Effects of repeated treadmill testing and electrical stimulation on post-stroke gait kinematics

Department of Physical Therapy, University of Delaware, Newark, DE 19716, USA
Gait & posture (Impact Factor: 2.75). 07/2012; 37(1). DOI: 10.1016/j.gaitpost.2012.06.001
Source: PubMed


Improvements in task performance due to repeated testing have previously been documented in healthy and patient populations. The existence of a similar change in performance due to repeated testing has not been previously investigated at the level of gait kinematics in the post-stroke population. The presence of such changes may define the number of testing sessions necessary for measuring a stable baseline of pre-training gait performance, which is a necessary prerequisite for determining the effectiveness of gait interventions. Considering the emergence of treadmills as a popular tool for gait evaluation and retraining and the common addition of functional electrical stimulation (FES) to gait retraining protocols, the stability of gait kinematics during the repeated testing of post-stroke individuals on a treadmill, either with or without FES, needs to be determined. Nine individuals (age: 58.1±7.3 years), with hemi-paresis secondary to a stroke (onset: 7.3±6.0 years) participated in this study. An 8-camera motion analysis system was used to measure sagittal plane knee and ankle joint kinematics. Gait kinematics were compared across two (N=9) and five (N=5) testing sessions. No consistent changes in knee or ankle kinematics were observed during repeated testing. These findings indicate that clinicians and researchers may not need to spend valuable time and resources performing multiple testing and acclimatization sessions when assessing baseline gait kinematics in the post-stroke population for use in determining the effectiveness of gait interventions.

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Available from: Louis N Awad, Jul 10, 2014
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    ABSTRACT: [Purpose] The purpose of the study was to design and implement a multichannel dynamic functional electrical stimulation system and investigate acute effects of functional electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris on ankle and knee sagittal-plane kinematics and related muscle forces of hemiplegic gait. [Subjects and Methods] A multichannel dynamic electrical stimulation system was developed with 8-channel low frequency current generators. Eight male hemiplegic patients were trained for 4 weeks with electric stimulation of the tibia anterior and rectus femoris muscles during walking, which was coupled with active contraction. Kinematic data were collected, and muscle forces of the tibialis anterior and rectus femoris of the affected limbs were analyzed using a musculoskelatal modeling approach before and after training. A paired sample t-test was used to detect the differences between before and after training. [Results] The step length of the affected limb significantly increased after the stimulation was applied. The maximum dorsiflexion angle and maximum knee flexion angle of the affected limb were both increased significantly during stimulation. The maximum muscle forces of both the tibia anterior and rectus femoris increased significantly during stimulation compared with before functional electrical stimulation was applied. [Conclusion] This study established a functional electrical stimulation strategy based on hemiplegic gait analysis and musculoskeletal modeling. The multichannel functional electrical stimulation system successfully corrected foot drop and altered circumduction hemiplegic gait pattern.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Journal of Physical Therapy Science