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Plant micro-reserves: a new model of micro protected areas, Spain.

  • Generalitat Valenciana


The Valencian Community, one of the 17 Spanish autonomous regions, is approximately 23,000 km 2 in area. It is one of the most important plant-hotspots in Europe with more than 3,100 vascular plant species, of which 350 are endemic to Spain, and 59 exclusive to the Valencian region. The endemic, rare or threatened wild plants often live in restricted or micro-habitats such as rocks, sea cliffs, temporary ponds, dunes, salt affected soils or in areas where only a few species of vascular plants can grow. It is estimated that about 97% of endemic vascular plants are restricted to these restricted sites and habitats. In contrast to large scale habitats, these micro-environments exist as numerous, scattered fragments, with their characteristic plant species s u r v i v i n g a s a s e r i e s o f metapopulations. The Valencian regional parliament and government are fully empowered by the Spanish laws to pass legislation which ensures the protection of wild species, and to create and manage natural protected areas in their territory (except for National Parks). Since 1994, the regional administration has developed a project to establish a network of new legally protected micro-areas, devoted to monitoring and research on endemic, rare or threatened wild plants. These protected micro-areas would be used as priority areas for active conservation tasks, mainly focused on re-introductions and population re-enforcements. These zones, named Plant
Re-introduction NEWS No. 20 August 2001
The Valencian Community,
one of the 17 Spanish
autonomous regions, is
approximately 23,000 km2 in
area. It is one of the most important
plant-hotspots in Europe with more
than 3,100 vascular plant species, of
which 350 are endemic to Spain, and
59 exclusive to the Valencian region.
The endemic, rare or threatened wild
plants often live in restricted or micro-
habitats such as rocks, sea cliffs,
temporary ponds, dunes, salt affected
soils or in areas where only a few
species of vascular plants can grow.
It is estimated that about 97% of
endemic vascular plants are restricted
to these restricted sites and habitats.
In contrast to large scale habitats,
these micro-environments exist as
numerous, scattered fragments, with
their characteristic plant species
surviving as a series of
The Valencian regional parliament
and government are fully empowered
by the Spanish laws to pass
legislation which ensures the
protection of wild species, and to
create and manage natural protected
areas in their territory (except for
National Parks). Since 1994, the
regional administration has developed
a project to establish a network of new
legally protected micro-areas, devoted
to monitoring and research on
endemic, rare or threatened wild
plants. These protected micro-areas
would be used as priority areas for
active conservation tasks, mainly
focused on re-introductions and
population re-enforcements.
These zones, named Plant Micro-
Reserves (PMRs) are established and
managed as a network. The main
priority for these highly-fragmented
protected areas is to develop long-
term tracking of the regional plant
richness, using selected populations
of endemic, rare or threatened wild
plants as bio-indicators. Scientific
research is carried out on the more
highly threatened species, this
including population re-enforcements
or re-introductions. Unlike the
classical protected areas (e.g. nature
parks), the Plant Micro Reserves
primary purpose is not to protect
species or habitats, but to ensure their
study and management under
recognized scientific protocols
(Laguna, 1999).
After a period of 5-16 days in captivity,
in a holding aviary for acclimatisation,
the transferred Upe were released
into the Vaikivi reserve in two groups.
One group was soft-released at dusk,
and the second soft-released in the
morning. The contact with the birds
was lost within one hour after sun rise
the following day for the first group,
and between 3-6 hours after release
for the second group. The birds spent
a lot of time preening and viewing
their surroundings. Contact with the
birds was lost when they moved from
the release area.
Regular monitoring is being
undertaken by Robert Sulpice, and
now, six months after release, regular
contact has been established with four
of the five released birds.
This translocation programme will be
continued with the release of further
birds next year to provide enough
founder birds to re-establish the Upe
on Ua Huka.
Contributed by Caroline Blanvillain,
destination island was based on
prehistoric evidence of Upe presence,
the existence of quality habitat and
food plants in the Vaikivi reserve
protected area, absence of black rat
(Rattus rattus) and strong support
from the local population, including
Capture of
In May 2000, the authors travelled to
Nuku Hiva to capture birds for
translocation and a total of 26 days
were spent mist-netting Upe.
Difficulties were experienced in
capturing Upe because of its rarity
and wariness, steep terrain with few
possible net sites, strong winds, bright
sunshine reflecting on nets, and
occasional heavy rain. Five Upe were
captured including a pair (2:2:1), and
seven others escaped from the nets.
