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Do you feel what I feel? Mood contagion and leadership outcomes

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Abstract

This research examines the role of mood and mood contagion in a leadership situation. In phase 1 of the study participants received a positive or negative mood induction and completed a leadership speech describing how to complete a hiring task. In phase 2, participants watched one of the speeches from phase 1, completed ratings, and performed the hiring task. Followers in the positive mood condition had higher levels of positive mood and lower levels of negative mood, rated their leaders as more charismatic, and performed better than followers in the negative mood condition. Followers' mood mediated the relationship between leader mood and follower outcomes. In the third phase of the study, participants read transcripts of the speeches from phase 2 but experienced no change in mood or performance, suggesting the previous effects found in phase 2 were due to mood contagion rather than the content of the speeches.

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... Leader moods serve as a key source of affective events for employees because leaders hold distinct (i.e., more powerful and influential) positions from other group members and play a key role in determining employee outcomes (Sy and Choi, 2013). Thus, leader moods and emotions can influence employees' affective responses and behaviors (Johnson, 2008(Johnson, , 2009Dasborough, 2006). ...
... According to the research in the leadership domain, leaders' both positive and negative moods can pass onto their employees through mood contagion (Barsade et al., 2018). Therefore, group members experience positive mood when their leaders have a positive mood and, likewise, they experience a negative mood when their leaders have a negative mood (Bono and Ilies, 2006;Erez et al., 2008;Johnson, 2008Johnson, , 2009Sy et al., 2005;Sy and Choi, 2013). ...
... For example, studies investigating the effects of leader negative mood on several employee-related outcomes (i.e. performance, perceived leader effectiveness, OCB) found adverse effects of leader negative mood on employee attitudes and behaviors through mood contagion (Johnson 2008(Johnson , 2009). ...
Article
Purpose Given the harmful effects of workplace incivility and the calls for revealing the antecedents of instigated incivility, this study examines how employee-instigated incivility unfolds as a result of negative mood contagion from leaders to employees. Design/methodology/approach Drawing upon affective events theory, the authors hypothesized that leader negative mood is contagious and has an indirect relationship with employee-instigated incivility through employee negative mood. For hypothesis testing, data were collected from 243 leader-employee dyads and tested using bootstrapped mediation analysis. Findings As hypothesized, leader negative mood was associated with employee-instigated incivility indirectly through employee negative mood. This finding supports that negative mood of the leader is contagious and might unintendedly trigger employee-instigated incivility toward other at work. Research limitations/implications Given the cross-sectional design of this study, causal inferences could not be drawn. The direction of relationships between the variables is based on the theoretical assumptions, rather than a test of the causal ordering of the variables. Originality/value This study advances the limited literature on the antecedents of employee-instigated incivility by demonstrating the impact of negative mood experienced by leaders on uncivil behaviors of employees.
... While researchers have investigated whether and how the expression of positive and negative affect influences follower perceptions of transformational and charismatic leadership (Bono & Ilies, 2006;Chi, Chung, & Tsai, 2011;Johnson, 2009), such leadership perspectives do not particularly address principled leadership (Bass, 1999). On the other hand, authentic leadership theory emerged based on the assumption that morality, balance, and positivity are central attributes of effective leaders (Avolio, Wernsing, & Gardner, 2017;Gardner, Cogliser, Davis, & Dickens, 2011;Luthans & Avolio, 2003). ...
... Leaders can influence the emotions and moods of their teams (Sy, Côté, & Saavedra, 2005), which in turn can affect organizational outcomes, such as customer satisfaction (George, 1996). In addition, the expression of emotions by leaders seems to influence the way they are perceived and evaluated (Bono & Ilies, 2006;Madera & Smith, 2009;Johnson, 2009). ...
... Although several studies investigated positive emotion displays of leaders, only a few have examined effects of negative affective displays (Gooty et al., 2010;Johnson, 2009;Van Kleef, 2009). Overall, these studies tend to conclude that negative affective displays disfavors leaders when compared to positive displays, although some studies suggest that this influence may vary as a function of the affective state of followers and other characteristics (Damen, Van Knippenberg, & Van Knippenberg, 2008). ...
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We analyze how followers respond to principled and unprincipled leaders as they express positive and negative emotions, based on the moral tenets of authentic leadership theory. Grounded on the theoretical principles of emotion contagion and cognitive interpretation, we propose that negative affective displays taint followers’ perceptions of authentic leaders and that positive affective displays brighten followers’ perceptions of inauthentic leaders. We tested these hypotheses in two laboratory experiments. Results indicate that while negative affective displays significantly disfavored perceptions about an authentic leader, positive affective displays did not favor attitudes about the leader. In contrast, positive affective displays not only favored attitudes toward an inauthentic leader but also positively influenced judgments regarding the leader’s ethicality. Passive negative displays led to more favorable attitudes toward an inauthentic leader than active negative displays. Our findings unveil followers’ susceptibility to distant leader’s emotion displays, highlighting the nexus among leadership, emotions, and ethics, as well as their relevance in the organizational and political arenas. Keywords: principled leadership; authentic leadership; inauthentic leadership; leader distance; emotion displays
... Ashkanasy (2002) recogiendo la investigación anterior y, apoyándose en un modelo de análisis de la relación bidireccional entre el líder-colaborador dónde daba especial importancia al proceso de contagio emocional, también encontraron cómo las emociones negativas del líder se transmitían a sus colaboradores afectando al clima de trabajo y las relaciones entre los miembros del grupo de forma negativa. La influencia de las expresiones emocionales del líder en el desempeño de las tareas de los colaboradores queda respaldada también con las investigaciones realizadas por Johnson (2009). Esta autora pudo comprobar, ya no sólo que se producía un contagio de emociones entre líderes y colaboradores, sino que el desempeño en una simulación de prueba de 7 contratación quedaba mediado por el estado emocional que el líder mostraba a sus colaboradores. ...
... Previamente, la misma autora había mostrado la influencia del estado emocional del líder en los resultados organizacionales y en la valoración que hacían los colaboradores de su líder como carismático. En ambos estudios Johnson (2008Johnson ( , 2009) destacó el rol fundamental del contagio emocional y la necesidad de seguir explorando las causas del mismo, así como la influencia que también ejercen los colaboradores en su líder en una dirección de abajo a arriba. En esta misma dirección apuntaron Gaddis, Connely y Munford percibir con precisión las emociones, utilizar la comprensión, realizar una adecuada gestión se sus propias emociones y la de los demás, es más probable que alcancen un rol de líder en grupos pequeños. ...
... En esta misma dirección apuntaron Gaddis, Connely y Munford percibir con precisión las emociones, utilizar la comprensión, realizar una adecuada gestión se sus propias emociones y la de los demás, es más probable que alcancen un rol de líder en grupos pequeños. También se ha encontrado evidencias que el líder con sus expresiones emocionales influye en el clima emocional del grupo a través del efecto de sus emociones a los colaboradores de forma individual y de ahí a la percepción del grupo (Johnson, 2009, Vijayalakshmi y Bhattacharyya, 2012. ...
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Recibido: 22 de octubre de 2015. Aprobado: 30 de marzo de 2017. Cómo citar este artículo: Cortés-Valiente, J. A. (2017). Liderazgo emocional: cómo utilizar la inteligencia emocional en la gestión de los colaboradores. Memorias, 15(28), xx-xx. doi: Resumen Tema y alcance: El presente artículo rescata la importancia de las emociones y del contagio emocional en el proceso de influencia que se da entre los líderes organizacionales y sus colaboradores. Características: Tomando como marco el modelo de inteligencia emocional de las cuatro ramas de Mayer y Salovey (1997) se describe las habilidades emocionales que son necesarias para el desarrollo del proceso de liderazgo. Hallazgos: Se propone un tipo líder emocionalmente inteligente que destaca por el dominio de la percepción, comprensión, facilitación y manejo emocional. Este tipo de liderazgo impacta en sus colaboradores influyéndoles para alcanzar los objetivos organizacionales y generar organizaciones saludables. De igual modo se plantea como mejorar estas habilidades emocionales a través de herramientas como el coaching ejecutivo o el desarrollo de la inteligencia emocional. Conclusiones: Se concluye la necesidad de un cambio de paradigma para incorporar las habilidades emocionales en la gestión diaria entre el líder y su equipo de trabajo con el objeto de mejorar el desempeño y clima laboral. Por último, se resalta que, aunque el líder emocional tenga un alto dominio de sus habilidades emocionales, siempre debe de comportarse y tomar decisiones bajo un estricto respeto por la ética y la moral. Palabras Clave: contagio emocional, ética, inteligencia emocional, liderazgo emocional, moral. Introducción El objetivo central de este artículo es plantear un estilo de liderazgo basado en las habilidades emocionales que componen el constructo de inteligencia emocional propuesto por Mayer y Salovey (1997). Este tipo de liderazgo, denominado liderazgo emocional, se caracteriza por que el líder tiene alto
... Table 4). Specifically, certain styles of leadership may be more conducive to the transfer of affective phenomena, such as charismatic and transformational leadership (Cheng et al., 2012;Cherulnik et al., 2001;Johnson, 2008Johnson, , 2009). In a laboratory study, Cherulnik et al. (2001) found that observers of a charismatic leader giving a simulated campaign speech smiled more and with greater intensity, looked away from the leader less often, and spent more time looking at the leader than observers of a non-charismatic leader. ...
... Eleven (44%) studies were conducted using experimental designs. To elaborate, followers' positive mood increases after interacting with a leader in a positive mood (see Johnson, 2009;Volmer, 2012). (2013) also observed that a leader's mood can be influenced by followers' expressed moods. ...
... Researchers (e.g., Johnson, 2009;Sy et al., 2005 have also noted that followers' negative moods tend to increase after interacting with a leader perceived to be in a negative mood, with similar findings being demonstrated in both individual and group samples (see Volmer, 2012). Further, Spoor and Kelly (2009) examined dyads interacting during a winter survival task and showed that the experience of negative moods within these pairs became more similar than did positive moods. ...
