Perceptions of failure have been implicated in a range of psychological disorders, and even a single experience of failure can heighten anxiety and depression. However, not all individuals experience significant emotional distress following failure, indicating the presence of resilience (Johnson J, Wood AM, Cogn Ther Res, 2015). This chapter synthesised studies investigating resilience factors to emotional distress resulting from the experience of failure in organisational settings. For the definition of resilience, the Bi-Dimensional Framework for resilience research (Johnson J, Resilience: the bi-dimensional framework. In Wood AM, Johnson J (eds) Positive clinical psychology. Wiley, Chichester, 2016; Johnson J, Wood AM, Gooding P, Taylor PJ, Tarrier N et al, Clin Psychol Rev 31:563–591, 2011b; Johnson J, Jones C, Lin A, Wood S, Heinze K, Jackson C, Psychiatry Res 220:217–225, 2014) is used, which suggests that resilience factors are those which buffer the impact of risk factors, and outlines criteria a variable should meet in order to be considered as conferring resilience. This chapter introduces the impact of failure experiences and conceptualises resilience-based approaches (Bonanno GA, Am Psychol 59:20–28, 2004; Masten AS, Am Psychol 56:227–238, 2001; Masten AS, Powell JL, A resilience framework for research, policy, and practice. In: Luthar SS (ed) Resilience and vulnerability: adaptation in the context of childhood adversities. Cambridge University, New York, pp 1–25, 2003). The Bi-Dimensional Framework of resilience research is deliberated. This chapter concludes by discussing the implications for psychological resilience-building interventions in response to failure, error or mistakes for individuals and teams in organisations.