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Adaptive-Reliable Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Body Area Networks

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Abstract

Extensive energy is consumed by Transceiver communication operation [1]. Existing research on MAC layer focuses to maximize battery-powered sensor node's life. Bottleneck of MAC layer protocol design for WBAN is to achieve high reliability and energy minimization. Majority of MAC protocols designed for WBANs are based upon TDMA approach. However, a new protocol needs to be defined to achieve high energy efficiency, fairness and avoid extra energy consumption due to synchronization.

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... This is because both use × energy as shown in eq. (16), (17) and (18). So, it can be concluded that this radio model is symmetric such that the energy required to transmit a bit of data from node A to B is the same as the energy required to transmit a bit of data from node B to node A for a given SNR. ...
... In future we would like to reduce deficiencies which are expected in this paper and implementation of DREEM-ME in other clustering protocols like Threshold sensitive energy efficient sensor network protocol [15], stable election protocol [16], distributed energy efficient clustering [17], etc. In future, we aim to introduce multiple QoS path parameters [27], energy efficient MAC protocols [18] [37], sink mobility and heterogeneity [32] in our work. Application of Routing Link Matrices on the proposed scheme can be useful in achieving efficient consumption of energy in the network [25]. ...
... is is a TDMA-based MAC protocol for wireless body area networks (WBANs) designed to reduce energy consumption as proposed by Rahim et al. [27]. e protocol allocates a guaranteed time slot (GTS) to all nodes for transmission depending on their needs. ...
... Frame format: the AR-MAC protocol employs two forms of packets, namely, (i) data packets in which a node transmits in its assigned time slot and employs CAP for emergency data and (ii) control packets that include channel packet, Time Slot Request (TSR) packet, Time Slot Request Reply (TSRR) packet, Synchronization-Acknowledgment (SYNC-ACK) packet, Data Request (DR) packet, and Acknowledgment (ACK) packet [27]. Energy consumption: if N is the number of cycles, energy consumption for these is measured as follows: ...
Article
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Wireless multimedia sensor networks (WMSNs) have got capacity to collect both scalar sensor data and multidimensional sensor data. It is the basis for the Internet of things (IoT). Quality of service (QoS) pointers like energy efficiency, reliability, bit error rate, and latency can be helpful in data collection estimation over a network. In this paper, we review a number of QoS strategies for WMSNs and wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in the IoT context from the perspective of the MAC and application layers as well as the cross-layer paradigm. Considering the MAC layer, since it is responsible for regulating the admittance to the shared medium and transmission reliability and efficiency through error correction in wireless transmissions, and for performance of framing, addressing, and flow control, the MAC protocol design greatly affects energy efficiency. We thus review a number of protocols here including contention-free and contention-based protocols as well as the hybrid of these. This paper also surveys a number of state-of-the-art machine-to-machine, publish/subscribe, and request/response protocols at the application layer. Cross-layer QoS strategies are very vital when it comes to system optimization. Many cross-layer strategies have been reviewed. For these QoS strategies, the challenges and opportunities are reviewed at each of the layers considered. Lastly, the future research directions for QoS strategies are discussed for research and application before concluding this paper.
... However, a new protocol needs to be defined to achieve high energy efficiency, fairness and avoid extra energy consumption due to synchronization. Proposed AR-MAC protocol by A.Rahim et al [6] is based upon TDMA approach to minimize energy consumption. AR-MAC assigns Guaranteed Times Slot (GTS) to each sensor node for communication based upon the requirements of sensor node. ...
... Based on traffic pattern of nodes, CN assigns time slot and sends Time Slot Request Reply (TSRR). These time slots are of variable length depend upon the requirements of sensor nodes instead of fixed length time slots in ZigBee MAC [6]. ...
Article
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Wireless body area network (WBAN) is a communication standard optimized for low power devices and operation on, in or around the human body but not limited to humans used to serve a variety of applications including medical, consumer electronics, entertainment and other[1]. The challenge of WBAN is that the energy of the sensors is limited by the battery life that’s why the transmitting of data is not continuous for long time. This leads to poor efficiency of the WBAN because the continuous power decreasing is due to network operations. An algorithms such as MAC zigbee802.15.4 and adaptive reliable MAC are important to reduce the replacement of batteries many times and to save power consumption. In this paper we concentrated our study on some type of sensors, they are telosB, mica2, micaz, and imote2 depends on power consumption calculations using mat lab program and based on adaptive reliable MAC. We analyzed the sensors with several nodes and packet sizes, and calculate the lifetimes for all the sensors in WBAN. The results we obtained show a good performance of using Adaptive reliable MAC in Wireless Body Area Networks.