They were kept in captivity for one to
14 days in Nuku Hiva and were then
were transferred immediately to Ua
Société d'Ornithologie de Polynésie,
Manu, Papeete, Tahiti, E-mail: sop. & Université de la
Polynésie française, Faa'a, Tahiti; Mike
Thorsen, Department of Conservation,
P.O. Box 114, Waitangi, Chatam islands
and Robert Sulpice, Service du
Développement Rural (SDR), Ministère
de l'Agriculture de Polynésie française,
Ua Huka, Polynésie Française
Upe or Marquesan Imperial
Pigeon Ducula galeata
Plant Micro-Reserves: a new model of micro protected
areas, Spain
Re-introduction NEWS No. 20 August 2001
In 1994, the regional government
passed a Decree No. 218/1994, that
established the new legally prescribed
"Plant Micro-Reserve". Each Plant
Micro Reserve is officially declared by
order of the regional Ministry of
Environment and is required to
publish a management plan that is
officially gazetted. The Plant Micro
Reserves must be less than 20 ha,
and have a good representation of
endemic, rare or threatened wild
plants. The legislation enforces strict
protection for the plants, habitat and
influences activities such as hunting.
Livestock are generally allowed but if
they are regarded as being
detrimental their numbers can be
reduced or access prevented
The Plant Micro Reserves must be
legally established on public lands
owned or managed by the regional
administration. The so-called 'private'
Plant Micro Reserves on private land
or owned by city councils can be
established through a voluntary and
permanent agreement. The owner
does not lose ownership and the
regional government provides
economic aid as compensation.
Between 1994 and 1997, more than
50 research project were undertaken
by the regional Ministry of
Environment, in order to establish a
scientific basis for the establishment
of the Plant Micro Reserves network,
and the management of the endemic,
rare or threatened wild plants. The
network is being established in three
1. 1994-1999: A total of 150 Plant
Micro Reserves were identified,
and a draft of management plan
produced. These areas contain
populations of 60% of the
region’s endemic species.
2. 2000-2003/2004: To establish a
further 250 PMRs, all of them in
inland areas containing
populations of more than 80% of
endemic, and 60% of endangered
non-endemic species.
3. >2004: Between 2004-2010 to
establish about 350 Plant Micro
Reserves, both in inland and
coastal areas.
Since 1997, 150 zones have been
pre-established, 139 of them being
officially declared as Plant Micro
Reserves. The total surface of these
150 zones is 688.4 ha (4.6 ha/PMR),
but 75% of them have less an area
than 2 ha. They currently contain
populations of 210 endemic species
(representing 60% of the Spanish
endemic species present in the
region). At least 90 taxa listed on the
Regional Red List are now
represented in the network of
Twenty-one of the officially declared
Plant Micro Reserves are private, with
6 of these owned by municipalities
and 15 by NGOs or private
landowners. Some owners have
created NGOs and obtained
European Union (EU) funds to
manage their Plant Micro Reserves
and to develop environmental
education activities. This network of
reserves holds both samples of
endangered species and local
vegetation which is rich in local
endemic taxa.
The Plant Micro Reserves network
supports many conservation activities.
The seeds of 140 species found in the
Plant Micro Reserves have been
collected to for plant production and
storage in the regional germplasm
bank. Several endemic, rare or
threatened wild plants have been
used in experimental re-introductions
or supplementations: Antirrhinum
pertegasii,Antirrhinum valentinum,
Aristolochia clematitis,Carduncellus
dianius,Kosteletzkya pentacarpa,
Limonium dufourii,Limonium rigualii,
Marsilea strigosa,Medicago citrina,
Periploca angustifolia,Salix
tarraconensis,Silene diclinis,Taxus
baccata and several species of wild
orchids. In addition 3 taxa have been
re-introduced at regional level
(Juniperus phoenicea subsp.
