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Why does service with a smile make employees happy? A social interaction model

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Abstract

Drawing on the social interaction model, we examine the mediating role that the customer's display of positive emotions plays on the relationship between the employee's display of positive emotions and the employee's positive mood. We also examine the moderating role that the customer's personality traits-agreeableness, extraversion, and emotional stability-play on the relationship between the employee's display of positive emotions and the customer's display of positive emotions. The results show that the customer's display of positive emotions mediates the relationship between the employee's display of positive emotions and the employee's positive mood. In addition, the customer's personality traits moderate the relationship between the employee's display of positive emotions and the customer's display of positive emotions. The customer's display of positive emotions depends less on the employee's display of positive emotions when the customer has high levels of agreeableness and emotional stability than when the customer has low levels of agreeableness and emotional stability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

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... In other words, if the employee appears to be happy, the customer should also become happy (Musgrove, 2011). This is reasonable since positive displays have been shown to transfer positive emotions more than neutral displays (Berg et al., 2015;Kim and Yoon, 2012;Trougakos et al., 2011). Thus, whereas emotional contagion theory postulates that a smiling employee will transfer more positive emotions to customers, the same theory also predicts that a non-smiling employee should generate less 288 JOSM 28,2 positive emotions in customers, either because the employee's neutral facial expression transfers cues of neutrality (such as being unemotional) or because it does not convey any emotions at all (Trougakos et al., 2011). ...
... Berg et al., 2015;Gabriel et al., 2015;Kulczynski et al., 2016;Musgrove, 2011;Small and Verrochi, 2009;Söderlund and Rosengren, 2008;Trougakos et al., 2011;Tsai and Huang, 2002) has also suggested a link between employeedisplayed smiling (either in isolation or together with other positive employee-displayed behaviors) and customers' positive affectat least when the affect measures used relate to the pleasure dimension in the S-O-R model. Moreover, extant research has documented a positive relation between employee-displayed smiling and customers' smile strength (Barger and Grandey, 2006), as well as between customers' emotional displays during a service encounter and their subsequent levels of pleasurable feelings (Kim and Yoon, 2012;Mattila and Enz, 2002). Therefore, with emotional contagion as the underlying mechanism motivating these findings, the author hypothesizes: ...
... Recently, scholars have called for research into the effects that smiling may have on individuals' perceptions and feelings of dominance (e.g. Kim and Yoon, 2012). To date, only one study (Musgrove, 2011) has examined the impact that employee-displayed smiling has on customers' levels of dominance, and it did not find any effect. ...
Article
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to investigate the effect of employee-displayed smiling on customers’ affective states (pleasure, arousal, and dominance) and satisfaction. Building on the stimulus-organism-response framework and theories of emotional contagion and feelings-as-information, the main hypothesis was that a smiling (vs non-smiling) employee significantly increases customer satisfaction through the mediating influence of pleasure. Design/methodology/approach The study used a quasi-experimental two-group between-subjects design. A total of 210 customers at a large retail bank had a brief service encounter at the store entrance with a smiling (vs non-smiling) bank teller. Customers then went into the bank to do what they came to do. Before leaving the bank, customers completed a survey that included demographic information, affect (pleasure, arousal, and dominance), and measures of customer satisfaction. Findings A smiling (vs non-smiling) employee had a significant positive impact on customer satisfaction. This effect was mediated by pleasure, but also, to a weaker extent, by dominance. These results contradict previous claims that smiling-induced emotional contagion does not remain throughout the completion of a service encounter. Practical implications Managers should encourage, and potentially train, employees to act in ways associated with positive emotions. Managers could also hire employees based on how good they are at acting and expressing themselves in a genuinely positive manner and create a pleasant store atmosphere so that the feelings and behaviors displayed by frontline employees are genuine rather than inauthentic. Originality/value This is the first experimental field study to examine the isolated effect that employee-displayed smiling has on customers’ affective states and satisfaction. The results provide more direct evidence for the psychological processes justified by emotional contagion and feelings-as-information theories. Furthermore, the finding that dominance mediates the smiling-satisfaction link has never been shown before.
... Daniel's story reflects a sentiment that many service providers may experience. Interactions with customers, clients, and patients constitute a vital part of service providers' daily work lives, and research has found that service beneficiaries' positive emotional expressions can indeed influence employees' outcomes (e.g., Kim & Yoon, 2012;Roter & Hall, 2006). ...
... We measured two types of alternative contextual resources: patients' positive emotional display and social support. Positive emotional display from patients was measured using four items used by Kim and Yoon (2012). Focal employees were asked to rate the extent to which their patients displayed some positive expressions to them in their interactions since the start of their workday. ...
... We sent out the online survey at the end of a workday to measure participants' work experiences that day. Besides the measures of perceived gratitude and relational energy that were used in our main studies, we also measured perceived positive emotional display (4 items, Kim & Yoon, 2012) and social support from customers or patients (4 items, Corsun & Enz, 1999), positive affect (5 items, MacKinnon, Jorm, Christensen, Korten, Jacomb, &Rodgers, 1999), work engagement (4 items, Parke, Weinhardt, Tangirala & DeVoe, 2018), self-efficacy (2 items, Xanthopoulou, Bakker, Demerouti, & Schaufeli, 2009), and interpersonal need fulfillment (4 items, Ilies, Lanaj, Pluut, & Goh, 2018). ...
Article
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Conventional research on gratitude has focused on the benefits of expressing or experiencing gratitude for the individual. However, recent theory and research have highlighted that there may too be benefits associated with receiving others’ gratitude. Grounded in the Work-Home Resources model (W-HR), we develop a conceptual model to understand whether, how, and for whom service providers (i.e., healthcare professionals) benefit from receiving service beneficiaries’ (i.e., patients) gratitude in their daily work. We hypothesize that perceived gratitude from service beneficiaries enhances service providers’ relational energy at work, which spills over to benefit their family lives later in the day. In addition, we hypothesize that the effect of gratitude on relational energy and its subsequent spillover effect to the family, are contingent on employees’ occupational identity. Two experience sampling studies with data collected from healthcare professionals and their spouses for two consecutive weeks (each) provided support for our hypothesized model. We conclude by discussing the theoretical and practical implications of our work.
... Accordingly, the current findings suggest that our understanding of emotional labor's effects could benefit from applying the social interaction model of emotion regulation (Côté, 2005) and integrate the intrapersonal and interpersonal perspectives. The social interaction model has been used in recent research to demonstrate the affective links between employees and customers (e.g., Kim & Yoon, 2012), whereas the current research is among the first attempting to capture behavioral responses from customers to different emotional labor strategies. Although Kim and Yoon (2012) found that service with a smile made employees happy, our findings suggest that this link might only exist when employees' smile is authentic. ...
... The social interaction model has been used in recent research to demonstrate the affective links between employees and customers (e.g., Kim & Yoon, 2012), whereas the current research is among the first attempting to capture behavioral responses from customers to different emotional labor strategies. Although Kim and Yoon (2012) found that service with a smile made employees happy, our findings suggest that this link might only exist when employees' smile is authentic. Instead, when employees display faked positive emotions through surface acting, they tend to experience negative reactions from customers and, subsequently, negative affect. ...
... Furthermore, this research provides another reason for both service employees and companies to pay attention to emotional labor selection and training. Past research has found that employees' positive emotional expressions may predict customers' display of positive emotions and employees' positive mood (e.g., Barger & Grandey, 2006;Kim & Yoon, 2012). Such findings support the practice of "service with a smile" in the service industry. ...
