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Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction, Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy, and Zen Meditation for Depression, Anxiety, Pain, and Psychological Distress

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Abstract

Mindfulness has been described as a practice of learning to focus attention on moment-bymoment experience with an attitude of curiosity, openness, and acceptance. Mindfulness practices have become increasingly popular as complementary therapeutic strategies for a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions. This paper provides an overview of three mindfulness interventions that have demonstrated effectiveness for psychiatric symptoms and/or pain. The goal of this review is to provide a synopsis that practicing clinicians can use as a clinical reference concerning Zen meditation, mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR), and mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT). All three approaches originated from Buddhist spiritual practices, but only Zen is an actual Buddhist tradition. MBSR and MBCT are secular, clinically based methods that employ manuals and standardized techniques. Studies indicate that MBSR and MBCT have broad-spectrum antidepressant and antianxiety effects and decrease general psychological distress. MBCT is strongly recommended as an adjunctive treatment for unipolar depression. The evidence suggests that both MBSR and MBCT have efficacy as adjunctive interventions for anxiety symptoms. MBSR is beneficial for general psychological health and stress management in those with medical and psychiatric illness as well as in healthy individuals. Finally, MBSR and Zen meditation have a role in pain management.

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... The effectiveness of MBCT on the symptoms of depression has been widely studied, and its use is recommended as a co-adjuvant therapy for unipolar depression [43][44][45] and for depression symptoms specifically in chronic pain conditions [46]. The previous evidence is consistent and coherent with that found in the present research study, and it highlights the importance of psychological and emotional factors as modulators of the sensory response to pain, although it remains to be determined to what extent and direction these variables are influenced, which is why more research on the mediational processes of pain is necessary. ...
... As opposed to previous studies [44,47], no significant differences were found for anxiety. Nevertheless, the studies cited evaluated this variable with other instruments and populations with other diagnoses, including clinical anxiety disorders. ...
... Nevertheless, the studies cited evaluated this variable with other instruments and populations with other diagnoses, including clinical anxiety disorders. Lastly, systematic reviews indicated that mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) was more suitable for anxiety symptoms and MBCT for depression symptoms [43,44]. ...
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The prevalence of chronic pain in Spain is 15%. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy on patients with chronic pain. A quasi-experimental design of repeated measures pre- and post-test (N = 57) was carried out at three hospitals from the province of Alicante. Self-reported assessment measurements of pain intensity, anxiety-depression symptoms, perception of health status, interference of pain on sleep, self-efficacy in pain, acceptance, and mindfulness attitude were included. The T-test indicates significant differences in intensity of present pain, mental quality of life, and depression (medium effect sizes), as well as in self-efficacy: total score, symptom management and pain control (medium effect sizes), sleep disturbances and quantity of sleep (large effect sizes). MBCT is effective in reducing many symptoms in patients with chronic pain, although its maintenance needs to be further investigated.
... This type of awareness facilitates access to features of each experience such as somatic and visceral sensations, emotional tones and cognitive schema Maleeh, 2009;Fox et al., 2016;Mooneyham et al., 2016). Increased activation in brain regions including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the dlPFC, the rlPFC, and the insula (regions within the FPCN) is observed during open-monitoring meditation 3 (Allen et al., 2012;Farb et al., 2007;Fox et al., 2016;Lutz, Slagter, Dunne, & Davidson, 2008;Manna et al., 2010;Marchand, 2012;Tang, Hölzel, & Posner, 2015;Dixon et al., 2020;Tang, 2017). This can be a result of the contribution of these regions to the metacognitive functions involved in mindful meta-awareness (Allen et al., 2012;Farb et al., 2007;Fox et al., , 2016Fox & Cahn, 2018;Manna et al., 2010;Marchand, 2012;Tang, Hölzel, & Posner, 2015;Dixon et al., 2020;Tang, 2017). ...
... Increased activation in brain regions including the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), the dlPFC, the rlPFC, and the insula (regions within the FPCN) is observed during open-monitoring meditation 3 (Allen et al., 2012;Farb et al., 2007;Fox et al., 2016;Lutz, Slagter, Dunne, & Davidson, 2008;Manna et al., 2010;Marchand, 2012;Tang, Hölzel, & Posner, 2015;Dixon et al., 2020;Tang, 2017). This can be a result of the contribution of these regions to the metacognitive functions involved in mindful meta-awareness (Allen et al., 2012;Farb et al., 2007;Fox et al., , 2016Fox & Cahn, 2018;Manna et al., 2010;Marchand, 2012;Tang, Hölzel, & Posner, 2015;Dixon et al., 2020;Tang, 2017). ...
... 3 Although a large number of studies have shown increase in these regions, in a few cases, decreased activation of the above areas has been reported during the practice of open-monitoring Marchand, 2012). However, to our knowledge, the reasons for obtaining such contrasting results have not been addressed in the literature yet. ...
Article
The dynamic framework of mind wandering (Christoff, Irving, Fox, Spreng, & Andrews-Hanna, 2016) is reviewed and modified through integrating the construct of mindful meta-awareness. The dynamic framework maintains that mind wandering belongs to a family of spontaneous thought phenomena. The key defining feature of mind wandering is ‘spontaneity’ which characterizes the dynamic nature of thoughts in the framework. The argument is made that incorporating the mindful meta-awareness construct modifies the dynamic framework as follows: (1) the framework’s criteria for mind wandering do not hold anymore as meta-awareness changes the relationship between thoughts and constraints, and (2) lucid dreaming can be categorized as unguided thought while at the same time being dependent on deliberate constraints. Finally, the application of this modified framework will be discussed in terms of the treatment of mental disorders related to spontaneous thought alterations, in particular depression and nightmares.
... Studies of behavioral interventions for depression in multiple lifestyle-oriented domains have shown much promise 8 . Randomized controlled studies show that better sleep hygiene 8,9 , physical activity interventions 10 , as well as mindfulness meditation 11,12 can all benefit depressed patients. Evidence for efficacy also exists for dietary interventions that focus on reducing processed fats and sugars and moderating caffeine intake [13][14][15][16][17] . ...
... A uniform processing pipeline was applied to all EEG data based on the cognitive event markers. The pipeline included data preprocessing, and cortical source localization of the EEG data filtered within relevant theta (3-7 Hz), alpha (8)(9)(10)(11)(12), and beta (13-30 Hz) frequency bands. EEG processing methods are detailed in our previous publication 25 . ...
... In this process, activations from artifact sources contributing to EEG noise from non-brain sources, such as electrooculographic, electromyographic, or unknown sources, are removed to clean the EEG data. Cleaned subject-wise trial-averaged EEG data are then processed to filter signals into theta (3-7 Hz), alpha (8)(9)(10)(11)(12), and beta (13-30 Hz) bands, which are separately source localized in each task to estimate their underlying cortical signals. The envelope of source signals was computed in MATLAB (envelop function) by a spline interpolation over the local maxima separated by at least one-time sample; we used this spectral amplitude signal for all our analyses. ...
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Depression is a multifaceted illness with large interindividual variability in clinical response to treatment. In the era of digital medicine and precision therapeutics, new personalized treatment approaches are warranted for depression. Here, we use a combination of longitudinal ecological momentary assessments of depression, neurocognitive sampling synchronized with electroencephalography, and lifestyle data from wearables to generate individualized predictions of depressed mood over a 1-month time period. This study, thus, develops a systematic pipeline for N-of-1 personalized modeling of depression using multiple modalities of data. In the models, we integrate seven types of supervised machine learning (ML) approaches for each individual, including ensemble learning and regression-based methods. All models were verified using fourfold nested cross-validation. The best-fit as benchmarked by the lowest mean absolute percentage error, was obtained by a different type of ML model for each individual, demonstrating that there is no one-size-fits-all strategy. The voting regressor, which is a composite strategy across ML models, was best performing on-average across subjects. However, the individually selected best-fit models still showed significantly less error than the voting regressor performance across subjects. For each individual’s best-fit personalized model, we further extracted top-feature predictors using Shapley statistics. Shapley values revealed distinct feature determinants of depression over time for each person ranging from co-morbid anxiety, to physical exercise, diet, momentary stress and breathing performance, sleep times, and neurocognition. In future, these personalized features can serve as targets for a personalized ML-guided, multimodal treatment strategy for depression.
... Jon Kabat Zinn spent a great deal of time with Zen teachers, engaging in contemplative practice (Kabat-Zinn, 2014a) and based a program, called mindfulnessbased stress reduction, on secular aspects of what he had learned. Jon Kabat Zinn is a PhD in molecular biology and professor emeritus at Massachusetts medical school where he founded the center for mindfulness, where he and his team continue to develop and teach the MBSR program (Marchand, 2012). ...
... If the mind wandering component can be treated, the depressive symptoms may be reduced, by removing the tendency of mind wandering to prolong negative affective mental states, that again leads to more mind wandering in a reciprocal dynamic (Killingsworth & Gilbert, n.d.). A contemplative practice has already been established as a treatment method for depressive disorders in the form of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (Marchand, 2012;Segal et al., 2012). The mindfulness component of the program may target the mind wandering aspect of the disorder and could potentially be a viable treatment option for psychiatric care of other patients. ...
Chapter
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While the initial research on the wandering mind usually saw it as a problem, recent research tends to have a more positive view of its adaptive functions. This has also influenced our understanding of meditative practice. While mindfulness techniques have often been argued to reduce mind wandering, it has been suggested that nondirective meditation facilitates mind wandering and default mode network activity. This chapter explores the implications of this for emotional processing. It is based on an fMRI study suggesting that nondirective meditation activates the default mode network and in particular brain areas associated with emotional processing.KeywordsMind-wanderingEmotional processingNondirective meditationDefault mode network
... Jon Kabat Zinn spent a great deal of time with Zen teachers, engaging in contemplative practice (Kabat-Zinn, 2014a) and based a program, called mindfulnessbased stress reduction, on secular aspects of what he had learned. Jon Kabat Zinn is a PhD in molecular biology and professor emeritus at Massachusetts medical school where he founded the center for mindfulness, where he and his team continue to develop and teach the MBSR program (Marchand, 2012). ...
... If the mind wandering component can be treated, the depressive symptoms may be reduced, by removing the tendency of mind wandering to prolong negative affective mental states, that again leads to more mind wandering in a reciprocal dynamic (Killingsworth & Gilbert, n.d.). A contemplative practice has already been established as a treatment method for depressive disorders in the form of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (Marchand, 2012;Segal et al., 2012). The mindfulness component of the program may target the mind wandering aspect of the disorder and could potentially be a viable treatment option for psychiatric care of other patients. ...
Chapter
We provide an overview of the “lines” and “circles” of knowledge that represent the key to reading this collective volume. The two sections of the book are described, introducing the content of each chapter and their connections, resonances and dialectics. The goal of the book is to present an overview of the many interesting emerging perspectives on mind wandering in human development and education. Through it we recreate a dance of interacting parts: scrolling through the different contributions, one can grasp the rhythm of convergences and interconnections that animates them. The gaze is generative-systemic because we are attentive both to the emergency processes and to the interactions between parts(zigzag).KeywordsMind-wanderingNeurosciencesCultural-historical psychologyGenerativityHigher mental functions
... Some of these interventions have not been performed in pediatric pain populations (eg, trauma-focused cognitivebehavioral therapy [TF-CBT]) but many have, including mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and biofeedback. 8,11,62,64 However, only a few of these studies have specifically examined the efficacy of these interventions in modifying the physiological stress response. Furthermore, evidence suggests that many youth with chronic pain do not respond to treatment (eg, decrease in disability or increase in adaptive coping) after engaging in traditionally used psychosocial therapies (eg, CBT). ...
