Article

Capillary electrophoretic analysis of salicin in Salix spp.

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  • Frontier Scientific, Inc.
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Abstract

Salicin is a phenolic glycoside in willow bark which exhibits analgesic effects. Its occurrence in willow (Salix) species is the major reason willow bark and its extracts are popular products in the nutritional supplement market. Previously, HPLC has been the standard method of analysis of quantifying salicin in Salix. We describe a new method of analysis using capillary electrophoresis (CE) that is faster, relatively simple and highly reproducible. Two different species of willow, Salix alba and Salix scouleriana, are analyzed for salicin by CE, using 20 mM glycine (pH 8.8), in uncoated capillaries at 25 kV and 25°C, and UV detection at 215 nm.

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... It was found that 11 of 16 of the isolated compounds had a strong antineuroinflammatory effect. Zaugg et al. (1997) introduced another, after HPLC and TLC, method for the determination of salicin in the willow bark by capillary electrophoresis (CE), which resulted in the analysis of salicin in different species of Salix with the content from 3.1 to 13.9 mg/g. CE is a fast method to evaluate the content of bioactive components in plant matrices, but less accurate than the HPLC method (Zaugg et al. 1997). ...
... Zaugg et al. (1997) introduced another, after HPLC and TLC, method for the determination of salicin in the willow bark by capillary electrophoresis (CE), which resulted in the analysis of salicin in different species of Salix with the content from 3.1 to 13.9 mg/g. CE is a fast method to evaluate the content of bioactive components in plant matrices, but less accurate than the HPLC method (Zaugg et al. 1997). Nevertheless, it is a reproducible method and provides a good separation of antioxidant phenolic compounds, including glucoside derivatives. ...
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Key message Liquid chromatography is the main method for assaying bioactive compounds in biomass. Total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity are measured with spectroscopy. Phenolics are the most important bioactive substances in short rotation coppice. Secondary metabolites of black locust, willow and poplar have many different activities. The richest source of bioactive compounds are flowers, bark and buds. Abstract The black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia), willow (Salix spp.) and poplar (Populus spp.) may be the source of the biomass obtained from natural habitats as well as intentionally established plantations in the system of short rotation coppice. These species are promising candidates as an alternative source of bioactive compounds in researches for developing new bioproducts for multidirectional uses, including polymers, lubricants, construction materials, pharmaceuticals, as well as bioenergy and fuels. Various parts of plants, such as leaves, flowers, seeds, bark, woods, buds, catkins, whole tree material and bee products (honey, propolis) are a source of bioactive compounds. The characterization of these compounds, especially phenolic compounds (flavonoids, stilbenes, lignans, phenolic acids, tannins and phenolic glucosides), fatty acids, sterols, etc. may be determined by a variety of analytical (spectroscopy, chromatography) and extraction methods. This review contains 131 references and systematize all available data on the characterization of the bioactive compounds in the biomass of black locust, poplar and willow by analytical and extraction methods.
... The bioactive phytomolecules, medicinal values, and nutritional properties of this plant have been extensively studied by previous researchers [27][28][29][30]. Salix bark is a rich and inexpensive source of phenolic glycosides [31] and polyphenols, such as flavonoids and condensed tannins [32]. These constituents are reported to possess antirheumatic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic [33], antibacterial [34], and antioxidant activities [30,35]. ...
Article
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Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the use of a wide range of phytoadditives to counteract the harmful effects of heat stress in poultry. Willow (Salix spp.) is a tree with a long history. Among various forms, willow bark is an important natural source of salicin, β-O-glucoside of saligenin, but also of polyphenols (flavonoids and condensed tannins) with antioxidant, antimicrobial, and anti-inflammatory activity. In light of this, the current review presents some literature data aiming to: (1) describe the relationship between heat stress and oxidative stress in broilers, (2) present or summarize literature data on the chemical composition of Salix species, (3) summarize the mechanisms of action of willow bark in heat-stressed broilers, and (4) present different biological effects of the extract of Salix species in different experimental models.
... The bioactive phytomolecules, medicinal values, and nutritional properties of this plant have been extensively studied by previous researchers [24][25][26][27]. Salix bark is a rich and inexpensive source of phenolic glycosides [28] and polyphenols, such as flavonoids and condensed tannins [29]. These constituents are reported to possess antirheumatic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, hypoglycemic [30], antibacterial [31] and antioxidant activities [27,32]. ...
