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A new aero-aquatic helicosporous hyphomycete, Helicoon gigantisporum, from submerged wood in Australia is described and illustrated with light and scanning electron micrographs. It differs from the nine previously described species of Helicoon in having larger broadly ellipsoid to doliiform conidia which are borne singly on very short conidiophores. An amended key to the genus is given.
Mycol. Res. lOO (1,2): L485-7488 (79961 Printed in Great Britain
Helicoon gigantisporum sp. nov., and an amended k"y to the
L Department of Apptied Biology and Chemical Technology, Hong Kong Polytechnlc L)nioersity, Hung Hom, Kowloon, Hong Kong
zDepartment of Ecology and Biodir:ersity, Unioersity of Hong Kong, Pokt'ulam Road, Hong Kong
A new aero-aquatic helicosporous hyphomycete, Helicoon gigantisporum, from submerged wood in Australia is described and
illustrated with light and scanning electron micrographs. It differs from the nine previously described species of Helicoon in having
larger broadly ellipsoid to doliiform conidia which are borne singly on very short conidiophores. An amended key to the genus is
Figs 6-9. Helicoon gigantisporum. Diagrammatic representation. Fig.
6, Habit sketch of the colony on wood. Fig. 7. Superficial hyphae
with short lateral conidiophores bearing helicoid conidia. Fig. 8.
Three-dimensional sketch of a conidium showing the apex. Note the
counter-clockwise coiling direction. Fig. 9. Three-dimensional sketch
of a conidium showing the base. Note the short hilar projection. Scale
bars 6 : 200 sm, 7-9 : 20 vm.
In a study of the fungi occuring on submerged wood in
streams in north Queensland, Australia, we collected a new
helicosporous hyphomycete. It was identified as a species of
Helicoon (Morgan, -1"892; Coos et a1.,7986) producing solitary,
Figs 1-5. Helicoon gigantisporum. Light micrographs. Fig. 1. Squash
mount illustrating several conidia. Eigs 2-4. Conidia on short
conidiophores. Fig. 5. Glistening conidia on substratum surface.
Scale bars 1-4 : 50 um. 5 : 1 mm.
Helicoon gigantisporum and amended key to the genus 7486
Figs 10-14. Helicoon gigantisporum. Scanning electron micrographs. Fig. 10. A representative portion of the colony on wood. Figs
11-13. Conidia borne on short lateral conidiophores. Note the basal attachment, the 13 x coils, the counter-clockwise coiling direction,
the slight constrictions at septa, and the mucilaginous substances of the conidia. Fig. Ia. Base of a conidium showing the short hilar
projection. Scale bars 10 : 100 gm, 11-14 : 10 Um.
non-proliferating, barrel-shaped conidia bome on distinct
conidiophores. A detailed morphological examination revealed
that this species differed from previously described species of
Helicoon in having larger broadly ellipsoid to doliiform conidia
borne singly on very short conidiophores. An amended key to
the genus is given.
Goos ef al. (1985, 1986) revised the genera Helicodendron
Peyronel and Helicoon A. P. Morgan and discussed the
differences between the two genera. Glen-Bott (1955) listed
five useful criteria for distinguishing species within Helico-
dendron. One of the criteria is the direction of coiling of the
conidial filament which she described as'clockwise'or
'counter-clockwise', depending on the viewer's observation
who is situated outside the spiral, and on its axis. Neither
Goos ef al. fi986\ nor Aa & Samson (1994) indicated the
direction of coiling for the species of Helicoon they described.
It is thought, however, that this criterion is useful and is used
here in the description of our new species.
Microscopic observation and measurements were made
from freshly prepared slides of material mounted in lacto-
phenol. Since the present fungus is aero-aquatic and thus air
bubbles are usually trapped at the centre of the conidia, the
slides were gently flamed several times to remove the trapped
bubbles. To supplement the morphoiogical information, the
T. K. Goh and K. D. Hyde
material has been examined with Cryo-scanning electron
Helicoon gigantisporum Goh & K. D. Hyde, sp. nov.
Etym. : Greek g igas, giant
I spora; refernngr" ,^" ,:r:" ;:l
the conidia.