turbinata,Marsilea quadrifolia and
Marsilea batardae) and one of the
most charismatic Spanish taxa, Silene
hifacensis, has been re-introduced in
only known endemic site, the Nature
Park Penyal d'Ifach, from where the
plant vanished 80 years ago. All this
work has been made possible by the
financial support of the EU LIFE
The Valencian Plant Micro Reserves
are the first model of protected micro-
areas specifically designed for wild
plants in Europe. There are no strict
legal conditions imposed against the
landowner and are therefore
'politically' attractive, and this initiative
as been openly supported by public
authorities (Akeroyd, 1998). The Plant
Micro Reserves network also
contributes to develop the IUCN's
recommendation on the establishment
of small protected areas to ensure the
conservation of micro-habitats,
endorsed by the strategy 'Parks for
The creation of the Valencian Plant
Micro Reserves was selected as one
of the Spanish MAB-UNESCO
projects, and recently chosen by the
international platform Planta Europa
as the flagship project to generate a
micro-reserves network in the whole
European continent. The main
European institutions, such as the
Council of Europe and the EU, gave
technical or economical support to the
The Valencian Plant Micro Reserves
do not try to compete with other
protected areas. In fact, 23 Plant
Micro Reserves are found in nature
parks or nature reserves but their
effectiveness to protect species and
habitats are similar. In addition, the
economical support to landowners
and municipalities engaged with
nature conservation, encourages
participation by other agencies which
allows the Plant Micro Reserves to
become a popular type of protected
zone. This objective is reinforced by
the low level of conflicts with the local
population due to the Plant Micro
Reserves small area and reduced
interference over activities such as
hunting, etc. As Plant Micro Reserves
are very small zones and scattered
through the territory, they can be
easily monitored and maintained by
local foresters.
As a main conclusion, the Valencian
Plant Micro Reserves represent a new
and complementary model for plant
conservation, especially useful for
population re-inforcements and re-
introductions. The legal and technical
basis of these reserves has enabled
social and political acceptance. This
promoted cooperation between
researchers, plant officers,
Re-introduction NEWS No. 20 August 2001
Re-introduction of Lysimachia minoricensis in Minorca,
Balearic Islands
Lysimachia minoricensis Rodr.
J. J. (Primulaceae), is an
endemic plant from Minorca
which was discovered and described
by J. J. Rodriguez Femenias in 1878.
Rodriguez classified it as a very rare
and localised plant found in one shady
location in “Son Boter” within the “Sa
Vall” gully. Since 1926, this plant has
not been found again, either in its
original locality, or in any other parts
of Minorca. The only plants known to
exist were those cultivated in botanic
gardens. Its original causes of
extinction has been probably due to
changes in its original habitat such as
fires, overgrazing and deforestation.
The Sóller Botanic Garden in
Mallorca, Balearic Islands started a
re-introduction program in 1993, to re-
introduce poplations of Lysimachia
minoricensis to the wild, in its original
locality. These sites had to be in
places with a suitable habitat. It was
also decided to establish several
stable populations which would allow
the spread of new colonies thus
ensuring natural re-colonization.
Three gullies from the southern part of
Minorca Island have been chosen and
one is the original locality of
Lysimachia minoricensis in an area
known as “Sa Vall”. In each gully, five
different points have been selected for
sowing the seeds with habitat similar
to the original site. The first seeds
were sown at the beginning of 1993
with good germination, but due to an
extremely dry year with little rain, most
of the plantlets died. This failure was
six months later these plants have
grown very well and most of them
have flowered and produced seeds.
All the sites with mature plants have
been supplemented with the
mycorhizated plants and in the
inmediate future we will undertake
more supplementation exercises with
these mycorhizated plants.
Finally, the second phase of the re-
introduction plan is to analyze the
genetic variability of the populations of
Lysimachia minoricensis growing in
various botanic gardens. Our aim is to
select a good sample of plants with
hight variability and to introduce them
into the stable populations in Minorca.
Contributed by P. Fraga, M. Vicens and
J. LL. Gradaille, Sóller Botanic Garden,
Sóller, Balears, Spain, e-mail:
due to the drought and some chosen
sites being too dry for Lysimachia
minoricensis. This conclusion was
reached by evaluating the two sites
where plantlets survived as not being
very shady but with the soil having a
constant moisture level through out
the year.
The results of the first sowing were
uncertain due to the possible changes
in the habitat over the years. One
place where the plantlets survived
was in a slope with burned brambles.
To date 16 sites have been sown and
in the autumn of 1993 four new sites
near streams were sown, but they
were all washed away, by heavy
floods. From all these sowings there
are two sites with mature plants and in
one site they have flowered and
produced seeds during 1995. Seeds
were dispersed naturally around the
plants and some were collected to be
sown in three sites with conditions
similar to the source plant and two of
these have young plants growing.