Article
We present a systematic review of literature examining leadership and the contagion of affective phenomena, namely emotion, mood and affect. Specifically, an inductive thematic analysis approach was adopted to synthesize the findings from published studies. In addition, a mini meta‐analysis was conducted to quantify reported effects. A rigorous search identified 25 studies that fulfilled the inclusion criteria for further review. Results highlighted important relationships between leadership and contagion aligned with six themes: charismatic and transformational leadership are conducive to contagion of leader and follower positive affective phenomena; greater contagion effects exists when there is congruence between leader and follower affective states; contagion of leader and follower affective phenomena is directly linked to leader effectiveness and performance; and, individual susceptibility to the contagion of affective phenomena can moderate these relationships. These findings have salient implications for conceptualization and measurement across multiple lines of inquiry and within numerous domains of application. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Sy et al. (2005) found evidence that leaders can induce a mood state in their followers by transmitting their positive moods. Johnson (2009) found a causal link between leaders' positive mood, followers' perceptions of the leader's charisma, and the contagion of positive emotions between leaders and followers. Supporting the notion that contagion can also be transmitted by groups of people, Hareli and Rafaeli (2008) found that group members can spread a mood among themselves, a process that scholars have termed as "affective spiral." ...
... Across a series of studies, the authors found that perceptions of charismatic leadership are related to leaders' positive emotional expressions, which in turn are linked to a positive mood among followers and high ratings of leader effectiveness. A study by Johnson (2009) provides direct experimental evidence of the causal link between leaders' positive mood, followers' perceptions of the leader's charisma, and the contagion of positive emotion between leaders and followers. Importantly, this work underscores how this transfer of emotion improved the quality of follower performance. ...
... Which is more powerful and what is the tipping point in negative versus positive emotional contagion Emotional contagion has been found to occur across a wide variety of moods and discrete emotions with positive and negative valence. For example, prior studies have examined contagion of a generalized positive mood (Johnson, 2009;Sy et al., 2005;Tan et al., 2004;Tsai & Huang, 2002;), and a generalized negative mood (Dasborough et al., 2009;Johnson, 2009). In addition, as we note earlier, emotional contagion has also been found in the domain of discrete emotions such as anger (Cheshin et al., 2011;Fan et al., 2014;Kelly et al., 2016;Mondillon et al., 2007), anxiety (Parkinson & Simons, 2012), loneliness (Cacioppo et al., 2009), fear (Bhullar, 2012a,b), joy (Fan et al., 2014) love (Bhullar, 2012a,b), and all four quadrants of the affective circumplex (Barsade, 2002). ...
Article
Leveraging the wealth of research insights generated over the past 25 years, we develop a model of emotional contagion in organizational life. We begin by defining emotional contagion, reviewing ways to assess this phenomenon, and discussing individual differences that influence susceptibility to emotional contagion. We then explore the key role of emotional contagion in organizational life across a wide range of domains, including (1) team processes and outcomes, (2) leadership, (3) employee work attitudes, (4) decision-making, and (5) customer attitudes. Across each of these domains, we present a body of organizational behavior research that finds evidence of the influence of emotional contagion on a variety of attitudinal, cognitive, and behavioral/performance outcomes as well as identify the key boundary conditions of the emotional contagion phenomenon. To support future scholarship in this domain, we identify several new frontiers of emotional contagion research, including the need to better understand the “tipping point” of positive versus negative emotional contagion, the phenomenon of counter-contagion, and the influence of computer mediated communication and technology within organizations and society on emotional contagion. In closing, we summarize our model of emotional contagion in organizations, which we hope can serve as a catalyst for future research on this important phenomenon and its myriad effects on organizational life.
... Studies that examined the nonverbal delivery of the message found that manipulating the leader's mood led to greater perceptions of leader charisma (Awamleh & Gardner, 1999 ;Holladay & Coombs, 1993, 1994Johnson & Dipboye, 2008 ), leadership eff ectiveness (Awamleh & Gardner, 1999 ), and task performance (Johnson & Dipboye, 2008 ). Recent research suggested that leader expressivity is a likely process for the emotional link between leaders and followers (Dasborough, Ashkanasy, Tee, & Tse, 2009 ;Johnson, 2008Johnson, , 2009. A close analysis of the leaders' expressiveness dimension revealed that it is composed by both nonverbal elements of immediacy and dominance (Mehrabian, 1981 ). ...
... In line with the statements above, it seems paramount to examine the relationship between expressed mood and performance (Johnson, 2009 ). Th e present study appeared to be the fi rst to investigate the eff ects of immediacy and dominance as diff erent but related dimensions of leaders' nonverbal delivery styles on followers' positive mood, followers' perceptions of charismatic leadership, and followers' performance. ...
... Th e present study appeared to be the fi rst to investigate the eff ects of immediacy and dominance as diff erent but related dimensions of leaders' nonverbal delivery styles on followers' positive mood, followers' perceptions of charismatic leadership, and followers' performance. Th e present study also sought to expand previous research (Johnson, 2009 ;McColl-Kennedy & Anderson, 2002 ;Visser, van Knippenberg, van Kleef, & Wisse, 2013 ) examining the mediating eff ect of followers' mood on the relationship between leaders' delivery styles and followers' performance. ...
Article
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Words are very important to share ideas, but less is known regarding the way the message is communicated in the leadership process. The present study explored how nonverbal delivery factors might impact leaders’ charisma, followers’ mood, and followers’ performance. The research specifically focused on how immediacy and dominance impacted the relationship between leaders’ delivery styles and followers’ mood, perceptions of charismatic leadership, and performance. Results showed that immediate and dominant leadership behaviors were critical in eliciting positive mood and reducing negative mood in followers. In the absence of immediate and dominance behaviors in leaders, followers’ negative mood increased and positive mood decreased. Moreover, the dominant and immediate displays also led to higher perceptions of charismatic leadership. Crucially, only simple or mixed dominant delivery styles led to an enhancement in the performance of followers. The mediating role of followers’ positive mood on the relationship between leaders’ delivery styles and followers’ performance was also examined. More importantly, positive mood explained the link between leaders’ delivery styles and performance. Theoretical and practical implications of the role of delivery styles in the leadership process were discussed.
... However, is it possible that employee performance would be affected by supervisors' work engagement? Previous literature has focused on leaders' emotions and the emotional contagion process between leaders and collaborators (Johnson, 2009). Rodriguez-Muñoz et al. (2014) underline the relevant role of the emotional contagion of positive emotions from the supervisor to his/her employees. ...
... Thus, the fact that leaders with a positive emotional state influences group performance are a well-established topic (e.g. Gaddis et al., 2004;Johnson, 2009;Volmer, 2012). Similarly, some studies showed how an abusive supervisor is negatively related to subordinates' task performance (e.g. ...
Article
Despite the growing interest in work engagement crossover among employees, we still need more research about the role of the supervisors’ work engagement on employees’ states and behaviors. This study examines the relationship between the supervisors’ work engagement and the employees’ work engagement. We also investigate how supervisors’ and employees’ work engagement relate to employees’ in-role and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Finally, we explore the mediating role of employees’ affective commitment linking employees’ and supervisors’ work engagement to employees’ performance. To test the proposed model, we performed multilevel models with a sample of 570 employees nested around 88 supervisors from 7 organizations in Ecuador. Results show that supervisors’ work engagement is not related to employees’ work engagement. Employees’ affective commitment partially mediates the relationship between employees’ work engagement and performance, whereas employees’ affective commitment fully mediates the relationship between supervisors’ work engagement and employee performance. Thus, employees’ emotional attachment significantly impacts employee performance (in-role and organizational citizenship behavior) among engaged employees.
... For instance, leaders in positive moods engender followers with positive and/or less negative moods, while leaders in negative moods engender followers with negative and/or less positive moods (George, 1995;Sy et al., 2005). These mood shifts then impact followers' behavior: Those who received positive contagion exhibited greater effort, coordination, and creativity, improved decision-making, and better overall performance (Sy et al., 2005;Bono and Ilies, 2006;Johnson, 2009;Visser et al., 2013; however, for an alternative perspective, see Barasch et al., 2016). In contrast followers who received negative contagion demonstrated varied behaviors, from less willingness to perform, to greater reliance on analytical approaches and increased effort (Johnson, 2009;Visser et al., 2013;Koning and Van Kleef, 2015;Lindebaum et al., 2016). ...
... These mood shifts then impact followers' behavior: Those who received positive contagion exhibited greater effort, coordination, and creativity, improved decision-making, and better overall performance (Sy et al., 2005;Bono and Ilies, 2006;Johnson, 2009;Visser et al., 2013; however, for an alternative perspective, see Barasch et al., 2016). In contrast followers who received negative contagion demonstrated varied behaviors, from less willingness to perform, to greater reliance on analytical approaches and increased effort (Johnson, 2009;Visser et al., 2013;Koning and Van Kleef, 2015;Lindebaum et al., 2016). At the same time, affective contagion has been shown to shape group decision-making dynamics-although these effects may be moderated by the affective context (e.g., group norms around affect; for a review, see Cristofaro, 2019). ...
Article
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The recent ‘affect revolution’ in strategic decision-making research has placed greater emphasis on the role of stress and emotions in decision-making, with new theorizing to highlight how leader decisions often differ from rational choice expectations. However, while existing theories add to our understanding of the interplay between affect and cognition, they have not yet explained why affect drives decisions in some situations and not others. Undertheorized connections between leaders’ neurobiological windows of tolerance to affect arousal and their self-regulatory capacity—their capacity to regulate stress and emotions so that these phenomena do not drive resulting decisions—may hold the key to explaining this variation in affect’s influence on decision-making. Furthermore, this article considers how leaders’ windows of tolerance have unique ripple effects in their social environments, thereby affecting their groups’ collective window of tolerance. While regulated leaders can convey a calming and creative influence in their organizations that helps the group access strategic decision-making, dysregulated leaders are likely to convey stress and emotion contagion—which may erode the group’s ability to cooperate, adapt, and learn. It illustrates this argument using evidence from the upper echelons of governmental decision-making, comparing New Zealand Prime Minister Jacinda Ardern’s and US President Donald Trump’s responses to the coronavirus pandemic in their respective nations. It concludes by offering hypotheses for testing the argument in future empirical research.
... Regardless of the particulars, contagion is an important process through which followers "catch" the moods of their leaders, coming to exhibit similar feeling states (e.g. Sy, Côté, & Saavedra, 2005;Johnson, 2009;Volmer, 2012). These "caught" moods, in turn, can influence judgments of leader effectiveness. ...
... These "caught" moods, in turn, can influence judgments of leader effectiveness. Leaders who express positive affect are rated as more charismatic (Bono & Ilies, 2006) than are leaders who express negative affect (Johnson, 2008;2009). These effects appear to travel from leader to follower and vice versa. ...