Coloniae in vivo atrobrunneae, nitidiusculae, effusae. Mycelium
partim immersum sed plerumque superficiale. Hyphae superficiales
ca2'5-4 um latae, pallide flavidobrunneae, laeves, ramosae, dense
septatae, ad septas leniter constrictae. Conidiophora macronematosa,
mononematosa, cylindrica, erecta, recta, ex hyphis lateraliter oriunda,
modice flavidobrunnea, non ramos4 non septata, non vermcosa,
6'5-1.4vm longa,3-4'5 um lata uniformia in latitudinibus. Cellulae
conidiogenae monoblasticae, in conidiophoris incolporatae, terminales,
determinatae. Conidia solitana, sicca, acrogena, flavidobrunnea vel
atrobrunnea, helicoidea, distanter septata, corpus ellipsoideum vel
doliiforme, 78-120 um aIfum,4840 gm latum formantia, filamenfum
6'5-10 Um latum, (12-)13 spiris convolutum, frequenter substantia
mucilaginosa consociafum; conidiorum secessio praesumpte schizo-
lytica, ad basim hili protudinem ca 4-9 x 3-4'5 um formans.
Tabfe 1. Differences between Helicoon gigantisporum nd. H. mauosporum
(information from Aa & Samson, 1994)
H. gigantisporum H. macrosporum
Holotypus: on submerged wood in small stream, Mt Lewis, north
Queensland, Australia, May 7995, K. D. Hyde & T. M. Hyde, ML45,
BRIP 23200.
Colony on natural substratum dark-brown, somewhat giisten-
ing, effuse. Mycelium partly immersed but mostly superficial,
consisting of branched hyphae and short conidiophores
bearing conidia; superficial hyphae ca2'5-4 um wide, pale
yellowish-bror rr, smooth, branched, closely septate, slightly
constricted at the septa which are 11-16 um apart. Conidio-
phores macronematous, mononematous, cylindrical, erect,
straight, arising as short branches more or less at right angles
to the subtending hyphae, mid yellowish-brown or somewhat
darker than the subtending hyphae, unbranched, non-septate,
smooth, 6'5-74 um long, 3-4'5 um wide. Conidiogenous cells
monoblastic, integrated, terminal, determinate. Conidia soli-
tary, dry, acrogenous, yellowish-brown to dark-bror,,rn,
helicoid, filament 6'5-70 pm wide, smooth, distantly septate,
slightly constricted at septa, tightly coiled (rz-)r.r times in a
counter-clockwise direction to form a broadly ellipsoidal or
doliiform body, 78-720 um long, 48-90 um wide, usually
incorporated with mucilaginous substances such that no gaps
are visible between adjacent coils; conidial secession pre-
sumably schizolytic at the deliminating septum of the
conidiogenous cell, giving rise to a short hilar projection
ca 44x 3-4'5 um at the base.
Helicoon gigantisporum is recognized as a new species
because of its large doliiform conidia which are bome on very
short conidiophores the lengths of which are never more than
14 um. The conidial body aiways comprises (72-)73 helicoid
tums in a counter-clockwise direction(sensu Glen-Bott, 1955).
Large conidia are also produced by Helicoon macrosporum Aa
& Samson (1,994) and Helicodendron giganteum Glen-Bott
(1951). The latter species is, however, distinct from Helicoon,
by its continuous blastic conidiogenesis (Goos et al., 1985).
Helicoon macrosporum differs from H. gigantisporum in its
narrower conidia and semi-macronematous conidiophores
which are much longer. Moreover, in H. macrosporum, the
. H. sessile
. H. farinosum
. H. auratum
Length of body
Width of body
Number of coils
Direction of coiling
Constriction at septa
6'5*14 Um
78-120 Irm
48-90 Um
Slightly constricted
(30-)70-150(-200) um
(75-)80-110 Um
(39-)45-60 um
(8-)1 1-12(-13)
Not constricted
Amendments Io the key to the Helicoon species of Goos et al. (1986) and Aa €t Samson (1994)
1. Conidia width usually greater than 60 gm; conidiophore length not more than 14 pm, filaments colled (rz-)rl fimes H. gigantlsporum
