Diagnosis disclosure, medication hiding, and medical functioning among perinatally infected, HIV-positive children and adolescents
Center for Interdisciplinary Research on AIDS, Yale University, New Haven, CT, USA. AIDS Care
(Impact Factor: 1.6).
09/2012; 24(9):1092-6. DOI: 10.1080/09540121.2012.699670
Little is known about the immunological and virological impact of diagnosis disclosure among HIV-positive children and adolescents. The current cross-sectional study examined medication hiding as a mediator of the relationship between disclosure to friends and three medical outcomes: CD4+ absolute count, CD4+ percentage, and viral load. Participants included 25 perinatally infected, HIV-positive children and adolescents ages 11-18 years from the US. Diagnosis disclosure and medication hiding were self-reported by participants and medical markers were derived from blood samples drawn during the same clinic visit. Bootstrapping analyses revealed that disclosure to at least one friend (versus no friends) was associated with less medication hiding, which was associated with higher CD4+ absolute counts and percentages but not viral load. Further, among the subset of participants who had disclosed to at least one friend (n = 19), those who reported disclosing to 11 or more versus 1-10 friends were less likely to hide medication taking, which was associated with higher CD4+ absolute counts. Findings suggest HIV-positive children and adolescents' diagnosis disclosure to friends corresponds to less medication hiding, ultimately yielding better immune functioning. Health care providers should be cognizant of these potential medical benefits associated with disclosure when offering support around disclosure decision-making.
Available from: Michael Evangeli
- "PHIV+ young people have reported not taking ART to avoid disclosing their diagnosis (Denison et al., 2015). Associations between onward disclosure and less hiding of medication have been found in PHIV+ children and adolescents (Calabrese et al., 2012). Larger samples could enable analysis of adherence predictors between ages, support multivariable analysis and allow comparison of predictors of intentional versus unintentional non-adherence. "
Available from: Christiana Nöstlinger
- "Vol. 27, No. S1, 36–46, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09540121.2015.1051501 AIDS Care shown positive health effects, i.e., better immunological recovery, associated with disclosure (Calabrese et al., 2012, Sherman et al., 2000). Disclosure may help to buffer HIVrelated stress (Li, Lee, Thammawijaya, Jiraphongsa, & Rotheram-Borus, 2009), but may also evoke fear of rejection and breach of confidentiality (Foster, Waelbrouck, & Peltier, 2007), bearing the real risk of stigma and discrimination. "
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ABSTRACT: Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) face many psychosocial challenges, including HIV disclosure to others. Given the importance of socialization during the adolescent transition process, this study investigated the psychological and social factors influencing self-disclosure of own HIV status to peers. We examined social HIV self-disclosure to peers, and its relationship to perceived HIV-related stigma, self-efficacy to disclose, self-esteem, and social support among a sample of n = 582 ALHIV aged 13–17 years in Kampala, Uganda, and Western Kenya. Data were collected between February and April 2011. Among them, 39% were double orphans. We conducted a secondary data analysis to assess the degree of social disclosure, reactions received, and influencing factors. Interviewer-administered questionnaires assessed medical, socio-demographic, and psychological variables (Rosenberg self-esteem scale; self-efficacy to disclose to peers), HIV-related stigma (10-item stigma scale), and social support (family–life and friends). Descriptive, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were performed with social self-disclosure to peers with gender as covariates. Almost half of ALHIV had told nobody (except health-care providers) about their HIV status, and about 18% had disclosed to either one of their friends, schoolmates, or a boy- or girlfriend. Logistic regression models revealed that having disclosed to peers was significantly related to being older, being a paternal orphan, contributing to family income, regular visits to the HIV clinic, and greater social support through peers. Low self-efficacy to disclose was negatively associated to the outcome variable. While social self-disclosure was linked to individual factors such as self-efficacy, factors relating to the social context and adolescents’ access to psychosocial resources play an important role. ALHIV need safe environments to practice disclosure skills. Interventions should enable them to make optimal use of available psychosocial resources even under constraining conditions such as disruptive family structures.
Available from: Valeriane Leroy
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We studied the frequency of documentation of disclosure of HIV status in medical charts and its correlates among HIV-infected adolescents in 2009, in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire.
The PRADO-CI is a cross-sectional study aimed at studying HIV-infected adolescents’ social, psychological, and behavioural difficulties and their determinants in Abidjan, Côte d'Ivoire. In this study, we present specific analyses on disclosure. All HIV-infected adolescents aged 13–21 years and followed at least once in 2009 in two urban HIV-care centres in Abidjan (Cepref and Yopougon Teaching Hospital) were enrolled in the study. Standardized data were extracted from medical records to document if there was notification of disclosure of HIV status in the medical record. Frequency of notification of HIV disclosure was estimated with its 95% confidence interval (CI) and correlates were analyzed using logistic regression.
In 2009, 229 adolescents were included: 126 (55%) males; 93% on antiretroviral therapy (ART), 61% on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis. Their median age was 15 years at the time of the study. Among the 193 patients for whom information on HIV status disclosure was documented (84%), only 63 (32.6%; 95% CI=26.0–39.3%) were informed of their status. The proportion of adolescents informed increased significantly with age: 19% for 13–15 years, 33% for 16–18 years and 86% for 19–21 years (p <0.0001). Adolescents on ART tended to be more likely to be informed of their HIV status (34.5%) than those not treated (13.3%) (p=0.11). Those on cotrimoxazole were significantly more likely to be informed (39.6%) than those not (21.9%) (p=0.01). Disclosure was significantly higher in adolescents with a history of ART regimen change (p=0.003) and in those followed in the Cepref (48.4%) compared to the Yopougon Teaching Hospital (24.8%), (p=0.001). In multivariate analyses, disclosed HIV status was significantly higher in those followed-up in the Cepref compared to the other centre: adjusted odds ratio (aOR)=3.5 (95% CI: 1.1–10.9), and among older adolescents compared to those aged 13–15 years: [16–18 years] aOR=4.2 (95% CI: 1.5–11.5) and [>18 years]: aOR=22.1 (95% CI: 5.2–93.5).
HIV disclosure rate was low among Ivoirian HIV adolescents and was site- and age-dependent. There is a need for practical interventions to support HIV disclosure to adolescents which provides age-appropriate information about the disease.
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