... Authors in [5] proposed a medium access control protocol for wireless body area networks. First, they proposed a mathematical programming formulation based on Elias et al. [2]. ...
... MAC Mobility Network Time support config. synchronization [8] TDMA No Tree Yes [2] Not Not Generic Not considered considered considered [7] TDMA No Tree Yes [6] TDMA Pseudo Star Yes mobility [15] Slotted No Star Yes CSMA/CA [5] TDMA In this paper we investigated the design of a new framework for wireless body area networks based on the enhancement of EAWD model with TreeMAC [14] and [7]. Our investigations focused on the energy efficiency issue and on the joint routing and MAC-network protocols in wireless body area networks. ...
Conference Paper
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In recent years, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have gained increasing interest in the research community and become an emerging technology, especially in healthcare services. This position paper focuses on the energy optimization issue and the joint routing and MAC protocols in WBANs. We extend upon our previous model on the Energy-Aware Topology Design for WBANs (EAWD), so as to include PHY and MAC-layer WBAN specifications. Indeed, EAWD model considered the topology constraints by minimizing the number of relay nodes, in order to reduce the total energy consumption, as well as the total network installation cost. Yet, EAWD involved quite rough assumptions, omitting overhead considerations, due to MAC routing and physical clear channel assessment problems. Therefore, we first introduce the EAWD model and discuss its limitations. Then, we present our proposal, the Enhanced EAWD (EEAWD), and assess its performance through a synthesis comparison with EAWD and related proposals in the literature.
... So, a framework for measuring multiple signals from a body is helpful specially when it is low power consuming and not harmful for any human tissue. Authors in [7], [8],[9], [10] and [11] work on MAC layer of the OSI model and give a medium access control protocol for WBAN, give a through survey on energy efficient protocols for WBAN, present arm mobility for patients in WBAN, noise filtering for WBAN channel and provide localization technique for WBAN, respectively. N.S.A. Zulkifli et al. implement heart rate monitoring algorithm for players, performing strenuous exercises [12]. ...
Article
Wireless Body Area Sensor Network (WBASN) is a technology employed mainly for patient health monitoring. New research is being done to take the technology to the next level i.e. player's fatigue monitoring in sports. Muscle fatigue is the main cause of player's performance degradation. This type of fatigue can be measured by sensing the accumulation of lactic acid in muscles. Excess of lactic acid makes muscles feel lethargic. Keeping this in mind we propose a protocol \underline{TH}reshold based \underline{E}nergy-efficient \underline{FA}tigue \underline{ME}asurement (THE-FAME) for soccer players using WBASN. In THE-FAME protocol, a composite parameter has been used that consists of a threshold parameter for lactic acid accumulation and a parameter for measuring distance covered by a particular player. When any parameters's value in this composite parameter shows an increase beyond threshold, the players is declared to be in a fatigue state. The size of battery and sensor should be very small for the sake of players' best performance. These sensor nodes, implanted inside player's body, are made energy efficient by using multiple sinks instead of a single sink. Matlab simulation results show the effectiveness of THE-FAME.
... Authors in [15] and [16] worked on a MAC layer of the OSI model, and present a medium access control protocol and a thorough survey on energy efficient protocols for WBANs, respectively. ...
Article
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As players and soldiers preform strenuous exercises and do difficult and tiring duties, they are usually the common victims of muscular fatigue. Keeping this in mind, we propose FAtigue MEasurement (FAME) protocol for soccer players and soldiers using in-vivo sensors for Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs). In FAME, we introduce a composite parameter for fatigue measurement by setting a threshold level for each sensor. Whenever, any sensed data exceeds its threshold level, the players or soldiers are declared to be in a state of fatigue. Moreover, we use a vibration pad for the relaxation of fatigued muscles, and then utilize the vibrational energy by means of vibration detection circuit to recharge the in-vivo sensors. The induction circuit achieves about 68% link efficiency. Simulation results show better perormance of the proposed FAME protocol, in the chosen scenarios, as compared to an existing Wireless Soccer Team Monitoring (WSTM) protocol in terms of the selected metrics.