1. Conidia width less than 60 pm; conidiophore length usually greater than 14 gm, filaments coiled 4-16 times z
2. Conidia white in mass 3
2. Conidia distinctly coloured in mass 4
3. Conidia ellipsoidal, 20-30x33-59 um; filaments 4'54'5 pm, coiled 5-16 times, conidiophores inconspicuous
3. Conidia more or less ovoid in shape, 2O-2Tx22-37 vm; filaments 3.5-4.5 um, coiled 5-8 times
4. Conidia golden yellow in mass 'l-4-27 x 36-46 vm; filaments 2.5-3.6 gm, coiled 8-16 times .
4. Conidia brown to fuscous in mass s
5. Colonies floccose, conspicuous, conidiophores much branched, anastomosing; conidia light brown, 18-32x28-45 vm; filaments
H. elliplicum
5. Colonies lacking floccose mycelium; conidiophores simple or little branched 6
6. Chlamydospores formed on agar media; conidia globose to subglobose, 14-17x 15-18 prm; conidial filament 3-4 um
6. Chlamydospores on agar media lacking H. chlamydosporum
7. Conidial length ranging from 50 to over 100 prm . I
7. Conidial length less than 50 um .
8. Conidia dark fuscous to black 50-87 x 5042 sm; conidial filament 6-10 um, coiled 8-10 times . .H. ichonis
8. Conidia dark brown (75-)80-LLOx(39-)4s4o um; conidial filament 8.5-11 gm, coiled (g-)ff-f2(-13) times .H. macrosporum
9. Conidial filament 2'7-4'5 lrm, coiled, 6-12 times to form an oval conidium, 17-25 x 20-50 pm; conidiophores macronemarous, up
ro zuu um long . H. t'tscosporum
9. Conidia filament 5-6 um, loosely coiled 4-{ times, with 10-18 septa per coil, conidia oval, 3o-42x22-3o gm; conidiophores
micronematous,s-l2o pm long .H. pluriseptafum
Helicoon gigantisporum and amended key to the genus
conidia coil in a clockwise direction as illustrated in the
scanning electron micrographs of Aa & Samson ('199a). In
Table 1, a summary of the differences between the two species
is given. Two other species, namely H. pluriseptatwmBeverw.
(van Beverwijk, 7954) and H. sessile Morgan (1,892), oc-
casionally produce conidiophores shorter than 14 um.
However, the conidia in these two species are very much
smaller than those of H. gigantisporum.
For descriptions of H. auratum (Ellis) Morgan (1892), H.
chlamydosporwra Abdullah & J. Webster (19s0), H. ellipticum
(Peck) Morgan (1892), H. farinosum Linder (1929), H.
fwscosporum Linder (I92il, and H. richonis (Boud.) Linder
(7929), the readers should refer to the individual papers or
Goos ef al. (79s6). A key to the 10 accepted species of Helicoon
amended from Goos et al. (7986) and Aa & Samson (199a) is
presented here.
We would like to thank Ms Helen Leung for technical
assistance and Mr A. Y. P. Lee for photographic assistance.
(Accepted 29 March 1996)
Aa, H. A. van der & Smson, R. A. (1,994). A new species of Helicoon.
Mycological Resesrch 98, 74-76.
Abdullah, S. K. & Webster, J. (1980). Occunence of aero-aquatic fungi in soil.
lransa(ilons ol tne bnt$n lvtvcotoStcat Joctery /r, 5 l r-J14.
Beverwijk, A.van (1954). Three new fungi: Helicoon pluriseptatum n.sp.,
Papulospora pulmonaria n. sp. and Tricellula inaequalis, n. gen., n. sp. Antonie
oan Leeuwenhoek 20, 1,-1,6.
Glen-Bott, l. L (1951). Hellcodendron giganteumn. sp., and other aerial sporing
Hyphomycetes of submerged leaves. Transactions of the British Mycological
Society 34,275-279.
Glen-Bott, J. I. (1955). On Helicodendron tubulosum and some similar species.
Transactions of the Bnfish Mycological Society 3E, 77-j0.
Goos, R. D., Abdullah, S. K., Fisher, P. J. & Webster, I. (1985). The anamorph
genus Helicodendron. Transactions of the Britkh Mycological Sociefu 84,
Goos, R. D., Abdullah, S. K., Fisher, P. J. & Webster, J.0,986). The anmorph
genus Helicoon. Trareactiore of the British Mycological Society 87,775-722.
