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Some effects of hunting on wild mammalian populations

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... Det finns många studier som visar att jakt med människor och hundar kan ha stor påverkan på djur (Stephenson et al., 1996;Sforzi & Lovari, 2000;Reyna-Hurtado & Tanner, 2005;Grignolio et al., 2011). Till exempel kan jakt inverka på vilket sätt och hur mycket tid djur använder olika typer av habitat (Reyna-Hurtado & Tanner, 2005) samt på storleken av dess areal (Stephenson et al., 1996;Grignolio et al., 2011). ...
... Om man fokuserar på storleken på hjortars hemområde har man sett att hjortar ökar arealen på området som en reaktion på jakt (Stephenson et al., 1996;Grignolio et al., 2011). Detta kan förklaras av att hjortar bland annat lämnar det störda området (Sforzi & Lovari, 2000;Sunde et al., 2009), söker skydd i områden där jakt inte är tillåtet (Grignolio et al., 2011) samt undviker områden med hög mänsklig aktivitet (Kilgo et al., 1998). Man har även sett en ökad areal hos hjortar som inte befunnit sig direkt i jaktområdet utan i angränsande områden (Sforzi & Lovari, 2000). ...
... Detta kan förklaras av att hjortar bland annat lämnar det störda området (Sforzi & Lovari, 2000;Sunde et al., 2009), söker skydd i områden där jakt inte är tillåtet (Grignolio et al., 2011) samt undviker områden med hög mänsklig aktivitet (Kilgo et al., 1998). Man har även sett en ökad areal hos hjortar som inte befunnit sig direkt i jaktområdet utan i angränsande områden (Sforzi & Lovari, 2000). Neumann et al. (2009) såg dock i deras studie på älgar (Alces alces) ingen urskiljbar påverkan på älgars rörelse i jaktområdet under jaktaktivitet. ...
... Hunting implies the presence of humans, and possibly of hunting dogs, on a territory where both target and non-target animal species occur. The increases of noise and perception of predation risk by wildlife result in chronic or acute disturbance of spatio-temporal behaviour (Kilgo et al. 1998;Sforzi and Lovari 2000). For ungulates, the most evident chronic effect is commonly known as the Breserve effect^: human activity (as well as the lack of apex predators) may be responsible for abnormal concentration of deer and wild boar in protected areas, with cascade effects on local vegetation communities (Grignolio et al. 2011; see also Mysterud 2013 for human shielding). ...
... Direct and indirect exploitation by humans is known to alter population dynamics (Jeppesen 1998;Solberg et al. 2002), spatial behaviour (Kilgo et al. 1998;Tolon et al. 2009), group size (Maillard and Fournier 1995;Scillitani et al. 2010) and duration of activity (Sforzi and Lovari 2000;Kamler et al. 2007) of wildlife. Particularly, hunting directly exposes wild species to an enhanced level of predation risk. ...
... The increased predation risk forced wild boar to exhibit an altered spatial behaviour and a displacement of family groups (Scillitani et al. 2010). While the effects on game species and large ungulates have been studied thoroughly (e.g., Sforzi and Lovari 2000;Grignolio et al. 2011;Ohashi et al. 2013;Zaccaroni et al. 2012), little attention has been paid to terrestrial mammals of conservation concern. Despite being an introduced species (Bertolino et al. 2015), in Europe, the crested porcupine is safeguarded by the Berne Convention (Annex II) and the Habitat Directive (Annex IV). ...
Article
Human presence (e.g. hunting, ecotourism and wildlife photography) affects animal behaviour. Hunting pressure increases the perception of predation risk in ungulates and hares and may force them to create clumped groups within protected areas. Acute effects are showed immediately after harassments and may include displacement of home ranges, alteration of activity rhythms and increased hormone secretions. No study has been carried out yet on behavioural alterations induced by hunting on non-target, legally protected species, whereas these studies should be required to design addressed management and conservation plans. The crested porcupine Hystrix cristata represents a suitable model species to study effects of hunting on protected species, as its ranging movements and activity rhythms are seasonally, stereotypical-ly repeated. My results on individually marked porcupines showed that, when hunting with dogs occurred, a displacement of home range arises towards areas providing easily accessible food resources (i.e. fruits, which do not require digging). This behaviour might prevent porcupines to spend a high amount of time digging bulbs and tubers and, thus, it may result in a reduction of activity bouts. Home range displacement has also been observed only when >10 cm of snow are present on the ground. The presence of hunting dogs increases the predation risk perception by potential prey species, which in turn respond by altering their spatio-temporal behaviour. Wildlife managers should therefore evaluate the use of a small number of specialized dogs for hunting in management and conservation plans, particularly in areas characterized by the presence of endangered and protected species.