Fungal innoculation
Finally in 1996, a new method
involving the re-introduction of mature
plants inoculated with a
endomycorhizic arbuscular fungus
has been initiated. The fungus
Glomus fasciculatum (Thaxter) was
multiplied from a stump found in a
rhizosphere of Olea europaea var.
sylvestris in a community of Oleo-
ceratonion from the Balearic Islands.
This new method has been possible
thanks to “BIORIZA”, a nursery
specialising in Mediterranean plants.
They have cultivated the
mycorhizated plants from seeds
inoculated with the fungus spores and
Lysimachia minoricensis
landowners and local authorities. As a
consequence of that, a progressive
expansion of this model through other
regions or countries, or to other
taxonomic groups (i.e., invertebrates)
can be foreseen during the next few
Akeroyd, J. 1998. Micro-reserves capture
Valencia's special flora. Plant Talk 14: 20-
23. London.
Laguna, E. 1999. The Plant Micro-
Reserves Programme in the Region of
Valencia, Spain. pp. 181-186 in SYNGE,
H., & AKEROYD, J.: Planta Europa,
Proceedings of the Second European
Conference on the Conservation of Wild
Plants. Plantlife and The Swedish
Threetened Species Unit. London and
Contributed by Emilio Laguna
( OR, Gabriel Ballester,
Carlos Fabregat, Amparo Olivares, Lluis
Serra, Vicente Deltoro, Joan Perez-
Botella, Patricia Perez-Rovira & Javier
Ranz. Generalitat Valenciana,
Conselleria de Medi Ambient, Servicio
de Conservacion y Gestion de la
Biodiversidad, Valencia, Spain.
... Relación con programas de recuperaciónHasta el momento, la estrategia valenciana de conservación de flora silvestre se ha centrado en la fijación de dotaciones generales de conservación que benefician simultáneamente a muchas especies (cf.Laguna et al., 1998) como la red de MRF, el banco de germoplasma de flora valenciana, etc. El planteamiento de objetivos concretos en relación con especies amenazadas, a través de planes de recuperación y manejo, se ha previsto para su inicio a partir de 2005, aunque en los casos de los táxones con mayor riesgo de desaparición se han desarrollado hasta ahora numerosas iniciativas concretas (cf.Laguna, 1996a;Laguna et al., 2001). En general, las principales especies amenazadas valencianas de flora poseen, salvo rara excepción, una o más poblaciones en la red de MRF, y en todos los casos han sido objeto de trabajos específicos de conservación, destacando táxones como Silene hifacensis, S. diclinis, Limonium dufourii, L. perplexum, Apium repens, Medicago citrina, Cistus carthaginensis, etc. Algunas especies relícticas de amplia distribución como Taxus baccata son objeto de programas especiales, desarrollados desde el Centro para la Investigación y Experimentación Forestal de la Generalitat Valenciana, en combinación con el Servicio de Conservación de la Biodiversidad.En general, cada especie amenazada tiende a ser objeto de estudios previos suficientemente intensivos -v. ...
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O volume "Novas tendencias na caracterización e xestión da biodiversidade" estrutúrase en tres módulos ou bloques temáticos. O módulo Compoñentes da Biodiversidade, os relatores centráronse na flora galega ameazada, no interese de conservación da pteridoflora galega, na diversidade sílvica do subsector galaicoasturiano septentrional e as ameazas dos bosques deste territorio, nos fungos superiores como recurso natural e a importancia da súa conservación e na herpetofauna e avifauna galegas. O bloque de Análise e Valoración dos compoñentes da Biodiversidade dedicouse á exposición sobre a xestión da biodiversidade mediante bases de datos en liña e do programa libre (VegAna), sistema que se vén desenvolvendo exitosamente en Cataluña. O terceiro módulo, Xestión dos Compoñentes da Biodiversidade, foron abordados temas como a conservación das árbores senlleiras, a conservación "in situ" de flora ameazada mediante microrreservas, a xestión do Parque Nacional Marítimo Terrestre das Illas Atlánticas de Galicia, a xestión conservacionista das motogueiras galegas e a expresión territorial da biodiversidade.
... A number of measures have been developed in Spain for in situ conservation of natural habitats, as well as for legal protection of threatened pop-155 ulations and species. Specifically, natural protected areas cover as much as 28% of the Spanish land territory (MAGRAMA 2014b Furthermore, in the 1990s, Spain developed an instrument of great originality for in situ protec-160 tion of endangered plant populations: the figure of plant micro-reserves (Laguna 2001;Laguna et al. 2001). Plant micro-reserves are areas of small size (less than 20 ha), defined to protect a population of a single taxon or a group of popu-165 lations of rare, endemic or threatened taxa (Laguna et al. 2004;Fos et al. 2014). ...
