Targeting Parental Psychopathology in Child Anxiety
The increased risk of anxiety in children of parents with psychopathology is a significant public health problem, as early-onset is associated with a variety of difficulties later in life. The aim of this article is to determine if treating parents is associated with improvements in child anxiety through the review of both top-down (parent identified for treatment) and family-focused child anxiety treatment studies. The authors present conclusions based on the state of the current literature, discuss implications for research and clinical practice, and propose utilizing a family-based model for treating parental psychopathology, parental behavior, and child anxiety.
Available from: Luca Lambertini
- "The positive correlation between MT-CO3 expression and maternal obsessive compulsive disorder lend further support to this hypothesis. Maternal obsessive compulsive disorder in our dataset is in fact significantly associated with each of the MPSP indices (S6 Table)in agreement with the existing literature[79,80,81,82]. The high incidence of overweight (~47%) and obesity (~27%) (Table 1) within the SIP population analyzed here add an additional workload on mitochondria. "
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ABSTRACT: Gene-environment interactions mediate through the placenta and shape the fetal brain development. Between the environmental determinants of the fetal brain, maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy has been shown to negatively influence the infant temperament development. This in turn may have adverse consequences on the infant neurodevelopment extending throughout the entire life-span. However little is known about the underlying biological mechanisms of the effects of maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy on infant temperament. Environmental stressors such as maternal psychosocial stress in pregnancy activate the stress response cascade that in turn drives the increase in the cellular energy demand of vital organs with high metabolic rates such as, in pregnancy, the placenta. Key players of the stress response cascade are the mitochondria.
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ABSTRACT: To evaluate the frequency of adverse events (AEs) across 4 treatment conditions in the Child/Adolescent Anxiety Multimodal Study (CAMS), and to compare the frequency of AEs between children and adolescents.
Participants ages 7 to 17 years (mean = 10.7 years) meeting the DSM-IV criteria for 1 or more of the following disorders: separation anxiety disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, or social phobia were randomized (2:2:2:1) to cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT, n = 139), sertraline (SRT, n = 133), a combination of both (COMB, n = 140), or pill placebo (PBO, n = 76). Data on AEs were collected via a standardized inquiry method plus a self-report Physical Symptom Checklist (PSC).
There were no differences between the double-blinded conditions (SRT versus PBO) for total physical and psychiatric AEs or any individual physical or psychiatric AEs. The rates of total physical AEs were greater in the SRT-alone treatment condition when compared to CBT (p < .01) and COMB (p < .01). Moreover, those who received SRT alone reported higher rates of several physical AEs when compared to COMB and CBT. The rate of total psychiatric AEs was higher in children (≤12 years) across all arms (31.7% versus 23.1%, p < .05). Total PSC scores decreased over time, with no significant differences between treatment groups.
The results support the tolerability/safety of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) treatment for anxiety disorders even after adjusting for the number of reporting opportunities, leading to no differences in overall rates of AEs. Few differences occurred on specific items. Additional monitoring of psychiatric AEs is recommended in children (≤12 years). Clinical trial registration information-Child and Adolescent Anxiety Disorders (CAMS); http://clinicaltrials.gov; NCT00052078.
Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. All rights reserved.
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ABSTRACT: Knowledge is lacking regarding current psychopathology in parents whose children are evaluated in a psychiatric outpatient clinic. This especially accounts for fathers. We provide insight into the prevalence rates of parental psychopathology and the association with their offspring psychopathology by analyzing data on psychiatric problems collected in 701 mothers and 530 fathers of 757 referred children. Prevalence rates of parental psychopathology were based on (sub)clinical scores on the adult self report. Parent-offspring associations were investigated in multivariate analyses taking into account co-morbidity. Around 20 % of the parents had a (sub)clinical score on internalizing problems and around 10 % on attention deficit hyperactivity (ADH) problems. Prevalence rates did not differ between mothers and fathers. Parent-offspring associations did not differ between girls and boys. Maternal anxiety was associated with all offspring problem scores. In addition, maternal ADH problems were associated with offspring ADH problems. Paternal anxiety and ADH problems scores were specifically associated with offspring internalizing and externalizing problem scores, respectively. Associations with offspring psychopathology were of similar magnitude for mothers and fathers and were not influenced by spousal resemblance. Our study shows that both fathers and mothers are at increased risk for psychiatric problems at the time of a child's evaluation and that their problems are equally associated with their offspring problems. The results emphasize the need to screen mothers as well as fathers for psychiatric problems. Specific treatment programs should be developed for these families in especially high need.
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