Chapter
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In this chapter, we review the literature on leadership and emotion. Progress in understanding the junction of these two ideas has been steady but slow. To address this concern, at the conclusion of this chapter, we briefly discuss two theoretical obstacles that, in our view, have slowed progress. However, we begin with the larger substance of our chapter, which focuses on leaders’ affect at three levels of analysis – the overall climate, the work team, and, finally, the leader himself or herself. We show that leader emotion can be important at all three levels of analysis. At the highest level of analysis, leaders create emotional climate through personnel practices, by rewarding (or punishing) culturally appropriate emotion displays, and by their treatment of individual employees. Moving to teams and dyads, we will see that emotions can influence followers through contagion or emotional correspondence. Finally, looking within the leader, our review underscores how emotional intelligence is crucial for effective leadership.
... Contagion theory (Hatfield, Cacioppo, & Rapson, 1992) explains how persons within a group influence others through conscious and unconscious processes, including emotions and behavioral attitudes. Wide evidence suggests that people influence each other's moods (Barsade, 2002;Menges & Kilduff, 2015), and recently, a number of studies have focused on how leaders' moods may be contagious across work groups (e.g., Bono & Ilies, 2006;Dasborough et al., 2009;Johnson, 2008Johnson, , 2009. For instance, Johnson (2009) found that leaders' moods might be contagious and influence followers' moods and ultimately team performance. ...
... Wide evidence suggests that people influence each other's moods (Barsade, 2002;Menges & Kilduff, 2015), and recently, a number of studies have focused on how leaders' moods may be contagious across work groups (e.g., Bono & Ilies, 2006;Dasborough et al., 2009;Johnson, 2008Johnson, , 2009. For instance, Johnson (2009) found that leaders' moods might be contagious and influence followers' moods and ultimately team performance. This may apply to both positive and negative moods. ...
Article
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This paper introduces a multi-level perspective on the relationships of idiosyncratic deals (i-deals) with organizational outcomes (i.e., client satisfaction) and investigates how and under which conditions these relationships manifest. Based on contagion theory, we proposed that the positive effects of i-deals will spill over within organizational units (indicated by reduced emotional exhaustion and enhanced collective commitment), which leads to increased customer satisfaction. Moreover, it was postulated that the effects of i-deals would be more prominent in units with high age diversity, as i-deals are more important in units where people's work-related needs are more heterogeneous due to the higher diversity in employee age. A study among 19,780 employees and 17,500 clients of a German public service organization showed support for the contagion model and showed that i-deals were negatively related to individual emotional exhaustion and subsequently positively to collective commitment within units and client satisfaction measured six months later. Emotional exhaustion and collective commitment mediated the relationships between i-deals and client satisfaction. Finally, we found that the relationships between i-deals and emotional exhaustion and client satisfaction were more strongly negative in units with high age diversity rather than in units with low age diversity, indicating the benefits of i-deals within units with high age diversity to reduce emotional exhaustion and enhance client satisfaction.
... Inconsistences in defining emotional contagion as unconsciously-or consciously-relied led to differentiations between primitive emotional contagion and conscious emotional contagion (Elfenbein 2014). The former regards emotional contagion as a pure unconscious process (Dallimore, Sparks, and Butcher 2007;Johnson 2009), while the latter emphasized the significant role of conscious efforts in emotional transmission (Barger and Grandey 2006;Lin and Liang 2011). This study adopted neither but the original and well accepted definition proposed by Hatfield et al. (1994) who characterized emotional contagion as the "tendency to automatically mimic and synchronize facial expressions, vocalizations, postures, and movements with those of another person and, consequently, to converge emotionally" (p. ...
Article
Emotional reactions and transmissions are crucial to host-tourist interaction yet lacking in research, particularly from the host viewpoint. To deepen understanding of host-tourist interaction, this study took a host perspective to examine emotional contagion from tourists to hosts. By adopting video-vignette based interaction scenarios and cutting-edge techniques (e.g., FaceReader), a real-time multi-modal investigation was undertaken to reveal mechanism underlying emotional contagion of Hong Kong residents from Mainland Chinese tourists. Results theoretically consolidated the dual-process mechanism underpinning automatic emotional contagion and empirically verified an Emotional Contagion Model (ECM) from tourists to hosts. The compelling effects of mimicry, interaction context and stereotypes explained the emotional convergence and divergence between hosts and tourists. The study extended the knowledge boundary of host-tourist interaction to micro-level interpersonal emotional connection. Moreover, the verified ECM theoretically advances emotional contagion mechanism in the social psychology literature. Practical guidelines for host-tourist relation management and sustainable destination development were provided.
... Buna göre bireyler karşısındaki kişinin hiç konuşmadan sadece yüzüne bakarak bile duygusal bulaşma yaşayarak karşısındaki kişinin duygularını deneyimlemektedirler (Friedman ve Riggio, 1981). Benzer şekilde, çalışanlar da yöneticilerinin olumlu ve olumsuz duygu durumlarından etkilenmekte ve bir süre sonra yöneticilerinin hissettiği duygulara senkronize olmaktadır (Johnson, 2009 ...
... This theory has been applied to explain the social effects of emotions in several social activities such as group dynamics (Dezecache et al., 2013), conflict and negotiation (Sinaceur et al., 2013) or consumer behaviour (Cheshin et al., 2018). Recently, the domain of leadership has received some attention (Van Prior studies show that followers often appreciate and are motivated by leaders who display positive emotions (Johnson, 2009;Rubin et al., 2005). For instance, the overall quality of leader-member exchanges tends to increase with the rise of leaders' positive emotions (Day & Crain, 1992). ...
... Positive contagion in teams can reduce group conflict and improve group cooperation and even task performance (Barsade, 2002). Effective leaders also harness the power of positive reframing to promote company growth (Sy and Choi, 2013;Sy et al., 2005;Johnson, 2009;Masters, 1992) and beneficially shape negotiations (Filipowicz et al., 2011), customer relations (Dietz et al., 2004), decision making (Gächter et al., 2009Druckman, 2001) and policy outcomes (Erisen et al., 2014). At an individual level, people who express optimism and gratitude are less likely to have depressive symptoms (Lambert et al., 2012) and more likely to experience emotional and psychological well-being (Carver et al., 1999;Watkins et al., 2008;Scheier et al., 2001). ...
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Sentiment transfer is one popular example of a text style transfer task, where the goal is to reverse the sentiment polarity of a text. With a sentiment reversal comes also a reversal in meaning. We introduce a different but related task called positive reframing in which we neutralize a negative point of view and generate a more positive perspective for the author without contradicting the original meaning. Our insistence on meaning preservation makes positive reframing a challenging and semantically rich task. To facilitate rapid progress, we introduce a large-scale benchmark, Positive Psychology Frames, with 8,349 sentence pairs and 12,755 structured annotations to explain positive reframing in terms of six theoretically-motivated reframing strategies. Then we evaluate a set of state-of-the-art text style transfer models, and conclude by discussing key challenges and directions for future work.
... ity of School Management: Leadership, Training and Professionalisation." On this occasion, we propose to study the professional identity of school principals from a gender perspective. Although an extensive body of research focuses on examining the importance of the principal in the achievement of school leadership (Blackmore, 2010;Hallinger, 2018;S. K. Johnson, 2009), very few studies delve into the most intimate and human aspects of this figure or have identified the factors that influence the development of this leadership. Further, despite the existence of research studies at the Spanish level on school management and gender (Gómez & Moreno, 2011;Grañeras-Pastrana et al., 2012), we have identifi ...
... However, these emotional states are stochastic, in the sense that they often wax and wane in regular cycles (Cropanzano & Dasborough, 2015). For example, emotions may be entrained to the weekly calendar (Larsen, 1987;Larsen & Kasimatis, 1990), the emotional displays of their leader (Johnson, 2008(Johnson, , 2009, or the feelings of their coworkers (Totterdell, 2000;Totterdell, Keller, Teuchmann, & Briner, 1998). These event-cycles are oscillating but predictable sequences of mood states. ...
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In this review, we therefore invert the usual style of integration. We will discuss organizational justice through the lens of emotion research and not the other way around. We begin with a general overview of the workplace fairness literature, followed by a brief review of research on justice and affect during the last decade. We then expand this review by exploring four questions raised by the literature on emotions.
... In other words, they have positive expectations of the work environment, resulting in a positive attitude and strong job performance. Leaders' with such characteristics and behavior will easily affect their followers and cause them to experience more positive emotions, which may accordingly improve their work engagement (Johnson, 2009;Tims et al., 2011;Gutermann et al., 2017). Conversely, it is difficult to imagine how team members might be inspired and encouraged by an unengaged leader. ...
Article
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Using a sample of 52 work teams (52 work team leaders and their 348 followers) in China, we investigated the influence mechanism of leaders' work engagement on their followers' work engagement and subjective career success. A multilevel structural equation model (MSEM) was applied to analyze the survey data. The results of this study indicated that leaders' work engagement positively influenced their followers' subjective career success, and this relationship was mediated by the followers' work engagement. Implications of these findings, limitations, and directions for future research are discussed in the final section of the paper.
... Our model broadens the understanding of charismatic leadership by positing that expressions of charismatic leadership follow predictable patterns that mimic the circadian process. Previous studies have started to investigate the dynamicity of charismatic leaders, but their focus was mainly limited to day-level variations in charismatic leadership (Johnson, 2009;Tepper et al., 2018). Our model posits that charismatic leadership can vary following physiological pattern, highlighting that charismatic leadership is more complex than previously theorized. ...
Article
We investigate the impact of the circadian process (24-h biological cycles that influence sleep/wake periods) and chronotypes (individual differences in the timing of those cycles) in charismatic leadership. We theorize that the expressions of charismatic signals by leaders, and the perceptions of those signals by followers are influenced by the circadian process. Moreover, considering that individuals vary in their sleep awake preferences (larks vs. owls), we argue that chronotype interacts with time of day to influence expressions and perceptions of charismatic leadership. In Study 1, we found that synchrony between leader chronotype and time of day affects expressions of charismatic leadership. In Study 2, we turned our attention to the followers' circadian process and found that synchrony between a follower's chronotype and time of day affects follower's perceptions of charismatic leadership. Our new model highlights how charismatic leadership can be driven by circadian process.
... Buna göre bireyler karşısındaki kişinin hiç konuşmadan sadece yüzüne bakarak bile duygusal bulaşma yaşayarak karşısındaki kişinin duygularını deneyimlemektedirler (Friedman ve Riggio, 1981). Benzer şekilde, çalışanlar da yöneticilerinin olumlu ve olumsuz duygu durumlarından etkilenmekte ve bir süre sonra yöneticilerinin hissettiği duygulara senkronize olmaktadır (Johnson, 2009 ...
