Article

Characterization of the edible bird’s nest the “Caviar of the East”

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Abstract

A few species of swiflets (genus Aerodramus) build edible nests that are consumed by humans worldwide, as a delicacy known as the “Caviar of the East” or as a medicinal food. This study reports on the compositional properties of two types of nest, the white nest and the red “blood” nest. The order of composition (from lowest to highest) was found to be identical for both types of nests, i.e., lipid (0.14–1.28%), ash (2.1%), carbohydrate (25.62–27.26%) and protein (62–63%). It was also found that both nests share a common 77 KDa protein that has properties similar to those of the ovotransferrin protein in eggs. This protein may be partially responsible for the severe allergic reactions that sometimes occur among young children who consume edible bird’s nest products. It was found that SDS–PAGE electrophoretic fingerprinting might serve as a useful analytical technique for differentiating between white and red nests and for determining if the more expensive “blood” nest was adulterated with the less expensive white nest. Also evaluated were different analytical methodologies for detecting adulterants. Three of the most common adulterants found in retail bird’s nests are karaya gum, red seaweed, and tremella fungus, and they are routinely incorporated during commercial processing prior to final sale. Using crude protein determination, it was found that these adulterants (which typically accounted for 2–10% of the finished nest), reduce the overall crude protein content of the genuine white bird’s nest by as much as 1.1–6.2%. A modified xanthoproteic nitric acid test for proteins proved to be a rapid, and simple test to detect adulteration in both whole and finely ground nests, and would be suitable in the field where analytical facilities are not readily available.

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... Sarang burung walet pada umumnya dibuat oleh walet jantan selama 35 -90 hari dengan estimasi bobot 7 -20 gram. Material utama pembuatan sarang sebagian besar terbuat dari cairan saliva yang disekresikan oleh dua kelenjar saliva sublingual (Marcone, 2005). Sarang burung walet banyak mengandung nutrisi seperti glikoprotein dengan asam amino, karbohidrat, kalsium, natrium, dan kalium (Norhayati et al., 2010). ...
... Hasil pengujian profil makronutrien dan kandungan nitrit dalam dilihat pada Tabel 2. Protein dalam sarang burung walet pada umumnya berkisar pada 59,8% -65,8%, namun tidak menutup kemungkinan kandungan protein dapat lebih ataupun kurang dari rerata tersebut (Hamzah et al., 2013). Faktor yang menyebabkan tingginya kadar protein, yaitu lingkungan tempat hidup dan jumlah makanan di tempat tinggal burung walet (Marcone, 2005). Berdasarkan pada Seminar Nasional ISSN: 2656-6796 "Inovasi Pangan Lokal Untuk Mendukung Ketahanan Pangan" Universitas Mercu Buana Yogyakarta -Yogyakarta, 28 April 2018 hasil pengujian, setiap bagian dari sarang burung walet, memiliki kandungan protein yang berbedabeda dan perbedaan yang dihasilkan signifikan bila mengacu pada hasil statistik ANOVA. ...
... Menurut Chua et al. (2015), kandungan asam amino dalam sarang burung walet lebih lengkap dan lebih banyak dibanding makanan lainnya, sehingga sarang burung walet dikenal sebagai makanan yang lengkap asam amino. Oleh karena itu, sarang burung walet dikenal sebagai makanan yang bermanfaat sebagai penyembuh berbagai penyakit, karena manfaatnya dalam meningkatkan imunitas tubuh, metabolisme tubuh, dan memperbaiki bagian organ yang rusak (Marcone, 2005;Koon, 2000;Hamzah et al., 2013). Dalam tulisannya, Roh et al., (2012), menyebutkan bahwa terdapat jenis asam amino tertinggi, yaitu asam glutamat (51,78 mg/g), sistein (41,06 mg/g) dan asam aspartat (40,44 mg/g). ...
Conference Paper
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ABSTRAK Sarang burung walet merupakan salah satu komoditas ekspor Indonesia yang memiliki nilai ekonomis yang tinggi, karena dikenal akan manfaatnya untuk kesehatan. Namun, sarang burung walet memiliki kandungan nitrit yang berbahaya bila dikonsumsi dalam jumlah yang melebihi ambang batas. Proses pengolahan sarang burung walet dapat menurunkan kadar nitritnya, tetapi akan merusak bentuk sarang dengan lepasnya bagian serabut ataupun kaki sarang. Kedua bagian yang lepas ini mempunyai harga jual yang lebih rendah, padahal kemungkinan kedua bagian tersebut mempunyai kandungan nutrisi yang tidak buruk. Berdasarkan pada kondisi tersebut, perlu dilakukan penelitian profil makronutrient dan kandungan nitrit setiap bagian sarang burung walet. Metode analisis yang dilakukan, yaitu analisis proksimat untuk menetukan kadar makronutrien dan kolorimetri untuk menentukan kadar nitrit dengan tiga kali pengulangan. Hasil analisis makronutrient kemudian diujikan secara statistik menggunakan metode one-way ANOVA. Berdasarkan pada hasil analisis diperoleh bahwa kandungan protein tertinggi dan kandungan nitrit terendah ada pada bagian serabut yaitu sebesar 75,07% ±0,05% dan 4,8 ppm serta memiliki nilai yang signifikan dibanding bagian badan dan kaki sarang burung. Secara keseluruhan kandungan makronutrien tertinggi yaitu karbohidrat terlarut ada di bagian serabut. Kesimpulan penelitian ini adalah bagian serabut merupakan bagian yang memiliki kandungan makronutrient terbaik dan kadar nitrit yang rendah dibandingkan dua bagian sarang burung walet lainnya yang bernilai jual lebih mahal sehingga memungkinkan untuk nantinya diolah menjadi produk pangan kesehatan. Kata Kunci : sanrang burung walet, profil, makronutrient, nitrit PENDAHULUAN Sarang burung walet merupakan sarang burung yang terbuat dari air liur burung walet (Aerodramus sp.). Tidak semua jenis burung walet dapat membuat sarang menggunakan air liurnya. Dari 24 spesies burung walet hanya 4 spesies yang dapat membentuk sarang dengan air liur dan dapat dimakan (Koon, 2000), salah satunya adalah Aerodamus fuciphagus. Sarang burung walet pada umumnya dibuat oleh walet jantan selama 35-90 hari dengan estimasi bobot 7-20 gram. Material utama pembuatan sarang sebagian besar terbuat dari cairan saliva yang disekresikan oleh dua kelenjar saliva sublingual (Marcone, 2005). Sarang burung walet banyak mengandung nutrisi seperti glikoprotein dengan asam amino, karbohidrat, kalsium, natrium, dan kalium (Norhayati et al., 2010). Sarang burung walet merupakan salah satu komoditas ekspor produk hewani yang memiliki nilai tertinggi. Indonesia menempatkan dirinya sebagai urutan ke-12 eksportir produk hewani di dunia dan urutan pertama sebagai eksportir dan produsen sarang burung walet (Kemendag, 2015). Komoditas ini memiliki harga yang tinggi karena sarang burung walet hanya dapat dipanen setiap tiga hingga enam bulan sekali (Mardiastuti et al., 1998). Selain itu, manfaat kesehatan dari burung walet yang berperan dalam mengatasi malnutrisi, meningkatkan sistem imun dan metabolisme tubuh (Hamzah et al., 2013). Namun, sarang burung walet memiliki kandungan senyawa nitrit yang diketahui sebagai senyawa beracun yang dalam konsentrasi tinggi menyebabkan keracunan. Nitrit sudah sejak lama digunakan sebagai bahan pengawet dan anti-botulinum dalam pangan olahan, dan penggunaannya sangat dibatasi untuk mencegah terjadinya keracunan. Nitrit dapat meningkatkan faktor resiko kanker, karena pembentukan senyawa N-nitroso yang merupakan senyawa karsinogenik (Paydar et al., 2013). Negara di Asia Timur terutama Tiongkok telah menetapkan batas kandungan nitrit yang aman yaitu dibawah 30 ppm (AQSIQ, 2014). Kandungan nitrit yang