... Although mindfulness-based approaches have been studied in adult chronic pain populations and show promise in the treatment of chronic pain, 62,64,94,98,108 these types of interventions have been examined only recently in pediatric pain populations. 11,52,58,109 Minimal research has specifically examined the ability of mindfulness practice to directly affect the neurobiological processes (eg, altered functional connectivity and AL) common to the experiences of both stress and pain in youth. ...
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Nonpharmacological treatments for chronic pain in youth have been identified as first-line treatments over and above medication. Therapies such as cognitive-behavioral therapy and mindfulness-based stress reduction have shown good efficacy in reducing the psychological correlates (eg, anxiety, depression, and stress) and social or behavioral sequelae (eg, limited physical activity and lack of school engagement) associated with pediatric chronic pain. However, minimal research has examined the physiological mechanism(s) of action for these interventions. A recent review (Cunningham, et al., 2019) emphasized the need for objective (ie, physiological) assessment of treatment response in pediatric pain populations. The current review adds to this literature by identifying the physiological stress response as a particular target of interest in interventions for pediatric pain. Research indicates that youth with chronic pain report high rates of psychological stress, posttraumatic stress symptoms, and exposure to adverse childhood experiences (abuse/neglect, etc). In addition, a host of research has shown strong parallels between the neurobiology of pain processing and the neurobiology of stress exposure in both youth and adults. Interventions such as narrative or exposure therapy (eg, trauma-focused cognitive-behavioral therapy) and mindfulness-based or meditation-based therapies have shown particular promise in alleviating the neurobiological impact that stress and pain can have on the body, including reduction in allostatic load and altered connectivity in multiple brain regions. However, no study to date has specifically looked at these factors in the context of pediatric pain treatment. Future research should further explore these constructs to optimize prevention in and treatment of these vulnerable populations.
... Anxiety is characterized by excessive and persistent (often unrealistic) anxiety. Anxiety disorder is important because of individuals' loss of efficiency and the need to use medical resources (7). People with Corona disease suffer from a high prevalence of anxiety (4,7). ...
... Anxiety disorder is important because of individuals' loss of efficiency and the need to use medical resources (7). People with Corona disease suffer from a high prevalence of anxiety (4,7). present and leads to accept them without any change or interpretation. ...
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Background: Depression, stress, and anxiety have a high prevalence among coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients, and they can diminish psychological health and lead to malfunctions in various aspects of patients. Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) is considered as one of the effective treatments to improve health-related psychological qualities. Objectives: The current research aimed to determine the effectiveness of the MBCT on depression, stress, and anxiety among people with COVID-19. Methods: The research deployed an experimental design with pre-and post-tests and a control group. The population included all recovered patients with COVID-19 referring to health centers in Ahvaz, Iran, in 2020. Using available random sampling method, 30 patients who met the inclusion criteria were recruited and equally randomized into either experimental or control groups. While eight 90-minute MBCT sessions were administered for the experimental group, the control group received no interventions. The Depression, Anxiety, and Stress scale (DASS-21) was used to collect the data. The data were analyzed by SPSS software version 23 using multivariate and univariate analysis of variance. Results: The results showed that there were no significant differences between the two groups in terms of gender, age, and education (P > .05). The results of multivariate analysis of covariance (MANCOVA) and analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) indicated that all the three subscales of depression (d = 0/75), stress (d = 0/86), and anxiety (d = 0/82) were significantly reduced in the intervention group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The MBCT is an effective therapeutic way to reduce depressive, stress, and anxious signs of patients with COVID-19. Thus, it is recommended that therapists and experts use this method to promote patients’ mental health.
... For instance, both are implicated in shifting attention away from the here and now, and both are related to attention and executive functions. This is further supported by the success of mindful therapies for depression (Marchand, 2012). In these therapies, the focus is on maintaining attention on the here and now. ...
... Furthermore, an avenue to ponder is the mediating role of thought content in the benefits of meditation-based interventions. Meditation practice reduces both negative thoughts, as well as behaviours related to their occurrence such as negative mood, depression and poor performance (Banks et al., 2016;Marchand, 2012;Poerio et al., 2013;Ramel, Goldin, Carmona, & McQuaid, 2004;Ruby, Smallwood, Engen, et al., 2013;Smallwood & O'Connor, 2011;Smallwood et al., 2005;Smallwood, O'Connor, et al., 2007). ...
Thesis
The ability to self-generate thoughts in imagination is a central aspect of the human experience. Mind-wandering episodes are multifaceted and are heterogeneous in terms of their content, form (e.g. modality, level of detail), and behavioural outcomes. Older adults’ neurocognitive profile shows impairments in functions highly linked to the generation and management of such episodes, namely episodic memory, attentional control, and abilities associated with the recruitment of the default mode network (DMN). Robust findings have documented a decrease in the frequency of mind-wandering with increasing age. However, age-related changes in thought content, and how this is related to the cerebral organisation of the brain, has largely been neglected. This PhD project aimed to: (i) investigate older adults’ neurocognitive profile alongside the complexities of mind-wandering, and importantly (ii) explore the impact of moderating factors on thought content as we grow older. Converging behavioural and neuroimaging methods were employed to provide a comprehensive account of self-generated thoughts. The first two chapters combined self-reports with electrophysiological and fMRI connectivity data, and demonstrated associations between changes in the recruitment of the DMN and age-related changes in self-generated thoughts. Subsequent experimental chapters considered the influence of key factors believed to impact on the content of thoughts. Examining the influence of culture revealed that native French speakers favoured self-reflection and engaged in more positively oriented thoughts, in comparison to English native speakers. In addition, the manipulation of task difficulty encouraged verbal rehearsal, and meta-awareness mainly targeted the temporal characteristics of thoughts. Finally, after a 4-week meditation intervention, there was a reduction in both negative and past-oriented thoughts. Throughout, behavioural measures demonstrated older adults’ bias toward deliberate on-task thoughts, with evidence of a decrease of negatively oriented thoughts, stable rates of positively oriented thoughts, and an increase of visual thoughts, and task-related interference. Overall, the systematic use of convergent behavioural and neuroimaging methodology has provided a more in-depth understanding of mind-wandering experiences in ageing where previously the frequency of these episodes has only been considered.
... As in addiction treatment, a non-judgmental stance is vitally important to MBSR-based treatment of chronic pain. The patient focuses their attention on uncomfortable physical sensations with no attempt to alter them, instead developing compassion toward both positive and aversive bodily experiences [114,115]. Neuroimaging studies support the notion that MBSR strategies have allowed patients to adopt a new perception of their chronic pain. The chronic pain experience involves the interplay of nociceptive cues, cognitive distortions, and negative emotional appraisal. ...
Chapter
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The recent surge in opioid-related deaths has brought poor pain management practices to the forefront of our nation’s collective consciousness. However, improving treatments for chronic pain, substance use disorders (SUD), and comorbid expression of both requires a better understanding of the pathophysiology involved in their development. In this chapter, the authors present the argument that chronic pain and SUD can be conceptualized similarly from a biopsychosocial perspective to inform a better approach to treatment. The authors describe the common neurobehavioral mechanisms of SUD and chronic pain, then discuss the efficacy of several psychotherapeutic methods employed to combat chronic pain, addiction, and related disorders. Such methods may contribute to positive health outcomes in managing chronic pain and curbing drug addiction by reducing the role of opioid analgesics for long-term pain management.
... In one study, Zen trainees in Japanese monasteries who practised regular rigorous meditation demonstrated high quality-of-life scores and high levels of general mental health (Shaku et al., 2014). Additionally, Buddhist concepts have been successfully incorporated into mind-body interventions, and studies have shown significant reductions in depressive symptoms (Chan et al., 2011;Manicavasgar et al., 2011;Marchand, 2012;Piet et al., 2012), enhanced loving-kindness (Fredrickson et al., 2008), increased compassion (Allen & Knight, 2005), and improved feelings of equanimity (Bitner et al., 2003) in participants. ...
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Buddhism is an ancient religion and philosophy of living that is practised worldwide. More recent interest in mindfulness as a practice and intervention in the West has highlighted Buddhist-derived concepts as useful in supporting health and well-being. As a result, the desire to understand Buddhism in its more complete form has strengthened. Although research into mindfulness and compassion is growing, there is a new interest in second-generation mindfulness, i.e. interventions that draw upon a more holistic use of Buddhist practices. To date, little research has explored this in Western contexts. For the current study, Nichiren Buddhists from the United Kingdom who had been practising for at least three years were recruited. Semi-structured interviews were conducted to explore their experience of this practice and how it informed their approach to daily life and, in particular, their health and well-being. Interpretive phenomenological analysis was employed as a method to understand the participants’ experiences. Three themes were generated using an inductive approach: (1) finding meaning—“All experiences have got so much value now”— which reflected the participants’ determination to seek purpose and value in all aspects of their life; (2) Buddhism as a needed ‘tool’—“I use it all the time”—which revealed their practice as an important method to help them manage their lives; and (3) agency—“I’m in control of my destiny”—which highlighted the participants’ engagement (supported by their Buddhist practice) in taking responsibility for their actions and responses. Findings indicate the need for future studies to further explore Buddhism as a mechanism for enhancing and sustaining well-being.
... Mindfulness is the 'intentional self-regulation of attention from moment to moment [and] detached observation' (Kabat-Zinn, 1982, p. 34). Mindfulness techniques are associated with improvements in mental health, depression, anxiety, stress, and pain management (Marchand, 2012). Mindfulness-related capacities can be increased by psychedelics, including psilocybin (Madsen et al., 2020), ayahuasca (Murphy-Beiner & Soar, 2020;Sampedro et al., 2017), and 5-methoxy-N,N-dimethyltryptamine (5-MeO-DMT) (Uthaug et al., 2019). ...
Article
Background For a century, psychedelics have been investigated as models of psychosis for demonstrating phenomenological similarities with psychotic experiences and as therapeutic models for treating depression, anxiety, and substance use disorders. This study sought to explore this paradoxical relationship connecting key parameters of the psychotic experience, psychotherapy, and psychedelic experience. Methods In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover design, 24 healthy volunteers received 50 μg d -lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) or inactive placebo. Psychotic experience was assessed by aberrant salience (Aberrant Salience Inventory, ASI), therapeutic potential by suggestibility (Creative Imagination Scale, CIS) and mindfulness (Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire, FFMQ; Mindful Attention Awareness Scale, MAAS; Experiences Questionnaire, EQ), and psychedelic experience by four questionnaires (Altered State of Consciousness Questionnaire, ASC; Mystical Experiences Questionnaire, MEQ; Challenging Experiences Questionnaire, CEQ; Ego-Dissolution Inventory, EDI). Relationships between LSD-induced effects were examined. Results LSD induced psychedelic experiences, including alteration of consciousness, mystical experiences, ego-dissolution, and mildly challenging experiences, increased aberrant salience and suggestibility, but not mindfulness. LSD-induced aberrant salience correlated highly with complex imagery, mystical experiences, and ego-dissolution. LSD-induced suggestibility correlated with no other effects. Individual mindfulness changes correlated with aspects of aberrant salience and psychedelic experience. Conclusions The LSD state resembles a psychotic experience and offers a tool for healing. The link between psychosis model and therapeutic model seems to lie in mystical experiences. The results point to the importance of meaning attribution for the LSD psychosis model and indicate that psychedelic-assisted therapy might benefit from therapeutic suggestions fostering mystical experiences.
... During this practice, clients are encouraged to recognise the different environmental stimuli around them, such as sights, sounds and scents. The techniques learnt during mindfulness practice can provide clients with significant relief from depressive and anxious symptomology (Baer, 2014;Kaviani et al., 2011;Marchland, 2012). ...
