ArticlePDF Available

The impact of vacation and job stress on burnout and absenteeism

Authors:

Abstract and Figures

Abstract The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that vacation relief decreases psychological and behavioral strains caused by job stressors. We examined the impact of job stress and vacation on strain on 87 blue-collar employees in an industrial enterprise in central Israel. Whereas former respite research focused on the impact of vacation only on psychological strains such as burnout and job and life satisfaction, the current study also examined a behavioral strain, absenteeism. The employees completed questionnaires before and after vacation and again four weeks later. Our findings show that vacation alleviated perceived job stress and bumout as predicted, replicating findings that a respite from work diminishes levels of strain to lower than chronic, on-the-job levels. We found declines in burnout immediately after the vacation and a return to prevacation levels four weeks later, and a similar pattern with regard to absenteeism.
Content may be subject to copyright.
A preview of the PDF is not available
... Las vacaciones pueden servir como un factor que disminuye el SDP; no obstante, se ha visto que cuatro semanas después de la reincorporación al trabajo los niveles de estrés vuelven a ser muy elevados (28). ...
Article
Full-text available
El Síndrome de desgaste profesional (SDP), también conocido como “Burnout”, es un término que define una caída del entusiasmo, sumado a síntomas de ansiedad, depresión y agresividad. Consta de tres etapas: agotamiento personal, despersonalización y déficit de realización personal. Pese a que todos los profesionales pueden llegar a experimentar el SDP, este es más frecuente entre los trabajadores de la salud, en especial los que trabajan en el área de oncología y en unidades de cuidados intensivos. La prueba de elección para medir el SDP es el cuestionario de Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) realizado por Christina Maslach en 1986 y validado en Colombia por la Universidad de Antioquia en el 2004. Existen intervenciones de dos tipos para el SDP, a nivel del individuo y a nivel de su entorno. A nivel del individuo existe el control del estrés, el ejercicio, las estrategias de higiene del sueño y los pasatiempos, entre otros. En cuanto al entorno del paciente, se tiene el adecuado manejo de los horarios de trabajo, evitar la sobrecarga laboral, cuidar los ambientes físicos del trabajo y priorizar el trabajo en equipo. En esta revisión narrativa se examina el tema del SDP y se describe cómo se desarrolla este en varios campos de la medicina: en la oncología, medicina de emergencias, la cirugía plástica, cirugía general, ortopedia y cuidado paliativo.
... Having a holiday may be an effective way to reset mind and brain. A holiday often comprises a change of environment, and a time of leisure without work commitments, during one relaxes and can engage in other interests than work [18]. As such, a holiday can reduce work-related negative affect and stress. ...
Article
Full-text available
Neuroticism, i.e., the disposition to experiencing feelings of emotional distress, including anxiety, depression, and anger, is often considered a relatively stable and fundamental personality characteristic (trait neuroticism). However, the level of neuroticism can also vary within individuals (state neuroticism), depending on external factors such as life events and work stress. The aim of the current study was to examine to what extent having a holiday can reduce state neuroticism. A survey was conducted among n = 213 young adults who were on holiday in Fiji (mean ± SD age of 24.5 ± 4.3, 46.9% women). In addition to demographics, they completed the neuroticism scale of the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire—revised Short Scale (EPQ-RSS). Compared to at home, a significant reduction (p < 0.001) in neuroticism was reported when they were on holiday (mean ± SD of 4.5 ± 3.0 versus 2.1 ± 2.3, respectively). The effect was seen in both men and women. Women had significantly higher neuroticism ratings than men, both at home (mean ± SD of 5.4 ± 2.9 versus 3.6 ± 2.9, respectively, p < 0.001) and on holiday (mean ± SD of 2.5 ± 2.4 versus 1.6 ± 2.0, respectively, p < 0.001). No significant differences were seen between individuals with a job at home or students. The correlation between neuroticism at home and the difference rating in neuroticism (‘at home’—‘in Fiji’ assessment) was highly significant (r = 0.68, p < 0.001). In conclusion, having a holiday was associated with significantly reduced levels of neuroticism. Those with the highest levels of neuroticism at home benefited the most from having a holiday.
... Many employees failed to maintain the positive effects of their vacations because the daily maintenance time had to be reduced to compensate for lost time and productivity while they were away [30]. Given that employees in Singapore receive between seven to fourteen paid days of leave annually [31], it would not be feasible to take vacations every four weeks to avoid the return of emotional exhaustion [32]. Hence, it would be ideal if employees were afforded the ability to take daily outof-office, vacation-like experiences to any location of their choosing to maintain the positive vacation effects. ...