... The beneficial properties of EBN have also been proven through modern science and technology, revealing its nutritional values and pharmacological activities, including 1) body maintenance and enhancement of the immune system (Marcone, 2005;Ma and Liu, 2012); 2) stimulation of cell growth (Kong et al., 1987); 3) anti-inflammatory effect (Vimala et al., 2012); 4) protection from joint degeneration and chondro-protection against osteoarthritis (Matsukawa et al., 2011;Chua et al., 2013); 5) enhancement of antioxidant capacity-antioxidative effect (Hu et al., 2016); 6) anti-influenza or as anti-viral agent (Guo et al., 2006;Haghani et al., 2016;Hu et al., 2016); 7) skin whitening, anti-aging, antiinflammatory and wound healing (Zeng and Lai, 2019;Hwang et al., 2020); 8) promotion of corneal wound healing (eye caring) (Zainal Abidin et al., 2011); 9) improvement of stem cell proliferation (Roh et al., 2012); 10) learning and memory functions of multi-generational mice - (Haghani et al., 2016;Careena et al., 2018;Xie et al., 2018;Khalid et al., 2019;Mahaq et al., 2020); 11) neuroprotection in Alzheimer's or Parkinson's disease (Hou et al., 2017;Yew et al., 2018); 12) anti-obesity effects (Yida et al., 2015); 13) prevention of cardio-metabolic and diabetic diseases ; 14) anti-hypertensive effect (Ramachandran et al., 2018); and 15) amelioration of the detrimental effects of lead acetate (LA) toxicity in the uterus (Albishtue et al., 2019). Therefore, EBN has proved its nutritional and therapeutic values. ...
... The high nutritional and medicinal values and the higher price of the red EBNs lead to issues of adulteration (Ma and Liu, 2012). Marcone (2005) mentioned that on occasion white nests have been treated with red pigments which are either partially or wholly watersoluble; and But et al. (2013) reported that white nest was fumigated with "bird soil" under hot and humid condition. After treatment of the white EBNs, falsified appearance as red EBN will be sold as higher grade and athigher price. ...
... One band with a molecular weight of approximately 77 kDA protein found from white and red "blood" nests, this protein that similar to those of the ovotransferrin protein in eggs to the highly allergenic ovotransferrin protein in eggs. This protein can be partially responsible for the allergic reactions (Marcone, 2005). The source of allergens in EBNs has not been determined, because of the 39 cases of allergic reactions, 14 of them had eaten edible bird's nest before, without any allergic reactions (Goh et al., 2000). ...
Article
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Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is recognized as a nourishing food among Chinese people. The efficacy of EBN was stated in the records of traditional Chinese medicine and its activities have been reported in many researches. Malaysia is the second largest exporter of EBNs in the world, after Indonesia. For many years, EBN trade to China was not regulated until August 2011, when a safety alert was triggered for the consumption of EBNs. China banned the import of EBNs from Malaysia and Indonesia due to high level of nitrite. Since then, the Malaysia government has formulated Malaysia Standards for swiftlet farming (MS 2273:2012), edible bird’s nest processing plant design and management (MS 2333:2010), and edible bird’s nest product quality (MS 2334:2011) to enable the industry to meet the specified standards for the export to China. On the other hand, Indonesia's EBN industry formulated a standard operating procedure (SOP) for exportation to China. Both countries can export EBNs to China by complying with the standards and SOPs. EBN contaminants may include but not limited to nitrite, heavy metals, excessive minerals, fungi, bacteria, and mites. The possible source of contaminants may come from the swiftlet farms and the swiftlets or introduced during processing, storage, and transportation of EBNs, or adulterants. Swiftlet house design and management, and EBN processing affect the bird’s nest color. Degradation of its optical quality has an impact on the selling price, and color changes are tied together with nitrite level. In this review, the current and future prospects of EBNs in Malaysia and Indonesia in terms of their quality, and the research on the contaminants and their effects on EBN color changes are discussed.
... There are three main types of swiftlets genera known to produce EBN: Collocalia, Aerodramus, and Hydrochous (36). During the nesting and breeding season, the sublingual gland of swiftlets increases in weight and reaches their maximum secretory activity (37,38). Swiftlets, the insectivorous birds, build its nest with secretions from their specialized salivary glands. ...
... More than 24 different swiftlet species create nests for their young all around the world, but only a handful of them are edible. Both the Aerodramus fuciphagus and Aerodramus maximus lay white and black nests, respectively, and are the most exploited and recognized swiftlet species in Malaysia (38). Red nests or blood nests, also known as Xueyan in Chinese, are occasionally found in the caves and swiftlet houses. ...
... It is believed that red nests are of an excellent quality (40) and believed to have increased health benefits and, therefore, fetch a relatively higher price than white nests in the market (41). However, both the white and red EBNs showed relatively similar amino acid levels, which were 63 and 62%, respectively (38). The reddening of EBN has been reported to be associated with the emission of bird soil in hot and humid environments or a chemical reaction involving sodium nitrite dissolved in 2% hydrochloric acid, but the mechanism is unclear (42). ...
Article
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Cognitive enhancement is defined as the augmentation of the mind's core capabilities through the improvement of internal or external information processing systems. Recently, the focus has shifted to the potential therapeutic effects of natural products in improving cognitive function. Edible bird's nest (EBN) is a natural food substance derived from the saliva of swiftlets. Until today, EBN is regarded as a high-priced nutritious food with therapeutic effects. The effectiveness of dietary EBN supplementation to enhance brain development in mammals has been documented. Although the neuroprotection of EBN has been previously reported, however, the impact of EBN on learning and memory control and its potential as a cognitive enhancer drug remains unknown. Thus, this article aims to address the neuroprotective benefits of EBN and its potential effect as a cognitive enhancer. Notably, the current challenges and the future study direction in EBN have been demonstrated.
... EBN is usually prepared for consumption as a delicacy known as 'bird's nest soup' (Kinnaird, 2003). It has been described as one of the premium foods among the Chinese community and is often referred as the 'Caviar of the East' (Kinnaird, 2003;Marcone, 2005). This is because EBN is believed to have anti-ageing properties and has been proven to be beneficial to health, showing potential for antiviral activity against influenza virus (Deng et al., 2006;Haghani et al., 2016Haghani et al., , 2017Norhayati et al., 2010). ...
... This was probably due to the content of the 1% w/w Agar which can be quite similar to that of authentic EBN, with protein constituents of approximately 58.31-63.88% w/w, made up of peptides and different types of amino acid, depending on the origin of the EBN (Adenan et al., 2020;Hamzah et al., 2013;Marcone, 2005). ...