Background The current study explores counsellors’ experiences of their integration of mindfulness into the treatment of their clients for depression and anxiety. Method Five counsellors participated in semi-structured interviews, which were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis to identify how the use of mindfulness in therapy was experienced and understood by participants. Results The analysis produced six themes: the benefits of mindfulness for clients, the client's role in the success of mindfulness, the integrity of practice, using mindfulness in therapy, mindfulness techniques and the responsibility of a mindfulness practitioner. A description of these themes and related subordinate themes is presented, with analysis of the findings in relation to the literature. Recommendations Practice implications include that present-moment awareness is the cornerstone of mindfulness and that this can be practised and taught; that a counsellor's establishment of a personal mindfulness practice significantly supports their effective integration of mindfulness interventions in the clinical space; and that a client's sustained practice of mindfulness beyond the clinical space is indicative of a reduction of the frequency and intensity of depressive and anxious symptomology. The level of a counsellor's training and experience in mindfulness is found to be an important factor in the effectiveness of the use of mindfulness as a clinical intervention. This supports a case at policy level for the uptake of a mindfulness competencies framework for counselling trainees—including minimum duration of personal practice—in the service of greater consistency and accountability in the delivery of mindfulness techniques in the clinical space.
... In this vein, our results stress the importance of integrating methods to strengthen patients' savoring capacity into chronic pain therapy in order to improve patients' pain management and well-being, and to break the vicious circle. For example, mindfulness has been described as a practice of learning to focus attention on momentary experiences and is becoming increasingly popular as complementary therapeutic strategy for a variety of medical and psychiatric conditions [50]. Alternatively, since liking requires less attentional capacity and doesn't seem to be impaired in chronic pain, interventions could focus on this aspect of aesthetic experience in order to improve patients' quality of life. ...
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Background Aesthetic experiences elicit a wide range of positive emotions and have a positive impact on various health outcomes. In this context, savoring refers to a cognitive form of emotion regulation used to maintain and extend positive emotional experiences and is considered to contribute to health and well-being. Chronic pain has been linked to reduced reward-seeking behavior. This is the first study to investigate the relationship between self-reported chronic pain and savoring. Methods We conducted an anonymous cross-sectional survey in a large non-clinical sample (opera, theater, and cabaret visitors; n = 322). The variables were assessed with a two-item-questionnaire. Results Self-reported chronic pain was significantly negatively correlated with savoring (r = -.547) Conclusion Altogether, this result helps to develop a better understanding of the effects of chronic pain in humans and to shed light on state-dependent differences in aesthetic experiences.
... Considering that everyone could show mindfulness ability in their daily life, but different people have different levels of mindfulness (Baer, Smith, Lykins, Button, & Krietemeyer, 2008;Brown, Ryan, & Creswell, 2007), mindfulness can also be considered as an individual trait (Kadziolka, Pierdomenico, & Miller, 2015;Noguchi, 2016). Mindfulness, as a positive psychological trait, was associated with a wide range of positive psychological and social outcomes, such as high life satisfaction and self-esteem (Brown & Ryan, 2003;Randal, Pratt, & Bucci, 2015), healthy emotion regulation (Chambers, Gullone, & Allen, 2009;Feldman, Hayes, Kumar, Greeson, & Laurenceau, 2007) and less psychological distress (Bajaj, Robins, & Pande, 2016;Marchand, 2012). ...
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Despite the capacity to be alone has been considered as a sign of maturity and inner peace for human beings, the contextual factors underlying the relation between the capacity to be alone and psychological distress remain unclear. This study speculated that the direct effect of the capacity to be alone on psychological distress may vary with the levels of individuals’ personality characteristics, such as rumination and mindfulness. To test these hypotheses, 815 middle school students were recruited to complete the self-report questionnaires measuring their capacity to be alone, psychological distress, ruminative responses and mindfulness. The results indicated that the capacity to be alone was positively associated with psychological distress. This direct effect could be moderated by rumination and mindfulness as well as the combined effect of these two. The direct effect was stronger for adolescents with high rumination and low mindfulness than those with low rumination and high mindfulness. These findings enrich our understanding of when or for whom the capacity to be alone is correlated with psychological distress. Moreover, these findings highlight the need to take individuals’ personality characteristics into account to reveal the relation between the capacity to be alone and psychological distress more accurately.
... Besides, according to mindfulness meditation (Brown, Ryan, & Creswell, 2007), the capacity to be alone is a necessary condition for mindfulness meditation, and it can promote individuals to enter the realm of mindfulness meditation. Previous studies have found that mindfulness meditation could help us to enhance our attention control and avoid getting involved in rumination, regulate our negative emotions and promote our positive emotions (Deyo, Wilson, Ong, & Koopman, 2009;Marchand, 2012;Ramel, Goldin, Carmona, & McQuaid, 2004). Therefore, the capacity to be alone could buffer the priming effect of mobile phone addiction on rumination and psychological distress. ...
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The phenomenon of problematic mobile phone use (PMPU) has been incredibly increasing, especially in Asian countries. Prior studies have argued that negative emotion is linked to PMPU. Based on the cognitive‐behavioural model of pathological Internet use and the buffering model of social support, our purpose is to identify the nuanced mediators of the rumination subtypes (i.e., reflection and brooding) and examine the moderator of social support in the relation between negative emotion and PMPU. A sample of 1,014 college students was recruited to complete the scales of PMPU, depression, anxiety, rumination (i.e., reflection and brooding), and social support. Results showed that (a) reflection did not mediate a link between negative emotion and PMPU whereas brooding partially mediated the link, and (b) both the direct association between negative emotion and PMPU and the mediated effect of brooding were moderated by social support, and they were stronger when social support was low rather than high. The study distinguishes the mediated effect of rumination subtypes and incorporates social factor in the relationship between negative emotion and PMPU, which deepens our understanding of how and when negative emotion relates to PMPU.
... In such times of heightened anxiety or stress, the modus operandi for clinicians is to recommend cognitive, behavioral, and mindfulness interventions (Marchand, 2012). However, the inability to safely deliver in-person services during the pandemic, coupled with increased patient demand and limited practitioner bandwidth (Huskamp et al., 2018;Lo et al., 2020), represent key barriers to treatment. ...
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Strategies to mitigate the spread of COVID-19, namely quarantine and social distancing protocols, have exposed a troubling paradox: mandated isolation meant to preserve well-being has inadvertently contributed to its decline. Prolonged isolation has been associated with widespread loneliness and diminished mental health, with effects compounded by limited face-to-face access to clinical and social support systems. While remote communication technologies (e.g., video chat) can connect individuals with healthcare providers and social networks, remote technologies might have limited effectiveness in clinical and social contexts. In this review, we articulate the promise of Virtual Reality as a conduit to clinical resources and social connection. Furthermore, we outline various social and economic factors limiting the virtual reality industry’s ability to maximize its potential to address mental health issues brought upon by the pandemic. These barriers are delineated across five dimensions: sociocultural, content, affordability, supply chain, and equitable design. After examining potential short- and long-term solutions to these hurdles, we outline potential avenues for applied and theoretical research seeking to validate these solutions. Through this evaluation we seek to (a) emphasize virtual reality’s capacity to improve mental health by connecting communities to clinical and social support systems, (b) identify socioeconomic barriers preventing users from accessing these systems through virtual reality, and (c) discuss solutions that ensure these systems can be equitably accessed via changes to existing and future virtual reality infrastructures.
... Automatic thinking begins unconsciously and is not easy to interfere with or prevent. In other words, when consciousness cannot consciously attract attention, the default mode network (DMN) starts involuntarily [38]. Objective perception of thinking through mindfulness meditation interprets thinking as 'just thoughts' and prevents unreasonable negative thinking from seeing as facts. ...
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Medication alone is not sufficient to treat insomnia. In addition, the side effects of sleep medications themselves cannot be ignored during treatment. Insomnia begins with poor sleep quality and discomfort, but as it continues, patients fall into a vicious circle of insomnia with negative thoughts and dysfunctional and distorted perceptions related to sleep. Mindfulness-based intervention for insomnia corrects these sequential cognitive and behavioral processes. The mindfulness technique basically recognizes all the thoughts, feelings, and experiences that occur to us as they are, nonjudgmentally, and then trains them to return to the senses of our body. In this way, while noticing all the processes of the sequential vicious cycle and training them to return to our bodies (e.g., breathing), mindfulness determines whether we are really sleepy or just fatigued. This mindfulness-based intervention can be a useful nonpharmaceutical intervention for insomnia, and its stability and efficacy has been proven by many studies.
... MBSR includes education about stress as well as training in coping strategies. MBSR involves the development of some attitudes, including becoming an unbiased witness to one's own experience; the acceptance of matters as they are in the present moment; and not censoring thoughts and allowing them to come and go [10]. Li et al [4] argued that mindfulness helped infertile women to cope with IVF in adaptive manners. ...
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Objectives: The present study aimed to examine the effects of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) group therapy on anxiety, depression, stress, and the Intolerance of Uncertainty (IU) in infertile women receiving In Vitro Fertilization (IVF). Methods: This was a randomized clinical trial with a pre-test/post-test and 3-month follow-up design. The study sample included 30 women with infertility who referred to Taleghani Hospital in Tehran City, Iran in 2018. We enrolled 30 individuals in the present study. The study samples were randomly divided into two groups of experimental and control (n=15/group). All study participants completed the Depression Anxiety Stress Scale (DASS), and the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale (IUS) before and after providing the intervention. Data analysis was conducted using SPSS. Results: The current research results revealed a significant difference between the MBSR and control groups in IU, stress, depression, and anxiety. Furthermore, there were significant differences in all dependent variables between pre-test and post-test scores except for IU in the experimental group. Discussion: The provided MBSR group therapy could reduce the rate of depression, anxiety, and stress in infertile women receiving IVF; however, it presented no significant effect on IU. In other words, IU may be a complex phenomenon, i.e. amenable to treatment and further studies are required to examine its reasons.
... Studies conducted prior to the COVID-19 pandemic have suggested that 8-week mindfulness programs, such as the standardized Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR; Kabat-Zinn, 2003) or the Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT; Kaviani et al., 2012) programs, can have positive consequences for psychological health and resilience. Furthermore, they have been found to produce positive benefits regarding the reduction of stress and anxiety (Semple et al., 2005;Marchand, 2012;Gu et al., 2015;Papenfuss et al., 2021). In previous studies, it has also been found that these effects can last up to several months after the end of the program (Khoury et al., 2015;Querstret et al., 2018). ...
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The COVID-19 pandemic imposed extreme living conditions of social distancing, which triggered negative mental health problems and created challenges in seeking mental health support. Mindfulness-based interventions (MBIs) have been found to enhance wellbeing and mental health by reducing stress and anxiety and improving emotion regulation. Preliminary evidence suggests that online, synchronous MBIs may produce beneficial effects similar to face-to-face programs. However, the effectiveness of such online-MBIs to support mental health in highly stressful times, such as a global pandemic, requires further study. To this end, we investigated the effect of an online 8-week Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program on aspects of mental health during the first wave of the COVID-19 pandemic. Participants ( N =92) who expressed interest in discounted online-MBSR programs were recruited for the study. The division into experimental and control groups was based on actual enrollment to the courses. Those who enrolled in a program were assigned to the experimental condition and those who decided not to enroll served as controls. Participants were assessed pre-intervention, post-intervention, and 1-month post-intervention for levels of mindfulness, perceived stress, anxiety, emotion regulation, and intolerance of uncertainty. Differences between the groups were tested using the general linear mixed effects model (GLMM) and Individual Growth Curve Models (IGCM) in intent to treat analysis. The findings indicated that, relative to the control group, MBSR improved mindfulness abilities ( p <0.001), decreased anxiety ( p <0.001), and stress ( p <0.001) and increased emotion regulation ( p <0.001). These effects were found to persist 1 month after the end of the program, despite the increased governmental public-health restrictions due to COVID-19 at that time. The ability to tolerate uncertainty, a central characteristic of the pandemic, was not found to be affected by the program. A mediation analysis revealed that the effect of the intervention on mental health improvement was partially mediated by the improvement in emotion regulation. Overall, the findings provide positive evidence for the feasibility of an online-MBSR program to support the mental health of individuals from the general population through the mediation of emotion regulation in challenging times, such as a global pandemic.