The Global Strategy for Plant Conservation (GSPC) seeks to assess the conservation status of the world vascular plants by 2020, and to guarantee that at least 75% threatened taxa are conserved in situ. A comprehensive evaluation of IUCN categories for 7269 Spanish vascular plants (GSPC Target 2), using distribution data and environmental niche models, is presented. A gap analysis to assess the percentage of threatened plants effectively conserved in situ (considering national parks, plant micro-reserves and recovery or conservation plans) was also conducted (Target 7). The result is that only 44.4% threatened species are subject to an adequate in situ protection. An appropriate management of additional natural protected areas towards the conservation of threatened plants would make Spain meet this threshold, but severe deficiencies should be corrected. The methodology presented here is proposed as a tool to assess the degree of achievement of GSPC targets. This procedure can be quickly implemented and allows an easy evaluation of the progress, as well as the pending tasks in a given period of time.
... Canary Islands), where most MAP species will become critically endangered. Urgent conservation actions must include effective harvest regulation of wild populations, reinforcement of already existing natural populations, appropriate germplasm collecting strategies (Draper et al. 2011;Parra-Quijano et al. 2012) and establishment of specific protected areas such as plant micro-reserves (Laguna et al. 2001(Laguna et al. , 2016Kadis et al. 2013). It is also necessary to assess the genetic variation across populations, specifically in relation to climate profiles, in order to understand how much genetic diversity is expected to be lost and to prioritize which populations should be conserved (Williams et al. 2008;Pauls et al 2013). ...
Climate change will impact several ecosystems, and the resilience of the weakest links of the ecological networks may be decisive in maintaining the ecological structure. The assessment of tendencies in the distribution and resilience of endangered medicinal species against global change can be an excellent tool to predict and minimize future negative effects, even more so if we consider that these species may be useful to us. Spain is one of the richest countries in plant diversity along the Mediterranean basin, and many representatives of the Spanish flora are medicinal plants. Under scenarios of climate change, the distribution ranges of many of these species are likely to alter. In this paper we used ecological niche modeling to predict future changes in the distribution of 41 medicinal plants included in the 2013 assessment of threatened species in Spain. We generated climate-based niche models for each medicinal species and projected them for each decade from 2010 until 2080. Our results identified and prioritized the most vulnerable species and areas to future predicted changes. These results should be useful for conservation planning and especially for prioritizing areas for protection.
... Feasibility: The four known native sub-populations of S. hifacensis in the Iberian Peninsula are spread on 50 km of coastal cliffs from Xàbia to Calp (NE Alicante). All these sites are strictly protected as Valencian Plant Micro-Reserves (VPMR, see Laguna, 2000 andLaguna et al., 2001), managed by the Biodiversity Service of the Generalitat Valenciana (regional government of the Valencian). Silene hifacensis is strictely protected by the Spanish and Valencian laws, and there is an official recovery plan, legally passed by the Valencian government in 2008. ...
... This territory can be public or private and it is permanently destined to the preservation of endangered flora, development of scientific research programs and divulgation and education activities. Legal details, design and management of this protection figure are well explained in Laguna (2001), Laguna et al. (2001aLaguna et al. ( , 2004) and Serra et al. (2004 (Laguna, 2008). For pastures ecosystems conservation, the Valencian plant microreserve net allows the possibility of establishing models to maintain natural plant communities with controlled grazing by wild or domesticated herbivorous (Laguna et al., 2001b;Laguna, 2005b). ...