Conference Paper
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Bu çalışmanın amacı, çift yönlü iş aile zenginleşmesinin (iş-aile zenginleşmesi, aile-iş zenginleşmesi) işte mutluluk üzerindeki etkisini ve bu etkileşimde psikolojik sermayenin aracılık rolünün olup olmadığını belirlemektir. Araştırma Tokat ilinde tekstil sektörü çalışanları üzerinde yapılmıştır. Hiyerarşik regresyon analizi sonuçlarına göre iş-aile ve aile-iş zenginleşmesi, işte mutluluğu; yalnızca aile-iş zenginleşmesi ise psikolojik sermayeyi pozitif yönde etkilemektedir. Psikolojik sermayenin de işte mutluluk üzerinde pozitif etkisi saptanmıştır. Aracılık testi sonuçları ise, aile-iş zenginleşmesi ile işte mutluluk etkileşiminde psikolojik sermayenin kısmi aracılık rolü üstlendiğini göstermiştir. Mevcut bulgular, yazın ışığında tartışılmış ve gelecek çalışmalar için öneriler geliştirilmiştir. The purpose of the study is to determine the effect of work-family enrichment (work-family enrichment, family-work enrichment) on happiness at work and whether psychological capital has a mediating role on this effect. In the study, data were obtained from the textile sector. According to the hierarchical regression analysis results, work-family and family-work enrichment positively affect happiness at work, and only family-work enrichment positively affects psychological capital. Psychological capital has also been found to have a positive effect on happiness at work. Mediation test results showed that psychological capital plays a partial mediating role on the relationship between family-work enrichment and happiness at work. The current findings are discussed in the light of the literature and suggestions for future studies are developed.
... Gooty ve arkadaşları (2010) tarafından da belirtildiği gibi liderin davranışlarının astlarındaki etkisi duygusal olaylar teorisi kapsamında duygusal bulaşıcılık ile daha anlaşılır hale gelmektedir. Liderin duygu halinin astların tutum ve davranışları üzerindeki etkisinde duygusal bulaşıcılığın aracılık rolü olduğu başka araştırmacılar tarafından da ortaya konmuştur (ör., Halverson, 2004;Johnson 2008;Johnson, 2009;Sy ve ark., 2005). Araştırmalar sonucunda çalışma ortamlarında liderlerin duyguyu yayan, astların ise duygunun bulaştığı kişiler olduğu tespit edilmiştir (Hatfield ve ark., 1994). ...
Article
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Örgüt yararına ahlaki olmayan davranışlar, sosyal ve etik kuralları ihlal eden fakat örgüt için fayda yarattığı düşünülen davranışlar olarak ifade edilebilir. Bu davranışlar kısa dönemde örgüt yararına gibi görünse de uzun dönemde örgüte zarar verebilmektedir. Araştırma, çalışanların örgüt yararına ahlaki olmayan davranışlarının belirleyicilerini tespit etmek amacıyla yöneticiye duyulan güven ve örgütsel bağlılığın bu davranışlar üzerindeki etkisini belirlemek ve duygusal bulaşıcılığın bu ilişkideki rolünü ortaya çıkarmak amacıyla yapılmıştır. Eğitim alanında hizmet veren bir kamu kurumunda çalışan 198 kişiden, kolayda örneklem yöntemiyle, veri toplanmıştır. Ölçeklerin geçerlilikleri ve güvenilirlikleri kontrol edildikten sonra, değişkenler arasındaki ilişki korelasyon ve regresyon temelli yol analiziyle incelenmiştir. Yöneticiye duyulan güven ve örgütsel bağlılığın örgüt yararına ahlaki olmayan davranışları olumlu ve anlamlı bir şekilde etkilediği, örgütsel bağlılığın yöneticiye duyulan güvenle örgüt yararına ahlaki olmayan davranış arasındaki ilişkide kısmi aracılık rolüne sahip olduğu; ayrıca, yöneticiye duyulan güven ve örgütsel bağlılığın örgüt yararına ahlaki olmayan davranış üzerindeki etkisinde duygusal bulaşıcılığın düzenleyicilik etkisinin olduğu tespit edilmiştir. Duygusal bulaşıcılık, yöneticiye güven ve örgütsel bağlılığın örgüt yararına ahlaki olmayan davranış üzerindeki pozitif ve anlamlı etkisini güçlendirmektedir.
... Gooty ve arkadaşları (2010) tarafından da belirtildiği gibi liderin davranışlarının astlarındaki etkisi duygusal olaylar teorisi kapsamında duygusal bulaşıcılık ile daha anlaşılır hale gelmektedir. Liderin duygu halinin astların tutum ve davranışları üzerindeki etkisinde duygusal bulaşıcılığın aracılık rolü olduğu başka araştırmacılar tarafından da ortaya konmuştur (ör., Halverson, 2004;Johnson 2008;Johnson, 2009;Sy ve ark., 2005). Araştırmalar sonucunda çalışma ortamlarında liderlerin duyguyu yayan, astların ise duygunun bulaştığı kişiler olduğu tespit edilmiştir (Hatfield ve ark., 1994). ...
... Prior leadership research has shown, for example, that LMX can positively impact follower job satisfaction (Gerstner & Day, 1997) and reduce negative affect-oriented expressions, such as employee hostility A large number of studies found leader affect were linked to follower affective outcomes. That is, the extant leadership research has demonstrated that followers are more likely to have positive (negative) affect if their leader also demonstrates positive (negative) affect (Erez et al., 2008;Johnson, 2008Johnson, , 2009Ten Brummelhuis, Haar, & Roche, 2014;Van Kleef et al., 2009). Support for this idea was also found at the group level of analysis (Sy, Côté, & Saavedra, 2005). ...
Article
Drawing on Ployhart and Moliterno's (2011) multilevel theoretical model of human capital resource emergence (HCRE), this paper reviews existing empirical research to better understand the effect of leadership on this emergence process. Specifically, we summarize the current literature pertaining to how leaders may impact the process through which individual‐level human capital – the knowledge, skills, abilities of individuals – emerge into a valuable unit‐level human capital resource. We review 132 empirical articles and examine how leadership research on task‐ and relational‐oriented factors at different levels of analysis affect the important task and social environment enabling factors of HCRE. Our paper makes important progress towards integrating leadership research with extant theorizing on HCRE and identifies areas in both literatures where additional research is needed.
... There is a wide variety of international studies on the development of a strong professional identity and its influence on the way in which pedagogical leadership is exercised (Akkerman and Meijer 2011;Crow, Day, and Møller 2017;Cruz-González, Domingo, and Lucena 2019) whilst a growing body of studies has focused on the important role of the principal in the achievement of such successful leadership (Hallinger 2018;Johnson 2009). However, less attention has been paid to examining the factors that influence the construction of a principal's leadership identity. ...
Article
Recent international research highlights the importance of a strong professional identity based on pedagogical leadership to achieve educational improvement. Several studies indicate a clear relationship between the role of gender identity and the development of a leadership identity. This article tells the story of a female school principal in a Spanish school context. Using a biographical narrative approach, we explore how this female principal built a professional identity oriented towards leadership based on professional commitment and social justice. This study is part of a more extensive international research project whose main objective is to explore the factors that influence the construction of a professional leadership identity for school principals. The analysis was based on an outpouring of deep reflections through a professional biogram. We identified a series of key events in Marta's life that had a clear professional and personal impact and consolidated her current professional identity. Marta's story shows the influence of gender, personal life factors, socioeconomic status, and the socio-political environment on the development of a professional identity of leadership along with the challenges encountered as a woman. Facing these challenges has led to the reconstruction of an identity that is more oriented towards social equality and professional commitment. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Pescosolido & Druskat, 2002 ;Zaccaro & Horn, 2003;Alon & Higgins, 2005;.Dasborough, 2006;Riggio & Lee, 2007;Antonakis, Ashkanasy & Dasborough, 2009;Johnson, 2009)  - 04 -      - 05 -       - 06 -                     - 07 -  CD       CD   Data Show    - 08 ...
Article
هدف البحث التعرف على فاعلية وحدة مقترحة في الدراسات الاجتماعية لتحقيق بعض أهداف التربية القيادية لدى تلاميذ المرحلة الإعدادية، واتبع البحث المنهج شبه التجريبي، وتحددت مواد البحث في قائمة بأهداف التربية القيادية، كُِّتيب الطالب ودليل المعلم للوحدة المقترحة " قادة أضاءوا تاريخنا الاسلامي "، وتمثلت أداة القياس في مقياس التربية القيادية، وطُبقت تجربة البحث وفق التصميم التجريبي ذو المجموعة الواحدة وعددها (40) تلميذاً بمدرسة سيدى عبد الرحيم القنائي الإعدادية بقنا، وتوصلت نتائج البحث إلي فاعلية الوحدة المقترحة في الدراسات الاجتماعية في تحقيق بعض أهداف التربية القيادية لدى تلاميذ المرحلة الإعدادية، وفي ضوء ذلك وُضعت مجموعة من التوصيات والبحوث المقترحة.
... For example, emotions conveyed by social media users can alter the mood of their network members indirectly (Coviello et al., 2014) and encountering fewer positive or negative emotional posts in news feeds may alter network members' posting behavior toward more negative or positive posts, respectively . In politics, our own mood, task performance and evaluations of leader charisma appear to be strengthened by positive mood in leaders (Johnson, 2009). How leaders, debates and positions are described via media may therefore have "contagious" effects on leadership judgments, particularly if news sources are partisan and activate the "groupish mind" (Haidt, 2012). ...
Article
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While first impressions of dominance and competence can influence leadership preference, social transmission of leadership preference has received little attention. The capacity to transmit, store and compute information has increased greatly over recent history, and the new media environment may encourage partisanship (i.e., “echo chambers”), misinformation and rumor spreading to support political and social causes and be conducive both to emotive writing and emotional contagion, which may shape voting behavior. In our pre-registered experiment, we examined whether implicit associations between facial cues to dominance and competence (intelligence) and leadership ability are strengthened by partisan media and knowledge that leaders support or oppose us on a socio-political issue of personal importance. Social information, in general, reduced well-established implicit associations between facial cues and leadership ability. However, as predicted, social knowledge of group membership reduced preferences for facial cues to high dominance and intelligence in out-group leaders. In the opposite-direction to our original prediction, this “in-group bias” was greater under less partisan versus partisan media, with partisan writing eliciting greater state anxiety across the sample. Partisanship also altered the salience of women’s facial appearance (i.e., cues to high dominance and intelligence) in out-group versus in-group leaders. Independent of the media environment, men and women displayed an in-group bias toward facial cues of dominance in same-sex leaders. Our findings reveal effects of minimal social information (facial appearance, group membership, media reporting) on leadership judgments, which may have implications for patterns of voting or socio-political behavior at the local or national level.