Linder, D. H. (1929). A monograph of the Helicosporous Fungi Imperfecti.
Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden !6, 227-388.
Morgan, A.P. (1892). North American Helicosporae. Cincinnati Society of
Natural History ]oumal 15, 39-52.
... The phylogenetic status of this genus remains to be resolved. Notes: Morphologically, Helicoon was introduced based on solitary, non-proliferating, barrel-shaped conidia borne on distinct conidiophores (Morgan 1892, Goos et al. 1986, Goh et al. 1996, and was regarded as synonym of Orbilia. Helicoon myosuroides was described from bark and leaves of Betula spp., but also from leaves of Fagus sylvatica in Austria, which is characterised by its percurrent, septate conidiophores and dark fuscous to blackish brown colonies (Goh et al. 1996) Notes: Metacoleroa is a monotypic genus based on M. dickiei. ...
... Notes: Morphologically, Helicoon was introduced based on solitary, non-proliferating, barrel-shaped conidia borne on distinct conidiophores (Morgan 1892, Goos et al. 1986, Goh et al. 1996, and was regarded as synonym of Orbilia. Helicoon myosuroides was described from bark and leaves of Betula spp., but also from leaves of Fagus sylvatica in Austria, which is characterised by its percurrent, septate conidiophores and dark fuscous to blackish brown colonies (Goh et al. 1996) Notes: Metacoleroa is a monotypic genus based on M. dickiei. Metacoleroa was assigned to Venturiaceae based on superficial ascomata and ascospores with a median or submedian septum (Zhang et al. 2011). ...
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Members of Venturiales (Dothideomycetes) are widely distributed, and comprise saprobes, as well as plant, human and animal pathogens. In spite of their economic importance, the general lack of cultures and DNA data has resulted in taxa being poorly resolved. In the present study five loci, ITS, LSU rDNA, tef1, tub2 and rpb2 are used for analysing 115 venturialean taxa representing 30 genera in three families in the current classification of Venturiales. Based on the multigene phylogenetic analysis, morphological and ecological characteristics, one new family, Cylindrosympodiaceae, and eight new genera are described, namely Bellamyces, Fagicola, Fraxinicola, Neofusicladium, Parafusicladium, Fuscohilum, Pinaceicola and Sterila. In addition, 12 species are described as new to science, and 41 new combinations are proposed. The taxonomic status of 153 species have been re-evaluated with 20 species excluded from Venturiales. Based on this revision of Venturiales, morphological characteristics such as conidial arrangement (solitary or in chains) or conidiogenesis (blastic-solitary, sympodial or annellidic), proved to be significant at generic level. Venturia as currently defined represents a generic complex. Furthermore, plant pathogens appear more terminal in phylogenetic analyses within Venturiaceae and Sympoventuriaceae, suggesting that the ancestral state of Venturiales is most likely saprobic.
... Conidiogenous cells monoblastic, integrated, terminal, determinate. Conidia solitary, dry, acrogenous, medium brown, helicoid, smooth, distinct multiseptate, slightly constricted at the septa, tightly coiled 7-13 times in a clockwise direction to form a subglobose or broadly elliptical body, usually incorporated with mucilaginous substances such that no gaps are visible between adjacent coils, non-hygroscopic; conidial secession schizolytic at the delimitating septum of the conidiogenous cell, giving rise to a short pedicel at the base (Goh and Hyde 1996;Goh and Kuo 2018 (Réblová et al. 2016;Goh and Kuo 2018). Given the polyphyletic nature of Helicoön, we suggest that there is a need to revisit the taxonomy with additional support from new collections and DNA sequence data. ...
... Notes: This taxon was introduced as Helicoön gigantisporum by Goh and Hyde (1996). We synonymize it under Pseudohelicoon gigantisporum based on phylogenetic evidence. ...