Preprint
Over the last decade, there has been a growing interest in the use of a wide range of phytoadditives to counteract the harmful effects of heat stress in poultry. Willow (Salix spp.) is a tree with a long history. Among various forms, willow bark is an important natural source of salicin, β-O-glucoside of saligenin, but also of polyphenols (flavonoids and condensed tannins) with antioxidant, antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory activity. In light of this, the current review presents some literature data aiming to: (1) describe the relationship between heat stress and oxidative stress in broilers, (2) present or summarize literature data on the chemical composition of Salix species, (3) summarize the mechanisms of action of willow bark in heat-stressed broilers, (4) present different biological effects of the extract of Salix species in different experimental models.
... [4] The chemical constituents like Glycosides (1.5-11%) particularly salicylates (salicin, salicortin, populin, fragilin, tremulacin); Tannins (8-20%); Aromatic aldehydes and acids specifically salidroside, vanillin, syringin, salicylic acid, caffeic and ferulic acids; Salicyl alcohol (saligenin); Flavonoids have been isolated and identified from the plant. [5][6][7][8][9]Having antipyretic and analgesic effects, salicin can be used for the treatment of fever and diseases, like arthritis. [4] Salicin is closely related to aspirin and has a very similar action in the human body (Figure 1). ...
... Salicin is a phenolic glycoside extracted from Salix sp. (white willow bark), which displays analgesic properties (Zaugg et al., 1997), but there is no scientific support for its presence in weight loss formulations. It is believed to enhance the effects of other substances in a synergistic pathway, extending or increasing the activity of thermogenic ingredients through prolonging ephedrine action time (Schmitt et al., 2012). ...
Article
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The association of p-synephrine, ephedrine, salicin, and caffeine in dietary supplements and weight loss products is very common worldwide, even though ephedrine has been prohibited in many countries. The aim of this study was to evaluate a 28-day oral exposure toxicity profile of p-synephrine, ephedrine, salicin, and caffeine mixture (10:4:6:80 w/w respectively) in male and female Wistar rats. Body weight and signs of toxicity, morbidity, and mortality were observed daily. After 28 days, animals were euthanized and blood collected for hematological, biochemical, and oxidative stress evaluation. No clinical signs of toxicity, significant weight loss or deaths occurred, nor were there any significant alterations in hematological parameters. Biochemical and oxidative stress biomarkers showed lipid peroxidation, and hepatic and renal damage (p < 0.05; ANOVA/Bonferroni) in male rats (100 and 150 mg/kg) and a reduction (p < 0.05; ANOVA/Bonferroni) in glutathione (GSH) levels in all male groups. Female groups displayed no indications of oxidative stress or biochemical alterations. The different toxicity profile displayed by male and female rats suggests a hormonal influence on mixture effects. Results demonstrated that the tested mixture can alter oxidative status and promote renal and hepatic damages. © 2016, Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas (Biblioteca). All rights reserved.
... Its occurrence in willow (Salix) species is the major reason willow bark and its extracts are popular products. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) has been the standard method of analysis of quantifying salicin in the different Salix species 25 . ...
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the radioprotective effect of salicin against irradiation effect on brain tissue of male rats. Lipid peroxidation level was measured as thiobarbituric acid reactive substance in brain tissue. The polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis for native protein, lipoprotein and zymogram were carried out in brain homogenate. As expected, salicin resisted the irradiation effect and declined the MDA level in brain homogenate of all treated groups (especially in the irradiated salicin post-treated group). Salicin minimized the qualitative mutagenic effect of irradiation on the electrophoretic protein pattern in all irradiated salicin treated groups and it showed the highest antagonistic effect against irradiation in irradiated salicin post-treated group (SI = 0.57). It could not prevent the abnormalities occurred qualitatively and quantitatively as a result of irradiation in lipoprotein pattern in all irradiated salicin treated groups. In the electrophoretic esterase pattern, salicin prevented the qualitative effect of irradiation in irradiated salicin post-treated group (SI = 1.00). Salicin minimized the qualitative irradiation effect on the catalase pattern in the irradiated salicin pre-treated group (SI = 0.73). While in the peroxidase pattern, salicin adminstration resisted the irradiation effect in the irrradiated post-treated groups (SI = 0.67). The results suggested the radioprotective ability of salicin against gamma irradiation effect on various electrophoretic patterns in brain tissue of male rats.