... MBCT is a short-term (8-session) psychotherapy based on the mindfulness-based stress reduction model developed by Kabat-Zinn that incorporates some elements of cognitive therapy (23). It has been investigated in clinical populations and the results indicated its impact on the treatment of mood disorders, depression with suicidal ideation, anxiety disorders, chronic pain, and cancer (24). In the domain of diabetes domain, the effectiveness of mindfulness-based interventions improved the mental health and well-being of these patients (25). ...
Article
Objective: Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a chronic disease associated with many psychological complications, which require psychological interventions. This study aimed to examine the effect of mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) on cognitive emotion regulation, perseverative thinking, and glycemic index in patients with T2DM Materials and Methods: This quasi-experimental study was done on T2DM patients visiting Yazd diabetes center in 2019, 30 men and women were randomly divided into experimental (n=15) and control (n=15) groups. The experimental group received 8 sessions (90 minutes) of MBCT and the control group received no interventions. In the pretest and posttest phase, data were collected using the cognitive emotion regulation questionnaire (CERQ), Perseverative Thinking Questionnaire and fasting blood sugar test. Data were analyzed in statistical package (SPSS 21) using multivariate analysis of covariance. Results: Results showed a significant difference in mean scores of cognitive emotion regulation (F= 9.866 & P-value= 0.0001), perseverative thinking (F= 13.745 & P-value= 0.0001), and fasting blood sugar (FBS) (F= 3.679 & P-value= 0.034) in the experimental group before and after the intervention. Conclusion: Based on findings of the study MBCT by specialists in public and private centers can help improve cognitive emotion regulation strategies, perseverative thinking, and ultimately blood sugar control in patients with T2DM.
... On the other hand, given that mindfulness weakens the association between maladaptive perfectionism and psychological distress as well as the association between psychological distress and NSSI, it may be helpful to add mindfulness training in classroom teaching or to assign relevant mindfulness exercises to adolescents to regulate negative emotion and reduce engagement in NSSI. For example, MBCT has been shown to effectively reduce depression, anxiety, and NSSI (Marchand, 2012;Rees et al., 2015). ...
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Objectives Maladaptive perfectionism has been shown to be associated with non-suicidal self-injury (NSSI) in adolescents. Based on the functional model of self-injury, we predicted that this association is due to the mediating effect of psychological distress. We also tested the assumption that being mindful—that is, being able to accept rather than escape the psychological distress—would be a protective factor in this process. Methods Eight hundred and forty-one Chinese adolescents completed online questionnaires concerning maladaptive perfectionism, psychological distress, mindfulness, and NSSI. Results Regression-based analyses showed that maladaptive perfectionism predicted adolescents' NSSI through the indirect effect of psychological distress. Mindfulness weakened the indirect effect. Conclusions These findings suggest that self-injury serves a function in emotion regulation and the communication of distress. The results also have implications for practice: Maladaptive perfectionism should be assessed as a risk factor for NSSI, and teaching mindfulness may be an effective intervention for adolescents who engage in this high-risk behavior.
... This process is often supported by the inclusion of mindful movement practice. Mindfulness-based interventions are usually grounded in mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) [32] or mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) [32], although adaptations are implemented for both approaches [33][34][35]. In the following, we use the terms psychosocial intervention for systematic approaches including behavioral, cognitive, and/or psycho-educative elements and mindfulness-based intervention for approaches that focus on mindful experiencing, including but not limited to MBSR and MBCT. ...
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Cancer-related fatigue (CRF) is a burdensome sequela of cancer treatments. Besides exercise, recommended therapies for CRF include yoga, psychosocial, and mindfulness-based interventions. However, interventions conducted vary widely, and not all show a significant effect. This meta-analysis aimed to explore intervention characteristics related to greater reductions in CRF. We included randomized controlled trials published before October 2021. Standardized mean differences were used to assess intervention efficacy for CRF and multimodel inference to explore intervention characteristics associated with higher efficacy. For the meta-analysis, we included 70 interventions (24 yoga interventions, 31 psychosocial interventions, and 15 mindfulness-based interventions) with 6387 participants. The results showed a significant effect of yoga, psychosocial, and mindfulness-based interventions on CRF but with high heterogeneity between studies. For yoga and mindfulness-based interventions, no particular intervention characteristic was identified to be advantageous for reducing CRF. Regarding psychosocial interventions, a group setting and work on cognition were related to higher intervention effects on CRF. The results of this meta-analysis suggest options to maximize the intervention effects of psychosocial interventions for CRF. The effects of yoga and mindfulness-based interventions for CRF appear to be independent of their design, although the limited number of studies points to the need for further research.
... Mindfulness-based stress reduction can decrease state anxiety as well as enhance empathy and self-compassion [23]. Further, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy can be an effective antidepressant and anxiolytic intervention for athletes [24]. For example, in elite martial arts athletes, a mindfulness intervention may be associated with reduced anxiety about competitive states [25]. ...
Usually, both external environmental factors and internal psychological factors affect the self-efficacy of athletes returning to sports after an injury. Based upon COR theory, this study investigated mindfulness interventions' effects on competitive state anxiety and burnout in injured athletes who are returning to sports. The study was conducted in South China from March to April 2022. The snowball and convenience sampling methods were used to select high-level sports teams' injured athletes returning to sports, and a questionnaire survey was administered, from which 433 valid samples were obtained. Amos v. 26 was used to analyze the data. The results showed that mindfulness has a significant negative effect on competitive state anxiety and burnout, such that after strengthening the mindfulness intervention, athletes' competitive state anxiety and burnout decreased and regulatory emotional self-efficacy increased. Further, this study indicated that athletes are prone to negative emotions after injury, and among athletes who returned to sports after injury, those with mindfulness interventions reported lower levels of competitive state anxiety and burnout. Hence, the study demonstrated that mindfulness can improve regulatory emotional self-efficacy in injured athletes who are returning to sports by reducing competitive state anxiety and burnout.
... Compared to the above non-drug treatment methods, no adverse effect of mindfulness meditation on pregnant women or fetuses has been found. Currently, mindfulness meditation practice is used in clinics to assist in the treatment of depression (Miller et al., 1995;Speca et al., 2000;Mason and Hargreaves, 2011;Marchand, 2012). Some studies have defined "mindfulness" as an ability to focus on the present without bias (Brown and Ryan, 2003). ...
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Purpose This study systematically evaluates the effect of mindfulness meditation on depression during pregnancy. We provide evidence-based suggestions for preventing and reducing depression during pregnancy by exploring the most effective intervention mode, cycle, and frequency of mindfulness meditation. Methods Records were retrieved from PubMed, Web of Science, EBSCO, and Science Direct. A total of 1,612 randomized controlled trial studies on the effect of mindfulness meditation on pregnancy depression were collected. 10 studies with 658 subjects meeting the inclusion criteria were extracted and analyzed by Revman 5.3 to evaluate study qualities. Stata 12.0 was used for the meta-analysis. Results Mindfulness meditation had a positive effect on depression during pregnancy [standardized difference of the mean (SMD) = −0.786, 95% confidence interval (−1.289, −0.283), P < 0.001]. Subgroup analysis showed that mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) had the best intervention effect on depression during pregnancy (SMD = 2.795), the best intervention duration was below 4 weeks (SMD = 1.756), applied from the first to the third stage of pregnancy (SMD = 1.024), the frequency guided by experts was less than six times a week (SMD = 2.055) of <60 min each time (SMD = 1.068), and completing homework by themselves every day for 30 mins (SMD = 1.822) was most significant for the improvement of depression during pregnancy. We found high heterogeneity across studies [q = 97.003, DF = 10, I ² = 88.0% ( P < 0.001), I ² > 75%]. This may be caused by variance in measurement tools, among which Beck Depression Inventory-II was a significant source of heterogeneity. Conclusion Mindfulness meditation can improve the prevention, remission, and reduction of depression during pregnancy and can be used as an auxiliary measure for the clinical treatment of pregnancy depression.
... The construct of mindfulness, defined as the ability to intentionally focus attention on the present moment non-judgementally [46], has also been shown to be a significant predictor of resilience [44,48,72]. Practicing the skill of mindfulness brings awareness to the transient nature of negative thoughts, emotions and bodily sensations, which in turn allows for an individual to respond objectively rather than reacting reflexively [46,60]. Several studies have also shown the construct of gratitude, defined as the quality of being thankful and readiness to show appreciation [82], to be a significant contributor to resilience [36,62]. ...
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Background Resilience refers to the process through which individuals deal with the adversity they experience. Previous research has shown there are multiple factors that contribute to individuals’ resilience, leading to increasing interest in the development of multidimensional resilience models. Once such recently proposed model is The Resilience Shield, which clusters groups of protective factors into different shield layers. The stronger these layers, the better the protection against adversity (Pronk et al. in The Resilience Shield, Pan Macmillan Australia, 2021). While this model was based in part on existing literature, no empirical evaluation has occurred to date. The aim of this study was therefore to evaluate the model fit for each of the modifiable shield layers and the overall model, and to examine whether each of the constructs included contributes to observed resilience scores. Methods Participants completed a series of questionnaires via The Resilience Shield website assessing constructs relevant to each resilience shield layer. Data from 3337 participants was analysed using Structural Equation Modelling and regression analyses. Results The results showed acceptable fit of the measurement model for the Social, Mind, and Professional Layers, but poor fit for the Body Layer. There was also good fit for the overall model. In addition, all but one of the constructs included in The Resilience Shield survey explained independent variance in either dispositional resilience scores, or dispositional vulnerability scores. Conclusion These results broadly support the multidimensional structure proposed by The Resilience Shield model and suggest that (at least in the population in which it was tested) this may be an acceptable model to index individuals’ performance on a range of indicators that contribute to resilience.
... Either guided by one's own voice or external sources such as Buddhist sound bowls or the traditional Chinese zither Guqin, individuals are encouraged to get familiar with deep meditation, akin to traditional Zen-practices. Particularly in integrative psychiatry and psychosomatics, Zenmeditation (Chiesa, 2009) has been used used to alleviate depression, anxiety, pain and psychological stress (Marchand, 2012), as well as a path to self-discovery, one's unconscious included (Strick et al., 2012). ...
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With an overall pooled estimate of 7.2% attention, deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is considered a global psychopathological burden in the younger generation, and a prevalence of 6.4% makes it the leading mental issue in China. On the basis of comparative research and meta-synthetic construction, the present article suggests to differentiate between ADHD as a primary psychiatric disorder, ADHD-typical symptoms caused by disturbing environmental conditions, and multifaceted ADHD resembling syndromes generated by adverse developmental processes and inadequate educational facilities. This differentiation has a decisive impact on treatment modes such as (i) clinical music education, e.g. piano tuition, (ii) cultural participation and self-adjustment through arts-based cognitive behavioural therapy, (iii) avoidance of disturbing stimuli as well as music-based resilience techniques, and (iv) Chinese music therapy including sound-meditation, focused listening training, creative self-actualisation and music-based self-regulation. Interdisciplinary approaches combining music therapy and music education are discussed, alongside cross-cultural application and flexible settings, online music therapy included.
... In the results of this study, the pain was significantly reduced along with the improvement of QoL and depression. Like our results, previous studies were also accompanied by improvement in QoL, depression, and pain [76][77][78]. In addition, in the comparison between the MTG and CG, significant time × group interactions were shown in physical health, environmental, and a total of QoL. ...