... While maintaining the similar interference mitigation, the proposed scheme improved performance of WBAN in terms of energy dissipation, latency, and spectrum efficiency. The authors of [15] recently proposed an adaptive time division multiple access (TDMA) protocol based on periodic wake up schedules, which efficiently handles overhearing and idle listening problems in WBANs. Another study presented in [16] proposed a traffic-aware dynamic MAC protocol that dynamically adjusts wakeup intervals based on traffic status register bank. ...
Article
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This paper introduces a hybrid and secure MAC protocol (PMAC) for WBAN. The PMAC protocol uses two contention access periods (CAPs) for accommodating normal and life-critical traffic and one contention-free period (CFP) for accommodating large amount of data packets. The priority-guaranteed CSMA/CA procedure is used in the CAP period, where different priorities are assigned to WBAN nodes by adjusting the backoff window size. In addition, a set of security keys is used to prevent illegal access to the network. Analytical expressions are derived to analyze the average delay, power consumption, throughput, and packet loss probability of the PMAC protocol. Results derived from these expressions are validated by computer simulations.
... in [15] and [16], focused on propagation attributes of arm motion as a spherical model. Future work includes a plan to implement a mathematical induction model that will recharge the sensors through an electric field by the arm movement in human body. ...
Article
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The field of Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs) is growing very rapidly with an aim to get the real time and precise data without human intervention. These networks are being designed under low energy factors, equipped by miniaturized and lightweight sensors. These sensors are accountable to monitor different physical, chemical, natural, etc. attributes. In this research, a technique is presented to provide a WBAN in old homes. Such technique is based on a protocol, that will be able to monitor old people via sensors, sensing different chronic levels of the biological factors. Experimental results depict reduced level of energy consumption and extended network lifetime. It is also compared with a BAN protocol of Mobility-supporting Adaptive Threshold-based Thermal-aware Energy-efficient Multi-Hop Protocol (M-ATTEMPT). The research is also extended towards provision of recharging technique for the deployed sensors.
... For this purpose, we plan to extend our work to support dense networks more efficiently. Other works including [1], [8], [14], and [18] have proposed energy-efficient protocols without considering dense networks. Hence, the achievement of energy efficiency in dense network is a new challenge. ...
Article
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As small-sized nodes are deployed in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), efficient energy utilization becomes a fundamental challenge. Poor channel conditions lead to retransmissions resulting in unnecessary energy usage. To optimize energy consumption and improve network lifetime, error-control strategies are commonly required to manage channel impairments such as noise and fading. Cooperative commu nication is also considered a candidate solution to address the effects of channel fading. Therefore, the energy efficiency of cooperative schemes when applied with Automatic Repeat Request (ARQ), Hybrid-ARQ (HARQ), and Forward Error Correction (FEC) is investigated in this work. Moreover, expressions for energy efficiency of Direct Transmission, Single Relay Cooperation, and Multi Relay Cooperation are derived. Our work focuses on achieving energy-optimal communication in WSNs. Through simulations, it is observed that error-control strategies with a cooperative scheme can significantly enhance system performance in terms of energy optimization.
... These sensors will detect the arm motion. In [17] and [18], authors discussed about MAC layer for BAN. In view of this, apart from achieving induction via mobility, future work also includes to work on cross layer designing and to propose induction techniques in such layer. ...
Article
Multi-hop Mobility-aware Body Area Networks (MM-BANs) are playing a significant role to get the real time and precise data with reduced level of energy consumption. The lightweight and energy restricted sensors are, placed in/on the human body, to monitor any ambiguity in body organs and measure various biomedical parameters. This paper proposes two techniques. First is the mechanism for recharging the sensors' battery that, includes a non-invasive inductive link model for an Implantable Biomedical Microsystems (IBMs) such as, a pace-maker. Induction is imperatively done to recharge the batteries of the implanted sensors in a pacemaker. Two equivalent circuits are presented to verify the accuracy of the induction link on the basis of defferent parameters. Second is the proposition of a protocol coined as, Distance Aware Relaying Energy-efficient (DARE) to monitor the patients' vital signs in MM-BANs. Our protocol is tested with the consideration of eight patients in a hospital unit, under different topologies. Seven sensors are attached to each patient that communicate with a relay node over shorter distance, to reduce the energy consumption. The impact of mobility due to different postural changes is also investigated. The proposed protocol is compared with another BAN protocol of Mobility-supporting Adaptive Threshold-based Thermal-aware Energy-efficient Multi-hop ProTocol (M-ATTEMPT). The simulation results show that DARE has a strong potential in increasing the network lifetime and reducing the energy consumption, as compared to M-ATTEMPT.