Article
Emotional labor refers to the process of regulating both feelings and expressions in response to the display rules for promoting organizational goals. Existing literature has provided strong evidence for the impact of emotional labor (i.e., surface acting and deep acting) on service employees’ emotional exhaustion. However, the empirical examination of the mechanisms underlying this association is largely missing from prior research. Drawing on the social interaction model of emotion regulation, the present article reported two daily diary studies examining the role of customer treatment toward employees in channeling emotional labor's impact on employee emotional well-being. Specifically, Study 1 measured emotional labor at the between-person level as habitual emotional regulation strategies used by service employees and Study 2 measured emotional labor at the within-person level to capture its fluctuations. Results showed that employees engaging in more surface acting were more likely to receive negative treatment from customers, which in turn increased their negative affect and emotional exhaustion. Further, employees engaging in more deep acting were more likely to receive positive treatment from customers, which in turn increased their positive affect. Implications and limitations of these findings were discussed.This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved
... Loveman (1998) highlighted that the service providers that pay extra attention to their employees' satisfaction will be more likely to gain positive financial performance in the long run. For instance, "service with a smile" has a great potential for a meaningful service experience (Kim & Yoon, 2012). On the other hand, the study found no significant relationship between front-line employee in travel agencies' overall job satisfaction and customer satisfaction (Homburg et al., 2009). ...
... It was assumed that collecting data from the same F&B establishments to understand the extent to which there is a relationship between employee and customer satisfaction would shed more realistic lights on this relationship. This assumption was based on previous studies (Chi & Gursoy, 2009;Bulgarella, 2005;Parker, 2008;Kim & Yoon, 2012;Quirke, 2008;Khalaf, Rasli & Ratyan, 2013). To do this, the data was collected and analyzed from two populations by using convenience sampling to recruit participants. ...
... Descriptive statistics such as mean, median and mode represent similarity. As aforementioned, in the light of previous studies (Chi & Gursoy, 2009;Bulgarella, 2005;Parker, 2008;Kim & Yoon, 2012;Quirke, 2008;Khalaf, Rasli & Ratyan, 2013), it was assumed that collecting data from the same F&B establishments may be useful to understand a possible relationship. One possible explanation is that service providers (e.g. ...
... Although research has provided initial empirical evidence on the antecedent roles of both transaction cues and employee stable personality variables (e.g., employee trait of stable extraversion; see Tan, Foo, Chong, & Ng, 2003), we focused on a situational cue, customer negative behaviour, as an intraindividual predictor of the episodic behaviour in order to capture the fluctuations associated with employee positive affective displays over time. In general, each service interaction between an employee and a customer is dyadic and reciprocal (Kim & Yoon, 2012;Rafaeli & Sutton, 1989;Tan et al., 2004). However, little research has investigated the interactive emotional dynamics of a customer's negative behaviours, especially from the service provider's perspective. ...
... Pugh (2001) noted that researchers should address this issue by measuring employee-and customer-displayed emotion in a service transaction. Other researchers highlighted the initial reciprocal nature of service interactions and indicated that customers have opportunities to provide behavioural cues, such as smiling and pleasantness, to influence the momentary emotional state of the service employee (e.g., Barger & Grandey, 2006;Kim & Yoon, 2012). Moreover, Tan et al. (2004) also noted some customer personality traits (i.e., agreeableness and negative affectivity) which, through their expressive behaviours, are related to the employee displayed of positive emotions during service transactions. ...
... This finding extends our understanding of the effects of customers' displays of positive emotions during service interactions. Not only are customer positive affective displays positively related to service employees' emotional states (e.g., happy, excited, contented, and/or relaxed; see Kim & Yoon, 2012) but are also positively related to service employees' emotional behaviours. Taken together, these findings provide empirical evidence that customer behaviours are related to the employee service delivery process and outcomes during service interactions. ...
Article
Much past research on employee positive affective displays have explored their antecedents using a single level of analysis. The present study extends previous research by capturing the complex phenomenon of employee affective displays from a multilevel perspective. We used an event-sampling methodology to address a gap in the literature by examining affective displays at the intra-individual level and inter-individual level. Results based on 67 postal clerks completing 420 transactions in post offices in Taiwan show that customer negative affective displays were negatively correlated with employee positive affective displays. Moreover, employee perceived instrumental supervisory support had a cross-level moderating effect on the within-individual relationship between customer-displayed negative emotions and employee-displayed positive emotions. Specifically, those with perceived higher levels of instrumental supervisory support tended to express friendlier emotions while interacting with unhappy or angry customers than those with perceived lower levels of instrumental supervisory support. At the inter-individual level, results show that employee perceived emotional supervisory support was positively related to their affective displays at the aggregated employee level.
... Our findings are consistent with other studies showing that, although brief, positive events can help to improve employee well-being (Bono et al., 2013; Brotheridge & Lee, 2002; Gabriel & Diefendorff, 2015; Tan, Foo, & Kwek, 2004 ). Moreover , we build on previous studies that reveal the benefits of positive treatment from customers in face-to-face and phone-based interactions (Kim & Yoon, 2012; Zhan et al., 2015) by showing that these brief, positive customer interactions influence employee reactions. Finally, we extend workplace incivility methodology. ...
... At a broader level, the question of causality, namely, who is the initial source of mistreatment—the customer or the employee—is an important one for future research. The dynamics of customer service interactions require examining both sides of the interaction because customers can influence employee behaviors and vice versa (e.g., Barger & Grandey, 2006; Kim & Yoon, 2012; Côté, This document is copyrighted by the American Psychological Association or one of its allied publishers. This article is intended solely for the personal use of the individual user and is not to be disseminated broadly. ...
Article
Customer service employees tend to react negatively to customer incivility by demonstrating incivility in return, thereby likely reducing customer service quality. Research, however, has yet to uncover precisely what customers do that results in employee incivility. Through transcript and computerized text analysis in a multilevel, multisource, mixed-method field study of customer service events (N = 434 events), we found that employee incivility can occur as a function of customer (a) aggressive words, (b) second-person pronoun use (e.g., you, your), (c) interruptions, and (d) positive emotion words. First, the positive association between customer aggressive words and employee incivility was more pronounced when the verbal aggression included second-person pronouns, which we label targeted aggression. Second, we observed a 2-way interaction between targeted aggression and customer interruptions such that employees demonstrated more incivility when targeted customer verbal aggression was accompanied by more (vs. fewer) interruptions. Third, this 2-way interaction predicting employee incivility was attenuated when customers used positive emotion words. Our results support a resource-based explanation, suggesting that customer verbal aggression consumes employee resources potentially leading to self-regulation failure, whereas positive emotion words from customers can help replenish employee resources that support self-regulation. The present study highlights the advantages of examining what occurs within customer-employee interactions to gain insight into employee reactions to customer incivility.
... On the other hand, dissatisfied customers' lower commitment level toward the firm (despite their negative approach toward rapport building) can be "fine-tuned" with high-quality rapport by frontline employees. As a part of the effective rapport building strategy, firms first need to select and recruit employees who are capable of displaying positive emotions to customers during service interactions as it will initiate the positive emotional cycle and will contagion to customers while making rapport (Kim and Yoon, 2012). Since displaying positive emotions by employees originates from customers' positive emotion (Kim and Yoon, 2012) and increases participatory behavior (Gallan et al., 2013), specific training to frontline employees on how to display positive emotions will also be a helpful guide for them. ...