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Female caregivers of people with disabilities are burdened physically and mentally. To improve these symptoms, an intervention that is easy to apply and has fewer side effects, such as natural healing, has been proposed, but the effect of healing using marine resources is unclear until now. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effect of meditation accompanied with stabilization exercise in the marine region on the improvement of pain, tactile sense, muscle characteristics, muscle strength, balance, quality of life, and depression in female caregivers of people with severe physical disabilities. Twenty-four female family caregivers were recruited and were randomly assigned to the marine therapy group (MTG, n = 12) and the control group (CG, n = 12). Both groups performed the same meditation (35 min) and stabilization exercise (25 min) twice a day for 3 nights and 4 days per session (total 8 sessions). The MTG performed these in the marine region, whereas the CG performed the interventions in the urban region. Pain (pain intensity and pain pressure threshold), tactile sense (tactile spatial acuity), muscle characteristics (stiffness, elasticity), muscle strength (hand and pinch grip strength), balance, quality of life, and depression were measured before and after the intervention and 4 weeks after the intervention. Both groups showed significant improvements in pain intensity (resting pain: f(2) = 72.719, p < 0.001; movement pain: f(2) = 24.952, p < 0.001), muscle strength (right pinch grip: f(2) = 15.265, p < 0.001), and depression (f(2) = 13.312, p < 0.001), while tactile spatial acuity (TSA) (upper part: f(2) = 14.460, p < 0.001; lower part: f(2) = 7.672, p = 0.002), dynamic balance (f(2) = 4.196, p = 0.024), and quality of life (overall quality of life & general health: f(2) = 5.443, p = 0.009; physical health: f(2) = 13.991, p < 0.001; psychological: f(2) = 9.946, p < 0.001; environmental: f(2) = 20.004, p < 0.001; total: f(2) = 11.958, p < 0.001) were significantly improved only in MTG. There was no significant change in pain pressure threshold (upper trapezius (UT): f(2) = 0.765, p = 0.473; levator scapula (LS): f(2) = 0.213, p = 0.809; splenius capitis (SC): f(2) = 0.186, p = 0.831) and muscle characteristics (UT stiffness: f(2) = 1.486, p = 0.241; UT elasticity: f(2) = 0.358, p = 0.702; LS stiffness: f(2) = 2.440, p = 0.102; LS elasticity: f(2) = 0.544, p = 0.585) in both groups. In comparison between groups, the MTG showed a significant difference in sensory function compared to the CG (resting pain: f(2) = 10.487, p = 0.005; lower part: f(2) = 5.341, p = 0.034 in TSA). Our findings suggest that meditation combined with stabilization exercise improved pain, muscle strength, and depression of female caregivers. In particular, greater benefits on tactile sense, balance, and quality of life were found in performing these in the marine region compared to the urban region.
... [15][16][17] Studies report that many people have chosen this option during the pandemic so as to continue psychotherapy and receive psychological support to manage stress as well as symptoms of depression and anxiety. 18 Telepsychotherapy has some limitations, but psychologists agree that in terms of the cost-benefit, online counseling is an excellent tool for treatment. Similar to our findings, Cardinale et al. showed that levels of stress and emotional distress improve after online psychological intervention. ...
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Objective Emergency psychological interventions are needed in patients with COVID-19. During the pandemic, psychological counseling services have been provided using online platforms to address adverse psychological impacts and symptoms in patients and the general population. We investigated the effects of telepsychotherapy on emotional well-being and psychological distress in patients affected by COVID-19. Methods Forty-five Sicilian patients who had contracted COVID-19 joined “Telecovid Sicilia” from March to June 2020. Participants completed self-assessment questionnaires and psychological testing to measure levels of anxiety, presence of depressive symptoms, and altered circadian rhythm with consequent sleep disorders and psychological distress. Individual telepsychotherapy services were provided for 1 hour, twice a week, for 16 sessions in total. Results We enrolled 45 patients (42.2% women). We found significant changes between baseline and the end of follow-up in all outcome measures, especially depression (χ ² (1) = 30.1; effect size [ES] = 0.82), anxiety (χ ² (1) = 37.4; ES = 0.91), and paranoid ideation (χ ² (1) = 5.6; ES = 0.35). The proportion of participants with sleep disorders decreased to 84.1% after intervention (χ ² (1) = 58.6; ES = 1.14). Conclusion A telepsychotherapeutic approach showed promising effects on psychological symptoms, with significantly reduced patient anxiety and depression.
... Hatha yoga is composed of a series of stretches, postures, and breathing exercises that should relax and strengthen muscles and bones. It includes also a stress education and a training in coping strategies and assertiveness [65]. MBSR focuses upon the development of a series of attitudes, like becoming an impartial witness of selfexperiences, acceptance of the present and the things as they are, and letting thoughts to go, not censoring them. ...
... Mindfulness practices have been incorporated into strategies to treat a variety of conditions, such as those related to stress, pain, depression, and anxiety, as well as used alone to provide an alternative treatment (Marchand, 2012;Widha et al., 2021). In addition, mindfulness can be used daily in a broad range of activities designed to function as a treatment for alleviating emotional stress and physical disorders such as pain (Zenner et al., 2014). ...
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This study presents an overview of the literature of mindfulness in education, which is based on the definition of mindfulness, and accompanying key terms, and the philosophy and practices it involves. The review includes a survey of Buddhism, Eastern and Western mindfulness traditions. This literature review gathers the thinking of scholars on the importance of mindfulness and its beneficial practices—particularly in Western contexts—including mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and related therapies. The literature review is also a motivator in the use of mindfulness because it reveals its proven role in both helping career professionals and reducing stress for students by reducing the psychological and physical distress inherent in work and personal lives or students’ academic lives.
... This field, which is also of crucial relevance to music therapy, addresses four key issues, (i) religious and mystical concepts of health, disease, and death, (ii) spiritual care for seriously ill people such as with cancer [67], people in need of palliative care [68] and/or at the end of life [69], (iii) dark sides and misuse of spirituality [70] and (iv) therapeutic effects such as Zen meditation to reduce anxiety, pain and psychological distress [71] as well as to alleviate depressive feelings and hopelessness through the joy of inner calmness [72]. ...
... In conclusion, our findings provide empirical support for previously suggested associations between MF and depression & anxiety (Hofmann et al., 2010;Marchand, 2012;Song & Lindquist, 2015;Soysa, C.K., Wilcomb, 2013). In addition, there are several studies investigating the effectiveness of MF-integrated therapy approaches (Garland et al., 2018;Manicavasgar et al., 2011;Woolhouse et al., 2012)Therefore, our study may be useful for further strategies of MF integration in the scope of current interventions. ...
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The goal of this study was to examine the effects of mindfulness (MF) and spiritual intelligence (SI) as predictors of depression and anxiety, the most frequent manifestations of mental disorders – among 184 Turkish participants of diverse ages, predominantly students, living in Istanbul and Sarajevo. Four instruments were administered either directly or via web-based services: Scale for Spiritual Intelligence (SSI), Hospital anxiety and depression scale (HADS), Five Facet Mindfulness Questionnaire - Short Form (FFMQ-S) and Sociodemographic Information Form. Through the use of linear regression analysis, Actaware (b = -.19, p ≤ .001), Nonjudge (b = -.22, p ≤ .001), Nonreact (b = -.19, p ≤ .001) subscales of FFMQ-S were found to be negative predictors for depression and anxiety, whereas, Self-understanding subscale of SSI was not significant. Although our findings suggest that spiritual intelligence is not significant in prediction of depression and anxiety, our research provides empirical evidence for the link between MF, SI, depression and anxiety, as well as revealing MF as predictor for anxiety and depression which may be useful for further improvements in the scope of current interventions.
... By cultivating a state of sustained attention to internal processes in the present moment with acceptance and without judgment (Kabat-Zinn, 1990), mindfulness and accordant interventions have shown benefits with various psychological or psychosomatic problems when they are used as complementary treatments (Goyal et al., 2014). Mindfulness has been proven to be effective in alleviating chronic pain (Priddy et al., 2018), relieving the symptoms of depression (Marchand, 2012), anxiety (MacDonald and Olsen, 2020), or even reducing substance cravings of addiction (Enkema and Bowen, 2016). Moreover, mindfulness becomes popularized in recent years as an aid to help with the promotion of psychological wellbeing in non-clinical populations (Kingston et al., 2007). ...
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Mindfulness and accordant interventions are often used as complementary treatments to psychological or psychosomatic problems. This has also been gradually integrated into daily lives for the promotion of psychological well-being in non-clinical populations. The experience of mindful acceptance in a non-judgmental way brought about the state, which was less interfered by a negative effect. Mindfulness practice often begins with focused attention (FA) meditation restricted to an inner experience. We postulate that the brain areas related to an interoceptive function would demonstrate an intrinsic functional change after mindfulness training for the mindful novices along with paying more attention to internal processes. To further explore the influence of mindfulness on the organization of the brain regions, both functional connectivity (FC) in the voxel and the region of interest (ROI) level were calculated. In the current study, 32 healthy volunteers, without any meditation experiences, were enrolled and randomly assigned to a mindfulness-based stress reduction group (MBSR) or control group (CON). Participants in the MBSR group completed 8 weeks of mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) and rated their mindfulness skills before and after MBSR. All subjects were evaluated via resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI) in both baselines and after 8 weeks. They also completed a self-report measure of their state and trait anxiety as well as a positive and negative affect. Pre- and post-MBSR assessments revealed a decreased amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF) in the right anterior cingulate gyrus (ACC.R), left anterior and posterior insula (aIC.L, pIC.L), as well as left superior medial frontal gyrus (SFGmed.L) in MBSR practitioners. Strengthened FC between right anterior cingulate cortex (ACC.R) and aIC.R was observed. The mean ALFF values of those regions were inversely and positively linked to newly acquired mindful abilities. Along with a decreased negative affect score, our results suggest that the brain regions related to attention and interoceptive function were involved at the beginning of mindfulness. This study provides new clues in elucidating the time of evaluating the brain mechanisms of mindfulness novices.
Article
Objective Respiratory abnormalities are a hallmark of anxiety symptomatology and may serve as clinically useful modifiers for alleviating anxiety symptoms. However, gold-standard anxiety treatments (e.g., cognitive-behavioral interventions) often do not directly address respiratory components despite their theoretical utility and clinical accessibility. This review examined the clinical effectiveness of respiratory interventions, interventions that directly target respiration abnormalities and processes, in treating trait anxiety symptoms. Methods The final analysis included 40 randomized controlled trials including at least one measure of trait anxiety, a respiratory-focused intervention group, and a non-respiratory control-group (active or inactive treatment). Overall effects of respiratory focused interventions were examined, as well as the effect of hypothesized moderators. Results Respiratory component interventions yielded significantly greater improvements (moderate to large effect) in anxiety symptoms than controls, with the stronger effects observed in comparison to inactive, rather than active, control conditions. Significant heterogeneity in findings suggests that variability in intervention design, population, and control comparison may obfuscate interpretation of findings. Conclusions Evidence supports the clinical utility of respiratory interventions as either an independent anxiety treatment, or as an adjunct to other interventions. Clinical and research implications of findings along with recommendations for ongoing investigations in this domain are discussed.