... KG is a common adulterant in EBN and is made up of mostly polysaccharides (Adenan et al., 2020;BeMiller, 2019). Since EBNs contain approximately 11.3-26% w/w carbohydrates, including polysaccharides and glycoproteins, detection of EBN adulteration with KG is quite difficult based on the NMR spectrum as well (Adenan et al., 2020;Hamzah et al., 2013;Marcone, 2005;Shim et al., 2016;Tung et al., 2008). However, based on the contribution plot and the NMR spectra in Fig. 5A, there was only a single potential marker which could be used to distinguish authentic EBNs from those adulterated with KG, which is the singlet peak at the chemical shift at 1.91 ppm (s), possibly contributed by rhamnose (Wishart et al., 2018). ...
Article
Edible bird's nests (EBNs) are the nests of swiftlets, made from the saliva of the male swiftlet (Aerodramus fuciphagus). Due to their nutritional value, EBNs are recognized as a premium food and highly in demand among the Chinese community. EBNs are commonly adulterated with cheaper ingredients and efforts are being made to combat these activities using different analytical techniques. In this study, nuclear magnetic resonance (¹H-NMR) metabolomic fingerprinting combined with chemometrics, particularly principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), was employed to detect adulteration in EBNs. Authentic EBN samples from different locations in Malaysia were used and adulteration was simulated using nutrient agar, collagen, gelatine, karaya gum and melamine at 1, 5 and 10% w/w, respectively. Overall, unsupervised PCA was able to distinguish authentic EBNs from those adulterated with nutrient agar, collagen and gelatine down to 5% w/w adulteration level. As for EBN adulterated with karaya gum and melamine, a distinct peak can be observed at 1.91 ppm and 6.10 ppm, respectively. The supervised OPLS-DA predictive model was able to differentiate authentic EBNs from simulated adulterated EBNs with 100% accuracy. Conclusively, ¹H-NMR metabolomics combined with chemometrics could be a potential tool for the detection of adulteration in EBN.
... The ESN also promotes physical and mental strength, and anti-aging to maintain youthfulness. [4,6,7] Today, these beliefs have been proven by science for its role as a nutraceutical food. Scientific evidence supports the claims of ESN in TCM. ...
... The Statistical Analysis System (SAS) version 9.4 was employed as the statistical software for this study. [7,43] The result in Table 1 revealed similar results. Whereby, the major nutrient of ESN is protein at 60.93%, followed by carbohydrate at 20.98%. ...
... These were also reported in previous studies. [7,45,[58][59][60] The raw ESN's protein, carbohydrate, moisture, fat, and ash content were determined as one of the crucial procedures for the hydrolysis process. In which, the hydrolysis of ESN was performed based on the protein content in ESN. ...
... EBN has been the delicacy food in Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) since the Tang Dynasty (618-907 A.D.) (Marcone, 2005). EBN is cooked using double boiling method with rock sugar to make the Chinese cuisine, namely the bird's nest soup (Hobbs, 2004). ...
... The key component of EBN are glycoprotein, calcium, sodium, potassium and carbohydrate (Quek et al., 2018a). Owing to its esteem as a prized bioproduct in the East of the globe, EBN is also named as the "Caviar of the East" (Marcone, 2005). EBN has also been used as a health tonic in TCM due to its being a multipurpose general health rejuvenation tonic and social symbolic status delicacy during banquet (Ghassem et al., 2017). ...
... EBN weighs at least 1-2 folds of the swiftlet's body weight and can accommodate only the adult bird and nestlings. The swiftlets take around 35 days to complete the construction of the nest (Marcone, 2005). White nests ( Figure 2A) are almost entirely made from saliva (Sims, 2008), while black nests ( Figure 2B) comprised about 45-55% feathers and small dried leaves (Zulkifli et al., 2019). ...
Article
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Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is the most prized health delicacy among the Chinese population in the world. Although some scientific characterization and its bioactivities have been studied and researched, no lights have been shed on its actual composition or mechanism. The aim of this review paper is to address the advances of EBN as a therapeutic animal bioproduct, challenges and future perspectives of research involving EBN. The methodology of this review primarily involved a thorough search from the literature undertaken on Web of Science (WoS) using the keyword “edible bird nest”. Other information were obtained from the field/market in Malaysia, one of the largest EBN-producing countries. This article collects and describes the publications related to EBN and its therapeutic with diverse functional values. EBN extracts display anti-aging effects, inhibition of influenza virus infection, alternative traditional medicine in athletes and cancer patients, corneal wound healing effects, stimulation of proliferation of human adipose-derived stem cells, potentiate of mitogenic response, epidermal growth factor-like activities, enhancement of bone strength and dermal thickness, eye care, neuroprotective and antioxidant effects. In-depth literature study based on scientific findings were carried out on EBN and its properties. More importantly, the future direction of EBN in research and development as health-promoting ingredients in food and the potential treatment of certain diseases have been outlined.
... It is a delicacy and food tonic that is popular, especially among the Chinese community all over the world. It has been used as a Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) since the Tang Dynasty (618-907) A.D (Lim, 2007;Marcone, 2005). According to the Compendium of Materia Medica "Ben Cao Gang Mu" written by Li Shizhen, EBN is an energy tonic that reinforces energy, nourishes lung, helps to maintain a youthful and radiant complexion (Li & Wu, 2010). ...
... Amino acids are the building block of protein, and these compounds can be a promising indicator for the classification of EBN (Chua et al., 2015;Quek et al., 2018). Results from various researchers and our study have shown that there are 18 types of amino acid detected from EBN and it is well established (Hun et al., 2015;Marcone, 2005;Su et al., 1998). The quantification and qualification of the amino acids are more accurate compared to protein. ...
... Meanwhile, for cleaned EBN, Phenylalanine was the highest amino acid with 4.21 ± 0.32 w/w% and next most abundant amino acid was Serine with 4.06 ± 0.42 w/w% (Figure 3). These results agree with Ali et al. (2019), Chua et al. (2015) and Marcone (2005). Their analyses showed that the most abundant amino acids of EBN were Serine, Aspartic acid, and Phenylalanine. ...
Article
Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) has been used as a health modulator for many centuries. Nutrient degradation in EBN always happen during cleaning process due to many factors such as temperature and long soaking time in water. The present study attempts to find the difference between unclean and cleaned EBN in their amino acid composition. A total of 65 EBN samples were collected directly from swiftlet premises in 13 states of Malaysia to ensure the coverage of geographical location differences. A standardized cleaning method had been adapted from the industry to clean the collected EBN sample in the lab. Then it was analysed for amino acids composition. After that OPLS-DA multivariate model was used to discriminate the unclean and cleaned EBN on 18 types of amino acids composition. The model was robust with classification and predictive ability of 76.1% and 64.5%, respectively. The model was further validated with sample blind test and 100% of the sample was accurately fall into their respective cluster, unclean and cleaned EBN. The findings suggest that three major amino acids with the highest VIP value were Aspartic acid, Methionine and Glutamic acid and proposed as the marker for discriminating the unclean and cleaned EBN.