... As a part of the effective rapport building strategy, firms first need to select and recruit employees who are capable of displaying positive emotions to customers during service interactions as it will initiate the positive emotional cycle and will contagion to customers while making rapport (Kim and Yoon, 2012). Since displaying positive emotions by employees originates from customers' positive emotion (Kim and Yoon, 2012) and increases participatory behavior (Gallan et al., 2013), specific training to frontline employees on how to display positive emotions will also be a helpful guide for them. It will also eventually help to improve the affective commitment of customers in long term. ...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to capture the mediation role of customer–frontline employee rapport on customer satisfaction and affective, calculative and normative commitment by using three alternative models. It also verifies the moderation effect of relationship age on the rapport-satisfaction link in each alternative model. Design/methodology/approach The survey data collected from bank customers were analyzed using structural equation modeling (SEM) with the partial least square (PLS) method. Findings Results confirmed rapport as a significant mediator between satisfaction and each of the three types of commitment. Relationship age significantly moderates the links between rapport to affective and normative commitment but not to calculative commitment. Research limitations/implications Additional findings from “importance–performance analysis” suggest that satisfaction is more import to customers than rapport for developing commitment, so further investigations can reveal the underlying reasons. Also, complementary mediation shows one or more missing mediators, which calls for future research. Practical implications Managers need to use rapport strategically with customers in different relationship ages to build different types of commitment. Specific tactics to build rapport and possible long run implications for developing affective, calculative and normative commitment have been discussed in the “note to practitioner” section. Originality/value Using “broaden-and-build” theory, the study extends the literature by confirming the mediation influence of rapport on satisfaction and three types of commitment relationships.
... On the other hand, the demands to display positive emotions may increase the positive mood of the employee (via enhanced positive mood of a customer) (Kim & Yoon, 2012) or the feeling of personal accomplishment (Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002). The requirement (or opportunity) to interact with people outside the organization may provide employees with information on their performance and this indirect feedback may increase their future performance (Oldham & Hackman, 2010). ...
... Greater engagement in external interactions may also be motivated by an increased interest in helping behaviors, as aging individuals demonstrate increasing levels of generativity (Grant & Wade-Benzoni, 2009;Grube, 2009). Another possible explanation could be that older employees (that successfully manage external interactions with clients, partners, etc.) sustain an attitude of positivity: their display of positive emotions lead to a positive mood due to customers' displays of positive emotions (Kim & Yoon, 2012). ...
... Following previous event studies (Bono et al., 2013;Ilies et al., 2011;Kim & Yoon, 2012;Tsai & Huang, 2002;Wang, Liao, Zhan, & Shi, 2011), we instructed participants to indicate whether they had experienced the listed events in the morning by checking "yes" (scored at 1) or "no" (scored at 0). Consistent with these previous studies, we calculated the score for the achievement variable and recognition events by summing the number of events that participants reported to have experienced in the morning. ...
... Second, consistent with previous event studies ( Bono et al., 2013;Ilies et al., 2011;Kim & Yoon, 2012;Tsai & Huang, 2002;Wang et al., 2011), we used dichotomous items to capture the occurrence of each specific event and calculated the corresponding variable as the sum of the numbers during the morning period. Because discrete events tend not to occur frequently within a short time period (i.e., during the morning work period), event studies commonly adopt this dichotomous measure of event occurrence and use the total number to indicate the experience of events. ...
Article
This study examines the motivational effects of daily positive work events. Drawing on self‐determination theory, we investigated the motivational mechanism of two clusters of commonly encountered positive work events – achievement and recognition events – from a within‐person perspective. Specifically, we argue that achievement events and recognition events influence subsequent work engagement through satisfying different psychological needs. We tested our model using experience‐sampling data from 200 full‐time employees over eight workdays. As hypothesized, after controlling positive affect as an additional mediator, both achievement and recognition events had positive effects on work engagement through psychological needs satisfaction. The results also revealed that achievement and recognition work events had differentiated effects in satisfying different psychological needs. These results shed light on the motivational function of positive work events above and beyond the affective mechanism and explicate the processes through which different types of positive work events relate to work engagement. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... On the other hand, the demands to display positive emotions may increase the positive mood of the employee (via enhanced positive mood of a customer) (Kim & Yoon, 2012) or the feeling of personal accomplishment (Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002). The requirement (or opportunity) to interact with people outside the organization may provide employees with information on their performance and this indirect feedback may increase their future performance (Oldham & Hackman, 2010). ...
... Greater engagement in external interactions may also be motivated by an increased interest in helping behaviors, as aging individuals demonstrate increasing levels of generativity (Grant & Wade-Benzoni, 2009;Grube, 2009). Another possible explanation could be that older employees (that successfully manage external interactions with clients, partners, etc.) sustain an attitude of positivity: their display of positive emotions lead to a positive mood due to customers' displays of positive emotions (Kim & Yoon, 2012). ...
Article
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Growing proportion of older employees in the workforce has pushed scholars and managers to examine the changes of individual work-related attitudes and behavior during the life-span and accordingly reconsider work design to sustain the engagement of aging workforces. This study contributes to ambiguous previous findings by investigating age-work engagement linkage and moderating effects of such job characteristics as employees' perceived task significance and interaction outside organization. Survey of bank employees revealed an overall positive linear effect of age on work engagement; task significance was further positively related to work engagement. Although the direct impact of interaction outside the organization to work engagement was not found, the interaction outside the organization moderated the relationship between age and work engagement: older employees with more external interactions reported higher engagement levels than older employees with fewer interactions. Work engagement was highest for older employees who experienced more interaction outside the organization, or perceived their work as significant or both. There was no positive effect of age on work engagement for employees with both lower levels of interaction outside organization and lower task significance.
... While the focus of this study was on the antecedents of DDR, more research is clearly needed to establish the consequences of DDR. Unfiltered expressions of unsanctioned emotions, like anger, boredom and contempt, will naturally elicit unfavourable responses from customers and other social targets (Côté, 2005;Kim & Yoon, 2012). These responses may include reduced service quality perceptions and intentions to continue patronizing the organization, and increased negative word-of-mouth to other potential customers (e.g., Kalamas, Laroche, & Makdessian, 2008). ...
Article
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This article explores different theoretical explanations for deviance from display rules (DDR), which occurs when employees consciously display emotions to customers that are unsanctioned by the organization. DDR is an important outcome in service organizations because it triggers strong negative reactions from customers, such as negative reputation and business losses. To better explain why DDR occurs, the author compared predictors drawn from organizational justice theory, conservation of resources theory and goal-setting theory in a comprehensive model to explore complementary and competing effects. The model was tested using hierarchical linear modelling with data from 1146 transactions performed by 51 service employees who participated in an experience sampling study over several weeks. Results demonstrated that emotional valence mediated the transaction-level relationship between customer interpersonal injustice and DDR. Similarly, negative emotions mediated the transaction-level relationship between mental exhaustion and DDR. However, person-level differences in goal commitment to organizational display rules had a buffering effect on the relationship between negative emotions and DDR. Overall, the results demonstrate that unfair treatment from customers and mental exhaustion can promote the expression of unsanctioned emotions to customers via negative emotional experiences, but employees who are committed to emotional labour goals are more resistant to engaging in DDR.
... This response rate is comparable with those reported in previous studies including data collected at multiple times (e.g. Kim and Yoon, 2012;Major et al., 1995). According to organizational records, in the new executive sample, 66% of the new executives were new hires whereas 34% were managers transferred within the organization. ...
Article
Drawing on the person–organization fit literature and person-categorization theory, we proposed that new executive performance depends on both their self-perceptions as well as their fit as seen by senior executives. Using three-phased, multisource data from newly-hired executives of a Fortune 500 pharmaceutical company across their first six months on the job, we found that senior executive pre-entry person–organization fit expectations of their followers (new executives) are positively related to their post-entry person–organization fit perceptions through the partial mediating role of their leader–member exchange relationships. Furthermore, results also revealed that senior executive person–organization fit perceptions were significantly and positively related to new executive in-role and extra-role performance, but only when new executives’ own perceptions of person–organization fit were low.