This study deals with an extensive taxonomic reevaluation focusing on phylogenetic relationships and morphological characterization of Tubeufiales, especially those helicosporous hyphomycetes which are difficult to identify. Based on evidence from DNA sequence data and morphology, we introduce 13 new genera in the family Tubeufiaceae, viz. Acanthotubeufia, Dematiohelicoma, Dematiohelicomyces, Dematiohelicosporum, Dematiotubeufia, Helicoarctatus, Helicohyalinum, Helicotruncatum, Neochlamydotubeufia, Neohelicoma, Pleurohelicosporium, Pseudohelicomyces and Pseudohelicoon; transfer Chaetosphaerulina from Dothideomycetes genera incertae sedis, and Artocarpomyces and Helicodochium from Ascomycetes genera incertae sedis into Tubeufiaceae; introduce 52 new species, viz. Berkleasmium fusiforme, B. longisporum, Chlamydotubeufia cylindrica, Dematiohelicosporum guttulatum, Helicoarctatus aquaticus, Helicodochium aquaticum, Helicohyalinum infundibulum, Helicoma aquaticum, H. brunneisporum, H. cocois, H. rufum, H. fusiforme, H. longisporum, H. multiseptatum, H. rubriappendiculatum, H. septoconstrictum, H. tectonae, Helicomyces hyalosporus, Helicosporium aquaticum, H. flavisporum, H. setiferum, H. vesicarium, H. viridiflavum, Neochlamydotubeufia fusiformis, Neohelicomyces hyalosporus, Neohelicosporium acrogenisporum, N. astrictum, N. ellipsoideum, N. irregulare, N. krabiense, N. laxisporum, N. ovoideum, Pleurohelicosporium parvisporum, Pseudohelicomyces aquaticus, P. hyalosporus, Tubeufia abundata, T. bambusicola, T. brevis, T. brunnea, T. chlamydospora, T. dictyospora, T. eccentrica, T. fangchengensis, T. hechiensis, T. inaequalis, T. krabiensis, T. rubra, T. sessilis, T. sympodihylospora, T. sympodilaxispora, T. taiwanensis and T. tratensis; provide 43 new combinations, viz. Acanthohelicospora guianensis, Acanthotubeufia filiforme, Berkleasmium aquatica, B. guangxiense, B. latisporum, B. thailandicum, Dematiohelicoma perelegans, D. pulchrum, Dematiohelicomyces helicosporus, Dematiotubeufia chiangraiensis, Helicohyalinum aquaticum, Helicoma elinorae, H. gigasporum, H. hongkongense, H. linderi, H. nematosporum, H. pannosum, H. serpentinum, Helicomyces chiayiensis, Helicotruncatum palmigenum, Neochlamydotubeufia khunkornensis, Neohelicoma fagacearum, Neohelicomyces pallidus, Neohelicosporium abuense, N. aurantiellum, N. griseum, N. morganii, N. myrtacearum, N. nizamabadense, N. sympodiophorum, N. taiwanense, N. vesiculiferum, Pseudohelicomyces indicus, P. paludosus, P. talbotii, Pseudohelicoon gigantisporum, P. subglobosum, Tubeufia dentophora, T. geniculata, T. lilliputea, T. machaerinae, T. sympodiophora and T. xylophila; introduce 16 new records, viz. Dictyospora thailandica, Helicomyces colligatus, H. torquatus, Neohelicosporium guangxiense, N. hyalosporum, N. parvisporum, Thaxteriellopsis lignicola, Tubeufia aquatica, T. chiangmaiensis, T. cylindrothecia, T. filiformis, T. guangxiensis, T. laxispora, T. parvispora, T. roseohelicospora and T. tectonae. The taxonomy of Helicoma, Helicomyces and Helicosporium is revisited based on phylogenetic analyses and morphological evidence. Neorhamphoria is transferred to Bezerromycetaceae. Three species are excluded from the genus Chlamydotubeufia, twelve species from Helicoma, four species from Helicomyces, 25 species from Helicosporium, six species from Neoacanthostigma and one species from Tubeufia. A multi-gene phylogenetic tree based on maximum likelihood and Bayesian analyses of ITS, LSU, RPB2 and TEF1α sequence data of species of Tubeufiales is provided. Detailed descriptions and illustrations are provided, as well as the morphological comparison with similar taxa are explored. The checklist of accepted Tubeufiales species and re-organised Tubeufiales species are provided.