... Recent alternative medicines have underscored the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory ability of edible bird's nest (EBN). EBN is one of the most valuable animal products eaten by humans, either for its therapeutic properties or as a delicacy in South East Asia [17,18] . It is formed naturally from salivary secretions of glutinous glycoprotein through the sublingual glands of swiftlets birds during their nesting and breeding season. ...
... The nest is built high on walls and the roofs of caves in the shape of a bowl over a period of 35 days. The solidified secretions enable the nest to carry the swiftlets and their eggs to remain attached to the wall during breeding season [17][18][19] . Researchers have investigated the therapeutic effects of EBN such as its anti-oxidative effect, anti-inflammatory effect, alleviation of osteoarthritis [20][21][22] , increased proliferation of the uterus, the enhancement of cell proliferation in corneal wound healing [23,24] and its antiviral effect [25,26] . ...
... Furthermore, sialic acid in EBN can enhance memory and improve cognitive function [30,31] . Additionally, EBN has epidermal growth factor-like activity, and is a rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, amino acids and minerals [18,[32][33][34] . With such previous encouraging results, the current study investigated the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of EBN using a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model. ...
... Recent alternative medicines have underscored the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory ability of edible bird's nest (EBN). EBN is one of the most valuable animal products eaten by humans, either for its therapeutic properties or as a delicacy in South East Asia [17,18] . It is formed naturally from salivary secretions of glutinous glycoprotein through the sublingual glands of swiftlets birds during their nesting and breeding season. ...
... The nest is built high on walls and the roofs of caves in the shape of a bowl over a period of 35 days. The solidified secretions enable the nest to carry the swiftlets and their eggs to remain attached to the wall during breeding season [17][18][19] . Researchers have investigated the therapeutic effects of EBN such as its anti-oxidative effect, anti-inflammatory effect, alleviation of osteoarthritis [20][21][22] , increased proliferation of the uterus, the enhancement of cell proliferation in corneal wound healing [23,24] and its antiviral effect [25,26] . ...
... Furthermore, sialic acid in EBN can enhance memory and improve cognitive function [30,31] . Additionally, EBN has epidermal growth factor-like activity, and is a rich source of proteins, carbohydrates, amino acids and minerals [18,[32][33][34] . With such previous encouraging results, the current study investigated the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of EBN using a chronic cerebral hypoperfusion model. ...
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Introduction. Alzheimer’s disease is marked by insufficient blood supply to the brain, leads to progressive loss of memory and cognitive skills. Continuous reduction of cerebral blood flow as a result of chronic cerebral hypoperfusion leads to overproduction of reactive oxygen species that may cause cognitive decline. Until now there is no available curative treatment for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the only available option is symptomatic treatment. Recent alternative medicines have underscored the neuroprotective and antioxidant ability of the edible bird’s nest (EBN). The current study evaluates the effects of EBN on hippocampal neurons specifically in the CA1 hippocampal region by using chronic cerebral hypoperfusion- induced neurodegeneration in rat model. Methods. Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion was induced by permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2VO) in rats that triggers the neuroinflammatory processes. The rats were divided into 4 groups: Sham group, 2VO group, and two 2VO groups treated with 2 different doses (60,120 mg/kg) of EBN, which was administered daily by oral gavage. After 8 consecutive weeks, rats were euthanized and the hippocampi were examined histopathologically by counting the viable neuronal cells and the level of F2 Isoprostane in hipoocampal tissue was measured by ELISA. Results. A significant decrease in the neuronal cell death and significant decline in F2 Isoprostane level was shown in the group of rats treated with EBN. Conclusion. CCH, which was triggered by 2VO, causes reduction in viable neurons in the hippocampal CA1 region. This damage could be ameliorated by administration of EBN, which exhibits a neuroprotective effect via increasing the viable neuronal cell count and decline in oxidative stress level. Our results underscored the possible effects of EBN in delaying the progression of dementia in AD patients if used early in the disease. It is safe supplement that could be used prophylactically for a long time.
... Interestingly, the swiftlet from Aerodramus and Collocalia families build their nest with its own glutinous translucent filament strand of saliva (1). The nest made from the saliva of swiftlet is thought to be a food tonic delicacy and it has been eaten for its recuperative effects since the Tang dynasty (618-907 A.D.) in China (2)(3)(4). Therefore, these nests produced from Aerodramus and Collocalia swiftlets are regarded as "Edible Bird's Nest" (EBN). ...
... Besides, EBN was also able to strengthen bones, reduce the thinning of the dermal layer, possess neuroprotective properties and proliferative effects on human adipose-derived stem cells and corneal keratocytes (5)(6)(7)(8)(9)(10)(11)(12)(13)(14). EBN contains high nutritional value, in which it composes mostly of protein (24.4 -66.9%), followed by carbohydrates (8.5 -58.2%) and fats with the lowest percentage (0.01 -2.0%) (1,2,15). Therefore, the consumption of nutritious EBN is famous till today for its various recuperative and proven therapeutic effects. ...
Article
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Background: Edible Bird's Nest (EBN) is famously consumed as a food tonic for its high nutritional values with numerous recuperative and therapeutic properties. EBN is majority exploited from swiftlet houses but the differences in terms of metabolite distribution between the production site of house EBN is not yet fully understood. Therefore, this study was designed to identify the metabolite distribution and to determine the relationship pattern for the metabolite distribution of house EBNs from different locations in Malaysia. Methods: The differences of metabolite distribution in house EBN were studied by collecting the samples from 13 states in Malaysia. An extraction method of eHMG was acquired to extract the metabolites of EBN and was subjected to non-targeted metabolite profiling via liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Unsupervised multivariate analysis and Venn diagram were used to explore the relationship pattern among the house EBNs in Malaysia. The geographical distribution surrounded the swiftlet house was investigated to understand its influences on the metabolite distribution. Results: The hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA) combined with correlation coefficient revealed the differences between the house EBNs in Malaysia with four main clusters formation. The metabolites distribution among these clusters was unique with their varied combination of geographical distribution. Cluster 1 grouped EBNs from Selangor, Melaka, Negeri Sembilan, Terengganu which geographically distributed with major oil palm field in township; Cluster 2 included Perak and Sarawak with high distribution of oil palm in higher altitude; Cluster 3 included Perlis, Kelantan, Kedah, Penang from lowland of paddy field in village mostly and Cluster 4 grouped Sabah, Pahang, Johor which are majorly distributed with undeveloped hills. The metabolites which drove each cluster formation have happened in a group instead of individual key metabolite. The major metabolites that characterised Cluster 1 were fatty acids, while the rest of the clusters were peptides and secondary metabolites. Conclusion: The metabolite profiling conducted in this study was able to discriminate the Malaysian house EBNs based on metabolites distribution. The factor that most inferences the differences of house EBNs were the geographical distribution, in which geographical distribution affects the distribution of insect and the diet of swiftlet.
... EBN is a natural product composed of macro-nutrients such as protein and carbohydrates which are considered to be the major components (Ma and Liu, 2012;Marcone 2005). In addition, EBN contains other components including fat (< 2%) and trace amounts of minerals such as sodium and magnesium. ...