...  Training (Hui et al., 2001)  Customer-directed sabotage (Wang et al., 2011)  Positive emotional display (Tsai, 2001)  Service creativity (Madjar & Ortiz-Walters, 2008)  Client satisfaction with healthcare (Jimmieson & Griffin, 1998)  Identification with customers (Johnson & Ashforth, 2008)  Emotional & cognitive resources (Wang et al., 2011) Supervisors  Service performance (Liao & Chuang, 2007)   Emotional exhaustion (Grandey, 2003)  Service effectiveness (Chi et al, 2011(Chi et al, ) et al., 2011  Employee commitment to display rules (Gosserand & Difendorff, 2005)  Customer detection of emotional labor strategy (Groth et al., 2009)  Task performance (Grandey et al., 2005) Emotional Display and  Start of the workday mood (Rothbard & Wilk, 2011)  Customer traits (Tan et al., 2004)  Customer mistreatment (Wang et al., 2011)  Employee traits (Tan et al., 2003)  Store atmosphere (Tsai & Huang, 2006)  Service quality (Doucet, 2004)  Customer emotional display (Kim & Yoon, 2012)  Customer satisfaction & loyalty (Tsai, 2001)  Customer call volume performance  Customer in-store mood (Tsai & Huang, 2006)  Service OCB's (Payne & Webber, 2006)  Customer perceived employee  Molar climate (Rogg et al., 2001)  Concern for employee and concern for customer climates (Chuang & Liao, ...
... Finally, because of the service work literature's overwhelming focus on interpersonal contact and human interaction as a basis of services (Granulo et al., 2021;Kim & Yoon, 2012), the implications of human-machine interaction in this sector may have unique aspects vis-à-vis other sectors. Although ability judgments may not be unique in this sense, the fact that these worked through customer regard and the changing shape of customer relationships adds complexity in that a third party plays a role in how the machines are experienced by workers. ...
Article
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The increasing use of semi-automated technologies in service work has implications for employee’s conceptions of their own abilities, and their processes of identification at work. Drawing on theorizing from the identity literature, we examine how employees come to think about their own abilities in relation to and in comparison to machinic norms, creating unattainable expectations of an “ideal worker”. Through a qualitative case study of the introduction of a semi-automated system in a supermarket service setting, we examine cashiers’ sense of devaluation on the basis of their humanness, which comes to be seen as of a less-abled nature in relation to the automated system. We show how cashier perceptions of customers’ changing interaction norms contribute to this sense of identity void, as traditional encounters of care or mutual regard are replaced by automated processes. We discuss the implications for Human Resource Management, laying out a future research agenda around identity processes and human-technology interaction.
... In addition, the affective work event conceptualization aligns well with research documenting that employees and customers share similar emotions due to emotional contagion (Barger & Grandey, 2006;Elfenbein, 2014;Kim & Yoon, 2012;Tan, Der Foo, & Kwek, 2004), which can be thought of as the "tendency to automatically mimic and synchronize facial expressions, vocalizations, postures, and movements with those of another person and, consequently, to converge emotionally" (Hatfield, Cacioppo, & Rapson, 1994, p. 5). Recent conceptual work (Van Kleef, Homan, & Cheshin, 2012) also posits that emotions have interpersonal affective consequences, which in turn drive individuals' behavioral responses. ...
Article
In this chapter, we summarize and build on the current state of the customer mistreatment literature in an effort to further future research on this topic. First, we detail the four primary conceptualizations of customer mistreatment. Second, we present a multilevel model of customer mistreatment, which distinguishes between the unfolding processes at the individual employee level and the service encounter level. In particular, we consider the antecedents and outcomes unique to each level of analysis as well as mediators and moderators. Finally, we discuss important methodological concerns and recommendations for future research.
... The quality of the interaction between employees and customers is a key determinant of important customer outcomes (Bitner, Booms, & Tetreault, 1990;Heskett, Sasser, & Schlesinger, 1997). Research has increasingly focused on the impact of employee displays, with evidence suggesting that "service with a smile" can lead to better service experiences for customers (Kim & Yoon, 2012;Pugh, 2001). However, the burgeoning field of emotional labor shows that not all smiles are created equal. ...
... Lidar com as próprias emoções e com as emoções dos outros se torna um importante elemento a ser considerado nas relações de trabalho, uma vez que o manejo dos afetos repercute na qualidade das interações com os colegas de trabalho e clientes (Gross, 2001;Mikolajczak et al., 2009;Rodri-gues, & Gondim, 2014). A regulação da emoção realizada por trabalhadores no atendimento ao cliente afeta a saúde, bem-estar, satisfação com o trabalho e desempenho (Brotheridge & Grandey, 2002;Grandey, Diefendorff, & Rupp, 2012;Hulsheger & Schewe, 2011;Kim & Yoon, 2012;Schaubroeck & Jones, 2000;Wharton, 2009). ...
Article
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This research aimed to test the moderating role of two modes of emotional regulation - up-regulation of the positive emotions and down-regulation of the negative emotions - in predicting subjective well-being (SWB) having as antecedent variable two personality dimensions, extraversion and neuroticism. 310 workers were selected non-randomly. In data collection, it were used Big Five personality factors inventory, Subjective well-Being scale and Profile of emotional regulation. Descriptive statistics, correlation and multiple regression analyzes were performed. Moderating effects were identified in the up-regulation of positive emotions in the relations between the two personality traits and SWB. The use of upward strategies benefited the well-being of workers with traits of introversion and neuroticism, in a direct mode, increasing the SWB, or indirect, reducing the levels of negative affects.
... The quality of the interaction between employees and customers is a key determinant of important customer outcomes (Bitner, Booms, & Tetreault, 1990;Heskett, Sasser, & Schlesinger, 1997). Research has increasingly focused on the impact of employee displays, with evidence suggesting that "service with a smile" can lead to better service experiences for customers (Kim & Yoon, 2012;Pugh, 2001). However, the burgeoning field of emotional labor shows that not all smiles are created equal. ...
... The positive emotion displayed by service employees has been recognized to evoke positive emotions in customers which ultimately lead to positive response (Kim & Yoon, 2012;Wu & Shen, 2013). During service encounters, the display of positive emotion by an employee triggers positive feedback from the customer. ...
Article
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This study explored the role of gratitude, employees’ physical attractiveness, employees’ displayed positive emotion, favourable reciprocal behaviour, commitment in the upscale restaurant segment. Structural equation modelling yielded good fit for the comprehensive model. Results of 398 surveys revealed significant positive correlations between employee physical attractiveness, customer gratitude, and favourable reciprocal behaviours. Congruently, employees’ displayed positive emotion was found to significantly activate customer trust and gratitude. This study provides theoretical and practical strategies for generating customer gratitude, employees’ physical attractiveness, and employees’ display of positive emotions.
... Because discrete work events such as those assessed tend not to occur frequently during small time segments (e.g., two-hour periods), the use of dichotomous items is common in event studies (Ilies et al., 2011;Kim & Yoon, 2012;Tsai & Huang, 2002;Wang et al., 2011). Skarlicki, van Jaarsveld, and Walker (2008) provided evidence that-at least for negative events directed toward customersmost of the variance in work events can be captured with a dichotomous (yes/no) scale. ...
