal and concise description of the meaning of a concept or construct. Unfortunately, the scientific language of psychology is full of words inherited from everyday language and terms such as giftedness are not only linked to synonyms like “high ability,” “aptitude,” or “talent” but each term can assume different meanings. These meanings carry a long history of cultural use, “folk” wisdom, and/or misconception. Furthermore, a concise definition is almost impossible because the context within which the definition is made may refer to a process, key elements of giftedness, provisions for the gifted, or education of the gifted. In addition, it is not easy completely to separate theoretical and practical concepts because adherence to a theory of giftedness determines one’s research and educational approaches. If all this was not bad enough, the meanings are tainted by an emotionalism that seems to engulf the concept of giftedness. For example, in German the word for giftedness can be begabung or hochbegabung. The connotation with hochbegabung can be value laden, associating giftedness with elitism.A similar situation exists in French (doués or surdoués) and in Spanish (dotado or superdotado). Such a connotation evokes emotional reactions and negative feelings that have hampered worldwide progress in educating the gifted (Williams & Mitchel, 1989).
Chapter
I am quite confident that the conception of giftedness set forth in this chapter differs significantly from those found in the other chapters of this book in that the conception I advance is no conception at all. By that, I do not mean that I have chosen not to advance a conception of giftedness. Rather, I am actively advancing the idea of no conception of giftedness as a positive development for the field of gifted education. To be clear about what I am advocating, let me state my position unequivocally. I believe that the concept of the gifted child is logically, pragmatically, and-with respect to the consequences of its application in American education-morally untenable and that the aims of the field of gifted education would have a greater likelihood of being realized if we were to dispense with it altogether. Because I realize that this is a radical position for a contributor to this book to take, I want to clarify my motivation and my positionality before advancing my argument. I write as one who considers himself to be a scholar in and of the field of gifted education. I have taught in programs for gifted students, and my doctorate is in this field. I believe that there are individual differences in elementary and secondary students’ school performance that probably derive from a complex of ability and motivational, social, cultural, sociopolitical, and other factors and that these have important educational implications.
Article
Since 1957, when the Soviet Union launched its satellite Sputnik, until the dissociation of the Soviet Union in 1991, the Russian tradition of educating gifted children had been world-renowned. However, with a restructuring of society’s major domains of functioning in the early 1990s, the Soviet system of complete federal support for gifted education all but disappeared. In this chapter, we argue that the system, despite the challenges of the 1990s, has survived its toughest times. We illustrate that, by capitalizing both on past and current theories of giftedness and cognitive development, the field of gifted studies in Russia continues to develop and that it is in the process of re-creating itself in the changed social and cultural context of Russia. Russian definitions and approaches to giftedness can be described as very different from Western approaches, particularly the American psychometric approach. For various social, political, cultural, and historical reasons, Soviet (Russian) psychological and pedagogical science developed its own unique theoretical and methodological paradigms. The Great October Socialist Revolution of 1917 resulted in a regime that tried (or claimed) to minimize individual differences and establish equity in all areas of human enterprise. Empirical research into individual differences was viewed unfavorably, because it would imply testing, quantification of variation between people, and, consequently, challenging the underlying ideological societal postulates.
Article
A decisive factor in the determination of effective gifted education is the fit between the individual cognitive and noncognitive (e.g., motivational and other personality) factors of the developmental and learning processes on the one hand and the environmental influences that are mainly from the social settings of family, school, and peers on the other hand. This chapter is based on multidimensional conceptions of giftedness and talent, such as the Munich Model of Giftedness (MMG), as well as on interaction models, such as the Aptitude-Treatment Interaction (ATI) by Cronbach and Snow (1977) and Corno and Snow (1986). When considering the MMG as an example of a multifactorial conception of giftedness, along with the recently developed dynamic process approach to this model (Munich Dynamic Ability-Achievement Model of Giftedness [MDAAM]), the following questions arise: How should gifted individuals be identified and instructed? And how should their learning outcomes or excellent performance be assessed? These and other questions will be answered according to the MMG and the MDAAM, respectively. giftedness and talent from a theoretical point of view Our knowledge regarding giftedness and talent is supplied by different sources of information and research paradigms. Approaches that are particularly relevant to conceptualizing giftedness or talent are the psychometric approach, the expert-novice paradigm, explanatory approaches from the field of cognitive science or cognitive psychology, and social psychology, as well as retrospective and prospective (longitudinal) studies.