... For wild boar, CAB and LPP also differed in their number of drive hunts during a given hunting season (91 ± 10 drive hunts per hunting season for CAB and 29 ± 8 drive hunts per hunting season for LPP; Fig. 1) and the number of dogs used during each drive hunt (11 ± 7 per 100 ha of hunting area vs. 6 ± 4 for LPP; Fig. 1), but had similar number of shooters and beaters involved in each drive hunt (37 ± 17 shooters and 17 ± 9 beaters per 100 ha of hunting area for CAB and 38 ± 16 shooters and 17 ± 8 beaters for LPP; Fig. 1). Since hunting with higher numbers of dogs (Sforzi andLovari 2000, Grignolio et al. 2011) or more frequently may induce stronger effects on prey behaviour, we may still expect differences in terms of wild boar's space use during the drive-hunting season between the two study sites. ...
Thesis
Les effets des changements globaux sur les habitats naturels sont de plus en plus perceptibles, et comprendre comment les animaux y répondent est nécessaire pour une meilleure gestion de leurs populations. C’est en effet à travers leur impact sur l’environnement, et essentiellement sur les habitats, que les activités humaines ont souvent le plus grand effet sur les écosystèmes, à travers le changement climatique, la fragmentation, la destruction de l'habitat, les changements dans l'utilisation des terres ou la surexploitation des ressources. Les ongulés constituent un exemple marquant de progression numérique et spatiale d’une guilde d’espèces dans des écosystèmes impactés par l’Homme. Cet essor démographique est à l’origine d’un nombre croissant d’interactions entre Homme et faune et place la gestion de ces espèces au cœur des préoccupations des politiques publiques. Dans ce contexte, j’ai étudié cinq espèces de grands ongulés sauvages : le chamois, le mouflon, le bouquetin, le chevreuil et le cerf, dans le cadre du projet Mov-It (Ungulates MOVing across heterogeneous landscapes: identifying behavioural processes linking global change to spatially-explicIT demographic performance and management), soutenu par l’Agence Nationale de la Recherche (ANR). Dans un premier temps, je mets en évidence les liens entre variations intraspécifiques de la taille du domaine vital saisonnier des ongulés, le paysage (i.e. les ressources, le risque et l’hétérogénéité) et les traits d’histoire de vie de ces espèces. Je me suis ensuite intéressée plus particulièrement à l’influence des structures linéaires anthropiques et naturelles du paysage sur l'utilisation individuelle de l'espace. Je montre ainsi que les grands herbivores utilisent des structures linéaires du paysage pour délimiter leur domaine vital mensuel, mais que l'importance relative de ces structures linéaires dans la délimitation du domaine vital mensuel diminuait à mesure que leur densité augmentait dans le paysage local. Je mets également en évidence le caractère risqué des structures anthropiques pour les ongulés, en particulier l'effet de l'intensité de l’utilisation humaine de ces structures sur le nombre de traversées par les mouflons. Enfin, l’importance de la prise en compte du paysage du risque et des ressources sur l’organisation sociale est démontré. En effet, la formation de dyades (i.e. paires d’individus) est plus probable dans les milieux ouverts riche en ressources et lorsque le risque, incluant prédation et dérangement, est le plus fort (i.e. le jour). L’ensemble des résultats présentés dans ce travail de thèse a permis d’améliorer notre compréhension des effets de la structure du paysage et de la socialité sur la sélection d’habitat et le mouvement chez différentes espèces d’ongulés.