Article
This three-week longitudinal field study with an experimental intervention examines the association between daily events and employee stress and health, with a specific focus on positive events. Results suggest that both naturally occurring positive work events and a positive reflection intervention are associated with reduced stress and improved health, though effects vary across momentary, lagged, daily, and day-to-evening spillover analyses. Findings are consistent with theory-based predictions: positive events, negative events, and family-to-work conflict independently contribute to perceived stress, blood pressure, physical symptoms, mental health, and work detachment, suggesting that organizations should focus not only on reducing negative events, but also on increasing positive events. These findings show that a brief, end-of-workday positive reflection led to decreased stress and improved health in the evening.
... Despite the precautions we took to ensure that our data did not suffer from common method bias, a longitudinal design would have yielded stronger evidence for the effects of customer positive feedback on employee motivation and performance. A multi-source design would have also allowed us to test multiple relationships between employees and customers and could help us study how the double interaction in which each party influences the other (Hareli and Rafaeli, 2008;Kim and Yoon, 2012) affects service performance. ...
Article
Purpose Relying on the theories of substitutes for leadership and psychological empowerment, this study aims to explore how perceptions of customer positive feedback can substitute for managers’ transformational leadership in driving frontline employees’ psychological empowerment and, in turn, task performance. Design/methodology/approach The authors tested the research hypotheses with frontline employees working in 17 equipment rental stores. Employees completed a questionnaire about customer positive feedback, transformational leadership and psychological empowerment, and supervisors completed a separate questionnaire about employees’ task performance. A total of 178 employee-supervisor dyads formed the final sample of the study. Findings The results provided support for our hypotheses. Psychological empowerment fully mediated the relationship between transformational leadership and task performance. Moreover, customer positive feedback moderated the indirect relationship between transformational leadership and task performance such that it was significant and positive only when customer feedback was low. Originality/value This paper contributes to the service marketing literature by showing that customer positive feedback can substitute for managers’ leadership in helping frontline employees feeling more in control of their work and psychologically empowered. Another useful contribution for practitioners is that customers may have a positive impact on frontline employees’ motivation state, which past research has little explored.
... Relatedly, a recent theoretical integration of the relational work design, work recovery, and episodic performance streams of research contended that workplace interactions for human service occupations (e.g., social workers) are not necessarily depleting; instead, some interactions are restorative and enhance both short-and long-term well-being (Lilius, 2012). These ideas echo Côté's (2005) proposition that "people work" may not be inherently associated with higher work strain because many factors affect the relationship between emotional regulation and strain, such as the receiver's response to the regulation of the sender (see also Kim & Yoon, 2012). ...
Article
In this study we employ two distinct lenses of emotional labor—EL as occupational requirements and EL as intrapsychic processes of surface acting—and examine their relationship with job satisfaction. In a large, occupationally diverse sample, results indicate that occupational EL requirements are positively related to job satisfaction, whereas surface acting is negatively related to job satisfaction. Additionally, occupational EL requirements have a cross-level moderation effect on the relationship between surface acting and job satisfaction. Nonlinear effects are also observed for surface acting: the initial negative relationship of surface acting with job satisfaction is exacerbated at high levels of surface acting. Overall, this study enriches current research findings by incorporating the role of the occupational context, and provides insight into alternative evaluations of EL.
... Il en est de même pour l'épuisement des ressources. La dynamique de cette agressivité dans les interactions de service nécessite d'examiner beaucoup plus finement les interactions entre le client et l'opérateur(Barger & Grandey, 2006 ;Kim & Yoon, 2012). Bien que nous nous concentrions sur l'agressivité verbale des clients et ses effets sur les réactions des salariés, nous devons reconnaitre que le comportement négatif pourrait être déclenché par les salariés. ...
Thesis
L’agressivité verbale des clients est devenue un phénomène d’ampleur dans les activités de service et toutparticulièrement dans le secteur des centres d’appels. L’ambition générale de cette thèse est de contribuer à unemeilleure connaissance de ce phénomène. En mobilisant une perspective théorique fondée sur les ressources,nous examinons sur une base quotidienne la relation entre l’agressivité verbale des clients et le niveau deressources perçu des salariés à la fin de leur journée de travail. En outre, nous faisons l’hypothèse que cetépuisement éventuel des ressources est susceptible de se prolonger jusqu’au lendemain matin et d’affecterensuite la performance des salariés, mesurée à l’aide de deux indicateurs : la productivité journalière etl’engagement dans des comportements de sabotage du service à la clientèle. Par ailleurs, nous considérons lerôle du soutien organisationnel perçu (SOP) en tant que ressource susceptible d’atténuer les effets négatifs del’épuisement des salariés sur leur performance. Nous testons ces propositions au travers d’un design quantitatiflongitudinal à mesures répétées sur trois échantillons distincts de salariés de centres d’appels. La plupart de noshypothèses sont vérifiées à l’exception notable du rôle modérateur du SOP sur la relation entre l’épuisement desressources en début de journée de travail et les comportements de sabotage. Ces résultats sont discutés au regarddes limites méthodologiques de nos études. Les contributions théoriques et managériales sont mises en évidenceet des pistes de recherche sont proposées.
... This activity establishes a direct dialogue whose success depends on the trust and the emotional reaction established between the fundraiser and the receiver. A smile can convey a trusting affective state that predisposes the passerby to stop and listen to the fundraiser's message, and is therefore commonly used in a wide range of interactions in the work context (Brown & Moore, 2002;Grandey & Diamond, 2010;Kim & Yoon, 2012;Pugh, 2001;Wang & Groth, 2014). Although it is well known that smiling can influence the receiver's attitude to the sender (Centorrino, Djemail, Hopfensitz, Milinski, & Seabright, 2015;Mehu, Little, & Dunbar, 2008), there has been little research into its influence in natural interactions in self-interested settings (Nagle, Brodsky, & Weeter, 2014), and specifically when smiling forms part of the fundraising strategy. ...
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The objective of this study is to explore the effect of the intentional smile on social rejection in the F2F communication strategy of NGOs. Two studies analyze the effect of smiling on passerby conduct, as well as related influence mechanisms. First, 1,298 passersby were approached by two fundraisers, one male and one female; in half of their attempts to engage the passersby, the fundraisers approached with a friendly smile, whereas in the other half, they did not smile. Data were collected on the frequency of rejections and acceptances of contact with the fundraiser. Second, 1,157 approaches were made to analyze the effect of smiling on types of rejection. Results suggest that the likelihood of the interaction being accepted is greater with a smiling than a non‐smiling approach. Hostile rejections appear to be an effect of the positive impression smiling gives in a self‐interested setting. Practical and theoretical implications are discussed.
... In this study, we specifically focused on the relationship between agreeableness and daily interpersonal behaviors for two reasons. Among the "big five" personality traits, agreeableness is the most relevant to consider when investigating individuals' behaviors that build or damage interpersonal relations, as agreeable individuals tend to be concerned with maintaining social harmony (Kim and Yoon, 2012). Unlike agreeableness, extraversion and conscientiousness are more likely to be related to social impact and responsibility, and neuroticism is closely associated with emotional reactions such as mood (Guchait et al., 2014). ...
