Short Report: Detection of Nipah Virus RNA in Fruit Bat (Pteropus giganteus) from India
Viral Special Pathogens Branch, Division of High-Consequence Pathogens and Pathology, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, Georgia.The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene (Impact Factor: 2.7). 07/2012; 87(3):576-8. DOI: 10.4269/ajtmh.2012.11-0416
The study deals with the survey of different bat populations (Pteropus giganteus, Cynopterus sphinx, and Megaderma lyra) in India for highly pathogenic Nipah virus (NiV), Reston Ebola virus, and Marburg virus. Bats (n = 140) from two states in India (Maharashtra and West Bengal) were tested for IgG (serum samples) against these viruses and for virus RNAs. Only NiV RNA was detected in a liver homogenate of P. giganteus captured in Myanaguri, West Bengal. Partial sequence analysis of nucleocapsid, glycoprotein, fusion, and phosphoprotein genes showed similarity with the NiV sequences from earlier outbreaks in India. A serum sample of this bat was also positive by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for NiV-specific IgG. This is the first report on confirmation of Nipah viral RNA in Pteropus bat from India and suggests the possible role of this species in transmission of NiV in India.
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- "Chief Conservator of Forest of States, Maharashtra and West Bengal (No.: 23(4)/C. No./595/2010–2011) (Yadav et al., 2012; Mourya et al., 2014 "
ABSTRACT: Bats are among the most conspicuous mammals with extraordinary adaptations. They play a key role in the ecosystem. Frugivorous bats are important seed dispersing agents that help in maintaining forest tree diversity, while insectivorous bats are natural insect pest control agents. Several previous reports suggest that bats are reservoir of viruses; nonetheless their bacterial counterparts are relatively less explored. The present study describes the microbial diversity associated with the intestine of bats from different regions of India. Our observations stipulate that there is substantial sharing of bacterial communities between the insectivorous and frugivorous bats, which signifies fairly large dietary overlap. We also observed the presence of higher abundance of Mycoplasma in Cynopterus species of bats, indicating possible Mycoplasma infection. Considering the scarcity of literature related to microbial communities of bat intestinal tract, this study can direct future microbial diversity studies in bats with reference to their dietary habits, host-bacteria interaction and zoonosis.
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- "However, the sap is occasionally contaminated with NiV-infected bat urine or saliva that contains a sufficient dose of NiV to be fatal to humans. In India, in a bat sample survey, NiV RNA was detected in a liver homogenate of P. giganteus captured in Myanaguri, West Bengal  (Figs. 1, 2, 3) In Siliguri, India, transmission of the virus was also reported within a health-care setting, where 75 % of cases occurred among hospital staff or visitors . Nipah cases tend to occur in a cluster or as an outbreak, although 18 % of cases in Bangladesh were isolated. "
ABSTRACT: The emergence of Nipah virus (NiV) infection into the pig population and subsequently into the human population is believed to be due to changes in ecological conditions. In Malaysia, A major NiV outbreak occurred in pigs and humans from September 1998 to April 1999 that resulted in infection of 265 and death of 105 persons. About 1.1 million pigs had to be destroyed to control the outbreak. The disease was recorded in the form of a major outbreak in India in 2001 and then a small incidence in 2007, both the outbreaks in West Bengal only in humans without any involvement of pigs. There were series of human Nipah incidences in Bangladesh from 2001 till 2013 almost every year with mortality exceeding 70 %. The disease transmission from pigs acting as an intermediate host during Malaysian and Singapore outbreaks has changed in NIV outbreaks in India and Bangladesh, transmitting the disease directly from bats to human followed by human to human. The drinking of raw date palm sap contaminated with fruit bat urine or saliva containing NiV is the only known cause of outbreak of the disease in Bangladesh outbreaks. The virus is now known to exist in various fruit bats of Pteropus as well as bats of other genera in a wider belt from Asia to Africa.
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- "However, the sap is occasionally contaminated with NiV-infected bat urine or saliva that contains a sufficient dose of NiV to be fatal to humans. In India, in a bat sample survey, NiV RNA was detected in a liver homogenate of P. giganteus captured in Myanaguri, West Bengal(Figs. 1, 2, 3) In Siliguri, India, transmission of the virus was also reported within a health-care setting, where 75 % of cases occurred among hospital staff or visitors. Nipah cases tend to occur in a cluster or as an outbreak, although 18 % of cases in Bangladesh were isolated. "
ABSTRACT: The context and the strategy for Nipah virus infection as was adopted for Malaysian outbreaks in 1998-99 has been significantly different than that of India Bangladesh outbreaks. The disease transmission from pigs acting as an intermediate host during Malaysian and Singapore outbreaks has changed directly from bats to human and from human to human, the nosocomial route also was prominently evident. The human case fatality during Malaysian outbreaks was estimated to be around 40 per cent that has gone up in Bangladesh-India at 75 per cent or more. The socio-economic status of the people and habit of drinking of raw date palm sap that is contaminated with bat urine and saliva containing Nipah virus is the only known cause of initiation of the disease. Once the virus infects one case in a family/village the spread is easily effected by direct contact or indirectly via secretions, excretions of the case patients. There is a need to have active inter-institutional and international coordination among humananimal virologists as well as virologists and ecologists to fully understand how and when the bats excrete the virus. Simultaneously there is also a need for educating the common people about personal and food hygiene.