... Proposed AR-MAC in [7] uses a star topology with a central node and for channel access TDMA approach is used. It uses a novel scheme for synchronization, and central node uses dedicated time slots for communication. ...
Article
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Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are widely used for applications such as modern health-care systems, where wireless sensors (nodes) monitor the parameter(s) of interest. Nodes are provided with limited battery power and battery power is dependent on radio activity. MAC protocols play a key role in controlling the radio activity. Therefore, we present Adaptive Medium Access Control (A-MAC) protocol for WBANs supported by linear programming models for the minimization of energy consumption and maximization of dataflow. Our proposed protocol is adaptive in terms of guard band assignment technique and sleep/wakeup mechanism. We focus on specific application to monitor human body with the help of nodes which continuously scan body for updated information. If the current value is within normal range, nodes do not try to access channel. However, if the current value rises or falls beyond the permissible range, nodes switch on their transceiver to access channel. Moreover, A-MAC uses TDMA approach to access channel and well-defined synchronization scheme to avoid collisions. Furthermore, we conduct a comprehensive analysis supported by MATLAB simulations to provide estimation of delay spread. Simulation results justify that the proposed protocol performs better in terms of network lifetime and throughput as compared to the counterpart protocols.
... • Scheduling Phase: TDMA slots are allocated to nodes by sink. For emergency data transmission, guaranteed time slots are given to nodes in Contention Free Period (CFP) of MAC frame [27,28]. For normal data delivery, Contention Access Period (CAP) is used. ...
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Wireless Body Area Network (WBAN) is a recent technologically advanced sub-category of Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) which consists of many bio-sensors, attached in and around of human body, for monitoring the health-related issues from remote places. The WBAN faces various issues and challenges during real time deployment. Energy conservation in WBAN has always been the most crucial issue for the sensor nodes, which are powered by limited capacity battery sources. During sensing and communication, sensing elements emit high temperature from its circuit and transmitting antenna due to inefficient data routing designs. This energy may lead to form hot-spot, which affects the human tissues at a different level. So designing an energy-efficient routing protocol is a very challenging issue to reduce the high emission of temperatures. Different energy-efficient routing protocols have been projected in this survey over the years in terms of various measuring terminologies. The energy-efficient routing protocols endeavor to prolong the network lifetime by minimizing the energy consumption in each deployed nodes. There have been a variety of survey papers put forwarded by researchers to evaluate the performance and categorize the different energy-efficient routing protocols for WBANs. This paper describes an overview of WBAN, a systematic survey of existing contracts for routing and open research issues are discussed.
... Third switching of transmission power level is time consuming job which may create delay in packet transmissions. As these issues are majorally related with physical or MAC layer therefore, we are interested to integrate MAC protocols like [16], [17] and [18] with our routing scheme in future. ...
Conference Paper
Energy conservation is one of the challenging tasks in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) whether deployed on ground or underwater. Applications of Underwater Sensor Networks (UWSNs) are gradually increasing due to the remote nature of control and automatic data transmission to onshore base stations. However, this automatic mechanism of WSNs is totally based on their built-in battery, which can not be replaced during network operation. Depth based routing is a popular routing technique which, do not needs full dimensional location information. However, consideration of depth and residual energy information for selection of next hop are not enough for balanced energy consumption of WSNs. In this research work, we identified the areas where energy is consumed most in depth based routing techniques. Due to which energy hole may be created. In addition we introduced Receive Signal Strength Indicator (RSSI) based location identification and multilevel power transmission in depth based routing technique. Simulation result shows that the proposed technique gives better results than its counterparts.
... Recent research in WSNs mostly deals with the aim to maximize energy efficiency ( [3]). In this regard, some authors worked at routing layer ( [4], [5], [6]) while others ( [7], [8], [9]) explored MAC layer. However, our directions are more focused on different decoding schemes to achieve maximum energy efficiency. ...
Article
One of the major challenges in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) is to prolong the lifetime of network. Traditional research work focuses on minimizing transmit power; however, in the case of short range communication the consumption power in decoding is significantly larger than transmit power. This paper investigates the minimization of total power consumption by reducing the decoding power consumption. For achieving a desired Bit Error Rate (BER), we introduce some fundamental results on the basis of iterative message-passing algorithms for Low Density Parity Check Code (LDPC). To reduce energy dissipation in decoder, LDPC based coded communications between sensors are considered. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of LDPC at different code rates and introduce Adaptive Iterative Decoding (AID) by exploiting threshold on the number of iterations for a certain BER (0.0004). In iterative LDPC decoding, the total energy consumption of network is reduced by 20 to 25%.