Article
Full-text available
Research on attention restoration theory has provided consistent results over the years, and exposure to nature has been found to significantly improve and restore directed attention fatigue. However, rapid urbanisation has made it increasingly difficult for human beings to interact with unpolluted nature. Countries such as Singapore began to integrate nature into city planning and into the designs of buildings to help resident satisfaction and well-being. Local studies have had contradictory outcomes; residents report significantly higher restoration and affect towards vertical integrated greeneries, but many would still prefer traditional on-the-ground foliage. Interest in outdoor greenspaces is variable because Singapore’s high heat and humid climate make it uncomfortable to interact with outside nature for prolonged periods. The current study tested alternative modalities that can provide residents with on-the-ground foliage interactions, without the discomfort of being outdoors. Virtual exposures with different levels of immersion (high and low) and types of scenes (nature and urban) were tested for effects on perceived presence, perceived restoration and objective restoration. A total of 120 adult participants completed the study, which revealed that a virtual reality-nature condition provided significantly superior directed attention restoration and higher presence ratings. Immersive tendency did not affect perceived presence; neither did it moderate the relationship between perceived presence and its corresponding perceived restoration.
... In 2020 and 2021, each holiday corresponded to approximately 151 million employed persons receiving a day off from work (U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2021). Changes to sleep associated with time off from work have predominantly been investigated in the context of vacations (Westman and Etzion, 2001;de Bloom et al., 2013) and not specific holidays, while studies of alcohol use patterns have found that consumption of alcohol among regular drinkers increases on holidays (Kushnir and Cunningham, 2014) and is substantially elevated on special occasions (Bellis et al., 2015). Daylight Saving Time (DST) transitions also represent discrete events altering regular scheduling due to the resetting of clocks. ...
Article
Full-text available
We conducted a retrospective observational study using remote wearable and mobile application data to evaluate whether US public holidays or Daylight Saving Time transitions were associated with significant changes in sleep behaviors, including sleep duration, sleep onset and offset, and the consistency of sleep timing, as well as changes in the point prevalence of alcohol use. These metrics were analyzed using objective, high resolution sleep-wake data (10,350,760 sleep episodes) and 5,777,008 survey responses of 24,250 US subscribers (74.5% male; mean age of 37.6 ± 9.8 years) to the wrist-worn biometric device platform, WHOOP (Boston, Massachusetts, United States), who were active users during 1 May 2020, through 1 May 2021. Compared to baseline, statistically significant differences in sleep and alcohol measures were found on most DST transitions, US public holidays, and their eves. For example, New Year’s Eve corresponded with a sleep consistency decrease of 13.8 ± 0.3%, a sleep onset delay of 88.9 ± 3.2 min (00:01 vs . 22:33 baseline) later, a sleep offset delay of 78.1 ± 3.1 min (07:56 vs . 06:39), and an increase in the prevalence of alcohol consumption, with more than twice as many participants having reported alcohol consumption [+138.0% ± 6.7 (74.2% vs . 31.2%)] compared to baseline. In this analysis of a non-random sample of mostly male subscribers conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic, the majority of US public holidays and holiday eves were associated with sample-level increases in sleep duration, decreases in sleep consistency, later sleep onset and offset, and increases in the prevalence of alcohol consumption. Future work would be warranted to explore the generalizability of these findings and their public health implications, including in more representative samples and over longer time intervals.
... Previous researchers have identified factors that influence work-related stress (e.g., Westman & Etzion, 2001), consequences of work-related stress (e.g., Carmack & Holm, 2013), and the impact of CROS on one's ability to address other forms of stress (e.g., Veksler & Boren, 2017). Our study contributes to scholarship on workrelated stress by documenting the impact of assimilation, organizational support, and impostor syndrome on CROS in a GTA student population. ...
Article
This study extends research on Communicatively Restricted Organizational Stress (CROS) by documenting the impact of assimilation, organizational support, and impostor syndrome on CROS in a Graduate Teaching Assistant (GTA) student population. Through a survey of 102 GTAs from U.S. universities, we found that higher levels of assimilation and organizational support, along with lower levels of impostor syndrome, predicted lower CROS Prevalence. Lower CROS Prevalence then predicted lower CROS Distress. Fellow graduate student familiarity, acculturation, and recognition appeared to play a more significant role in CROS Prevalence than other dimensions of assimilation. Our findings support the implementation of targeted socialization efforts for addressing graduate student mental health; we conclude with several recommendations based on our data.