... EBN contains carbohydrates and sugar fractions, with previous studies reporting improved motility following supplementation with extenders incorporated with sugars or sucrose-based (Yusop et al., 2016;Consuegra et al., 2018), non-enzymatic anti-oxidants, and sorbitol (Pojprasath et al., 2011). Aside from carbohydrates, EBN contains proteins and trace amount of minerals including sodium and magnesium (Marcone, 2005). Sialic acid is part of EBN's protein component, and it enhances metabolism and physiological functions in mammals (Yagi et al., 2008), and was reported to maintain sperm morphology during preservation (Yusop et al., 2016). ...
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding different concentrations of edible bird’s nest (EBN) which is secreted by swiftlet birds (Aerodramus fuciphagus), into EquiPlus® and E-Z Mixin® extenders on the quality of chilled Arabian stallion semen at various storage times (0, 24 and 48 h). Ten ejaculates were collected from five stallions, and diluted using the two extenders containing 0% (control), 0.12%, 0.24% and 0.24% of EBN + seminal plasma (SP). All the diluted semen samples were then cooled and stored at 5 °C, and examined at 0, 24 and 48 h. Sperm kinetic parameters were assessed using computer assisted sperm analysis (CASA) and viability were assessed using Hoechst33342/PI stain. In both extenders, total motility (TM) and progressive motility (PM) were significantly higher at 0.12% and 0.24% compared to 0.24% + SP at 24 and 48 h. At 0.12%, E-Z mixin® treated semen had significantly higher TM and PM than EquiPlus® at 24 and 48 h. At 0.12% and 0.24%, average path velocity (VAP), straight-line velocity (VSL) and curvilinear velocity (VCL) were significantly higher in E-Z mixin® treated semen compared to EquiPlus® at 24 and 48 h. Comparisons between the two extender types at different concentrations of EBN showed no significant difference in lateral head amplitude (ALH), linearity (LIN), straightness (STR), beat cross frequency (BCF) and viability, irrespective of the storage time. The percentage of viable was significantly higher in E-Z mixin® than EquiPlus® at 0 and 48 h in control and 0.12%. Supplementation of the E-Z mixin® extender with 0.12% and 0.24% EBN concentrations in the absence of SP provided better CASA parameters such as TM, PM, VAP, VSL, and VCL at 24 and 48 h storage time. In conclusion, the results of this study indicated that chilled semen from Arabian stallion that was extended using E-Z mixin® and supplemented with 0.12% and 0.24% EBN concentrations performed better and yielded superior results in sperm kinetic parameters and % viable compared to EquiPlus® at 24 and 48 h storage time
... Collocalia mucoid has long been known to biochemists as a rich source of Neu5Ac (≈9% w/w) 26 and is the primary component of Edible bird's nest (EBN)-a popular but expensive Chinese health food, often referred to as the Caviar of the East. 27 The nests are highly enriched in salivary mucins of the White-nest (Aerodramus fuciphogus) or Black-nest Swiftlet (Aerodramus maximus). 27,28 The high content of Neu5Ac is not surprising, as salivary mucins are rich in Sias (indeed, sialic acid is derived from the word saliva). ...
... 27 The nests are highly enriched in salivary mucins of the White-nest (Aerodramus fuciphogus) or Black-nest Swiftlet (Aerodramus maximus). 27,28 The high content of Neu5Ac is not surprising, as salivary mucins are rich in Sias (indeed, sialic acid is derived from the word saliva). 29 In the present study, we consider the possibility that some of the claimed health benefits of EBN may be related to its rich content of mucin-associated Neu5Ac (the rest of the composition of EBN consists of common neutral monosaccharides and amino acids). ...
Article
Objective Species-specific pseudogenization of the CMAH gene during human evolution eliminated common mammalian sialic acid N -glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) biosynthesis from its precursor N -acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac). With metabolic nonhuman Neu5Gc incorporation into endothelia from red meat, the major dietary source, anti-Neu5Gc antibodies appeared. Human-like Ldlr −/ − Cmah −/− mice on a high-fat diet supplemented with a Neu5Gc-enriched mucin, to mimic human red meat consumption, suffered increased atherosclerosis if human-like anti-Neu5Gc antibodies were elicited. Approach and Results We now ask whether interventional Neu5Ac feeding attenuates metabolically incorporated Neu5Gc-mediated inflammatory acceleration of atherogenesis in this Cmah −/− Ldlr −/− model system. Switching to a Neu5Gc-free high-fat diet or adding a 5-fold excess of Collocalia mucoid-derived Neu5Ac in high-fat diet protects against accelerated atherosclerosis. Switching completely from a Neu5Gc-rich to a Neu5Ac-rich diet further reduces severity. Remarkably, feeding Neu5Ac-enriched high-fat diet alone has a substantial intrinsic protective effect against atherosclerosis in Ldlr −/− mice even in the absence of dietary Neu5Gc but only in the human-like Cmah -null background. Conclusions Interventional Neu5Ac feeding can mitigate or prevent the red meat/Neu5Gc-mediated increased risk for atherosclerosis, and has an intrinsic protective effect, even in the absence of Neu5Gc feeding. These findings suggest that similar interventions should be tried in humans and that Neu5Ac-enriched diets alone should also be investigated further.
... The major nutritional composition of EBN was reported to consist of protein followed by carbohydrate, fat, ash, and some moisture (Marcone, 2005;Hamzah et al., 2013;Saengkrajang et al., 2013). Besides, EBN contains high sodium and calcium content despite the presence of other mineral elements, which include magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and iron. ...
... Besides, EBN contains high sodium and calcium content despite the presence of other mineral elements, which include magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, and iron. Essential amino acids like histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, phenylalanine, methionine, threonine, and valine have also been detected and mentioned by various researches (Marcone, 2005;Saengkrajang et al., 2013). All these nutritional contents might contribute to a remarkable therapeutic potential of EBN. ...
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Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is reported to have a positive in vitro proliferative effect and contain male reproductive hormones. Spermatogonia cells proliferate during spermatogenesis under male reproductive hormones stimulation that include testosterone, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). Characterization of EBN through liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LCMS) has found testosterone as a base peak. Six types of amino acids, estradiol and sialic acid were among the major peaks that have been characterized. Based on the presence of these reproductive components, this study evaluated different doses of EBN on sperm parameters and male reproductive hormones of Sprague Dawley rats. Sixteen Sprague Dawley rats at the age of eight weeks were randomly and equally divided into four groups, which are Control, 10 mg/kg BW/d 50 mg/kg BW/d, and 250 mg/kg BW/d EBN group. The rats were fed with EBN enriched pellet daily and water ad-libitum. Rats were sacrificed and the organ was weighed for organ coefficients after eight weeks of treatment. Sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility, and sperm viability were evaluated. Meanwhile, ELISA method was used to measure testosterone, FSH, and LH. Findings showed that there were no significant differences in organ coefficient between groups. Supplementation of 250 mg/kg BW/d EBN demonstrated a significant increase in sperm concentration, percentage of sperm motility as well as FSH and LH level compared to 10 mg/kg BW/d group. There was a dose-dependent increase in testosterone level but was not significant between groups. Based on these findings, EBN is concluded to have crucial effects on male reproductive parameters.
... Swiftlet nest has been used for a long time. From the beginning of the Tang dynasty, swiftlet nest has been an important item in Chinese cuisine and pharmacy (Marcone, 2005). In the present study, we evaluated the effect of hydrolyzed swiftlet nest extracts on skin whitening and moisturizing were measured. ...