... Recent research in WSNs mostly deals with the aim to maximize energy efficiency ( [1], [2]). In this regard, some authors worked at routing layer ( [3], [4], [5]) while others ( [6], [7], [8]) explored MAC layer. However, our directions are more focused on different decoding schemes to achieve maximum energy efficiency. ...
Article
One of the major challenges in Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) is to prolong the lifetime of network. Traditional research work focuses on minimizing transmit power, however, in the case of short range communication the consumption power in decoding is significantly larger than transmit power. This paper investigates the minimization of total power consumption by reducing the decoding power consumption. For achieving a desired Bit Error Rate (BER), we introduce some fundamental results on the basis of iterative message-passing algorithms for Low Density Parity Check Code (LDPC). To reduce energy dissipation in decoder, LDPC based coded communications between sensors are considered. Moreover, we evaluate the performance of LDPC at different code rates and introduce Adaptive Iterative Decoding (AID) by exploiting threshold on the number of iterations for a certain BER. In iterative LDPC decoding, the total energy consumption of network is reduced by 20 to 25 percent.
... As a part of our ongoing research, we are working on implementing our proposed protocol for more than one soldier. In future, we are interested to work on MAC layer energy efficient protocol like [17], [18], [19], [20], [21], etc. ...
Article
Wireless Body Area Sensor Networks (WBASNs) consist of on-body or in-body sensors placed on human body for health monitoring. Energy conservation of these sensors, while guaranteeing a required level of performance, is a challenging task. Energy efficient routing schemes are designed for the longevity of network lifetime. In this paper, we propose a routing protocol for measuring fatigue of a soldier. Three sensors are attached to soldier's body that monitor specific parameters. Our proposed protocol is an event driven protocol and takes three scenarios for measuring the fatigue of a soldier. We evaluate our proposed work in terms of network lifetime, throughput, remaining energy of sensors and fatigue of a soldier.
... In [17], [18], [19] and [20] authors discuss about MAC layer for BAN. In view of this, apart from achieving induction via mobility, future work also includes to work on cross layer designing and to propose induction techniques in such layer. ...
Article
Full-text available
In this paper, a non-invasive inductive link model for an Implantable Biomedical Microsystems (IBMs) such as, a pacemaker to monitor Arrhythmic Patients (APs) in Body Area Networks (BANs) is proposed. The model acts as a driving source to keep the batteries charged, inside a device called, pacemaker. The device monitors any drift from natural human heart beats, a condition of arrythmia and also in turn, produces electrical pulses that create forced rhythms that, matches with the original normal heart rhythms. It constantly sends a medical report to the health center to keep the medical personnel aware of the patient's conditions and let them handle any critical condition, before it actually happens. Two equivalent models are compared by carrying the simulations, based on the parameters of voltage gain and link efficiency. Results depict that the series tuned primary and parallel tuned secondary circuit achieves the best results for both the parameters, keeping in view the constraint of coupling co-efficient (k), which should be less than a value \emph{0.45} as, desirable for the safety of body tissues.
... As for future directions, we are striving to design much better courier nodes mobility pattern specifically toward the source nodes in the sparse conditions as well as dense conditions of network for network to perform equally fine in the complete lifetime of UWSNs. We are also planning to integrate MAC protocols [14], [15] and [16] with our routing scheme in order to facilitate the sensor nodes by the mobility of courier nodes, specifically in the sparse condition to achieve longer network lifetime. Moreover, to increase the network lifetime we are interested to implement routing schemes like [17], [18], [19] and [20] in UWSNs. ...