... Salicin can be used to treat rheumatic fever and subacute bacterial endocarditis [7]. It is also used as a traditional analgesic [8,9]. Salicin is a prodrug that is gradually converted into salicylic acid after absorption, and is antipyretic without causing gastric injury [10]. ...
Article
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An effective ionic liquid vacuum microwave-assisted method was developed for extraction of the thermo- and oxygen-sensitive glycosides salicin, hyperin and rutin from Populus bark due to the strong solvating effects of ionic liquids on plant cell walls. In this study, [C4mim]BF4 solution was selected as the extracting solution for extraction of the target analytes. After optimization by single factor experiments and response surface methodology, the optimum condition parameters were achieved, which included 1.0 M [C4mim]BF4, 2 h soaking time, -0.08 MPa vacuum, 20 min microwave irradiation time, 400 W microwave irradiation power and 25 mL/g liquid/solid ratio. Under the optimum conditions, higher extraction yields of salicin (35.53 mg/g), hyperin (1.32 mg/g) and rutin (2.40 mg/g) were obtained. Compared with other extraction methods, the developed method provided higher yields of the three target components after a relatively shorter extraction time (20 min). No obvious degradation of the target analytes was observed under the optimum conditions in performed stability studies and the proposed method had a high reproducibility. Meanwhile, after adsorption and desorption on macroporous D101 resin, the target analytes can be effectively separated from the [C4mim]BF4 ionic liquid extraction solution and the yields of salicin, hyperin and rutin were 89%, 82% and 84%, respectively. The recovered [C4mim]BF4 ionic liquid presented a good extraction effect on the three analytes after recycling five times.
... Willows, from the genus Salix include a number of species of deciduous trees and shrubs, sharing many morphological and phytochemical similarities as well as variations, which render them exploited in a much wider therapeutic applications. Salix bark is a rich and inexpensive source of phenolic glycosides (Zaugg et al., 1997), flavonoids, condensed tannins, and polyphenols (Nahrstedt et al., 2007). Salicylates (calculated as salicin) are found in all members of Salix species but Salix daphnoides, Salix fragilis along with Salix purpurea contain the greatest yield (Meier et al., 1988). ...
Article
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Our study goals to investigate the anti-arthritic potential of Salix nigra bark methanol extract (SNME) against both inflammation and oxidative stress in the collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) rat model. Results showed that SNME exhibited maximum scavenging activity against superoxide, hypochlorous acid and hydrogen peroxide radicals along with the suppression of lipid peroxidation. Female wistar rats were immunized with porcine type II collagen and treated with SNME (100 mg/kg body weight) for 15 days starting on day 20. SNME significantly inhibited the paw swelling and arthritic score; exhibited maximum CIA inhibition of 93.7% by the end of the experimental period. Administration of SNME to arthritic rats significantly improved the histological findings in joints as evident by reduced infiltration of polymorphonuclear cells and smooth synovial lining. Roentgenograms of tibiotarsal joints of both SNME and indomethacin-treated rats showed protection against osteophyte formation, soft tissue swelling and bone resorption. Furthermore, levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6) measured in both plasma and joint exudates were significantly reduced by SNME treatment. Increased oxidative stress observed in the arthritic animals was also found to be significantly restored in SNME- treated rats. Taken together, our studies clearly indicate the potential of S. nigra as an anti-arthritic agent.
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Thesis
L'arthrose chez le cheval est généralement reconnue comme une source importante de boiterie dans toutes les disciplines, bien que la maladie soit plus fréquemment associée aux chevaux qui pratiquent une activité sportive intensive. Les traitements administrés par le vétérinaire sont, le plus fréquemment, des anti-inflammatoires stéroïdiens ou non stéroïdiens oraux et des médicaments intra-articulaires. Ces médicaments sont des traitements symptomatiques et non préventifs, qui impliquent un arrêt temporaire de la compétition, car ils sont considérés comme dopants. Une nouvelle approche de l'arthrose cible des compléments alimentaires à visée anti-arthrosique qui permettraient la poursuite de la compétition, tout en préservant la dégradation du cartilage, ainsi que la douleur associée. Ces compléments alimentaires représentent un enjeu économique considérable pour les laboratoires pharmaceutiques ainsi que pour les propriétaires de chevaux de haut niveau.
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