... Using rat models, Yida et al. (2015) reported that the swiftlet nest attenuates high fat diet-induced oxidative stress. Guo et al. (2016) showed that NANA administration decreased Sialic acid is a main active compound found in swiftlet nest and NANA is a major sialic acid structure detected in swiftlet nest that can be obtained from the hydrolysis of swiftlet nest (Chan et al., 2013;Marcone, 2005;Pozsgay et al., 1987;Van der Ham et al., 2007). In swiftlet nest, there are two forms of NANA: loosely attached on the surface of swiftlet nest (free NANA) and/or covalently bound to glycan molecules and linked to protein mass (conjugated NANA). ...
Article
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Purpose: This research verified the skin whitening and moisturizing effects of hydrolyzed swiftlet nest extracts (HSNE) in vitro using human keratinocytes and melanoma.Methods: To confirm the antioxidant effect of HSNE, DPPH radical-scavenging activity was measured. To find out the whitening effect of HSNE, the genes related to melanogenesis, mRNA expression of tyrosinase (TYR), tyrosinase related protein (TRP) 1, 2 and microphthalmia associated transcription factor (MITF) were measured. We also measured the melanin contents after treatment of HSNE to confirm the anti-melanogenesis effect. Using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), the genes related to moisturizing such as aquaporin (AQP) 3, hyaluronan synthase (HAS) 1, 2, and 3 were determined. The results of the tests were analyzed with student’s t-test and expressed as mean±standard deviation.Results: DPPH radical scavenging effects of HSNE increased in a concentration dependent manner. The expression of melanogenesis-related genes were inhibited by the treatment of HSNE in a concentration-dependent manner (MITF, TYR, TRP1, and 2). Melanin contents also decreased with the treatment of HSNE. The expression of moisturizing-related genes (HAS1, 2, 3, and AQP3) increased in a concentration-dependent manner.Conclusion: It is confirmed that the hydrolyzed swiftlet nest extracts have skin whitening and moisturizing effects and can be used as a functional cosmetic raw material.
... It should be noted that cave-harvested EBN is priced at a much higher rate (RM16,000/Kg) than the house-farmed EBN (RM6, 000/Kg). Due to the huge difference in price between different types of EBN, many EBN manufacturers have resorted to the unethical practices by selling house-farmed EBN at the price of cave-harvested EBN, adulterating cave-harvested EBN with lower-priced house-farmed EBN or other ingredients such as red seaweed, karaya gum, Tremella fungus, agar, fried pigskin and egg white (Guo et al., 2014;Marcone, 2005;Seow, Ibrahim, Muhammad, Lee, & Cheng, 2016). Chantakun, Kishimura, Kumagai, and Benjakul (2021) reported that protein was the major component found in both types of EBN, whereas the dominant amino acids are aspartic acid/asparagine and serine (the non-essential amino acids), and leucine, threonine and phenylalanine (the essential amino acids). ...
... In this study, the researchers classified the cave-harvested EBN and house-farmed EBN samples based on their mineral contents. The minerals found in EBN are calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K), phosphorus (P) and iron (Fe) (Ma & Liu, 2012;Marcone, 2005). Since the cave-harvested EBN are built on the walls of the caves, they tend to contain more foreign minerals and impurities as compared to the house-farmed EBN. ...
Article
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Cave-harvested edible bird nest (EBN) is a high-priced commodity, that often being counterfeited with lower-priced house-farmed EBN. In this study, cave-harvested EBN and house-farmed EBN were classified based on to the concentration of calcium (Ca), sodium (Na), magnesium (Mg) and potassium (K) present. To solve the convergence failure problem caused by the complete separation of the EBN data, a logistic regression model analysis on 48 EBN samples harvested from Malaysia and Indonesia through a mineral ratio approach was adopted. Out of the 3 logistic regression models developed, the model consisting of Ca/Na ratio and Mg/K ratio gave the best performance showing no convergence failure of Maximum Likelihood Estimation (MLE) and both the explanatory variables were highly significant. The result indicated that both Ca/Na ratio and Mg/K ratio, affecting the probability of EBN type to be cave-harvested EBN in a positive manner. The logistic regression model developed with the Ca/Na ratio and Mg/K ratio gave a 100% specificity and 91.67% sensitivity in classifying the EBN type. The results of the analysis were verified using the Receiver Operating Characteristics curves. The validation result indicated that the model has a very good overall diagnostic accuracy in classifying the EBN type based on the mineral ratio.
... Edible Bird Nest (EBN) Swiftlets are small sized insectivorous swifts from the family Apodidae that inhabit limestone caves of many part of South East Asia (Chantler et al., 1999, Marcone, 2005. They are first class flyers flying at high velocity (Videler et al, 2004) and possess the ability to find their way in deep darkness through echolocation, an advantage that make them free visually orienting predators (Fenton, 1975). ...
... EBNs are highly sought after due to their nutritional, aphrodisiac and purported health benefits (Norhayatti et al, 2010, Guo et al, 2006) which includes possessing useful properties that tone up the organs of the body, relieve gastric problems and aids kidney function (Marcone, 2005). The nest is among the most expensive animal product in the world and because of this, there has been great exploitation across the regions (Sankaran, 2001). ...
... Edible bird's nest (EBN) is an exotic delicacy which is traditionally considered to have high nutritional and medicinal value in oriental communities. EBN is made up of solidified saliva of edible-nest swiftlets which are found in Southeast Asia and which usually build their nests on high inaccessible places such as cave walls [1]. The grading and pricing of EBN are significantly dependent on its authenticity, chemical composition and cleanliness [2][3][4]. ...
... Over the years, the inspection of cleanliness, grading and adulteration detection of EBN were carried out manually alongside the cleaning process through observations based on colour and texture [7]. Recently, researchers have been trying to reduce the human factor in grading and adulteration detection of EBN by developing objective tests such as chemical composition analysis, spectroscopic observation and genetic analysis to identify fake or adulterated EBN [1,[8][9][10][11]. Unfortunately, cleanliness inspection of EBN still heavily relies on human visual judgement [12], thus exposing the inspection to misjudgement, reduced productivity over long continuous working hours, inconsistent judgement among different operators and time to overcome the skill gap for newcomers [13][14][15]. ...
Article
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The cleanliness of edible bird’s nest (EBN) is among the determinative factors for market acceptance. As it is meant for human consumption, EBN should be free of any impurities or matter which are foreign to it, such as bird feathers, egg fragments and droppings. However, natural variations in composition, density and thickness impose inconsistency to the level of translucency and colour of EBN, resulting in intensity inhomogeneity in EBN images that substantially reduce the accuracy of the segmentation and detection of impurities. Consequently, the segmentation and detection of impurities, which are essential to visual automation in the cleaning and inspection processes, remain unsolved. This work proposes a novel optical segmentation method to segment impurities from the EBN, in order to facilitate the detection of impurities. EBN images captured under two different lighting scenarios, namely, low-angle blue-diffused lighting and red-diffused backlighting, were used to prepare the fused image for background-EBN-impurities segmentation. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by comparing the detection results with those of human inspectors. With a simple thresholding operation performed on fused images, the impurities detection algorithm recorded a true positive/recall rate of 93.39%, a precision of 71.17% and a false-negative detection rate of 4.8%. Despite the high misclassification rate of 32.25%, the algorithm was able to detect more than 93% of the impurities, compared to human inspectors, who required a second examination on the EBNs.