... Seligman (2012) (Fredrickson, 2001). Positive emotions of leaders are likely to influence the positive emotions of their followers or subordinates (Johnson, 2009). ...
... 38 Studies in a leadership context have suggested that emotional contagion relates positive effects in a leader to positive effects in their followers at work. 18,39,40 A recent article by Moeller et al. 15 highlighted that external agents have the scope of action in the development of passion. Particularly in an educational context, research suggests that students develop passion by observing the actions of the teacher in the classroom. ...
Article
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Purpose: Research in the education domain has noted the importance of work-based passion and has repeatedly highlighted how passion influences positive work outcomes. However, far too little attention has been given to investigating whether one's passion can be transferred to others. Using two theoretical lenses - crossover theory (CT) and emotional contagion theory (ECT) - the present study intends to deepen our understanding by examining whether a teacher's work passion can be transferred to a student. Methods: To address this knowledge gap, we recruited students and their subject teachers (n=226 teacher-student dyads) from the major business schools of Pakistan, based on the convenience sampling method, during the period from November to December 2018. An exploratory factor analysis was run to extract the dimension underlying each construct. A confirmatory factor analysis was conducted using AMOS 24.0 to assess the discriminant and convergent validity of the measurement model. The SPSS PROCESS macro was used to test the hypotheses using SPSS 24.0. Results: Consistent with the hypotheses, our results show that a teacher's work passion can be transferred to a student's work passion indirectly via emotional contagion. Our data further establish that the transference of a teacher's work passion to a student's work passion via emotional contagion is more significant when the teacher is educated at PhD level than when she/he is non-PhD educated. Conclusion: To the best of the authors' knowledge, this study has been one of the first attempts to thoroughly examine work passion transference from teachers to students in the area of higher education and offers several managerial and theoretical implications alongside future opportunities for practitioners and research scholars.
... While debatable, Kim and Mauborgne (2005) claim that energy (with beliefs and critical mass as the other two) is a "disproportionate influencer" in organizations for strategy implementation. Johnson (2009) proposed follower "mood contagion" that is related to charismatic leadership, but there appears a gap for a practical tool to determine the energy that bosses leave behind. ...
Article
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Purpose The plight of dissatisfied employees has become a recurring theme. A question often asked by management trainees is “How do I handle my difficult boss?” Hence, this paper aims to address the difficult boss problem successfully from the perspective of the subordinate. Design/methodology/approach The conceptualized legacy framework had been presented to participants and who verified its accuracy by their experiences. They could apply the framework with relative ease. Workshops, interview and online questionnaires informed the development of the framework. Findings The framework proposes four legacy effects on subordinates that bosses leave after interaction, namely, tense, dark, false and calm legacies. The legacies assist subordinates in classifying their bosses as either a hammer, flat battery, fire-lighter or dynamo. Once the boss is categorized, strategies to assist subordinates in handling their difficult boss flow from the framework. Research limitations/implications While extremely useful for subordinates, bosses are limited in the use of the legacy model as it requires very high trust levels to exist. The nature of the difficult boss problem suggests that such trust does not exist. Practical implications Benefits of understanding the legacy framework has two benefits: subordinates can use the legacy tool to classify their bosses and find strategies for how to handle difficult bosses. For bosses, subordinate evaluation of their legacies presents an alternative avenue to seek feedback and improve “self-learning” through reflection. Originality/value The legacy matrix was shown to be applicable to all bosses at all levels in virtually all organizations. The value of the framework was also observed at the informal level.
... Part of the issue may be that the evidence of evaluations following the valence of affect seems to derive from studies in which the relationship between leader affective displays and evaluations was mediated by follower affect (i.e. contagion; Chi et al., 2011;Johnson, 2009;Visser et al., 2013), whereas positive evaluations following displays of negative affect seem to result from a process of cognitive interpretation of affect (Melwani et al., 2012;cf. Schaumberg & Flynn, 2012). ...
... Similarly, Johnson (2009) found that negative affective displays by leaders delivered in a speech resulted in lower follower performance and lower perceived leader charisma. ...
Article
Although workplace anger is not typically viewed favorably and is often an unpleasant experience, in this article we challenge management scholars to better understand when anger can produce positive as well as negative outcomes at work. Our aim is to address the complexity and ambiguity surrounding anger at work and simultaneously offer a more balanced perspective of its potential. First, we clarify features of the anger experience, examining its ntrapersonal, interpersonal, and social-cultural layers as well as differentiating various forms of workplace anger using the Dual Threshold Model (Geddes & Callister, 2007). Second, we address key misunderstandings operating in organizations with regard to anger by reviewing research that illustrates why expressed anger is allowed and found appropriate (even beneficial) in certain circumstances, and less so in others. Third, we challenge anger’s moniker as a “negative” emotion by reexamining management literatures that have raditionally eschewed anger, those that have embraced it, and potential areas where anger can shed new light on future research. Finally, we propose that organizations offering “appropriate space” for anger expression can take advantage of its potential to promote constructive conversations and needed change.
... Relatively little attention has been given to the role of follower emotions in the charismatic leadership process, although there is some research focusing on how followers are susceptible to charismatic leaders' positive emotional expressions (Cherulnik et al., 2001;Johnson, 2009). Additional research could focus in more depth on the followers' responses to a charismatic leader's communication, utilizing a greater range of emotions and messages. ...
Article
Research on charismatic leadership has been criticized for the ambiguity of its central construct. Attempts to define and measure charisma have frequently treated it as a complex construct consisting of multiple components. However, little work has been done to develop a theoretical model that offers a parsimonious rationale explaining why certain leadership attributes are considered "charismatic" while others are not, or how these attributes combine to produce charismatic effects. Addressing these issues, we present a model that situates emotion as the primary variable in the charismatic process. We use recent research on the moral emotions to frame a theory of followership-relevant emotions (FREs) that describes how leaders use emotions such as compassion, admiration, and anger to compel their followers to act. We then discuss the Elicit-Channel (EC) model of charismatic leadership, positing that the charismatic relationship is a five-step, cyclical process. In the EC model, leaders elicit highly motivating emotions from their followers and then channel those emotions to produce action that, if successful, results in outcomes such as positive affect and trust. These outcomes then enable the leader to continue the cycle, eliciting emotion once more. We conclude by offering a research agenda, addressing potential methodological concerns, and discussing future directions.
... Therefore, future research should use objective, biological indicators of follower stress, such as heart-rate variability or cortisol levels, to strengthen the quality of the data. Alternatively, ratings of leaders' behaviours from an independent third party would be useful to separate the effects of leader strain on leadership behaviours from the effects resulting from the perception of leadership behaviours in general (Halverson et al., 2004;Johnson, 2009). Future research should isolate the influence of actually displayed behaviours from raw perceptions of behaviours that may be biased because followers feel stressed themselves. ...
Article
This study contributes to leadership literature by linking leader strain with followers' level of burnout while considering leaders' transformational leadership behaviour. The study provides promising insights into the field of leadership theory by shedding light on the nature of leadership under stress. The sample consisted of 294 dyads of leaders and their followers, who provided information on transformational leadership style, levels of perceived strain, and burnout via an online survey. Results show that (1) strained leaders display less transformational leader behaviours, (2) leaders' transformational behaviours reduce follower burnout, and (3) the relationship between leader strain and follower burnout is mediated by transformational leadership behaviours. This study contributes to the existing literature by exploring the link between leaders' strain and followers' burnout within a health-oriented leadership framework, and uncovers direct and indirect effects seen as a result of transformational leadership.
... Others have shown that expressed emotion is relevant to perceptions of leadership. For instance, Johnson (2009) found that leaders who expressed negative affect influenced their followers' evaluations of their leaders' charisma. Barnes, Guarana, Nauman, and Kong (2016) found that leaders who were able to suppress their negative emotions through deep acting were perceived as more charismatic by their followers. ...
Article
Drawing from the sleep and emotion regulation model, and attribution theory, we argue that sleep can influence the quality of the relationship between leaders and their followers. Specifically, we examined the effects of lack of sleep on leader-follower relationship development at the beginning of their dyad tenure. We hypothesized that the negative effects of lack of sleep on relationships are mediated by hostility. Results based on 86 new dyads (first three days of their work relationship) showed support for our hypotheses (Study 1). Results based on 40 leaders and 120 followers over three months (five waves) also showed that lack of sleep influences perceptions of relationship quality via hostility for both leaders and followers (Study 2). Moreover, we found that the direct effects of follower lack of sleep affect leader perceptions of relationship quality in the first month of their dyad tenure but decreasingly so over time; the direct effects of a leader lack of sleep on follower perceptions of relationship quality did not vary based on dyad tenure. Results revealed that individuals are not aware of the impact of their own lack of sleep on other people’s perceptions of relationship quality, suggesting that leaders and followers may be damaging their relationship without realizing it.
... They can help enhance the expatriate manager's work adjustment, as well as performance at higher levels. Furthermore, subordinates' positive mood stemming from participative leadership may positively affect the expatriate managers' mood via a social contagion process (Johnson, 2009;Visser, van Knippenberg, van Kleef, & Wisse, 2013), which subsequently improves their work adjustment. In sum, we hypothesize: ...
Conference Paper
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Based on multi-source data from 7,062 expatriate managers as well as their subordinates, peers, and supervisors, we found that expatriate managers’ humility is positively related to their participative leadership which, in turn, is related to better work adjustment and higher managerial performance in their respective host countries. Best International Poster Award, 2017 SIOP Conference
Article
As students transition from the classroom to the practice setting, the numbers of instructors and classmates change. Advanced pharmacy practice experience (APPE) rotations are designed for learning via one-on-one interactions with a pharmacy preceptor. This individualized mentoring facilitates the next step in professional development.¹ A change to one-on-one learning, however, can present new challenges to students, including the pressure of retrieving and applying their knowledge and skills, as well as problem solving, critical thinking, and having a limited support system due to fewer onsite peers.2,3 These factors may make students more susceptible to emotional contagion. Emotional contagion is the tendency to automatically mimic and synchronize expressions, vocalizations, postures, and movements with those of another person and, consequently, to converge emotionally.⁴ In the real-world environment, students may be exposed to both positive and negative emotional contagion. Students may feel empowered when exposed to positive emotional contagion such as being mentored by a preceptor who is excited about their practice. Conversely, students may be exposed to negative emotional contagion such as working with a preceptor who is stressed from a long day of delivering care to patients with challenging disease states and is impatient toward the student. Infection with this negative emotional contagion may affect students’ emotions and impact rotation performance. Understanding emotional contagion and having tools to resist negative emotional contagion can help set students up for success in reaching the highest learning outcomes during APPEs.