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Stemmingsstoornissen zijn aandoeningen die de kwaliteit van leven sterk beïnvloeden. De gemoedstoestand van de patiënt is daarbij langdurig ontregeld op een manier die niet te vergelijken is met normale humeurschommelingen. Deze stoornissen vallen uiteen in diverse depressieve en bipolaire varianten. Met name de depressieve stoornis en de persisterende depressieve stoornis (dysthymie) komen veel voor. Sociale factoren spelen een belangrijke rol bij stemmingsstoornissen en andersom hebben ze vaak veel sociale gevolgen. In dit hoofdstuk is uitgegaan van de classificatie volgens DSM-5 en komen verschillende verklaringsmodellen aan de orde, kenmerken en symptomen, alsook de verpleegkundige behandeling en begeleiding van mensen met een stemmingsstoornis. Ook is er veel aandacht voor bejegening en de werkrelatie, daar stemmingsstoornissen niet alleen veel impact kunnen hebben op de patiënt, maar ook op de verpleegkundige. Bij farmacotherapie is een belangrijke rol weggelegd voor de verpleegkundige (controle van medicatie en therapietrouw, alertheid op bijwerkingen).
Article
Introduction Peri-menopausal women may experience a range of symptoms which affect quality of life and for which there may be no treatment. The aim of the study was to evaluate whether a mindfulness-based stress reduction (MBSR) intervention delivered to peri-menopausal women could alleviate preclinical symptoms of depressive moods. Methods Patients presenting in a gynaecology department were screened for peri-menopausal symptoms. Women with preclinical anxiety, depression and/or sleep disturbance who met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the study. Group training was held twice a week for eight weeks; self-practice was assigned and reported. Symptoms were assessed at baseline and upon completion. Participants’ reports on self-practice were collected besides the 16 -h class contact. Results Of all 128 enrolled women, 7 (5.5 %) did not complete the program and were excluded. Baseline scores (N = 121) were 63.42 ± 5.54 (mean ± SD) for anxiety; 68.31 ± 4.72 for depression; and 18.37 ± 2.24 for sleep disturbance. Upon completion of the program, symptoms were improved, and symptom scores lower (p < 0.01): 48.26 ± 6.47 for anxiety, 50.27 ± 6.54 for depression, and 10.64 ± 4.38 for sleep disturbance. Besides group training, 59 participants (48.8 %) did self-practice at least 3 times/week; 39 participants (32.2 %) did 1–2 times/week; and 23 participants (19.0 %) did none. Frequency of self-practice was associated with magnitude of symptom relief (p < 0.01). Conclusions MBSR may be a useful self-care tool for peri-menopausal women experiencing depressive moods. Clinical trials and follow-up studies are needed to understand the pattern of incorporating MBSR in self-management, and any long-term health effects.
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This study isolated antibacterial probiotic strains from sour shrimp, a Vietnamese traditional fermented food, and optimized culturing conditions for the chosen strain. Strain V101 was chosen for optimization experiments for its high antagonistic activity and production of strong antibacterial compounds against indicator harmful bacteria – Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Molecular identification of 16S rRNA sequencing showed that V101 strain was Lactobacillus paracasei. Optimization of culturing conditions found that this strain produces the highest biomass and acid accumulation on modified MRS at pH 5.5; temperature 37 °C in 60 h. Under optimum condition, biomass and acid production increased 76.61% and 10.69% respectively, and antibacterial activities against E. coli improved up to 20%. Pilot fermentation of L. paracasei V101 on production Vietnamese pickles, sour shrimp showed that the fermentation process was quicker, tastier, and fermented products could be preserved longer. These findings will be a potential prerequisite for further study on L. paracasei V101 as a strain not only good for food fermentation and preserving but also a helpful probiotic bacteria bring benefits to human health.
Article
In nursing students, resilience is recognised as a critical quality that will enable them to face and solve the challenges encountered in their studies and future careers. This mixed-methods study aimed to develop a resilience-building module for university nursing students and evaluate its effects on resilience, well-being and mindfulness. We recruited a convenience sample of 195 nursing students and delivered a resilience-building module comprising three 90-minute workshops on the following topics: resilience and emotion regulation, stress management and mindfulness, and burnout and depression. The participants' views and perceptions of the module were explored using pre-test and post-test questionnaires and focus group interviews. No significant changes in outcomes were observed from the pre-test to the post-test. However, a multivariable linear regression analysis indicated that mindfulness was significantly associated with resilience. A qualitative data analysis revealed that the resilience-building module evoked the participants’ awareness of resilience and was considered an enjoyable learning experience. In conclusion, although the quantitative results demonstrated no significant changes in outcomes after the module, the qualitative results suggested that the resilience-building module could have beneficial effects if included in the undergraduate nursing curricula. Finally, better mindfulness was identified as important for enhancing resilience among undergraduate nursing students.
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Many years ago when Somatics magazine was young, it occurred to me that it would be valuable to collect and publish research article references in Somatics magazine that were relevant to the different somatics disciplines to encourage the development of the field. There were next to no studies devoted to Somatics itself, but there were many studies devoted to the elements of somatic practices. Somatics is a multidisciplinary field. It builds on the research findings from many fields, such as anatomy, physiology, neurophysiology, psychology, dance, biomechanics, and education. The references are selected to be suggestive to the interested researcher and practitioner for their purposes and of the many possible research avenues that are yet to be explored. I have collected these research references for more than four decades. I worked originally with Psychological Abstracts, then PsychInfo, and finally, PubMed. Over that time there has been more research done on the somatic disciplines themselves. The greatest amount of research has been done on yoga (the oldest and largest of the somatic disciplines) and yoga therapy. These studies are examples of the research that can be done with the other somatics disciplines as well. We are in an era that appreciates evidence-based practice and practice-based evidence. This is evidence. These research articles are selected according to the following criteria: The article combines both body and mind either in its research design or theoretical perspective; the research design incorporates convergent measures—that is, it includes physiological, behavioral, and psychological measures; subjective and objective measures; and the research focuses on the whole organism (human) from a somatic perspective—that is, the effect of a body therapy on a psychological state. Topics addressed include biofeedback, body psychotherapy, consciousness states, electrophysiology, kinesiology, mind and body, motor processes, neural basis of motor control, neuroscience, posture and emotion, psychophysiology, and yoga/yoga therapy.
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Acne vulgaris is the most common skin condition in the United States, affecting 50 million Americans annually and more than 85% of adolescents worldwide. Although rosacea is estimated to affect 10% of the population, its impact should not be underestimated. The pathogenesis of both of these conditions is multifactorial. One of these factors is stress. It is well established that acne has physical sequelae such as disfigurement and permanent scarring, yet the long-lasting psychosocial effects that can impact a patient’s quality of life do not often receive equal attention. Anxiety, depression, social isolation, and suicidal ideation are common comorbidities of acne that cannot be overlooked in the management of acne patients. Research suggests that the impact on quality of life can be alleviated by mind–body therapies including biofeedback, meditation, and hypnosis, with resultant stress management, stress reduction, and improvement in the clinical manifestations of acne and rosacea.
Article
Learning objectives: After completing this activity, practitioners will be better able to:• Discuss and better understand the recently adopted screening standards for adolescents with depression and the potential advantages of using "lifestyle medicine"• Set up a process for providing effective interventions for the increased number of patients with adolescent depression• Design or update their toolbox of treatment options for adolescents with depression based on the new literature and increased demand. Abstract: Recently adopted quality standards recommend that pediatricians screen adolescents for depression and that they document follow-up plans for those who screen positive. As a result of these new recommendations, pediatricians and other pediatric providers, as well as psychiatrists and other mental health professionals, may face an increasing number of referrals and a growing need for effective interventions for adolescent depression. Given the widely acknowledged scarcity of traditional mental health resources, the current study reviewed the rapidly expanding array of evidence-based, but nontraditional, interventions applicable to outpatient pediatric and mental health care settings. Many of these interventions come from a lifestyle medicine framework. Lifestyle medicine interventions are congruent with the cultures of pediatrics and outpatient psychiatry, and offer additional evidence-based tools for providers managing adolescent depression. These interventions can be implemented individually or within group or community settings, and may be used in conjunction with more common interventions such as psychotherapy or psychotropic medications.
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This study presents an understanding of the influence of mindfulness in the educational field at student, teacher, and principal levels. The review includes a definition of mindfulness, value of mindfulness, and a new perspective of education based on physical and mental health. The prevailing COVID-19 pandemic subjects school academics to unexpected situations. I present in this paper the history, practice, and influence of mindfulness in both Eastern and Western traditions as a proven stress reliever. I also evaluate its impact on the training that students, teachers, and principals undergo, and are thus likely to provide, throughout their schools.
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Objective Unprecedented work pressures and social isolation during the COVID-19 pandemic may worsen loneliness and sleep problems in health care professionals. Heartfulness meditation has been shown to improve burnout and sleep. In the current study, the effects of remote Heartfulness meditation in improving loneliness and sleep quality were measured. Methods Physicians and advance practice providers were randomly assigned to receive either daily Heartfulness Meditation program or no intervention (control group) in a prospective four-week randomized control study design. UCLA loneliness and PSQI scores were collected at baseline and after the program duration of 4 weeks. The study was retrospectively registered with trial Number, ISRCTN85787008 (Jan 8, 2021). Results Of the 155 subjects enrolled in the study, 50% were lonely and 97% had sleep problems. Attrition rate was 36%. Among those who completed the study, the mean UCLA loneliness scores decreased from 42.1 to 39.4 in the Heartfulness group (N=40, p=0.009) and 42.2 to 41.15 in the control group (N=57, p=0.254)). The mean PSQI scores decreased from 10.75 to 9.14 in the Heartfulness group (N=41, p=0.001) and 9.41 to 8.87 in the control group (N=58, p=0.122). Younger participants aged 30 and under had higher loneliness and sleep problems. Conclusions The current study is one of the first attempts to assess loneliness and sleep problems among physicians and advance practice providers during COVID-19 pandemic in the US. A significant burden of loneliness and sleep problems was identified. An improvement of sleep and loneliness was noted with the practice of Heartfulness meditation. This remote intervention might be a useful tool to be explored in larger studies.
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Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) is a non-invasive psychological therapy based on mindfulness developed by Dr. Jon Kabat-Zinn in 1979. The potential of MBSR includes improving mental health, enhancing working performance, and reducing mental stress. This literature review aims to: evaluate the effect of MBSR on stress reduction in different subject groups and examine the outcome of MBSR on various physiological and structural measurements. The literature review is based on 40 articles then narrowed down to 25 articles published from 2010 to 2019. The keywords to search for these articles were: MBSR, Electroencephalogram signal, stress, functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, cortisol, functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy. Subjects participated in the MBSR course. These studied populations, selected based on standard criteria DSM-IV, included one control group and one intervention group. Measurement stage comprises pre- and post-intervention by using three types of questionnaires: Mental Health Scale (MHS) and Mindfulness Scale and other scales. Besides, several studies combined common physiological and structural assessments. The reviewed studies show that MBSR is effective in several subject groups, including Social Anxiety Disorder patients, employees, and students. Other groups with more severe psychological symptoms have not benefited significantly. The questionnaire score reflects a significant improvement, whereas biological measurements as heart rate, brain imaging, or cortisol level do not show consistent change. The limitation of these studies is that there is a lack of a control group. In conclusion, MBSR has effects on mental health and mindfulness for a wide range of subjects. It is suggested that people who have mild psychological disorders should practice MBSR frequently to reduce symptoms. For future studies, the control group and repeated measure designs should be implemented for better results.
Article
Objective This study examines the psychometrics of the 15-item version of the Five-Factor Mindfulness Questionnaire (FFMQ-15). Participants An ethnically diverse sample of 538 college students participated in this study. Methods The factor structure was evaluated through confirmatory factor analyses fitting 64 alternative models with and without method factors. Model fit as well as valid interpretations of the model parameters were considered in selecting the final model. Utilizing the final selected model, the relationship between mindfulness and the mindfulness facets with two related constructs, psychological inflexibility and emotional distress tolerance was examined. Results The five-facet second-order model with a single-method factor best fitted to the data and provided sound, interpretable estimates. After accounting for the single-method effect, overall mindfulness was positively correlated with emotional distress tolerance and negatively correlated with psychological inflexibility. Conclusions The FFMQ-15 was a valid measure of mindfulness among university students when accounting for the method factor.