Article
Full-text available
In dense underwater sensor networks (UWSN), the major confronts are high error probability, incessant variation in topology of sensor nodes, and much energy consumption for data transmission. However, there are some remarkable applications of UWSN such as management of seabed and oil reservoirs, exploration of deep sea situation and prevention of aqueous disasters. In order to accomplish these applications, ignorance of the limitations of acoustic communications such as high delay and low bandwidth is not feasible. In this paper, we propose Adaptive mobility of Courier nodes in Threshold-optimized Depth-based routing (AMCTD), exploring the proficient amendments in depth threshold and implementing the optimal weight function to achieve longer network lifetime. We segregate our scheme in 3 major phases of weight updating, depth threshold variation and adaptive mobility of courier nodes. During data forwarding, we provide the framework for alterations in threshold to cope with the sparse condition of network. We ultimately perform detailed simulations to scrutinize the performance of our proposed scheme and its comparison with other two notable routing protocols in term of network lifetime and other essential parameters. The simulations results verify that our scheme performs better than the other techniques and near to optimal in the field of UWSN.
... Similar assumptions were made in[17].4 The measurement period is 50 bits and the modulation scheme is QPSK, so the number of symbols is 25. ...
Article
Full-text available
Collision detection mechanisms in Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have largely been revolving around direct demodulation and decoding of received packets and deciding on a collision based on some form of a frame error detection mechanism, such as a CRC check. The obvious drawback of full detection of a received packet is the need to expend a significant amount of energy and processing complexity in order to fully decode a packet, only to discover the packet is illegible due to a collision. In this paper, we propose a suite of novel, yet simple and power-efficient algorithms to detect a collision without the need for full-decoding of the received packet. Our novel algorithms aim at detecting collision through fast examination of the signal statistics of a short snippet of the received packet via a relatively small number of computations over a small number of received IQ samples. Hence, the proposed algorithms operate directly at the output of the receiver's analog-to-digital converter and eliminate the need to pass the signal through the entire. In addition, we present a complexity and power-saving comparison between our novel algorithms and conventional full-decoding (for select coding schemes) to demonstrate the significant power and complexity saving advantage of our algorithms.
... However, the exchange of control packets for node selection [19] and mechanism of multiradio [20] increase the delay and energy consumption of the network. Another adaptive MAC using variable sleep and wakeup timings is proposed to conserve network power [21]. This protocol needs strict synchronization among nodes for collision free communication. ...
Article
Full-text available
Healthcare is one of the major applications of wireless system that possess crucial issues; related with network having low cost; reliable and efficient protocols specifically for developing countries. The most challenging concern of Body Area Network (BAN) is heterogeneity, which requires fairness with reliability among all the network nodes. Solutions proposed for these networks either do not provide fair packet transmission or consume high energy and introduces delays. In this paper; we propose a cross layer protocol for healthcare applications meeting the requirements and challenges of the heterogeneous BAN. The protocol is also feasible for developing countries as it can be implemented over existing wireless infrastructure and provides high network reliability with energy efficiency through cooperation and adaptability. Result shows that the proposed scheme improves reliability; throughput; Packet Delivery Ratio (PDR) and energy consumption for scalable and mobile networks over conventional BAN protocols.
... H-MAC [121] is a novel TDMA-based MAC protocol that aims to reduce energy consumption by exploiting heartbeat rhythm information to perform time synchronization. AR-MAC [165]: authors proposed a MAC protocol for WBAN. First, they proposed a mathematical programming formulation based on [59]. ...
Thesis
The rapid advances in sensors and ultra-low power wireless communication has enabled a new generation of wireless sensor networks: Wireless Body Area Networks (WBAN). In WBAN, tiny devices, deployed in/on or around human body, are able to detect and collect the physiological phenomena of the human body (such as: temperature, blood pressure, ECG, SpO2, etc.), and transmit this information to a collector point (i.e Sink) that will process it, take decisions, alert and reply. WBAN is a recent challenging area. There are several concerns in this area ranging from energy efficient communication to designing delay efficient protocols that support nodes dynamic induced by human body mobility. Links have a very short range and a quality that varies with the wearer’s posture. The transmission power is kept low to improve devices autonomy and to reduce wearers electromagnetic exposition. Consequently, the effect of body absorption, reflections and interference cannot be neglected and it is difficult to maintain a direct link (one-hop) between the Sink and all WBAN nodes. Thus, multi-hop communication represents a viable alternative. In this work we investigate energy-efficient multi-hop communication protocols in WBAN. We are interested in WBAN where sensors are placed on the body. We focus on two communication primitives: broadcast and converge-cast. We analyze several strategies inspired from the area of DTN and WSN. These investigations open new and challenging research directions to design novel protocols for multi-hop communication including a cross-layer approach.
... Further, the beacon frame is shortened in LDTA-MAC as it do not include the GTS allocation information, which increase the probability of its successful reception and thus enhancing the reliability of WBANs. [16] is a TDMA-based approach that aims to minimize energy consumption. AR-MAC allocates total time frame T frame for communication. ...