... There are more than 24 species of swiftlet distributed throughout the world, but only a few produce edible bird's nests (Goh et al., 2001;Marcone, 2005). Aerodramus fuciphagus or white bird species of swiftlets that produce edible bird nests (EBN) are found only in Southeast Asia. ...
... Edible Bird Nest (EBN) is consumed by many Chinese as a symbol of wealth, power, prestige and as well as being used medicinally in traditional Chinese medicine. Many Chinese people used it in their cuisine and this delicacy is valued for its high nutritional content and medicinal benefits [1]. Thus, swiftlet farming has expanded rapidly in Southeast Asia [2] due to increased global demand for EBNs especially China and Malaysia is one of the largest exporter of EBNs to China. ...
Article
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Edible Bird Nest (EBN) is a bird made product and its one of the most expensive animal products consumed by human nowadays due to high nutritional values and medicinal properties. Market processed EBN found the presence of mites, fungal spores and feather strands using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Mite was the common cause of anaphylaxis. Indeed, mite are heat resistant and thus can elicit allergic reaction even the food has been cooked. Therefore, the enzyme technology is applied in the current study on EBN to remove most of the pathogen. The results obtained in this study were attributable to the fact that enzyme treatment EBN is added value product and safer for human consumption as compared to that of the market processed EBN.
... 2011). Other examples include certain kinds of cheese with a strong smell or a mouldy appearance, the Kopi luwak coffee beans that are first digested and excreted by a civet cat to give it its smoky smoothness (Marcone 2004), the 'Caviar of the East', which is an edible bird's nest soup (Marcone 2005) or the saúva ants that are collected by the legendary Baré Indians. ...
Article
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Disgust is a strong emotion of aversion. In the context of food, it is often referred to as a guardian of the mouth, preventing close contact with pathogens and the accidental consumption of poisons. However, disgust can also create a certain level of attraction and be part of positive experiences, even in the context of food. In this article, we discuss different ways of using disgust to influence eating behaviour and contribute to healthier food consumption. We outline ten different bridging concepts accompanied by various design exemplars on how to use disgust in the context of critical food design. In addition, we present four different lenses that can help to refine the design concepts.
... EBN is an expensive delicacy for the Chinese and sometimes is considered as the "Caviar of the East" (Marcone, 2005). EBN is exclusively popular as part of the traditional Chinese medicine to treat respiratory ailments, moistening the lungs, heart tonics, and stomach nourishments . ...
Article
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Edible bird’s nest (BN) is a Chinese traditional medicine with innumerable health benefits, including anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective, and immunomodulatory effects. A small number of studies have reported the anti-viral effects of EBN against influenza infections using in vitro and in vivo models, highlighting the importance of sialic acid and thymol derivatives in their therapeutic effects. At present, studies have reported that EBN suppresses the replicated virus from exiting the host cells, reduces the viral replication, endosomal trafficking of the virus, intracellular viral autophagy process, secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines, reorient the actin cytoskeleton of the infected cells, and increase the lysosomal degradation of viral materials. In other models of disease, EBN attenuates oxidative stress-induced cellular apoptosis, enhances proliferation and activation of B-cells and their antibody secretion. Given the sum of its therapeutic actions, EBN appears to be a candidate that is worth further exploring for its protective effects against diseases transmitted through air droplets. At present, anti-viral drugs are employed as the first-line defense against respiratory viral infections, unless vaccines are available for the specific pathogens. In patients with severe symptoms due to exacerbated cytokine secretion, anti-inflammatory agents are applied. Treatment efficacy varies across the patients, and in times of a pandemic like COVID-19, many of the drugs are still at the experimental stage. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of anti-viral and anti-inflammatory effects of EBN, chemical constituents from various EBN preparation techniques, and drugs currently used to treat influenza and novel coronavirus infections. We also aim to review the pathogenesis of influenza A and coronavirus, and the potential of EBN in their clinical application. We also describe the current literature in human consumption of EBN, known allergenic or contaminant presence, and the focus of future direction on how these can be addressed to further improve EBN for potential clinical application.
... The use of edible bird's nest (EBN) in traditional Chinese medicine has been documented since the Tang Dynasty . EBN is used as a natural supplement that possesses various medicinal benefits towards human wellness, including anti-viral, anti-inflammatory, immune modulator, respiratory supplement, anti-aging and metabolic stimulant (Haghani et al. 2016;Marcone 2005). EBN derived from salivary secretion of two sublingual's palaeotropical swiftlets (Looi & Omar 2016); in particular male swiftlets during mating season (Ma & Liu 2012). ...
... Edible bird's nest (EBN), also known as cubilose, is one of the most precious and expensive food produced from saliva of two swiftlet species, Aerodramus fuciphagus and Aerodramus maximus [1]. It is mainly originated from Southeast Asia countries, such as Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, and Vietnam [2]. Due to high demand and high price of genuine EBN, counterfeit and adulterated EBN are increasingly rampant in the markets. ...
Article
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A simple additive weighting (SAW) technique was used to determine and compare the overall performance of five DNA extraction methods from conventional (SDS method) to commercial kits (Qiagen, Wizard, and NucleoSpin) for identifying origins of edible bird’s nest (EBN) using end-point polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A hybrid method (SDS/Qiagen) which has been developed by combining the conventional SDS method with commercialised Qiagen was determined as the most suitable in terms of speed and cost-effectiveness. The determination of optimum extraction method was by the performances on efficiency and feasibility, extracted DNA concentration, purity, PCR amplifiability, handling time and safety of reagents used. The hybrid SDS/Qiagen method is less costly compared to the commercial kits and offered a more rapid alternative to the conventional SDS method with significant improvement in the yield, purity and PCR amplifiability. The developed hybrid SDS/Qiagen method provides a more practical alternative over the lengthy process using conventional method and expensive process using commercial kits. Using the simple additive weighting (SAW) technique and analysis, the Qiagen method is considered the most efficient and feasible method without consideration of cost as it yielded the purest extracted DNA and achieved the highest PCR amplifiability with the shortest turnaround time.
... It is believed that the nest has both nutritional and medicinal properties that help prevent or cure various diseases. Contemporary research found that proteins in the bird's nest have a bacteriostatic property which inhibits the growth of bacteria (Marcone, 2005). Bird's nest extract is also found to inhibit viral infections that cause the common cold and flu. ...
... EBN has a fairly high protein content (62-63%), carbohydrates (25.62-27.26%), fat (0.14-1.28%), and ash (2.1%) [3]. ...
Article
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Abstract. Edible Bird Nest Fragments (EBNF) have high levels of bioactive compounds as antioxidants. In the form of hydrolyzate nanocapsules, it will be able to increase the antioxidant activity of protecting the active compounds in the capsulesanfd more stable. The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant activity of nanocapsules with the material in powder compared to protein hydrolyzate and to determine the best encapsulant composition. This study used two factors, including the material type and ratio coating material. The material were Edible Bird Nest protein hydrolyzate and Edible Bird Nest powder. The ratio of the coating materials were modified corn starch and maltodextrin (25%:75%, 50%:50%, 75%:25%). Several parameters were observed including yield, encapsulation efficiency, antioxidant activity, size and distribution of nanocapsules, and morphology of nanocapsules. The best formulation was obtained from the core material of swallow's nest protein hydrolyzate with 75% modified corn starch encapsulation and 25% maltodextrin. The best formulation has nano encapsulated characteristics with a yield of 14.07%, encapsulation efficiency of 78.17%, the antioxidant activity of 54.66%, the lowest polydispersity index value (0.69), and spherical morphology, smooth surface with slight depressions (near perfect). Further, these characteristics represent that nanocapsule EBNF hydrolysate is a promising food additive.