Article
Studies up to great extent have focused on investigating the possible consequences of supervisor incivility in organizations; however, surprisingly very little research has concentrated on its antecedents. Drawing on affective event theory, the aim of this study is to identify how role overload may cause the supervisor behavior uncivil toward their subordinates in the project environment by examining the mediating role of emotional exhaustion and moderating effect of time consciousness. Data were collected from both supervisors and their immediate subordinates from project-based organizations of Pakistan. After data consolidation, the final sample was 296 supervisor–subordinate dyads. The results revealed that supervisor role overload and emotional exhaustion is positively related with supervisor incivility and emotional exhaustion mediates this relationship. Time consciousness moderates the link between supervisor role overload and emotional exhaustion. The practical and theoretical implications of our findings are provided.
Book
Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology provides a complete overview of the psychological study of the world of work. Written with the student in mind, the book presents classic theory and research in the field alongside examples from real-world work situations to provide deeper insight. This edition has been thoroughly updated to include the latest research on each key topic, and now features: A spotlight on diversity, equity, and inclusion throughout, including coverage of LGBTQIA+ inclusion and racial justice Expanded coverage of ethics in I/O psychology practice Increased emphasis on cross-cultural and international issues Coverage of the changing nature of work, post-pandemic, including remote working, worker stress, and burnout A new focus on technologies related to I/O such as virtual reality and computer adaptive testing New figures, illustrations, and charts to grab the reader's attention and facilitate learning Accompanied by extensive student and instructor resources, it is a must read for all students on I/O psychology courses and courses in work psychology and organizational behavior, and for practicing managers who want a comprehensive overview of the psychology of work. © 2022 Ronald E. Riggio & Stefanie K. Johnson. All rights reserved.
Article
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Context During postgraduate training, considerable efforts for intraprofessional education are in place to prepare primary care residents (PC residents) and medical specialty residents (MS residents) for intraprofessional collaboration (intraPC). Power dynamics are inherently present in such hierarchical medical contexts. This affects intraPC (learning). Yet, little attention has been paid to factors that impact power dynamics. This study aims to explore power dynamics and their impact on intraPC learning between PC residents and MS residents during hospital placements. Methods This study expands on previously published ethnographic research investigating opportunities and barriers for intraPC learning among residents in five Dutch hospitals. We analyzed transcripts of observations and in-depth interviews using template analysis. A critical theory paradigm was employed. Discourse analysis additionally informed the data. Results We defined five interrelated themes that describe characteristics of power dynamics in intraPC learning during hospital placements: beliefs; power distribution; interaction style; subjection; and fearless learning. Power dynamics operate both within and between the themes: power distribution between PC residents, MS residents and MS supervisors seemed to be an attribution affected by underlying beliefs about professional norms or about other professions; beliefs influenced the way PC residents, MS residents and MS supervisors interacted; power distribution based on inequity could lead to subjection of PC residents; power distribution based on equity could lead to fearless learning; and open interactions enabled fearless intraPC learning. Conclusions Power dynamics have an impact on intraPC learning among residents in hospitals. Constructive power dynamics occur when power distribution is based on equity, combined with sincere open interactions, actively inviting each other into discussions and enlisting the support of MS supervisors to foster fearless learning. This can be achieved by creating awareness of implicit beliefs and making them explicit, recognizing interaction that encourages intraPC learning and creating policies that support fearless intraPC learning.
Thesis
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In a time characterized by growing uncertainty, e.g. because of the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic, effective leadership is more important than ever. In addition, employee well-being has been named one of the critical drivers of business success. In this dissertation, we therefore answer the following overarching question: Exactly how can leaders contribute to employee well-being? In order to answer this question, we execute several theoretical and empirical studies, and we also develop new ways of investigating leader (communication) behavior itself. In the first part of this dissertation, we look into the main ways in which positive leadership styles influence employee work engagement. In the first theoretical study, we argue why certain leader behaviors are shared across positive leadership styles, and we identify several theory-driven processes and pathways through which leaders can influence employee work engagement. In the second study, a moderated meta-analysis, we investigate the meta-correlation of positive leadership styles and work engagement, as well as provide an empirically-driven overview of categories of mediating and moderating mechanisms, to end up with an overarching research model. In the second part of this dissertation, we look into the role of leaders’ own well-being, for both their own leadership as well as for employee well-being. In the first study, we test a moderated mediation and find that 1) mindfulness is an antecedent of positive leadership (here: transformational leadership), 2) leaders’ psychological need satisfaction mediates the relationship between mindfulness and transformational leadership and 3) neuroticism moderates the relationship between mindfulness and relatedness need satisfaction. In the second study, with multilevel and multisource data, we investigate the trickle-down effect of leaders’ psychological need satisfaction. We find that psychological need satisfaction indeed trickles down to employees, mediated by (employee-rated) levels of LMX. We also find a direct positive association between leader competence and employee competence, as well as a negative one between leader autonomy and employee competence. In the last part of this dissertation, we look into how we can improve leader communication to increase employee well-being. In the first study we develop a new construct and validate a new 10-item questionnaire for leader attentive communication (LAC), i.e. an open-minded, attentive demeanor while in a conversation with an employee. We also find that psychological need satisfaction and Kahn’s conditions for engagement mediate the relationship between LAC and work engagement. In the second study, we devise and test a two-day training protocol to improve leader communication. Despite an interference by the pandemic in the data-collection, we find small increases in employee-rated outcomes after the training. We also find that employee-rated LAC is related to employee well-being, and that this is mediated by both psychological need satisfaction and Kahn’s conditions for engagement.
Article
Purpose Transformational leaders have long been known to use emotions to motivate their followers and guide their energy toward the vision set forth by the leader. Much of the past research and theory on this topic has exhibited a bias toward positively valenced emotions. Negative emotions have received limited attention relative to positive emotions, and this imbalance has led to a skewed understanding of the relationship between emotions and transformational leadership (TL). Design/methodology/approach The study reviews the organizational literature regarding negative emotion expression in TL. Findings The study integrates research regarding negative emotions and TL with the existing body of research regarding positive emotions and TL. The authors argue that the range of emotions considered needs to be broadened and rebalanced. Practical and theoretical implications are also discussed. Originality/value The study integrates the benefits of negative emotions and TL the more well-known and explored the benefits of positive emotions and TL. The study uses the four components of TL theory, i.e. inspirational motivation (IM), idealized influence (II), individualized consideration (IC) and intellectual stimulation (IC), to explore how transformational leaders can effectively display negative emotions. The study ultimately presents a more balanced overview of emotions and TL.
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The importance of emotions has been recognized in the entrepreneurship literature recently. In this chapter, the author sheds light on positive/negative emotions and their consequences and unexpected outcomes in aspect of female entrepreneurship. Moreover, the study focuses emotional contagion among entrepreneur and employee. By interviewing three successful women actors in Turkey entrepreneurship ecosystem, the author discovered that for new venture management, emotions are inarguably important, specifically opportunity recognition and surviving venture growth phases. The results of the study will help key players in the society, for example, entrepreneurs, academicians, and practitioners. The results of the study need to confirm empirically in future studies.
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Perceptions of failure have been implicated in a range of psychological disorders, and even a single experience of failure can heighten anxiety and depression. However, not all individuals experience significant emotional distress following failure, indicating the presence of resilience (Johnson J, Wood AM, Cogn Ther Res, 2015). This chapter synthesised studies investigating resilience factors to emotional distress resulting from the experience of failure in organisational settings. For the definition of resilience, the Bi-Dimensional Framework for resilience research (Johnson J, Resilience: the bi-dimensional framework. In Wood AM, Johnson J (eds) Positive clinical psychology. Wiley, Chichester, 2016; Johnson J, Wood AM, Gooding P, Taylor PJ, Tarrier N et al, Clin Psychol Rev 31:563–591, 2011b; Johnson J, Jones C, Lin A, Wood S, Heinze K, Jackson C, Psychiatry Res 220:217–225, 2014) is used, which suggests that resilience factors are those which buffer the impact of risk factors, and outlines criteria a variable should meet in order to be considered as conferring resilience. This chapter introduces the impact of failure experiences and conceptualises resilience-based approaches (Bonanno GA, Am Psychol 59:20–28, 2004; Masten AS, Am Psychol 56:227–238, 2001; Masten AS, Powell JL, A resilience framework for research, policy, and practice. In: Luthar SS (ed) Resilience and vulnerability: adaptation in the context of childhood adversities. Cambridge University, New York, pp 1–25, 2003). The Bi-Dimensional Framework of resilience research is deliberated. This chapter concludes by discussing the implications for psychological resilience-building interventions in response to failure, error or mistakes for individuals and teams in organisations.
Article
Purpose Motivation constitutes a central topic for business management, because of its critical impact on job performance. Therefore, understanding whether and how the style of leadership adopted by leaders in organizations promotes and maintains employee motivation is of great interest to both scholars and practitioners. Drawing on self-determination theory, this study investigates how ethical and emotional styles of leadership influence employee motivation and thus job performance. Design/methodology/approach An empirical study was conducted in the public sector in Kuwait. About 607 employees participated in this study. Structural equation modeling techniques were used for testing the causal relationships between constructs. Findings Results of our study indicate that both ethical and emotional leaderships enhance employee motivation. Furthermore, employee motivation has a positive impact on job performance. The results also show that job performance exerts a negative effect on quitting intentions. Finally, interest in the private sector moderates the job performance–quitting intentions relationship. Practical implications These findings provide theoretical contributions to the extant literature, as well as important practical implications for managers. Originality/value This study demonstrates the role of both ethical and emotional leaderships in shaping employee behaviors. To the best of our knowledge, this research is among the few that provides initial evidence regarding quitting intentions as an outcome of the impact of ethical and emotional leaderships on employee motivation and individual performance in Kuwait.