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The South-Eastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula contains a highly diversified flora as a result of a combination of several factors such as climatic and edaphic diversity, the presence of high mountains ranges and the proximity to North Africa. Leguminosae is the second largest botanical family in Spain, presenting a high richness, because it has a large number of endemisms, many of them with particular ecological, morphological and chemical adaptations. The Valencian Community, placed between S and E of Spain, contains over 350 Spanish endemic species. Sixty of them are exclusive endemisms of the Valencian territory and 31 belong to the legume family (Anthyllis, Astragalus, Genista, Ononis, Lathyrus, Colutea, Cytisus, Onobrychis, Medicago, etc.). Some of them have potential perspectives for a good forage development as Medicago suffruticosa subsp. leiocarpa, a native herbaceous perennial legume which has an excellent digestibility, palatability, resistance to direct grazing, persistence and reseeding capacity surpassing other commonly used perennial legumes. Also there are other potential uses with environmental application as restoration of slopes. Some assays done with Hippocrepis valentina, a suffruticous valencian chamaephyte, confirm these capacities. Another legume, a calcicolous therophyte Lupinus mariaejosephae, an endemism recently discovered, has a significant interest for genetic improvement in the genus Lupinus. The limitations of these endemic resources are the absence of scientific studies about its productivity and quality, genetic safety and toxicity as well as current legal restrictions because they are included into the Valencian Catalogue of Endangered Flora. We must not forget their climatic and edaphic adaptability to our territory, so it’s expected they give best results in their ability to forage production, their environmental applications and in soil protection purposes.
... Although the model of the Valencian PMRs network was designed to prioritize the study and conservation of endemic vascular flora (Laguna 2001b;Laguna et al. 2001) and relict plants (Serra et al. 2003), several research works have suggested its applicability for other groups of species of botanical interest, such as lichens (Atienza 2001) or bryophytes (Gimeno et al. 2001), as well as for completing the thematic groups, such as the Crop Wild Relatives (Laguna 2004a;Dulloo et al. 2008;Kell et al. 2008). The PMRs have been also suggested for the protection of specific microhabitats, very rich in threatened plants (e.g. ...
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Conservation of plant diversity is a priority in the environmental policy of Bulgaria. The book presents the main result – a pilot network of small protected sites for the conservation of rare plants using the model of plant micro-reserves – of a project funded by the Life+ Programme of the European Commission. Included are 3 species of bryophytes and 44 species of vascular plants for which in the period 2010–2014 were declared 58 protected sites and, additionally, for 4 sites proposals have been submitted to the Ministry of Environment and Water for legal protection. For each species is given its conservation status in Bulgaria, short morphological description, original data on the biology, habitats, distribution in the country, threats to the populations, and the taken and the still needed conservation measures. For each protected area is provided the exact location and size, a short presentation of the habitats and plant species with conservation value, and limitations specified in the Order for its official designation. Species and protected areas are well illustrated with original colour photographs.
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Coastal vegetation includes unique species with adaptations to the specific conditions of this environment, and in the Mediterranean region urban development of coastal areas has severely affected coastal ecosystems. Astragalus berytheus Boiss. & Blanche is a narrow endemic plant of the eastern Mediterranean coast, occurring in Lebanon and Palestine/Israel; its Red List status has not been previously assessed. As a result of the effects of urban sprawl in coastal areas A. berytheus is one of the most threatened plant taxa in Lebanon. We assess the conservation status of this taxon and propose conservation measures. Only one population of A. berytheus is extant in Lebanon, in the Tyre Coast Nature Reserve. We recommend that A. berytheus should be categorized as Endangered globally and as Critically Endangered at the national level in Lebanon. Unless adequate conservation measures are implemented A. berytheus is likely to go extinct in Lebanon in the near future.
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El contenido de este libro pretende extraer una muestra de los diferentes aspectos que desarrolla en la actualidad el Banco de Datos de Biodiversidad. En un primer capítulo se pormenorizan las necesidades de creación del Banco, así como sus características y funcionalidad. Posteriormente se abordan las distintas maneras en las que se está haciendo uso de la información contenida en las bases de datos: desde el tratamiento que se le da a través de Internet, hasta la forma en la que se proporcionan los datos a las administraciones y cómo se utiliza la información para el establecimiento de prioridades de conservación, para la designación de Lugares de Importancia Comunitaria o para la revisión de la situación de las especies amenazadas de Canarias
Aplicación y ejemplos prácticos de las funciones y herramientas del Banco de datos de biodiversidad del Gobierno de Canarias.
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The establishment and evolution of the Plant Micro-reserves Network of the Valencian Community (Spain) is explained. By mid 2008, the Valencian Community holds 273 PMRs legally declared, the most dense network of small botanical reserves worldwide. Populations for ca. 70% of the Iberian endemic flora living in the Valencian Community has been catched by this network. During the last years, the Valencian model has been exported to other Spanish regions and European and Mediterranean countries.
Micro-reserves capture Valencia's special flora
  • J Akeroyd
Akeroyd, J. 1998. Micro-reserves capture Valencia's special flora. Plant Talk 14: 20- 23. London