... The names of these additional species are listed chronologically as follows: H. peruamazonense Matsush. from Peru (Matsushima 1993); H. macrosporum Aa & Samson from Denmark (Aa & Samson 1994); H. microsporum Abdullah, Guarro & Figueras from Spain (Abdullah et al. 1996), H. septatissimum Godeas & Aramb from Argentina (Godeas & Arambarri 1996); H. gigantisporum Goh & K.D. from Australia (Goh & Hyde 1996b), H. dendroides Voglmayr and H. myosuroides Voglmayr from Austria (Voglmayr 1997), H. maioricense Abdullah, Cano, Descals & Guarro from Spain (Abdullah et al. 1998), and H. doliiformis H.S. Chang from Taiwan (Chang 2001). Kalgutkar & Sigler (1995) found a few fossilized helicosporous fungi from the Iceberg Bay Formation on Axel Heiberg Island in the Northwest Territories. ...
... Note:─ Helicoön subglobosum is most similar to H. gigantisporum (Goh & Hyde 1996b) based on phylogenetic analysis (FIG. 5, 6) and morphological comparison. ...
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Helicoön subglobosum sp. nov. from a decaying wood submerged in a freshwater stream at Juchi Town of Alishan area, Chiayi County, Taiwan, is described and illustrated with light and scanning electron micrographs. It differs from previously described species of Helicoön in having large subglobose conidia which are borne singly on very short conidiophores. The phylogenetic relationship of H. subglobosum and related taxa were sought by comparing the sequences of the ITS barcode and partial large subunit regions of the nuc rDNA. A synopsis of the 18 accepted species and a dichotomous key to the genus are given.
... Helicoma chlamydosporum has muriform chlamydospores (FIG. 1e) (Shearer 1987) and does not resemble Helicoon gigantisporum with its barrel-shaped conidia (Goh and Hyde 1996). Section violaceum contained species with conidia that are broadly attached to the conidiophores and that bear scars when detached (FIGS. ...
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Three species of Xenosporium producing ellipsoidal or ovoid conidia were collected from decaying culms of Miscanthus floridulus submerged in freshwater streams of Alishan area, Chiayi County, Taiwan. Xenosporium formosiforme and X. parvulum are described and illustrated as new species. Xenosporium africanum is described in this paper as a new record for Taiwan. The phylogenetic relationships of Xenosporium species and related taxa were sought by comparing the sequences of their internal transcribed spacer (ITS) barcode, 28S rDNA, and RNA polymerase II second largest subunit (RPB2) gene segments. Phylogenetic analysis of these Xenosporium species supports their placement in the Tubeufiaceae. A synopsis of Xenosporium species producing ellipsoidal or ovoid conidia is given. The criteria used to differentiate species are discussed.
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Freshwater Dothideomycetes are a highly diverse group of fungi, which are mostly saprobic in freshwater habitats worldwide. They are important decomposers of submerged woody debris and leaves in water. In this paper, we outline the genera of freshwater Dothideomycetes with notes and keys to species. Based on multigene analyses and morphology, we introduce nine new genera, viz . Aquimassariosphaeria , Aquatospora , Aquihelicascus , Fusiformiseptata , Neohelicascus , Neojahnula , Pseudojahnula , Purpureofaciens , Submersispora ; 33 new species, viz . Acrocalymma bipolare , Aquimassariosphaeria kunmingensis , Aquatospora cylindrica , Aquihelicascus songkhlaensis , A. yunnanensis , Ascagilis submersa , A. thailandensis , Bambusicola aquatica , Caryospora submersa , Dictyocheirospora thailandica , Fusiformiseptata crocea , Helicosporium thailandense , Hongkongmyces aquaticus , Lentistoma aquaticum , Lentithecium kunmingense , Lindgomyces aquaticus , Longipedicellata aquatica , Neohelicascus submersus , Neohelicomyces dehongensis , N. thailandicus , Neohelicosporium submersum , Nigrograna aquatica , Occultibambusa kunmingensis , Parabambusicola aquatica , Pseudoasteromassaria aquatica , Pseudoastrosphaeriella aquatica , Pseudoxylomyces aquaticus , Purpureofaciens aquatica , Roussoella aquatica , Shrungabeeja aquatica , Submersispora variabilis , Tetraploa puzheheiensis , T. yunnanensis ; 16 new combinations, viz. Aquimassariosphaeria typhicola , Aquihelicascus