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Objectives An increasing number of mindfulness interventions are becoming accessible and available through mobile applications. This systematic review aims to synthesize the best evidence available for the effectiveness of the mobile-based mindfulness interventions (mMBIs) in improving mindfulness skills and depressive, anxiety, and stress symptoms among adults.Methods Published studies and dissertations indexed by CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Embase, IEEE Xplore, ProQuest, PsycInfo, PubMed, and Scopus were systematically reviewed without time frame restriction. All included studies were randomized control trials with adult participants using mobile-based mindfulness. Using a random-effects model and Hedges’ g, we performed a meta-analysis with the Stata software and assessed the effect size. Subsequently, we determined whether heterogeneity was a serious concern through chi-square and I2 tests.ResultsA total of 22 randomized control trials in 24 articles met the criteria. Meta-analysis revealed statistically significant improvement on mindfulness skills (g = 0.26) and depressive (g = − 0.21) and stress (g = − 0.54) symptoms after the mMBIs. Results for anxiety were not significant. Subgroup analyses indicated that the mBMI was more effective using ≥ 8 weeks (g = 0.57) and the waitlist control (g = 0.47).Conclusions Mobile-based mindfulness has significantly small to moderate effects on improving mindfulness skills and reducing depressive and stress symptoms for adults in diverse context. It is promising as an effective adjunct intervention for mindfulness skills particularly for individuals with 8 weeks or longer duration of mMBIs. However, caution should be exercised when generalizing results that involve varied contexts, populations, and control conditions.Protocol registration:PROSPERO CRD42021234277
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Objectives: Aging is one of the phenomena in the field of global health. It is very important to pay attention to older adults psychologically and physically. This study aims to evaluate the effect of mindfulness therapy combined with aromatherapy massage on the psychological functions of older women with chronic pain. Methods & Materials: This is a quasi-experimental study with a pre-test, post-test, follow-up design using a control group. The study population consists of all older women with chronic pain referred to hospitals, clinics, and rehabilitation centers in the west of Tehran, Iran in 2017. By using a convenience sampling method, 30 women were selected based on inclusion and exclusion criteria and randomly divided into two matched groups. The intervention group underwent mindfulness group therapy plus aromatherapy massage at ten 120-min sessions while the control group received no intervention. Their pain perception, sleep quality, and quality of life as psychological functions were evaluated at baseline, at the end of intervention and 45 days later. Collected data were analyzed using the analysis of covariance method in SPSS v. 19 software. Results: The mindfulness therapy/aromatherapy massage significantly reduced the pain perception and its components and improved quality of life and sleep quality in the intervention group compared to the control group (P
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In this chapter, perspectives on mind wandering will be explored from the point of view of contemplative practices, such as meditation and mindfulness.To the contemplative practitioner, mind wandering directs attention toward mental constructions, such as imagined futures, which are considered central to human suffering (Bartok J, Roemer L (2017) Remembering-and-receiving: mindfulness and acceptance in Zen. In: Masuda A, O’Donohue WT (eds) Handbook of zen, mindfulness, and behavioral health. Springer, p 237-250; Hazlett-Stevens H (2017) Zen, mindfulness, and cognitive-behavior therapy. In: Masuda A, O’Donohue WT (eds) Handbook of Zen, mindfulness, and behavioral health. Springer, p 255-270; Im S (2017) What is measured by self-report measures of mindfulness?: Conceptual and measurement issues. In: Masuda A, O’Donohue WT (eds) Handbook of Zen, mindfulness, and behavioral health. Springer, p 215-235; Kabat-Zinn, Mindfulness 7:277-278, 2016). When attention is diverted away from what is happening here and now in favor of past events or prospective futures, a sense of dissatisfaction, or dukkha, is created (Hazlett-Stevens H (2017) Zen, mindfulness, and cognitive-behavior therapy. In: Masuda A, O’Donohue WT (eds) Handbook of Zen, mindfulness, and behavioral health. Springer, p 255-270; Kabat-Zinn, Mindfulness 7:277-278, 2016; Li P, Ramirez DR (2017) Zen and psychotherapy. In: Masuda A, O’Donohue WT (eds) Handbook of Zen, mindfulness, and behavioral health. Springer, p 169-194; Rosch,E (2015) The Emperor’s clothes: A look behind the Western mindfulness mystique. In: Ostafin BD, Robinson MD, Meier BP (eds) Handbook of mindfulness and self-regulation. Springer, p 271-292) which the contemplative practitioner regards as something to wake up from.Mind wandering describes thoughts and feelings that deviate from the present task of the here and now (Smallwood and Schooler, Psychological Bulletin 132(6):946-958, 2006). Mind wandering can occur involuntary while engaged in various tasks, drawing attentional resources away by thinking of something, or sometime, else (Mason et al., Science 315(5810):393-395, 2007). For instance, task-unrelated thinking, or mind wandering, during reading or other academic activities can affect reading comprehension and cause a decrease in academic performance (Mooneyham and Schooler. Canadian Journal of Experimental Psychology/Revue Canadienne de Psychologie Expérimentale 67(1):11-18, 2013; Smallwood et al., Consciousness and Cognition 12(3):452-484, 2003; Smallwood et al., Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 14(2):230-236, 2007; Smallwood et al., Memory & Cognition 36(6):1144-1150, 2008). Mind wandering can take the form of rumination or worry, key factors underlining mental disorders such as depression and anxiety. Mind wandering has also been described as a deficit in attentional control and memory (McVay & Kane, 2009; Unsworth & McMillan, 2014) and is a predictor of performance errors and negative mood and correlates with depression (Smallwood et al., Memory & Cognition 36(6):1144-1150, 2008; Smallwood and O’Connor. Cognition & Emotion 25(8):1481-1490, 2011; Smallwood and Schooler, Psychological Bulletin 132(6):946-958, 2006).The use of contemplative practice to alleviate some of the negative effects of mind wandering is presented. How mind wandering is seen from a contemplative point of view will be presented along with application of contemplative practice in mental health professional and educational settings. Mind wandering also plays a role in self-identity. The contemplative perspective on this is that the sense of self is, in part, a result of mind wandering.KeywordsContemplative practiceDefault mode networkMeditationMindfulnessMBSRMBCTMind wandering
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Historic and contemporary cognitive-behavioral art therapy (CBAT) practices are explored through the lens of three waves of behavioral theory and practice: behaviorism, cognitive-behavior therapy (CBT), and Buddhism/mindfulness philosophy and theory. From behavior theory, the groundwork of CBAT will be laid using the writings of Ellen Roth and other art therapists. Next a short exploration of how these beginnings morphed into CBAT will be discussed. The mindfulness evolution will be explored as an outgrowth of CBT theory and practice. The work of CBAT art therapists will follow and the CBAT techniques used in contemporary treatment will be illustrated through short case studies.
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Die wissenschaftliche Erforschung von Achtsamkeitsinterventionen im Bildungsbereich steckt zwar noch in den Kinderschuhen; in dem jungen Feld zeichnet sich aber eine Reihe vielversprechender Befunde ab. Relativ gut gestützt sind diese v.a. bezüglich einer Reduktion von Stress und Verbesserung der psychischen Gesundheit. Gemischter sind die Befunde in Hinblick auf kognitive Variablen und das Sozialverhalten. In diesem Kapitel werden wissenschaftliche Befunde zusammenfassend dargestellt. Neuronale Korrelate der Stressreduktion und Verbesserung der Aufmerksamkeit werden dann vorgestellt. Schließlich wird dargelegt, dass Achtsamkeit auch indirekt über eine Reduktion von Stress positive Effekte auf kognitive Prozesse, das Gedächtnis und das Sozialverhalten bewirken könnte.
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Working largely independently, numerous investigators have explored the role of self-focused attention in various clinical disorders. This article reviews research examining increased self-focused attention in these disorders. Using information processing constructs, a model of self-focused attention is proposed, and it is suggested that certain deviations in this process constitute a psychopathological kind of attention. A meta-construct model of descriptive psychopathology is then outlined to examine how certain aspects of attention can be considered specific to certain disorders and others common to different disorders
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Considerable research has disclosed how cognitive reappraisals and the modulation of emotional responses promote successful emotion regulation. Less research has examined how the early processing of emotion-relevant stimuli may create divergent emotional response consequences. Mindfulness-a receptive, non-evaluative form of attention-is theorized to foster emotion regulation, and the present study examined whether individual differences in mindfulness would modulate neural responses associated with the early processing of affective stimuli. Focus was on the late positive potential (LPP) of the event-related brain potential to visual stimuli varying in emotional valence and arousal. This study first found, replicating past research, that high arousal images, particularly of an unpleasant type, elicited larger LPP responses. Second, the study found that more mindful individuals showed lower LPP responses to high arousal unpleasant images, even after controlling for trait attentional control. Conversely, two traits contrasting with mindfulness-neuroticism and negative affectivity-were associated with higher LPP responses to high arousal unpleasant images. Finally, mindfulness was also associated with lower LPP responses to motivationally salient pleasant images (erotica). These findings suggest that mindfulness modulates neural responses in an early phase of affective processing, and contribute to understanding how this quality of attention may promote healthy emotional functioning.
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This randomised trial compared the effects of Brain Wave Vibration (BWV) training, which involves rhythmic yoga-like meditative exercises, with Iyengar yoga and Mindfulness. Iyengar provided a contrast for the physical components and mindfulness for the "mental" components of BWV. 35 healthy adults completed 10 75-minute classes of BWV, Iyengar, or Mindfulness over five weeks. Participants were assessed at pre- and postintervention for mood, sleep, mindfulness, absorption, health, memory, and salivary cortisol. Better overall mood and vitality followed both BWV and Iyengar training, while the BWV group alone had improved depression and sleep latency. Mindfulness produced a comparatively greater increase in absorption. All interventions improved stress and mindfulness, while no changes occurred in health, memory, or salivary cortisol. In conclusion, increased well-being followed training in all three practices, increased absorption was specific to Mindfulness, while BWV was unique in its benefits to depression and sleep latency, warranting further research.
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Research on the effectiveness and mechanisms of mindfulness training applied in psychotherapy is still in its infancy (Erisman & Roemer, 2010). For instance, little is known about the extent and processes through which mindfulness practice improves emotion regulation. This experience sampling study assessed the relationship between mindfulness, emotion differentiation, emotion lability, and emotional difficulties. Young adult participants reported their current emotional experiences 6 times per day during 1 week on a PalmPilot device. Based on these reports of emotions, indices of emotional differentiation and emotion lability were composed for negative and positive emotions. Mindfulness was associated with greater emotion differentiation and less emotional difficulties (i.e., emotion lability and self-reported emotion dysregulation). Mediational models indicated that the relationship between mindfulness and emotion lability was mediated by emotion differentiation. Furthermore, emotion regulation mediated the relationship between mindfulness and both negative emotion lability and positive emotion differentiation. This experience sampling study indicates that self-reported levels of mindfulness are related to higher levels of differentiation of one's discrete emotional experiences in a manner reflective of effective emotion regulation.