Purpose This study aims to investigate the impact of service employees’ agreeableness personality and daily self-esteem on their daily interpersonal behaviors in terms of interpersonal harmony and counterproductive work behavior toward other individuals (CWB-I). Furthermore, this study examines whether the impact of daily self-esteem on daily interpersonal behaviors is moderated by the quality of service employees’ relationship with their manager and leader–member exchange (LMX). Design/methodology/approach Using a sample of 111 restaurant employees in China who took daily surveys with 1,412 ratings for 10 consecutive days, a longitudinal analysis was conducted to test the research hypotheses using hierarchical linear modeling. Findings The results show that agreeableness personality predicted daily interpersonal harmony but had no significant effect on daily CWB-I. It was also found that daily self-esteem predicted both daily interpersonal harmony and daily CWB-I, and LMX moderated the effect of daily self-esteem on daily interpersonal behaviors. Practical implications Given the fluctuation of employees’ interpersonal behaviors, organizations should guide the variability of interpersonal behaviors in the positive direction. To promote daily interpersonal harmony and reduce daily CWB-I, managers could focus on recruiting employees with agreeableness, offering daily self-esteem training and enhancing the quality of LMX. Originality/value This research is unique in its objectives to examine what influences service employees’ interpersonal behaviors on a daily basis and its methods to implement a longitudinal approach unlike previous studies that often relied on cross-sectional designs to enhance the ecological validity of the findings.
... Wang & Groth, 2014). Evidence also suggests that the influence of employee emotional display on customers' emotional display is moderated by customer traits, such as agreeableness and emotional stability (Kim & Yoon, 2012). In addition, customer emotions can themselves influence employees' emotional display (Tan (Little, Kluemper, Nelson, & Ward, 2013). ...
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Several streams of management research have focused on the relationship between organizations, employees, and customers within the context of services. However, this body of work lacks integration and requires an internally consistent framework encompassing critical constructs, causal mechanisms, and levels of analyses. To address these gaps, we reviewed empirical studies with service-related outcomes published in management and organizational behavior journals as well as critical summative and theoretical works within the fields of management and marketing, and constructed an integrative framework for services management theory and research. This framework incorporates constructs and relationships within (individual and unit levels) and across (multilevel and microfoundations) levels of analyses and highlights areas that are ripe for future theoretical development and empirical inquiry.
... Regulating someone else's emotions also seems to affect our own feelings (Niven et al., 2012), suggesting that people might be able to use interpersonal regulation as an indirect form of intrapersonal regulation. Indeed, in ongoing interactions, making someone else feel better by expressing positive feelings might also mean that their more positive feelings make you feel better too (e.g., Kim & Yoon, 2012). As Zaki and Williams (2013) argue, distinguishing different forms of interpersonal emotion regulation may help us to understand the links with related areas of research, such as social support seeking and receipt (e.g., Bolger & Amarel, 2007), co-rumination (e.g., Rose, Carlson, & Waller, 2007), and co-regulation in romantic relationships (e.g., Butler & Randall, 2012). ...
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This article discusses contemporary social psychological approaches to (a) the social relations and appraisals associated with specific emotions; (b) other peoples impact on appraisal processes; (c) effects of emotion on other people; and (d) interpersonal emotion regulation. We argue that single-minded cognitive perspectives restrict our understanding of interpersonal and group-related emotional processes, and that new methodologies addressing real-time interpersonal and group processes present promising opportunities for future progress.
Article
The field investigation reported in this article addresses whether the gender of the shopper has an effect on the service response received in retail establishments, as evidenced by both the speed and the type of service rendered by the salesperson. The shopper's mode of dress, the gender of the salesperson, and the type of store are also considered as contributory factors. Results of the study reveal that shopper gender, mode of dress, and store type are related to service response indicants. However, the relationships are more complex than were expected based on prior research and theorizing. Customer–salesperson gender congruence was not found to influence service response. Implications of the study for retail management are discussed and research directions provided.
Article
Drawing on the social identity perspective, we investigate the cross-level relationship between demographic diversity in workgroups and emotion regulation. We propose that age, racial, and gender diversity in workgroups relate positively to emotion regulation because of demography-related in-group/out-group dynamics. We also examine the moderating role of the relational work context, specifically task interdependence and social interaction, on the relationship between demographic diversity and emotion regulation. Results from a sample of 2,072 employees in 274 workgroups indicate that working in a group with greater age diversity is positively related to an employee's emotion regulation. Results suggest the operation of the age diversity effect can be attributed primarily to younger employees when they are in workgroups with older coworkers. Results reveal asymmetric effects for racial diversity such that racial out-group members engage in higher levels of emotion regulation than racial in-group members when racial diversity is low, whereas racial in-group members engage in higher levels of emotion regulation than racial out-group members when racial diversity is high. Race effects also suggest a moderating effect of social interaction; specifically, social interaction weakens the relationship between racial diversity and emotion regulation. Gender effects are not significant.
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The impact of emotional labor on customer outcomes is gaining considerable attention in the literature, with research suggesting that the authenticity of emotional displays may positively impact customer outcomes. However, research investigating the impact of more inauthentic emotions on service delivery outcomes is mixed (see Chi, Grandey, Diamond, & Krimmel, 2011). This study explores 2 potential reasons for why the service outcomes of inauthentic emotions are largely inconsistent: the impact of distinct surface acting strategies and the role of service delivery context. Drawing on social-functional theories of emotions, we surveyed 243 dyads of employees and customers from a wide variety of services to examine the links between employee surface acting and customer service satisfaction, and whether this relationship is moderated by relationship strength and service personalization. Our findings suggest that faking positive emotions has no bearing on service satisfaction, but suppressing negative emotions interacts with contextual factors to predict customers' service satisfaction, in line with social-functional theories of emotions. Specifically, customers who know the employee well are less sensitive to the negative effects of suppressed negative emotions, and customers in highly personalized service encounters are more sensitive to the negative effects of suppressed negative emotions. We conclude with a discussion of theoretical and practical implications. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
As organizational research continues to globalize, scholars increasingly must translate established scales into languages other than those in which the scales were originally developed. In organizational psychology research, back-translation is the dominant procedure for translating scales. Back-translation has notable strengths in maintaining the psychometric properties of an established scale in a translated version. However, cross-cultural methodologists have argued that in its most basic form, back-translation often does not result in translations with acceptable levels of equivalence between original and translated research materials. Fortunately, there are complementary procedures to back-translation that can evaluate and strengthen the extent to which scale translations have achieved equivalence between original and translated versions of scales. But how often organizational researchers use and report these procedures in tandem with back-translation is unclear. This article aims to address this lack of clarity by evaluating the state of the use of back-translation in organizational psychology research by reviewing every study in Journal of Applied Psychology that has employed translation over the past nearly 25 years (k = 333). Our findings suggest that the majority of the time that researchers engage in translation procedures, they report having done so. At the same time, the details of these procedures are commonly underreported, making it unclear whether additional techniques beyond back-translation have been used to examine and demonstrate equivalence between original and translated versions of scales. Based on the results of our review, we develop a set of recommendations for conducting and reporting scale translations in organizational research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).
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Purpose – Employees in community pharmacies play a far significant and distinct role compared to the employees in traditional retail stores. The purpose of this paper is to examine the effects of employee performance (EP) on customer loyalty of pharmacy services. Design/methodology/approach – Data were collected through a self-administered survey filled in by the customers of 25 community pharmacies. A total of 679 completely filled-in questionnaires were analysed. The proposed model was tested through structural equation modelling using AMOS 22. Findings – EP positively affects pharmacy customers’ perceived value (PV), trust and loyalty. PV and trust fully mediates the relationships between EP and customers’ attitudinal and behavioural loyalty. Unlike short-term customers, the long-term relational customers’ PV was found to have significant impact on their trust and behavioural loyalty. Research limitations/implications – This study is based on the Australian community pharmacy industries; hence, caution must be exercised in the generalization of the results to other countries. The study has considered only PV and trust in examining the link between the EP and customer loyalty. Other variables such as commitment could possibly influence the link, which has not been considered in this study. Originality/value – The study contributes to the existing literature by focusing on how EP affects both attitudinal and behavioural loyalty of pharmacy customers. It shows empirical evidence that EP influences customers’ PV and trust en-route to influencing their loyalty. The study measures EP based on both empathy and service provider performance covering a broader spectrum of the construct.