Conference Paper
In recent years, Wireless Body area network (WBAN) has become an active field of research and development because of its great potential to improve the quality of health care through continuous monitoring of health status and early detection of possible problems. One of the main issues in such network is the design of a Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol that plays a vital role for the efficient functionality of WBANs. In this article, we propose a classification of MAC protocols based on their trends and strategies in WBAN healthcare applications. Then, we explain briefly several MAC protocols and we compare them based on their salient features. The aim of the current paper is to serve as a reference for the new researchers and to provide a better understanding of the research directions in this scientific area.
... Increased inactiv increased sleep time for all the sensor node reduced energy consumption by nodes. Fig. 4 [10] is used for computation graph that the energy consumption time but this increase in energy proposed scheme as compared to th a difference of 196.32 mJ at first simulation is run for 100 secon increased to 1536.4 mJ for the simu It can be said that reduction in energ with increase in time in case of pro to the reduction of idle listening proposed scheme also reduces the si in turn increases the sleep time of th energy consumption. mption analysis of both the n the graph, total energy n CFP period is calculated. ...
... These all devices have limited energy/power to maintain their connections and services. To minimize the energy and power in these tiny size sensors is significant due to dangerous effects of heat on human body and lead to damage the tissues [6]. ...
Article
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Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) are designed for monitoring the patient’s conditions and assist them in critical health situation. Tiny size wireless sensors sense the data related to patient health. Further, the sensed data sends to base station for further process. The base station sends the data to the nearest sink node or to the nearest medical center or hospital. In order to complete this entire process, wireless sensors need efficient routing without any error or delay. The routing protocols have been suffered with various challenges and issues which are related to the routing and energy issues. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of important existing routing protocols for WBANs. Paper also discusses the protocols strengths, limitations with their critical analysis.
... A large number of energy-efficient MAC protocols for WBANs have been proposed. These include [4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19]. Also, there have been some prior works that proposed traffic adaptive MAC protocols for WBANs. ...
Article
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In Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs), every healthcare application that is based on physical sensors is responsible for monitoring the vital signs data of patient. WBANs applications consist of heterogeneous and dynamic traffic loads. Routine patient’s observation is described as low-load traffic while an alarming situation that is unpredictable by nature is referred to as high-load traffic. This paper offers a thematic review of traffic adaptive Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols in WBANs. First, we have categorized them based on their goals, methods, and metrics of evaluation. The Zigbee standard IEEE 802.15.4 and the baseline MAC IEEE 802.15.6 are also reviewed in terms of traffic adaptive approaches. Furthermore, a comparative analysis of the protocols is made and their performances are analyzed in terms of delay, packet delivery ratio (PDR), and energy consumption. The literature shows that no review work has been done on traffic adaptive MAC protocols in WBANs. This review work, therefore, could add enhancement to traffic adaptive MAC protocols and will stimulate a better way of solving the traffic adaptivity problem.
... Telecare Medicine Information Systems deal with the important and critical medical data of the patient's body, which must be secured against the adversary. However, like other network-based solutions, the TMIS systems and their various components such as WBANs Movassaghi et al., 2014;Otto et al., 2006;Dokovsky and Halteren, 2004;Rahim et al., 2012;Hughes et al., 2012;Fatehy and Kohno, 2013;Hur et al., 2013;Khan et al., 2014;Boulis et al., 2012;Ullah et al., 2012;Gao et al., 2014;Martelli et al., 2011;Kwak et al., 2010;Toorani, 2015;IEEE Standard, 2012;Somasundaram and Sivakumar, 2011;Tachtatzis et al., 2010;Ali and Khan, 2010) are vulnerable to several security attacks that can be conducted by internal or external attackers (Sampangi et al., 2012;Vallejos et al., 2012). This subsection describes some of the common security attacks conducted in the TMIS systems (Qadri et al., 2013): • Denial of service (DoS) attack: Services are denied to the TMIS users/patients and the medical servers by the attackers (Shaqiri;Zia and Zomaya, 2006;Saleem et al., 2009). ...