... These results are in accordance with Hell et al. (2005) with higher frequency of road kills in spring and summer. In autumn, increase in AVC is likely to denote the impact of hunting activities on movement of game species (Sforzi and Lovari 2000). Peak of AVC for roe deer in spring can also be related to natal dispersal of sub adults (Wahlström and Liberg 1995) and confirmed results obtained in others studies (Lagos et al. 2012;Markolt et al. 2012 ...
Article
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This paper is the first dealing with animal-vehicle collisions (AVC) with red and roe deer in South Tyrol, Northern Italy. The Autonomous Province of Bolzano (South Tyrol) has been collecting AVC data since 2012 on the entire provincial road network. Each year, AVC data accounted for more than 700 cases per year, with several socioeconomic and ecological implications. The aim of this research is to identify the locations where AVC occur more frequently than expected (hotspots) and better outline subsequent implementation of mitigation measures. For an effective identification of AVC hotspots, we applied a combined methodology of temporal and spatial analysis on AVC data collected on the South Tyrol road network in the years 2012–2014. AVC data enabled the identification of the temporal patterns, which showed different behaviors of the two target species in close proximity of the road network and throughout the 12 months. The KDE+ software applied to the 2012–2014 AVC database allowed for spatial analysis and the identification of hotspots, i.e., the road sections having the highest risk for drivers. The integration of the results, coming from the abovementioned methodologies, contributes to a detailed assessment of roads that would allow the identification of the local contributing factors and a base-line of potential problematic areas that will highlight the need for further investigation to assess whether the risk-rank is accurate and allocate effectively limited resources to a feasible number of identified hotspots and reduce the current degree of AVC in the South Tyrolean road network.
... Hunting activity causes an increase in daily movement and changes in the home range of ungulates (e.g. Sforzi & Lovari 2000, Etter et al. 2002, Morelle et al. 2015. The higher number of collisions with the wild boar in NW Spain in autumn has been explained in terms of the combined effect of hunting and longer nights (it is usually active at night and twilight, thus, the probability of collision is higher when nights are longer) (Lagos et al. 2012). ...
Article
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Wildlife–vehicle collisions (WVC) pose a serious socio-economic and traffic safety issue. We investigated factors affecting the location and number of WVC on the expressway “Tri-City Bypass” in a suburban area in N Poland. We analysed WVC with large-sized (LSM; ungulates; 54% of roadkills) and small-sized mammals (SSM; mainly carnivores; 46% of roadkills) and both groups combined (AM). We identified WVC hotspots and analysed factors affecting their spatial distribution with Poisson regression based on four sets of landscape and road-related features (area, patchiness, presence and other features). The most frequent mammal victims of WVCs were wild boar Sus scrofa (31%), roe deer Capreolus capreolus (21%) and European badger Meles meles (13%), among LSM, and red fox Vulpes vulpes (27%) among SSM. In general, our results indicated that most WVCs occurred in areas with a higher number of forest patches and a higher total length of forest edge (AM, LSM), in curvy sections of the road (LSM). The number of WVCs was lower in locations covered by urbanized areas and grassland (LSM), in the sections with fences, exits and overpasses (LSM, AM). The road sections where there is a higher risk of severe collisions (involving large species) are situated in areas where the Tri-City Bypass bisects a highly forested area, which serve as movement corridors for LSM between fragmented forest complexes. We conclude that the number of WVCs can be reduced by preventing animals from accessing the road and ensuring a safe road crossing. This could be achieved by extending fencing and retrofitting some existing underpasses.
... In addition to their effects on the movements of wildlife populations, limited research on ungulates suggests that being chased by dogs may compromise the animals' health( Bateson and Bradshaw, 1997 ;Sforzi and Lovari, 2000 ).12-Gompper-Chap11.indd 277 12-Gompper-Chap11.indd ...
Chapter
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This chapter focuses on evaluating the effects of hunting with dogs on wildlife populations and the importance of these impacts for conservation and wildlife management. It examines scenarios in which the use of dogs can bias harvests towards one sex or the other, or to a particular age category in the prey population. It also considers the documentation of the effects of hunting with dogs on the habitat use and ranging behavior of wildlife populations.
