Maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and risk of neural tube defect-affected pregnancies
This study evaluated whether there is an association between maternal occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and neural tube defects (NTDs) in offspring. This is the first such study of which the authors are aware. Data were analyzed from 1997 to 2002 deliveries in the National Birth Defects Prevention Study, a large population-based case-control study in the United States. Maternal interviews yielded information on jobs held in the month before through 3 months after conception. Three industrial hygienists blinded to case or control status assessed occupational exposure to PAHs. Crude and adjusted odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were estimated using unconditional logistic regression. Of the 520 mothers of children with NTDs, 5.0% were classified as exposed to occupational PAHs, as were 3.5% of the 2989 mothers of controls. The crude OR for PAH exposure was 1.43 (95% CI, 0.92-2.22) for any NTD and 1.71 (95% CI, 1.03-2.83) for spina bifida. Adjusted ORs were smaller in magnitude and not significant. Among women who were normal weight or underweight, the crude OR for spina bifida was 3.13 (95% CI, 1.63-6.03) and adjusted OR was 2.59 (95% CI, 1.32-5.07). Based on estimated cumulative exposure, a statistically significant dose-response trend was observed for spina bifida; however, it was attenuated and no longer significant after adjustment. Maternal occupational exposure to PAHs may be associated with increased risk of spina bifida in offspring among women who are normal weight or underweight. Other comparisons between PAHs and NTDs were consistent with no association. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 94:693-700, 2012. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Integrated exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can be assessed through monitoring of urinary mono-hydroxylated PAHs (OH-PAHs). The aim of this study was to provide the first assessment of exposure to PAHs in a large sample of the population in Queensland, Australia including exposure to infant (0-4. years). De-identified urine specimens, obtained from a pathology laboratory, were stratified by age and sex, and pooled (n. =. 24 pools of 100) and OH-PAHs were measured by gas chromatography-isotope dilution-tandem mass spectrometry. Geometric mean (GM) concentrations ranged from 30. ng/L (4-hydroxyphenanthrene) to 9221. ng/L (1-naphthol). GM of 1-hydroxypyrene, the most commonly used PAH exposure biomarker, was 142. ng/L. The concentrations of OH-PAHs found in this study are consistent with those in developed countries and lower than those in developing countries. We observed no association between sex and OH-PAH concentrations. However, we observed lower urinary concentrations of all OH-PAHs in samples from infants (0-4. years), children (5-14. years) and the elderly (>. 60. year old) compared with samples from other age groups (15-29, 30-44 and 45-59. years) which may be attributed to age-dependent behaviour-specific exposure sources.0Comments 0Citations
- "Several PAHs have been classified as probable human carcinogens (IARC, 2010; Kim et al., 2013). Recent findings suggest a relationship between PAHs in placenta and the risk of neural tube defects, and with alteration of the immune system (Langlois et al., 2012; Walker et al., 2013). Other epidemiological studies also revealed associations between exposure to PAHs and childhood obesity and behavioural changes (Perera et al., 2014; Scinicariello and Buser, 2014). "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Maternal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) has been shown to be associated with an elevated risk for neural tube defects (NTDs). In the human body, PAHs are bioactivated and the resultant reactive epoxides can covalently bind to DNA to form PAH-DNA adducts, which may, in turn, cause transcription errors, changes in gene expression or altered patterns of apoptosis. During critical developmental phases, these changes can result in abnormal morphogenesis.0Comments 2Citations
- "In laboratory animals, embryos exposed to derivatives of PAHs have been shown to present with NTDs (Barbieri et al., 1986; Incardona et al., 2004). Human studies have also indicated that maternal prenatal exposure to PAHs was associated with an elevated risk for NTDs in offspring, using residence location or biomarkers of exposure (Demetriou et al., 2012; Langlois et al., 2012; Rankin et al., 2009). Previously we demonstrated that indoor air pollution from coal combustion was a potential risk factor for NTDs in Shanxi Province, where the concentration of PAHs emissions is amongst the highest in the country. "
[Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Unlabelled: Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in placental tissue have been reported to be associated with an increased risk for fetal neural tube defects (NTDs). Our case-control study was performed to explore the association between maternal serum OCP concentration and NTD risk in offspring. Serum samples were collected from 117 mothers who delivered NTD infants (case group) and 121 mothers who delivered healthy infants (control group). Only three of the 25 OCPs were detected in more than half of the maternal serum samples. The median concentration of total OCPs in the case group was significantly higher than that of the control group. However, no dose-response relationships between higher levels of any individual OCPs or total OCPs and the risk of NTDs or subtypes were observed in either the unadjusted binary unconditional logistic regression model or the model adjusted by potential confounders. We conclude that no clear association between maternal serum OCP residues and NTD risk in offspring was observed in this population. Capsule: No clear association between maternal serum levels of organochlorine pesticides and risk of neural tube defects in offspring was observed for a Chinese population.0Comments 2Citations
- "experiments (Barbieri et al., 1986) and a human epidemiological study on occupational exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (Langlois et al., 2012). Organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were extensively used in agriculture throughout the world between 1950 and 1970 (Li and Macdonald, 2005). "