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Contemplative practices are believed to alleviate psychological problems, cultivate prosocial behavior and promote self-awareness. In addition, psychological science has developed tools and models for understanding the mind and promoting well-being. Additional effort is needed to combine frameworks and techniques from these traditions to improve emotional experience and socioemotional behavior. An 8-week intensive (42 hr) meditation/emotion regulation training intervention was designed by experts in contemplative traditions and emotion science to reduce "destructive enactment of emotions" and enhance prosocial responses. Participants were 82 healthy female schoolteachers who were randomly assigned to a training group or a wait-list control group, and assessed preassessment, postassessment, and 5 months after training completion. Assessments included self-reports and experimental tasks to capture changes in emotional behavior. The training group reported reduced trait negative affect, rumination, depression, and anxiety, and increased trait positive affect and mindfulness compared to the control group. On a series of behavioral tasks, the training increased recognition of emotions in others (Micro-Expression Training Tool), protected trainees from some of the psychophysiological effects of an experimental threat to self (Trier Social Stress Test; TSST), appeared to activate cognitive networks associated with compassion (lexical decision procedure), and affected hostile behavior in the Marital Interaction Task. Most effects at postassessment that were examined at follow-up were maintained (excluding positive affect, TSST rumination, and respiratory sinus arrhythmia recovery). Findings suggest that increased awareness of mental processes can influence emotional behavior, and they support the benefit of integrating contemplative theories/practices with psychological models and methods of emotion regulation.
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There is a growing scientific interest in mindfulness meditation (MM), yet its underlying neurophysiological mechanism is still uncertain. We investigated whether MM affects self-referential processing, associated with default mode network (DMN), either as short (state) - or long-term (trait) effects. Three levels of MM expertise were compared with controls (n=12 each) by electroencephalography (EEG). DMN deactivation was identified during the transition from resting state to a time production task, as lower gamma (25-45 Hz) power over frontal and midline regions. MM practitioners exhibited a trait lower frontal gamma activity, related to narrative self-reference and DMN activity, as well as producing longer durations, these being negatively correlated with frontal gamma activity. Additionally, we found state increases in posterior gamma power, suggesting increased attention and sensory awareness. MM proficiency did not affect the results. Gamma power over frontal midline areas reflects DMN activity. MM practitioners exhibit lower trait frontal gamma activity, as well as a state and trait increases in posterior gamma power, irrespective of practice proficiency. First, the DMN can be studied non-invasively by EEG. Second, MM induces from the early stages of practice neuroplasticity in self-referential and attentional networks.
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Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a severe, highly prevalent and chronically disabling psychiatric disorder that usually emerges during childhood or adolescence. This paper aims to review the literature on functional neuroimaging in OCD, analysing the reported dysfunctional connectivity in the corticostriatothalamocortical circuitry. This study included papers published in peer-reviewed journals dealing with functional imaging in OCD. Striatal dysfunction, mainly of the caudate nucleus, leads to inefficient thalamic gating, resulting in hyperactivity within the orbitofrontal cortex (intrusive thoughts) and the anterior cingulate cortex (non-specific anxiety). Compulsions consist of ritualistic behaviours performed to recruit the inefficient striatum and neutralise unwanted thoughts and anxiety. Functional neuroimaging findings are discussed against the background of specific cognitive impairments, mainly regarding visuospatial processing, executive functioning and motor speed. Cognitive deficits are partial and specific, matching imaging data. Several studies have targeted brain regions hypothesised to be involved in the pathogenesis of OCD, showing the existence of dysfunctional connectivity in the corticostriatothalamocortical circuitry. Improvements in spatial resolution of neuroimaging techniques may contribute to a better understanding of the neurocircuitry of OCD and other anxiety disorders.
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The present study is a waitlist-controlled investigation of the impact of a Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) program on mindful attentiveness, rumination and blood pressure (BP) in women with cancer. Female post-treatment cancer patients were recruited from the MBSR program waitlist. Participants completed self-report measures of mindfulness and rumination and measured casual BP at home before and after the 8-week MBSR program or waiting period. MBSR group participants demonstrated higher levels of mindful attentiveness and decreased ruminative thinking following the intervention but no difference in BP, when compared to controls. In the MBSR group, decreases in rumination correlated with decreases in SBP and increases in mindful attention. When participants were assigned to "Higher BP" and "Lower BP" conditions based on mean BP values at week 1, "Higher BP" participants in the MBSR group (n=19) had lower SBP at week 8 relative to the control group (n=16). A MBSR program may be efficacious in increasing mindful attention and decreasing rumination in women with cancer. Randomized controlled trials are needed to evaluate an impact on clinically elevated BP.
Article
Anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a part of the brain's limbic system. Classically, this region has been related to affect, on the basis of lesion studies in humans and in animals. In the late 1980s, neuroimaging research indicated that ACC was active in many studies of cognition. The findings from EEG studies of a focal area of negativity in scalp electrodes following an error response led to the idea that ACC might be the brain's error detection and correction device. In this article, these various findings are reviewed in relation to the idea that ACC is a part of a circuit involved in a form of attention that serves to regulate both cognitive and emotional processing. Neuroimaging studies showing that separate areas of ACC are involved in cognition and emotion are discussed and related to results showing that the error negativity is influenced by affect and motivation. In addition, the development of the emotional and cognitive roles of ACC are discussed, and how the success of this regulation in controlling responses might be correlated with cingulate size. Finally, some theories are considered about how the different subdivisions of ACC might interact with other cortical structures as a part of the circuits involved in the regulation of mental and emotional activity.
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A growing number of psychosocial interventions are being offered to cancer patients during and after their medical treatment. Here, we examined whether Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR), a stress management course, helps women to cope better with stress and illness once their breast cancer treatment is completed. Our aim was to understand how MBSR may benefit those who participate in the course. Methods Our cohort study enrolled 59 women in an 8-week MBSR program. They completed "before and after" questionnaires pertaining to outcomes (stress, depression, medical symptoms) and process variables (mindfulness, coping with illness, sense of coherence). Paired t-tests examined changes from before to after the MBSR course. Changes in mindfulness were correlated with changes in post-MBSR variables, and a regression analysis examined which variables contributed to a reduction in stress after program participation. Results Adherence to the program was 91%. Participants reported significant reductions in stress (p < 0.0001), depression (p < 0.0001), and medical symptoms (p < 0.0001), and significant improvements in mindfulness (p < 0.0001), coping with illness (p < 0.0001), and sense of coherence (p < 0.0001). Changes in mindfulness were significantly related to changes in depression, stress, emotional coping, and sense of coherence. Increases in mindfulness and sense of coherence predicted reductions in stress. Conclusions It appears that learning how to be mindful is beneficial for women after their treatment for breast cancer.
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Die Zeit antagonistischer Wissenschaftskulturen scheint vorüber: Begriffe, Modelle und Objekte wandern zwischen den Geistes-, Sozial- und Technowissenschaften. Dabei entstehen neue und intensive Verflechtungen. So werden ehemals kritische Konzepte des vermeintlich Nicht-Technischen in den Technowissenschaften aufgegriffen, während biokybernetische Denkfiguren auch die Geisteswissenschaften durchziehen. Dieser Band verfolgt solche Übersetzungsversuche und fragt, ob sich eine kreative interdisziplinäre Wissenskultur oder eine restriktive, formale Kultur der ›Interdisziplinierung‹ auf der Grundlage einer neuen Technorationalität herausbildet.
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An ACT Approach Chapter 1. What is Acceptance and Commitment Therapy? Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Kara Bunting, Michael Twohig, and Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 2. An ACT Primer: Core Therapy Processes, Intervention Strategies, and Therapist Competencies. Kirk D. Strosahl, Steven C. Hayes, Kelly G. Wilson and Elizabeth V. Gifford Chapter 3. ACT Case Formulation. Steven C. Hayes, Kirk D. Strosahl, Jayson Luoma, Alethea A. Smith, and Kelly G. Wilson ACT with Behavior Problems Chapter 4. ACT with Affective Disorders. Robert D. Zettle Chapter 5. ACT with Anxiety Disorders. Susan M. Orsillo, Lizabeth Roemer, Jennifer Block-Lerner, Chad LeJeune, and James D. Herbert Chapter 6. ACT with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder. Alethea A. Smith and Victoria M. Follette Chapter 7. ACT for Substance Abuse and Dependence. Kelly G. Wilson and Michelle R. Byrd Chapter 8. ACT with the Seriously Mentally Ill. Patricia Bach Chapter 9. ACT with the Multi-Problem Patient. Kirk D. Strosahl ACT with Special Populations, Settings, and Methods Chapter 10. ACT with Children, Adolescents, and their Parents. Amy R. Murrell, Lisa W. Coyne, & Kelly G. Wilson Chapter 11. ACT for Stress. Frank Bond. Chapter 12. ACT in Medical Settings. Patricia Robinson, Jennifer Gregg, JoAnne Dahl, & Tobias Lundgren Chapter 13. ACT with Chronic Pain Patients. Patricia Robinson, Rikard K. Wicksell, Gunnar L. Olsson Chapter 14. ACT in Group Format. Robyn D. Walser and Jacqueline Pistorello
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Objective: To systematically review fully randomised patient preference trials and to explore the impact of preferences on attrition and outcome by meta-analysis of patient level data. Data sources: Citation search using Science Citation Index and Google Scholar and search of the main electronic databases (Medline, CINAHL, Embase, and AMED) with a combination of key words. Study selection: Fully randomised patient preference trials that compared treatments for any clinical condition were included. Other types of preference trials and crossover trials were excluded. Other inclusion criteria: participants aged 16 years and over; primary, self-reported outcomes measured on a continuous numerical scale. From 167 studies identified and screened, 17 were identified as fully randomised patient preference trials. Data synthesis: Of the 17 trials identified, 11 authors provided raw data for the meta-analysis. Data collected were baseline and follow-up data for the main outcome, randomised allocation data, preference data, and demographic data. Baseline and first post-intervention follow-up data for the main outcome were standardised. To improve homogeneity, data for only the eight musculoskeletal trials (n=1594) were combined. To estimate the effects of preferences on outcomes and attrition, three groups were compared: patients who had a preference and were randomly allocated to their preferred treatment; patients who had a preference and were randomly allocated to the treatment they did not prefer; and patients who had no preference. Results: Patients who were randomised to their preferred treatment had a standardised effect size greater than that of those who were indifferent to the treatment assignment (effect size 0.162, 95% confidence interval 0.011 to 0.314; P=0.04). Participants who received their preferred treatment also did better than participants who did not receive their preferred treatment (effect size 0.152, -0.035 to 0.339), although this was not statistically significant (P=0.11). Participants allocated to their undesired treatment had outcomes that were no different from those who were indifferent. Participants who were allocated to their undesired treatment were less likely to be lost to first follow-up compared with indifferent participants (odds ratio 1.70, 1.076 to 2.693; P=0.02). No difference was found in attrition between patients allocated to their preference and those who were indifferent. Conclusions: Preferences among patients in musculoskeletal trials are associated with treatment effects. In open randomised trials, preferences should be ascertained before randomisation.
Article
Objective Mindfulness based Cognitive Therapy (MBCT) is a standardized meditation program which has been proposed as a therapeutic option for the prevention of relapses in patients suffering from major depression (MD). The aim of the present review and meta-analysis is to provide an estimate of the efficacy of MBCT for MD patients. Methods A literature search was undertaken using MEDLINE, ISI web of knowledge, the Cochrane database, Google scholar and references of retrieved articles. Controlled studies investigating the efficacy of MBCT for MD were entered in the Cochrane Collaboration Review Manager Software (RevMan version 5.0). Results Reviewed data showed that MBCT in adjunct to usual care was significantly better than usual care alone for reducing MD relpases in patients with 3 or more past episodes of MD. MBCT plus gradual discontinuation of maintenance antidepressants was similar to continuation of antidepressants alone with respect to relapse prevention. The augmentation of MBCT could be useful for patients with current residual symptoms of depression as well. Conclusions Current studies showed preliminary evidence about the efficacy of MBCT for patients with 3 or more past episodes of depression and for currently depressed patients with residual symptoms. However, methodological shortcomings of reviewed studies including small sample size, frequent lack of replications and the absence of studies comparing MBCT to control groups designed to distinguish specific from non specific effects of meditation imply the necessity for further research.