... Hunting is an important cultural and economic strategy for subsistence in Amazonia (Bates, 1876;Smith, 1976Smith, , 1977Ayres and Ayres, 1979;Vickers, 1984Vickers, , 1991Bodmer et al., 1994). But even for subsistence, this activity has negative effects on the diversity of medium and large mammals reducing the populations of overexploited species (Redford and Robinson, 1987;Silva and Strahl, 1991;Bodmer et al., 1997;Leeuwenberg and Robinson, 1999;Alvard, 2000;Robinson and Bennett, 2000;Peres, 2000Peres, , 2001Bodmer and Lozano, 2001;Sforzi and Lovari, 2000;Hurtado-Gonzalez and Bodmer, 2004;Robinson and Bennett, 2004;Sirén et al., 2004;Peres, 2007;Di Bitetti et al., 2008;Noss and Cuéllar, 2008;Fa and Brown, 2009). ...
Article
In the process of avoiding predation, prey are faced with potentially fitness‐compromising trade‐offs that have implications for their survival and reproduction. The nature and strength of these non‐consumptive effects at the population level can be equivalent, or even greater, than consumptive effects. Many prey species have evolved defence mechanisms that are induced by predation risk. These inducible defences can be morphological or behavioural in nature. Extensive research has detected these defences in predator–prey communities across freshwater, marine and terrestrial ecosystems. Among this vast research however, an influential portion of these systems has not been widely considered. Humans inhabit a level in trophic systems above apex predators. In that position, humans have been referred to as a hyperkeystone or super predator species as they have shown a capacity to consume animals at rates many times higher than any other non‐human species. However, the extent to which humans induce adaptive defences in animals is not as clear. Systems involving large mammals may be particularly well‐suited for the study of human‐induced defences given that these species have been disproportionately exploited (for food and competition) over evolutionary time by humans. To begin this process we first had to examine the context in which large mammals could adaptively evolve inducible defences in relation to human lethality. With the plausibility of these conditions satisfied, we then conducted an extensive review to document the inducible defences that have been detected in large mammals. All of the 187 studies reviewed documented the behavioural plasticity of large mammals to human lethality. No morphological adaptive defences were detected. However, the extent to which the observed behavioural plasticity of large mammals is representative of adaptive inducible defences remains unclear because the fitness trade‐offs (i.e. costs), an integral condition for inducible defences to evolve, were implied rather than quantified among close to 92% of this research. We make recommendations for renewed ingenuity in the development of field experiments that can quantify these costs and discuss the implications of human lethality on the ecology, conservation and management of large mammals. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article. A free Plain Language Summary can be found within the Supporting Information of this article.
Article
Context Human activities can induce behavioural and stress responses in wild animals. Information is scarce on the effects of culling on anti-predator behaviour and endogenous stress response of wild ungulates. Aims In a Mediterranean area, we evaluated the effects of culling on vigilance, foraging and endogenous stress response of female fallow deer (Dama dama). Methods Effects of culling were evaluated through behavioural observations and hormone analyses of faecal samples. Key results In an area where culling occurred (C), individuals showed significantly greater vigilance rates and foraged closer to wood than in an area with no culling (NC). In C, 24h after culling, faecal cortisol concentrations were greater than those recorded in NC, but they decreased significantly to values comparable to (48h post-shot) and lower than (72h post-shot) those observed in NC. Conclusions Most likely, culling determined behavioural responses in female fallow deer, but did not trigger long-term physiological effects. Implications Increased anti-predator behaviour may complicate the implementation of long-term culling programs.
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Where do they go? About predator-prey relationships between game animals and hunting dogs. Hunting is the most effective tool for the management of free-ranging ungulate populations in Central Europe and equals a predator-prey relationship. Although behavior and range use of prey has been studied extensively, relatively little is known about the behavior of hunters and their dogs. For a few years now GPS-Loggers are used to register the routes of hunting dogs. This paper presents data on performance and behavior by way of example and discusses some results. Among others it is indicated that behavior is more important than physical working capacity regarding the influence of body size on running speed of the dogs.
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