Efectos de los incendios forestales en las propiedades edáficas

In book: Incendios Forestales, Suelos y Erosión Hídrica, Publisher: Caja Mediterráneo CEMACAM Font Roja-Alcoi, pp.5-40
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    • "It has been evaluated very little survival of fungi and bacteria in different environments, although it is known that fungi are more resistant to temperature change than bacteria (Barcenas-Moreno et al, 2011 ; Moreno and Baath, 2009); however, it has been found strong activity after the fire (Bodí et al, 2012). The apparent biological vacuum that remains after a fire is fleeting, because a high biological activity is frequently observed after the first rains (Mataix-Solera and Guerrero, 2007). In addition, there are plant species that have adaptations designed to resist fire, some of them have even developed reproductive mechanisms such as rhizomes to sprout. "
    Full-text · Dataset · Feb 2015
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    • "Amongst other environmental impacts, wildfire is widely regarded as the principal agent of soil erosion and land degradation in woodlands and shrublands (DeBano et al., 2005; Shakesby and Doerr, 2006; Shakesby, 2011). Fire-enhanced runoff and erosion are commonly attributed to the (partial or total) removal of the protective soil cover by vegetation and litter, in combination with heating-induced changes in soil properties such as aggregate stability and water repellency (Neary et al., 1999; Mataix-Solera and Guerrero, 2007; Ubeda and Outeiro, 2009; Varela et al., 2010). These changes can markedly enhance runoff and associated transport processes during the so-called window of disturbance, both at the hillslope and catchment scale (Prosser and Williams, 1998; Shakesby and Doerr, 2006; Shakesby, 2011; Prats et al., 2013). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Soil burn severity has been widely used to describe the impacts of fire on soils and is increasingly being recognized as a decisive factor controlling post-fire erosion rates. However, there is no unique definition of the term and the relationship between soil burn severity and post-fire hydrological and erosion response has not yet been fully established. The objective of this work was to review the existing literature on the role of soil burn severity on post-fire runoff and erosion ratios. To this end, a meta-analysis was carried out of the runoff and inter-rill erosion data from field rainfall simulation experiments (RSE’s) that compared burnt and unburnt conditions. In this study, 109 individual observations were analysed that covered a wide geographical range, various types of land cover (forest, shrubland, and grassland) and two types of fire types (wildfire and prescribed fire). The effect size of the post-fire runoff and erosion response was determined for four key factors: i) soil burn severity; ii) time-since-fire; iii) rainfall intensity; and iv) bare soil cover. Statistical meta-analysis showed that fire occurrence had a significant effect on the hydrological and erosive response. However, this effect was only significantly higher with increasing soil burn severity for inter-rill erosion, and not for runoff. This study furthermore highlighted the incoherencies between existing burn severity classifications, and proposed an unambiguous classification.
    Full-text · Article · Feb 2015 · Journal of Hydrology
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    • "Black carbon is produced in large amounts and accumulated on the soil surface, where it may constitute 30-40% of soil C in fire-prone ecosystems. This long-term C sequestration is a significant part of the global C cyle (Forbes et al., 2006; Mataix-Solera and Guerrero, 2007; Bodí et al., 2012a). "
    Full-text · Article · Sep 2014
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