Service providers have often used the mantra of “service with a smile” as a strategy to engender customer satisfaction. The findings of the current research indicate that a smile alone may not be sufficient in achieving service excellence. Specifically, this work extends prior research suggesting that customers have more positive reactions to Duchenne, or authentic, smiles compared to non-Duchenne, or non-genuine, smiles. Two experimental vignette studies examined the influence of the type of smile a service provider displays (Duchenne vs. non-Duchenne) and gender of the service provider on perceptions of service quality, as well as the Stereotype Content Model dimensions of competence and warmth. The results suggest that the type of smile (Duchenne vs. non-Duchenne) impacts evaluations of service providers in terms of their perceived level of competence, as well as their perceived service quality ratings. Implications for the hiring and training of service providers are also discussed.
Purpose The purpose of this paper is to understand the emotional cycle of the relationship between service employees and customers using a social interaction model. Design/methodology/approach A total of 22 five-star hotels in Seoul area are selected. The survey was conducted by a mixed mail and visiting format. Of 340 questionnaires distributed, 27 were incomplete and thus eliminated from the study. As a result, 313 questionnaires were accepted for the purpose of final analysis, representing a response rate of 92 per cent. Findings The study found that service employees’ orientation and emotions are critical for predicting customers’ display of emotions and ensuring employees’ mood. In addition, employees’ emotions and service orientation have positive relationships with customers’ display of emotions; customers’ display of emotions have positive relationships with employees’ moods and task performance; and employees’ moods have positive relationships with task performance. Research limitations/implications A key limitation of this study is that it is difficult to capture precisely the emotions of employees and customers using the five-point Likert scale. Second, there might be representative issue in his study because the survey was limited to brief encounter within in the hotel industry that focused only on five-star hotels in Seoul. Practical implications Through the study, to overcome the emotional labor, this study shows that an answer could lie in the connection between business outcomes and positive mood of employees. Managers should create a good environment for employee to work in a pleasant atmosphere. In addition, during the employee selection process, managers might hire talented and qualified front employees with friendly, courteous and extroverted characteristics. Originality/value The essential contribution of this study is that it provides initial empirical support for the social interaction model in an employee and customer service setting in the field of hospitality.
Article
We examine two different perspectives of interactions outside the organization: the relational work design perspective and the emotional labour perspective. The relational work design perspective suggests that interactions outside the organization have favourable outcomes for employees, whereas the emotional labour perspective suggests that such interactions have adverse outcomes for employees. Our goal is to reconcile findings from these two research streams. In Study 1, using data from employees working in diverse occupations, we find that interactions outside the organization have a positive indirect effect on employee well‐being via task significance, and a negative indirect effect on employee well‐being via surface acting. In Study 2, using data collected across two time points, we replicate these findings. In Study 3, we further extend these results and illustrate that interactional autonomy and interactional complexity are influential moderators that shape the strength of the mediated relationships. Our results aid in reconciling and extending findings from two different research streams, and enhance our understanding of the role of interactions outside the organization. Practitioner points • Managers should consider that employees’ interactions outside the organization have the potential to improve their well‐being. • Organizations could redesign jobs to enable employees in customer‐facing roles to have greater discretion in how they interact with their customers and also increase the variety of these interactions.
Article
This study examines the emotional mechanisms that link leadership and customer outcomes. Data were collected from 359 matched supervisor-subordinate-customer triads in a chain restaurant in China. Results show that leader positive emotions are transmitted to customers via service employee positive emotions, which then increase customer re-patronage intentions. However, although leader negative emotions are positively associated with employee negative emotions, employee negative emotions are not transmitted to customers. Moreover, employees’ negative affectivity (NA) moderates the relationship between leaders’ and employees’ negative emotions, such that the relationship is stronger among high NAs. The study extends prior literature by identifying a service smile chain that links leadership and customer outcomes and by investigating the moderating role of NA in such chains. Study findings highlight the important connection between intra-organizational emotional mechanisms and customer outcomes and point to the importance of an emotionally healthy workplace to better customer service.
Chapter
Die Erwartungen, die Kunden an eine Dienstleistung richten, lassen sich danach unterscheiden, ob sie das Erwünschte, das Ideale, das Typische oder das minimal Tolerierbare beschreiben. Nach dem Diskonfirmationsparadigma vergleichen Kunden ihre Erwartungen mit dem wahrgenommenen Verlauf einer Dienstleistungsbegegnung. Das Gap-Modell der Dienstleistungsqualität, das auf diesem Konzept aufbaut, unterscheidet fünf Lücken zwischen Ist- und Soll-Zustand, die als Ansatzpunkte für die Steuerung der Qualität dienen können. Dienstleistungsqualität wird häufig mit dem SERVQUAL-Fragebogen gemessen, der auf den Erwartungen an die Dienstleistung basiert. Das wichtigste qualitative Verfahren ist die Methode der kritischen Ereignisse, mit der sich zufrieden machende und unzufrieden machende Aspekte von Dienstleistungen ermitteln lassen. Auch Kundenzufriedenheit entsteht aus einem Vergleich zwischen Erwartungen und Wahrnehmungen, wobei eine wahrgenommene Dienstleistungsqualität zu Zufriedenheit führt.
Article
Emotion is a state that combines people's feelings, thoughts, and behaviors and plays an important role in the communication between people. Emotional recognition is the automatic identification of a person's emotional state by acquiring a person's physiological or non-physiological signals to achieve a more friendly and natural human-computer interaction. Similarities between the spread of infectious diseases and behavioral phenomena have been observed in large social networks. Accordingly, a framework for the spread of social phenomena, such as happiness and obesity, has been reported. Whereas this framework shows striking resemblance to the SIS-style infectious disease model, it does not demonstrate factors that influence the diameter of social networks, or explain the low degrees of separation among participants of the Framingham Heart study. The diameter is the primary parameter for understand the emotion contagions in large social networks. Although classical models for discussing these phenomena are available, models for the spread of happiness require factors that are relevant to emotional transmissions, such as the non-contact factors described in the previous SIS-style model. The proposed in this paper Markov chain-style random walk model robustly indicated a diameter of only 3 degrees of separation in this social network, and may represent the spread of happiness in these social networks more accurately than the SIS-style model.
Purpose Hinged on the transformative service paradigm, this study investigates the relationships among employee acting, customer-perceived service quality, customer emotional well-being, and their value co-creation. Feelings of gratitude among customers may moderate the effect of perceived service quality on their emotional well-being (i.e., positive and negative affects). Design/methodology/approach A pair study using a structural equation model was conducted to gather data from a financial service organization in a rural area. Findings The results show how customers perceive service quality positively impacts their emotional well-being immediately after receiving a financial service, which in turn affects their value co-creation. Hence, feelings of gratitude moderate the effect of perceived service quality on customer positive affect. Originality/value This study responds to calls for more studies on how service interactions influence customer well-being in the financial services context. This study is among the few that examine moderation effects of customer feelings of gratitude on their emotional well-being to explain why a positive emotion might sway their short-term well-being.
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Este artículo tuvo por objetivo describir cómo las características personales de los empleados moldean sus respuestas frente a las situaciones emocionalmente demandantes de su trabajo. Para ello, se realizó una revisión de artículos empíricos publicados en revistas científicas de alto impacto. Los resultados revelan que los rasgos de personalidad, las habilidades emocionales y los motivos del trabajo constituyen las principales características individuales examinadas en la literatura sobre trabajo emocional. Asimismo, indican que estas características individuales asumen un rol fundamental en el trabajo emocional al condicionar las percepciones que los empleados tienen de las reglas emocionales, sus estrategias de regulación emocional y los efectos de los procesos regulatorios sobre la expresión emocional, el bienestar y el desempeño.