thalassioideus , Ascagilis guttulaspora , A. queenslandica , A. seychellensis , A. sunyatsenii , Ernakulamia xishuangbannaensis , Neohelicascus aquaticus , N. chiangraiensis , N. egyptiacus , N. elaterascus , N. gallicus , N. unilocularis , N. uniseptatus , Neojahnula australiensis , Pseudojahnula potamophila ; 17 new geographical and habitat records, viz. Aliquandostipite khaoyaiensis , Aquastroma magniostiolata , Caryospora aquatica , C. quercus , Dendryphiella vinosa , Ernakulamia cochinensis , Fissuroma neoaggregatum , Helicotruncatum palmigenum , Jahnula rostrata , Neoroussoella bambusae , N. leucaenae , Occultibambusa pustula , Paramonodictys solitarius , Pleopunctum pseudoellipsoideum , Pseudocapulatispora longiappendiculata , Seriascoma didymosporum , Shrungabeeja vadirajensis and ten new collections from China and Thailand, viz. Amniculicola guttulata , Aquaphila albicans , Berkleasmium latisporum , Clohesyomyces aquaticus , Dictyocheirospora rotunda , Flabellascoma fusiforme , Pseudoastrosphaeriella bambusae , Pseudoxylomyces elegans , Tubeufia aquatica and T. cylindrothecia . Dendryphiella phitsanulokensis and Tubeufia roseohelicospora are synonymized with D. vinosa and T. tectonae , respectively. Six orders, 43 families and 145 genera which belong to freshwater Dothideomycetes are reviewed. Of these, 46 genera occur exclusively in freshwater habitats. A world map illustrates the distribution of freshwater Dothideomycetes.
Pseudoclathrosphaerina evamariae and Sympodioclathra globosa are described and illustrated as new genera and species, respectively. Their features are outlined and compared to similar genera, especially to Clathrosphaerina. The ecological niche as members of the aeroaquatic fungi is discussed and their distribution recorded.
A new aeroaquatic helicosporous hyphomycete, Helicoon maioricensis, from submerged decaying leaves in a small oligotrophic pond in an evergreen oak woodland in Mallorca, Spain is described and illustrated with scanning electron micrographs. The new species forms conspicuous colonies with much branched and minutely roughened anastomosing hyphae both in vivo and in vitro as well as dark fuscous to black subglobose conidia that are borne singly on short conidiophores. The new species is compared with H. pluriseptatum. A dichotomous and a synoptic key to the 16 species in the genus are provided.
A monograph is provided of the anamorph genus Helicodendron, with keys to and illustrations of all described species.
The history and literature of Helicodendron tubulosum (Riess) Linder is surveyed. A number of species of Helicodendron, which resemble more or less closely one or other of the descriptions of H. tubulosum, have been isolated from leaves decaying in static water. None of these isolates will produce spores under water, but spores are usually formed freely when the substrate on which the fungus is growing is exposed to a moist atmosphere in the light. These isolates are described under the following names: H. tubulosum (Riess) Linder, H. conglomeratum sp.nov., H. articulatum sp.nov. and H. luteo-album sp.nov. The very common H. triglitziensis (Jaap) Linder is also briefly considered.
The fungus flora of leaves decaying at the bottom of ponds and lakes, where the water is more or less static, is made up largely of Hyphomycetes (mostly helico-sporous) which sporulate only when the leaves are exposed to air. A number of these fungi have been grown in pure culture, and five have been identified as Helicoon fuscosporum Linder, Helicodendron tubulosum (Riess) Linder, H. triglitziensis (Jaap) Linder, H. hyalinum Linder; and Clathrosphaera spirifera Zalewski. Helicodendron giganteum n.sp. is described in detail.
Helicoon macrosporum sp. nov. is described and illustrated from wood collected in Kristiansminde, Denmark and compared with related taxa.
North American Helicosporae. Cincinnati Society of Natural History
  • A P Morgan
Morgan, A.P. (1892). North American Helicosporae. Cincinnati Society of Natural History ]oumal 15, 39-52.
Occunence of aero-aquatic fungi in soil. lransa(ilons ol tne bnt$n lvtvcotoStcat Joctery /r
  • S K Abdullah
  • J Webster
Abdullah, S. K. & Webster, J. (1980). Occunence of aero-aquatic fungi in soil. lransa(ilons ol tne bnt$n lvtvcotoStcat Joctery /r, 5 l r-J14.
North American Helicosporae
  • Morgan