Article
Purpose Ethics and leadership are ongoing topics in high performance sports. The purpose of this paper is to provide an insight into the relationship between coaches’ ethical leadership behaviour, as perceived by athletes, and its impact on student-athlete accountability, voice and performance. Design/methodology/approach The paper examines the constructs of coaches’ ethical leadership behaviour, felt accountability and voice behaviour. The authors surveyed student-athletes from a variety of sports who compete in the Ontario University Athletics Regional Association. A total of 303 respondents (n=303) completed the survey. Partial least squares path modelling algorithm was utilised for testing hypotheses. Findings The results of the study indicate a significant relationship between a coach exhibiting ethical leadership behaviour and student-athlete voice behaviour and performance. Felt accountability mediates the effect of ethical leadership on voice and performance. Practical implications This study provides support for the hypothesis that coaches who behave ethically and whose actions represent their words create an environment where a student-athlete feels accountable. This is a powerful concept as it can positively impact individual and team success. The findings suggest that one of the ways that coaches can impact athletes’ performance is to demonstrate and model ethical conduct, and reward ethical acts. Originality/value The paper examines how coaches’ ethical behaviour might impact individual processes of accountability, voice and performance. Second, the paper uses the construct of accountability to explain how coaches’ ethical leadership impacts student-athlete behaviour. The accountability literature indicates that followers’ behaviours can be understood as the consequences of his/her perceived accountability towards the leader.
Article
Purpose Previous research has focused mainly on the antecedents and consequences of service employees’ emotional labor during the enactment of service roles, with little attention having been paid to how perceptions of leaders’ emotional labor are related to followers’ job outcomes. The purpose of this paper is to propose a model in which followers’ perceptions of the uses of emotional labor by leaders toward customers influence followers’ job performance in their service encounters. Design/methodology/approach Working with a sample of 268 medical service employees in South Korea, structural equation modeling was employed to test the research hypotheses. Findings The results indicate that perceptions of leaders’ deep acting toward customers are positively related to followers’ perceptions of authentic leadership. Second, followers’ perceptions of authentic leadership are positively associated with their identification with and trust in their leaders. Finally, followers’ identification with and trust in their leaders is positively related to their job performance. Research limitations/implications The research shows that leaders’ use of deep acting toward customers has a positive effect on followers’ job outcomes. Thus, service firms should consider training programs, mindfulness and policy changes regarding display rules at the organizational level so that service employees are encouraged to use deep acting with customers by empathizing with the customers’ needs, while regulating their inner feelings. Originality/value The current study broadens the conceptual work and empirical studies in the emotional labor literature related to the service sector by presenting a fundamental mechanism for the effect of perceptions of leaders’ use of emotional labor toward customers on service employees’ job performance. This study is the first to provide an empirical test of how leaders’ emotional labor is related to followers’ job performance.
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Abusive supervision is associated with many detrimental consequences. In this theory-review chapter, we extend the abusive supervision literature in two ways. First, we argue that more attention needs to be given to the emotion contagion processes between the leader and followers. More specifically, leaders’ negative affect can lead to followers’ experiences of negative affect, thereby influencing followers’ perception of abusive supervision. Second, we explore how employees draw upon their cognitive prototypes of an ideal leader or Implicit Leadership Theories (ILTs) to evaluate leader behaviors. In this regard, we argue that ILTs can influence the (negative) emotional contagion process between the leaders’ negative affect and followers’ perception of abusive supervision. In our proposed model, leaders’ expressions of negative affect, via emotional contagion, influence followers’ negative affect, perception of abusive supervision, and two behavioral responses: affect- and judgment-driven. The negative emotional contagion process between the leader and followers also differs depending on followers’ susceptibility to emotional contagion and their ILTs. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of our model.
Article
Although supervisor support is generally considered a job resource that buffers the negative consequences of job demands, reverse-buffering effects have been found. It was proposed that supervisor support would be stress buffering when supervisors were skilled in emotion management and stress exacerbating when supervisors were low in emotion management. A sample of 210 US employees found three-way interactions on psychological strain, job burnout, and two stress-related intentions. Supportive supervisors high in emotion management buffered high emotional demands on psychological strain and medical advice intentions, but not burnout or turnover intentions.The stress-exacerbating hypothesis was not supported. Instead, employees with highly supportive supervisors low in emotion management reported low strain at low emotional demands. However, this benefit was diminished at high emotional demands.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand the emotional cycle of the relationship between service employees and customers using a social interaction model. Design/methodology/approach A total of 22 five-star hotels in Seoul area are selected. The survey was conducted by a mixed mail and visiting format. Of 340 questionnaires distributed, 27 were incomplete and thus eliminated from the study. As a result, 313 questionnaires were accepted for the purpose of final analysis, representing a response rate of 92 per cent. Findings The study found that service employees’ orientation and emotions are critical for predicting customers’ display of emotions and ensuring employees’ mood. In addition, employees’ emotions and service orientation have positive relationships with customers’ display of emotions; customers’ display of emotions have positive relationships with employees’ moods and task performance; and employees’ moods have positive relationships with task performance. Research limitations/implications A key limitation of this study is that it is difficult to capture precisely the emotions of employees and customers using the five-point Likert scale. Second, there might be representative issue in his study because the survey was limited to brief encounter within in the hotel industry that focused only on five-star hotels in Seoul. Practical implications Through the study, to overcome the emotional labor, this study shows that an answer could lie in the connection between business outcomes and positive mood of employees. Managers should create a good environment for employee to work in a pleasant atmosphere. In addition, during the employee selection process, managers might hire talented and qualified front employees with friendly, courteous and extroverted characteristics. Originality/value The essential contribution of this study is that it provides initial empirical support for the social interaction model in an employee and customer service setting in the field of hospitality.
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In this article, we attempt to distinguish between the properties of moderator and mediator variables at a number of levels. First, we seek to make theorists and researchers aware of the importance of not using the terms moderator and mediator interchangeably by carefully elaborating, both conceptually and strategically, the many ways in which moderators and mediators differ. We then go beyond this largely pedagogical function and delineate the conceptual and strategic implications of making use of such distinctions with regard to a wide range of phenomena, including control and stress, attitudes, and personality traits. We also provide a specific compendium of analytic procedures appropriate for making the most effective use of the moderator and mediator distinction, both separately and in terms of a broader causal system that includes both moderators and mediators. (46 ref) (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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This laboratory experiment investigated the effects of trainer expressiveness, lecture organization, and trainee goal orientation on training outcomes. Participants (N = 135) listened to lectures that differed in organization and trainer expressiveness. Participants completed recall and problem-solving tests immediately and 2 days later. The results indicated that participants had the highest recall after an expressive and organized lecture. The findings for problem-solving performance were more complex. Participants with a high mastery orientation had their poorest problem-solving performance after listening to an organized and inexpressive lecture, whereas participants with a low mastery orientation did not respond to the effects of organization or expressiveness.
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The authors discuss the problem with failing to sample stimuli in social psychological experimentation. Although commonly construed as an issue for external validity, the authors emphasize how failure to sample stimuli also can threaten construct validity. They note some circumstances where the need for stimulus sampling is less obvious and more obvious, and they discuss some well-known cognitive biases that can contribute to the failure of researchers to see the need for stimulus sampling. Data are presented from undergraduate students (N = 106), graduate students (N = 72), and psychology faculty (N = 48) showing insensitivity to the need for stimulus sampling except when the problem is made rather obvious. Finally, some of the statistical implications of stimulus sampling with particular concern for power, effect size estimates, and data analysis strategies are noted.
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The empirical literature on charismatic or transformational leadership demonstrates that such leadership has profound effects on followers. However, while several versions of charismatic leadership theory predict such effects, none of them explains the process by which these effects are achieved. In this paper we seek to advance leadership theory by addressing this fundamental problem. We offer a self-concept based motivational theory to explain the process by which charismatic leader behaviors cause profound transformational effects on followers. The theory presents the argument that charismatic leadership has its effects by strongly engaging followers' self-concepts in the interest of the mission articulated by the leader. We derive from this theory testable propositions about (a) the behavior of charismatic leaders and their effects on followers, (b) the role of followers' values and orientations in the charismatic relationship, and (c) some of the organizational conditions that favor the emergence and effectiveness of charismatic leaders.
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The current study examined the moderating effect of task type on the effectiveness of charismatic leadership. Using a laboratory study, the content (visionary, nonvisionary) and delivery (expressive, unexpressive) of a leadership speech were manipulated, along with the charisma conduciveness of performance tasks. Based on the propositions asserted by Shamir and Howell, the authors suggest that charisma-conducive tasks are low in analyzability (more complex) and require greater levels of initiative and creativity. In addition, the authors expected that the effects of charismatic leadership on task performance should be more pronounced in terms of quality than quantity of performance. As expected, visionary content and expressive delivery resulted in higher attributions of charismatic leadership. In addition, visionary content led to better quality of performance on more charisma-conducive tasks.
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Although the experience of work is saturated with emotion, research has generally neglected the impact of everyday emotions on organizational life. Further, organizational scholars and practitioners frequently appear to assume that emotionality is the antithesis of rationality and, thus, frequently hold a pejorative view of emotion. This has led to four institutionalized mechanisms for regulating the experience and expression of emotion in the workplace: (1) neutralizing, (2) buffering, (3) prescribing, and (4) normalizing emotion. In contrast to this perspective, we argue that emotionality and rationality are interpenetrated, emotions are an integral and inseparable part of organizational life, and emotions are often functional for the organization. This argument is illustrated by applications to motivation, leadership, and group dynamics.
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This study of 145 managers of a large biotechnology/agricultural company examined how leaders' emotion recognition ability and personality characteristics influenced performance of transformational leadership behavior. Emotion recognition, positive affectivity, and agreeableness positively predicted such behavior. In addition, extraversion moderated the relationship between emotion recognition and transformational leadership. We also provided construct validity evidence for transformational leadership behavior by showing differing effects of these antecedents on contingent reward behavior. The study provides empirical support for the contribution of emotion and personality to transformational leadership behavior.
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Using a mood-as-input model, the authors identified conditions under which negative moods are positively related, and positive moods are negatively related, to creative performance. Among a sample of workers in an organizational unit charged with developing creative designs and manufacturing techniques, the authors hypothesized and found that negative moods were positively related to creative performance when perceived recognition and rewards for creative performance and clarity of feelings (a metamood process) were high. The authors also hypothesized and found that positive moods were negatively related to creative performance when perceived recognition and rewards for creativity and clarity of feelings were high.