Article
Purpose Based on the broaden-and-build theory, this study aims to clarify that the relationship between extraversion and service outcomes will be mediated by work vigor, and that, in turn, this mediating effect will be moderated by coworker support. Specifically, the authors examine vigor as an attitudinal resource to drive organizational performance. Design/methodology/approach This research collected 181 valid questionnaires from service industries through a two-wave survey. The authors used hierarchical regression analysis to conduct each hypothesis test. Owing to the conditional mediating effect, the authors differentiated each variable centering and used the fractional number and the product as the predictor variable, moderator, and interaction effects after centering. Findings The relationships between extraversion and customer orientation and service performance mediated by work vigor in that the indirect relationships are stronger when perceived coworker support is higher than is lower. Research limitations/implications Future studies are suggested to probe into different forms of social support (e.g. family support), mechanisms of coworker support (e.g. task-related vs. non-task-related assistance), and different workplace contexts. Practical implications Extraversion, as a personality trait, is a significant reference index to examine an applicant's qualifications during recruitment, particularly in service organizations. Appropriate job assistance and emotional conciliation from coworkers can effectively facilitate employees' work vigor and service outputs. Originality/value Previous studies suggested the influence of different personality traits on different dimensions of work engagement. Accordingly, investigation indicates that extraversion can effectively predict work vigor which is an important attitude of willingness to put personal efforts at work to facilitate frontline service outcomes.
Despite the well-recognized importance of interaction orientation, limited studies have investigated its boundary conditions from the frontline employees' perspective. To address this issue, this study investigates the effect of interaction orientation in service value creation and identifies hierarchical trust and deep acting of frontline employees as two moderators. This study conducts a moderated regression analysis for hypotheses testing using a triadic data set of 2090 responses from managers, frontline employees, and customers of 209 firms. The findings show that interaction orientation has no effect on service value. Rather, interaction orientation contributes to perceived service value only when frontline employees have higher trust in their managers or when employee deep acting is high. The value of this study is in revealing the contingencies of interaction orientation on service value. It offers managerial implications that firms should build high trust in managers and encourage deep acting among frontline employees when implementing an interaction orientation strategy.
Article
While the impact of negative customer treatment on service employees and their organizations is often emphasized in both scholarship and the popular press, relatively little work has examined the effects of customer courtesy. We draw on the social cognitive theory to theorize that customer courtesy can enhance service performance via its positive effect on employee self‐efficacy. Although getting customers to display courtesy may be outside an organization’s direct control, we reason that management can amplify these benefits by establishing a strong organizational support climate. To examine our predictions, we developed a customer courtesy scale, then deployed it among service employees in the United States (Study 1) and hotel employees and their supervisors in East Asia (Study 2). We also collected experimental data (Study 3) to test our causal model. Across our studies, our data support the benefits of customer courtesy on employee self‐efficacy and, by extension, employee service performance. Moreover, our data reveal that when organizational support climate increases, the effect of customer courtesy on self‐efficacy, and thus, service performance increases. Although it may be the case that bad is sometimes stronger than good, our work highlights the importance of positive workplace interactions (e.g., customer courtesy) on valued employee outcomes.
Article
Reports an error in "Why does service with a smile make employees happy? A social interaction model" by Eugene Kim and David J. Yoon (Journal of Applied Psychology, 2012[Sep], Vol 97[5], 1059-1067). The M value for the 5th variable in Table 1 is incorrect. The correct M value is provided in the erratum. (The following abstract of the original article appeared in record 2012-18367-001.) Drawing on the social interaction model, we examine the mediating role that the customer's display of positive emotions plays on the relationship between the employee's display of positive emotions and the employee's positive mood. We also examine the moderating role that the customer's personality traits-agreeableness, extraversion, and emotional stability-play on the relationship between the employee's display of positive emotions and the customer's display of positive emotions. The results show that the customer's display of positive emotions mediates the relationship between the employee's display of positive emotions and the employee's positive mood. In addition, the customer's personality traits moderate the relationship between the employee's display of positive emotions and the customer's display of positive emotions. The customer's display of positive emotions depends less on the employee's display of positive emotions when the customer has high levels of agreeableness and emotional stability than when the customer has low levels of agreeableness and emotional stability. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).
Article
A field experiment with 86 employees tested whether performance feedback that attributes past performance to factors within trainees' control would result in heightened software efficacy, goal commitment, positive mood, and learning, compared to feedback that attributes past performance to factors outside trainees' control. In addition, we assessed whether the use of feedback would produce a Galatea effect, or gain in trainees' performance that is the result of a boost in their self-efficacy. The results show that trainees who received feedback that attributed their performance to factors within their control had higher software efficacy. Software efficacy was positively related to learning (both declarative knowledge and compilation). Contrary to our expectations, feedback did not influence goal commitment or positive mood. Further, a statistically significant Galatea effect was not obtained; however, feedback that attributes performance to factors outside trainees' control was related to a decrease in software efficacy.
Article
A naturalistic diary study was conducted to investigate the degree to which agreeableness and neuroticism moderate emotional reactions to conflict and nonconflict problems. Healthy community-residing males made diary recordings at the end of each of 8 successive days concerning problem occurrence and daily mood. Consistent with predictions based on person-environment fit, participants who scored higher in agreeableness experienced more subjective distress when they encountered more interpersonal conflicts than did their less agreeable counterparts. Neuroticism was related to a small but consistent reactivity to both conflict and nonconflict problems, contrary to person-environment fit. Reasons for the differences in the affective dynamics of agreeableness and neuroticism are discussed.
Chapter
This chapter provides a contingency approach to the understanding, prediction, and influence of customer service behavior. Customer service behavior is defined as any activities of an employee specifically directed toward affecting service quality. Specific characteristics of services that influence how organizations promote customer service behavior are described: service intangibility, simultaneity of service production and consumption, coproduction or active customer participation, relationship vs. encounter nature of the service, role-prescribed vs. extra-role nature of the behavior, standard vs. customized nature of the service, and the nature and level of customer contact. These characteristics of services are then discussed in relation to research on customer service behavior in the areas of performance management, employee selection, organizational climate and employee attitudes, emotions, training, motivation, and job design. The manner by which the characteristics of services would alter how one approaches interventions in each of these areas are discussed, and questions for future research are raised. Keywords: customer service behavior; service providers; service quality
Article
Transaction cost analysis can explain the arrangements that emerge to govern and organize service organization-customer exchanges. A typology is offered in which differing governance mechanisms are matched to varying levels of transaction costs in service exchanges. The focus is on prescribing governance mechanisms that establish the most efficient boundary between the service organization and the customer, thereby improving service organization effectiveness.
Article
It was posited that the traits of Neuroticism, Extraversion, and Agreeableness are predictors of dynamic intraindividual processes involving interpersonal behavior and affect. Hypotheses derived from the behavioral concordance model that individuals with high scores on a trait would experience more positively valenced affect when engaging in behavior concordant with that trait than individuals with low scores on the trait were tested. Participants completed a questionnaire measure of the traits and reported on behavior and affect during interpersonal interactions using event-contingent sampling forms approximately 6 times a day for 20 days. Trait scores were related to indexes of the association between each dimension of interpersonal behavior and affect calculated for each individual. Previous findings concerning the trait of Agreeableness were replicated, and results strongly supported the behavioral concordance model for the trait of Neuroticism. Thus, at least some traits can provide information about intraindividual processes that vary over time.