Article
This study aims to examine the impact of healthcare workers’ job stress (JS) from fear of COVID-19 (FC) on travel intentions (TI) and willingness to pay (WTP). It also investigates the direct path between FC and WTP. Moreover, it tests the moderation role of FC on the relationship between healthcare workers’ JS and TI. Partial Least Squares Structural Equation Modelling (PLS-SEM) was employed to analyze the data gathered from 401 frontline registered nurses working in pandemic hospitals in Turkey. The findings revealed that healthcare workers have the intention to travel and are willing to pay more for additional safety measures. The findings also indicated that FC negatively moderates the link between JS and TI. The results of this study provide theoretical and practical implications for tourism practitioners and marketers.
Article
Full-text available
The year 2020 and 2021 have been decimated by the pandemic, leading to outbound vacations largely scrapped. Staycation, a typical domestic journal, has then been adopted by those who are tired of self-isolation for so long. This study aims to explore and assess the drivers exerting impact on attitude of tourists toward staycation and the interrelationship among the research constructs is also examined. A quantitative analysis is employed for evaluating the roles of reduced risk perception, benign envy, and perceived benefits as they exert the effect on attitude toward staycation. An online questionnaire survey was used, and a total of 213 samples were collected from target respondents in Hong Kong, which were still under lockdown at the time of the study. The results of the study showed that reduced risk perception, benign envy as well as perceived benefits will influence tourists’ attitude toward staycation. The managerial and theoretical implications of the results are discussed based on the significant relationships identified in the study.
Article
Full-text available
Tourism geography is one of the disciplines close to the practice of tourism itself. In addition to its contribution to theory and academic literature, the formation and development of tourism geography have always been in symbiosis with the everyday practice of tourism, in particular in the service of planning, development, and regulation. Tourism geography focuses on the social, economic, and environmental issues of the interaction between the traveler (homo turisticus) and the destination, but the exploration of psychological changes has also become increasingly prominent in the last decade. The examination of the impact of tourism on the quality of life in Hungary was induced during the process of drafting the National Tourism Development Strategy 2005-2013, and the think tank established at that time enriched both theory and practice with valuable research results. This study reviews the impact of tourism on well-being, and then demonstrates how the theory can be transformed into planning practice through the process of designing the Austrian Tourism Strategy (Masterplan T) and the document itself, published in 2019.
Article
Full-text available
Construction projects are cost-intensive, complex, and challenging ventures that often place employees in a harsh work environment filled with safety hazards. Employees facing such rigid characteristics must also adhere to strict time schedules to complete construction tasks; as a result, construction employees experience high stress that can deplete their psychological resources. Consequently, construction employees develop intentions to quit the organization, commonly known as turnover intentions. This study evaluates the role of ethical leadership in reducing employee turnover intentions in the construction industry. In this study, work exhaustion and psychological contract breach are considered prime antecedents of employee turnover in the construction industry. We collected data from satellite town development projects in Pakistan and performed regression path analysis to assess hypothesized relationships between construction employee turnover intention and its antecedents. The moderating effects of ethical leadership in reducing the impacts of work exhaustion and psychological contract breach were studied. Results revealed that work exhaustion and perceived psychological contract breach positively correlate with construction employee turnover intention; however, ethical leadership significantly reduced the impacts of work exhaustion and psychological contract breach on employee turnover intention. The findings and practical implications of this study can be used to help construction managers act ethically in their managerial duties to retain employees and continue to motivate employees to complete project tasks.
Conference Paper
Full-text available
This meta-analysis examined how demand and resource correlates and behavioral and attitudinal correlates were related to each of the 3 dimensions of job burnout. Both the demand and resource correlates were more strongly related to emotional exhaustion than to either depersonalization or personal accomplishment. Consistent with the conservation of resources theory of stress, emotional exhaustion was more strongly related to the demand correlates than to the resource correlates, suggesting that workers might have been sensitive to the possibility of resource loss. The 3 burnout dimensions were differentially related to turnover intentions, organizational commitment, and control coping. Implications for research and the amelioration of burnout are discussed.
Article
In this field study a preliminary social exchange model was proposed that related perceived inequity in the employment relationship to subsequent absenteeism and turnover intention. From an equity perspective, it was hypothesized that absenteeism and turnover intention are indirectly related to perceived inequity in the exchange relationship with the organization, mediated by feelings of resentment and poor organizational commitment. By employing covariance structure modelling, the model was tested among mental health care professionals (N = 90). The results demonstrated that the relationship between perceived inequity and turnover intention was fully mediated by poor organizational commitment, which was, in turn, partially triggered by feelings of resentment that were associated with perceived inequity. In contrast, there was a strong direct link between inequity in the employment relationship and absenteeism, not mediated by resentment and poor organizational commitment. It was concluded that absenteeism and turnover intention can both be considered to be withdrawal reactions to perceived inequity, but that the two reactions differ in their underlying dynamics. The implications of these findings were discussed.