Article
A Telecare Medical Information System (TMIS) enables doctors and physicians at a medical center to provide remote care via Internet to the registered patients at any place. Considering the privacy of the patients, medical data, secure and authenticated access to the medical data located at the medical severs are required. Recently, numerous states of the art authentication schemes are proposed in the literature to increase security of the Telecare Medical Information System (TMIS). This paper presents a comprehensive survey and taxonomy of these authentication schemes and classifies them based on the authentication methods applied in each scheme. In addition, a complete list of security attacks which can be conducted against the authentication schemes in the TMIS is provided, and the security capabilities of each scheme and their vulnerability to these attacks are discussed. Furthermore, the proposed authentication schemes are compared, and their advantages, properties and limitations are highlighted. Finally, the concluding remarks and open research issues in TMIS authentication schemes are provided.
Conference Paper
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Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have been considered one of the very promising technologies for the implementation of smart grid. WSN-based smart grid communication protocols have been focused on extending the node's lifetime which is heavily depends on the energy consumption of the node. Since wireless sensors are typically deployed in an ad hoc fashion and operate off of a limited energy source, e.g., a battery, it is imperative to utilize the most power efficient techniques in wireless sensors to prolong battery life. In WSNs, a central node (a receiver) consumes large amount of power due to the necessity to decode every received packet regardless of the fact that the transmission may suffer from packets collision. Current collision detection mechanisms in WSNs have largely been revolving around direct demodulation and full decoding of received packets. The obvious drawback of full decoding of a received packet is the need to expend a significant amount of energy and processing complexity in order to fully-decode a packet, only to discover the packet is illegible due to a collision. In this paper, we propose a suite of novel, yet simple, smart and power-efficient technique to detect a collision at the receiver side of WSNs without the need for full-decoding of the received packet. Our novel technique aims at detecting collision through fast examination of the signal statistics of a short snippet of the received packet via a relatively small number of computations over a small number of received IQ samples. We also present a complexity and power-saving comparison between our novel technique and a conventional full-decoding technique to demonstrate the significant power and complexity saving advantage of our approach. In addition, we demonstrate how to tune various design parameters in order to allow a system designer multiple degrees of freedom for design trade-offs and optimization.
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Motivated by the increasing need for improved healthcare solutions, Wireless Body Area Networks (WBANs) have shown their great potential in revolutionizing the next generation healthcare through enabling continuous monitoring of health status with early detection of abnormal situations. Such networks are able to support a diverse range of applications with traffic rates ranging from several bits per hour up to 10 megabits per second. For the efficient functionality of these applications, each one poses a specific set of Quality of Service (QoS) requirements to the Medium Access Control (MAC) sub-layer including transmission reliability, timeliness and throughput. However, energy limitations of WBANs make the satisfaction of these requirements a challenging task. The current paper aims to explore the application trends of WBANs in the health field as well as the salient features of the MAC protocols proposed for this class of networks, and to provide a general rule indicating the most suitable MAC technology for WBANs based on the characteristics of the targeted application.
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In this paper, a novel time division multiple access based MAC protocol designed for body sensor networks (BSNs) is presented. H-medium-access control (MAC) aims to improve BSNs energy efficiency by exploiting heartbeat rhythm information, instead of using periodic synchronization beacons, to perform time synchronization. Heartbeat rhythm is inherent in every human body and observable in various biosignals. Biosensors in a BSN can extract the heartbeat rhythm from their own sensory data by detecting waveform peaks. All rhythms represented by peak sequences are naturally synchronized since they are driven by the same source, i.e., the heartbeat. Following the rhythm, biosensors can achieve time synchronization without having to turn on their radio to receive periodic timing information from a central controller, so that energy cost for time synchronization can be completely eliminated and the lifetime of the network can be prolonged. An active synchronization recovery scheme is also developed, including two resynchronization approaches. The algorithms are simulated using the discrete event simulator OMNet ++ with real-world data from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology-Boston's Beth Israel Hospital multiparameter database Multiparameter Intelligent Monitoring for Intensive Care. The results show that H-MAC can prolong the network life dramatically.
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Medical body area networks will employ both implantable and bodyworn devices to support a diverse range of applications with throughputs ranging from several bits per hour up to 10 Mbps. The challenge is to accommodate this range of applications within a single wireless network based on a suitably flexible and power efficient medium access control protocol. To this end, we present a Medical Medium Access Control (MedMAC) protocol for energy efficient and adaptable channel access in body area networks. The MedMAC incorporates a novel synchronisation mechanism and initial power efficiency simulations show that the MedMAC protocol outperforms the IEEE 802.15.4 protocol for two classes of medical applications.