Article
A leader's emotional display is proposed to affect his or her audience. In this study, observing a male or female leader express negative emotion was proposed to influence the observer's affective state and assessment of the leader's effectiveness. In a laboratory study, a leader's specific negative emotional tone impacted the affective state of participants in the study. Negative emotional display had a significant and negative main effect on participant assessment of leader effectiveness compared to a more neutral emotional display. Further, a significant interaction between leader gender and emotion was found. Male leaders received lower effectiveness ratings when expressing sadness compared to neutrality, while female leaders received lower ratings when expressing either sadness or anger. Copyright © 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Although organisations often implement team-based structures to improve performance, such restructuring does not automatically ameliorate poor performance. The study in this article explores the relationship between team members' negative mood and team processes (social cohesion, workload sharing, team conflict) to determine if negative mood has a detrimental effect on team performance via team processes. Two hundred and forty one participants completed surveys and were involved in an independently rated performance task that was completed over eight weeks. Negative mood was found to influence team processes and as a consequence, team performance. The results, however, were not uniformly negative. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
Book
Transformational Leadership, Second Edition is intended for both the scholars and serious students of leadership. It is a comprehensive review of theorizing and empirical research that can serve as a reference and starting point for additional research on the theory. It can be used as a supplementary textbook in an intense course on leadership--or as a primary text in a course or seminar focusing on transformational leadership. New in the Second Edition: New, updated examples of leadership have been included to help illustrate the concepts, as well as show the broad range of transformational leadership in a variety of settings. New chapters have been added focusing specifically on the measurement of transformational leadership and transformational leadership and effectiveness. The discussion of both predicators and effects of transformational leadership is greatly expanded. Much more emphasis is given to authentic vs. inauthentic transformational leadership. Suggestions are made for guiding the future of research and applications of transformational leadership. © 2006 by Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc. All rights reserved.
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Emotion and emotion-related concepts are interspersed throughout theories of charismatic and transformational leadership. Existing research in this area articulates expected relationships of global emotion constructs such as emotional intelligence, positive affect, and negative affect to leadership. However, there has been little attention to the potential roles of more specific emotions. This chapter describes some of the existing theoretical and empirical research on leadership and emotion, and proposes a framework to examine more systematically how specific emotions may influence transformational and charismatic leadership. The emotion framework is applied to two theories to demonstrate its utility in gaining a more in-depth understanding of how emotions influence leader communication, motivation, interpersonal relations, and relationship management with followers.
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This new edition suggests new directions for research and practice, includes emphasis on modern computers and technology useful in assessment, and pays more attention to prediction of individual growth and globalization challenges in the assessment process. The book will be of interest to faculty and students in Industrial Organizational psychology, human resource management and business. IO psychologists in private business and public sector organizations who have responsibilities for staffing and an interest in measurement and statistics will find this book useful.
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The chameleon effect refers to nonconscious mimicry of the postures, mannerisms, facial expressions, and other behaviors of one's interaction partners, such that one's behavior passively rind unintentionally changes to match that of others in one's current social environment. The authors suggest that the mechanism involved is the perception-behavior link, the recently documented finding (e.g., J. A. Bargh, M. Chen, & L. Burrows, 1996) that the mere perception of another' s behavior automatically increases the likelihood of engaging in that behavior oneself Experiment 1 showed that the motor behavior of participants unintentionally matched that of strangers with whom they worked on a task. Experiment 2 had confederates mimic the posture and movements of participants and showed that mimicry facilitates the smoothness of interactions and increases liking between interaction partners. Experiment 3 showed that dispositionally empathic individuals exhibit the chameleon effect to a greater extent than do other people.
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Male and female subjects performed several tasks either in the presence or absence of an environmental source of positive affect (pleasant artificial scents produced by two commercially manufactured air-fresheners). Consistent with the findings of previous research on the impact of positive affect, results indicated that several aspects of subjects' behavior were influenced by this variable. Participants exposed to pleasant scents set higher goals on a clerical coding task and were more likely to adopt an efficient strategy for performing this task than subjects not exposed to such conditions. In addition, males (but not females) reported higher self-efficacy in the presence of pleasant artificial scents than in their absence. Participants exposed to pleasant scents also set higher monetary goals and made more concessions during face-to-face negotiations with an accomplice. Finally, subjects exposed to pleasant scents reported weaker preferences for handling future conflicts with the accomplice through avoidance and competition. Analyses of covariance suggested that these differences stemmed largely from contrasting levels of positive affect among subjects in the neutral and pleasant scent conditions. Together, these results suggest that pleasant artificial scents may provide a potentially useful means for enhancing the environmental quality of work settings, and hence the performance and attitudes of persons in them.
Article
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Article
In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing.
Article
This study focused on the conditions under which job dissatisfaction will lead to creativity as an expression of voice. We theorized that useful feedback from coworkers, coworker helping and support, and perceived organizational support for creativity would each interact with job dissatisfaction and continuance commitment (commitment motivated by necessity) to result in creativity. In a sample of 149 employees, as hypothesized, employees with high job dissatisfaction exhibited the highest creativity when continuance commitment was high and when (1) useful feedback from coworkers, or (2) coworker helping and support, or (3) perceived organizational support for creativity was high.
Article
An experiment investigated the effect of procedures designed to induce mood (and previously demonstrated to influence social interaction such as helping) on subsequent evaluation of positive, negative, and neutral slides. Results showed main effects of both mood and slide type. This indicates that mild mood-inducing events that are sufficient to affect social interaction also affect evaluation, but they do not rely for their effect on directing attention away from the stimuli themselves. Implications for cognitive processes involved in the relationship between mood and evaluation are discussed.
Article
This study examined the effects of vision content, delivery and organizational performance on perceptions of leader charisma and effectiveness. Subjects included 304 undergraduates who were presented videotaped speeches by a bogus CEO of a software company. A 2 × 2 × 2 design was employed in which message content (visionary/non-visionary), delivery (strong/weak), and organizational performance (high/low) were manipulated. A modified, 7-item version of Meindl and Ehrlich's (1988) Romance of Leadership Scale (RLS-D) served as a covariate. A MANCOVA analysis indicated significant effects of delivery, content, and organizational performance on both perceived leader charisma and effectiveness. The RLS-D was unrelated to either dependent variable as a covariate. The results suggest that strength of delivery is an especially important determinant of perceptions' of leader charisma and effectiveness. Although speech content and organizational performance cues likewise accounted for variance in these perceptions, their effects were at times offset by those of delivery.
Article
This paper presents a macro, integrative theory of leadership. The theory emphasizes the role of the leader in assessing the deficiencies in the follower's abilities, motivation, role perception or environmental conditions and in taking action to alleviate deficiencies which inhibit follower performance. Determinants of leader behavior and environmental influence are also central to the theory. Basic propositions and hypotheses of the theory are stated, and the leadership literature relating to these propositions is reviewed.
Article
Two studies examined the relationship between the rated charisma of US presidents and their frequency of use of metaphors in inaugural addresses. In the first study, the incidence of metaphors was recorded from the first-term inaugural addresses of 36 presidents (17 high charisma; 19 low charisma). Charismatic presidents used nearly twice as many metaphors (adjusted for speech length) than non-charismatic presidents. In the second study, judges rated the passages from the speeches that they found most inspirational. Results suggested that metaphors are important for inspiring audience members. This work increases our understanding of the process by which charismatic leaders inspire and motivate followers.
Article
The question was whether a person's emotional mood could serve as a distinctive context for learning and retrieval of memories. Hypnotized subjects learned a word-list while feeling happy or sad, and recalled it in the same or the opposite mood, either immediately (Exp. 1) or after one day (Exp. 2). Retention proved to be surprisingly independent of the congruence of learning and testing moods. Experiment 3 had subjects learn two lists, one while happy, one while sad. Later recall of both lists while happy (or sad) revealed a powerful congruence effect. Thus, learning mood provided a helpful retrieval cue and differentiating context only in multi-list circumstances where confusions and interference among memories would otherwise obtain.
Article
When we want to know what others are feeling, we look to the face for clues. However, individual differences matter: Some faces are more expressive than others. Do both emotion experience and dispositional expressivity predict emotion expression? Based on an analysis of display rules, the authors hypothesized that expressivity would moderate the relation between experience and expression for negative, but not for positive, emotion. Study 1 examined the relation between habitual emotion experience and peer-rated expressive behavior and showed the predicted moderator effect for negative emotion: Experience was related to expression only for dispositionally high-expressivity participants, not for low-expressivity participants. For positive emotion, however, experience was related to expression for both groups. Study 2 replicated these findings using momentary emotion experience and objectively coded expressive behavior during films that elicited amusement and sadness. Results are interpreted in terms of low-expressivity individuals' propensity to dynamically regulate negative emotion-expressive behavior.
Article
This paper suggests that feelings (moods and emotions) play a central role in the leadership process. More specifically, it is proposed that emotional intelligence, the ability to understand and manage moods and emotions in the self and others, contributes to effective leadership in organizations. Four major aspects of emotional intelligence, the appraisal and expression of emotion, the use of emotion to enhance cognitive processes and decision making, knowledge about emotions, and management of emotions, are described. Then, I propose how emotional intelligence contributes to effective leadership by focusing on five essential elements of leader effectiveness: development of collective goals and objectives; instilling in others an appreciation of the importance of work activities; generating and maintaining enthusiasm, confidence, optimism, cooperation, and trust; encouraging flexibility in decision making and change; and establishing and maintaining a meaningful identity for an organization.
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Taking a psychoanalytic perspective, this paper investigates the mysterious bond between leaders andfollowers. Using such concepts as charisma, projection, transference, defense mechanisms, and the psychology of groups, regressive processes between leaders and followers are explored. In the context of leadership, attention is also given to the psychological consequences of the faulty management of anxiety and aggression.
Article
A charismatic leadership model consisting of leader social and emotional skills, follower openness to organizational change, and organizational-change magnitude was tested using data from 108 leaders and 325 direct followers in 64 organizations. Leader social control and emotional expressivity skills predicted charismatic leadership whereas follower openness to change mediated the relationship between charismatic leadership and leadership effectiveness. Surprisingly, organizational-change magnitude did not moderate the relationship between charismatic leadership and leadership effectiveness. Implications for leadership theory, practice, and future research are discussed.
Article
While affect and emotion have been theoretically linked to leadership for decades, only recently has this relationship come under empirical scrutiny. The current research examines the effects of emotional contagion on follower affect at work and examines the outcomes of follower affect at work in a field setting. Leader positive and negative affect at work related to follower positive affect at work via emotional contagion. Follower positive and negative affect at work related to perceptions of charismatic leadership and organizational citizenship behavior. Follower perceptions of charismatic leadership related to organizational citizenship behavior.