... Edible bird's nest (EBN) was produced from the saliva of swiftlets, which has many health benefits such as inhibiting virus and inflammation, promoting cell proliferation and reducing activity of tumor cells (Linh, Le Son, & Ai, 2021). In 2019, the EBN market size was about 30 billion yuan, and annual growth rate exceeded 30% (Marcone, 2005). The origins of EBN were mainly in Southeast Asia, of which Indonesia accounted for 85%-90% of the global EBN production, Malaysia and Thailand accounted for 5%-10% and 3% respectively (Chen, Wong, Lim, & Mak, 2015;Quek, Chin, Tan, Yusof, & Law, 2018). ...
Article
Focusing on the high dispersion of stable isotope ratios (δ¹³C, δ¹⁵N, δ¹⁸O, δ²H) in edible bird's nest (EBN), a robust method was developed to simultaneously discriminate and quantify three types of substances (sialic acid, egg white and food gums) added separately into EBN. Results showed that by establishing a data processing formula to improve cohesion of the samples' isotope ratios, a discriminant formula was achieved with an accuracy ranging from 88% to 99%. With the three adulterated references, discriminant was set up by the calculated Euclidean distance with prediction accuracy ranged from 95.80% to 99.97%. Additionally, three equations were building-up to quantity the content of those adulterated substances of EBN, with satisfactory relative standard deviations and within the range from 1.34% to 6.31% (n = 6). By applying the developed methods, two out of the twelve samples were found to adulterate 3.9% sialic acid and 2.9% egg white respectively.
... Edible bird's nest (EBN) -a product of the salivary secretions of swiftlet species is recognized for its medicinal and nutritional benefits and demonstrated as a potential antioxidant (Ghassem et al. 2017;Marcone 2005). Several authors have reported that EBN possesses anti-aging, anti-cancer, antioxidative, and anti-inflammatory properties (Hamzah et al. 2013;Hou et al. 2015;Yida et al. 2015). ...
Article
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Diluents and various biological products have been used in different animal species, with promising outcomes in post-thaw sperm quality. Nevertheless, only a few reports are available for the semen of Arabian horses. Edible bird’s nest (EBN) – a product of the salivary secretions of swiftlet species is widely known to have both antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Presently, there is no data available on the role of EBN supplemented in different extenders and its effect on semen quality in stallion semen. Two in vitro experiments were conducted to examine the effects of edible bird’s nest (EBN) on the quality of chilled and post-thawed cryopreserved Arabian stallion spermatozoa. In experiment one, 10 ejaculates were collected, divided into two equal parts, diluted using EquiPlus® and INRA 96® and supplemented with 0 % (control), 0.12 %, 0.24 % EBN concentrations. The semen samples were stored at 5 ℃ and observed at 0, 24, and 48 h. Sperm kinetics variables (% total motility [TM] and progressive motility [PM], curvilinear velocity; VCL, straightness; VSL, average path velocity; VAP) were analyzed using computerized assisted sperm analysis. For chilled semen, there was no significant difference in any of the sperm quality parameters between control (0 %), 0.12 %, and 0.24 % EBN supplementation either in INRA96® or EquiPlus®. In experiment two, nine ejaculates were diluted and cryopreserved using EquiPlus Freeze® and INRA Freeze® containing 0 %, 2.4 %, and 4.8 % EBN, and evaluated after thawing. Sperm kinetics, DNA integrity and antioxidant capacity - Biological Anti-oxidant Potential (BAP) and Reactive Oxygen Metabolites (d-ROMs) test were evaluated. In chilled semen, there was no significant difference in any of the sperm quality parameters between control (0 %), 0.12 %, and 0.24 % EBN supplementation either in INRA96® or EquiPlus®. For frozen semen supplemented with 2.4 % and 4.8 % EBN had higher sperm motility parameters compared to control in INRA Freeze® and EquiPlus Freeze®, but the values were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). Also, EBN supplementation had no significant effects on the DNA integrity, biological antioxidant potential, and reactive oxygen metabolites. EBN supplementation had no significant effects on sperm quality and antioxidant status in chilled and frozen Arabian Stallion semen. Future studies might consider different methods of EBN preparation and concentrations to elucidate the potential biological impact of EBN in Arabian stallion semen
... Wawancara yang dilakukan adalah wawancara terstuktur, yaitu dilakukan dengan pedoman wawancara untuk mendapakan data informasi secara lengkap dan akurat sesuai tujuan penelitian. (25,26), lemak (0,14-1,28%) dan abu (2,1%) (Marcone, 2005). (Ayuti, et.al., 2016). ...
Article
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Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui karakteristik dan produksi sarang walet sarang putih (Collocalia fuciphaga) dari hasil budidaya di Desa Binanga Karaeng, Kecamatan Lembang, Kabupaten Pinrang. Jenis data yang dikumpulkan yaitu data primer dan data sekunder. Data primer dikumpulkan melalui teknik oberservasi, wawancara, survey, dan dokumentasi. Data sekundar diperoleh dari literature, buku , dan laporan penelitian. Penelitian ini dilakukan selama satu musim produksi pada dua unit penangkaran/budidaya walet dengan umur penangkaran 3 tahun. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa karakteristik dan produksi sarang pada kedua penangkar berbeda. Pada penangkar pertama diperoleh bentuk sarang walet pada umumnya seperti mangkok dibelah dua, ukuran panjang 7 – 9.5 cm, lebar 2.8 – 3.8 cm, tinggi 1.2 – 2.1 cm dan berat 5 – 10 gram,warna putih, bening, kristal dan kondisi utuh, tidak retak, dan tidak cacat sehingga termasuk kualitas 1, produksi sarang 0,46-0,62 kg dengan frekuensi panen 3-4 kali per tahun,. Penangkar kedua diperoleh bentuk sarang walet 62,5% seperti mangkok dibelah dua dan 37,5% berbentuk menyudut (segitiga), ukuran panjang sarang bentuk mangkok dibelah dua 6 – 9 cm, lebar 2.9 – 4.0 cm, tinggi 1.4 – 3,0 cm dan berat 5 – 11 gram, warna putih, bening, kristal dan putih kekuningan, kondisi utuh, tidak retak, dan tidak cacat, sehingga termasuk Kualitas 1-2, produksi sarang 0,55-0,77 kg dengan frekuensi panen 4-5 kali per tahun
... The global EBN production is mainly concentrated in Southeast Asia, such as Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, with Indonesia's EBN accounting for more than 80% of the world's EBN production [2]. Two species of swiftlets (Aerodramus fuciphagus and Aerodramus maximus) build edible bird's nests that are consumed by humans worldwide, as a delicacy known as the "Caviar of the East" [3]. The EBN was proven scientifically to possess high medicinal benefits in antioxidants [4], immune regulation, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, antiaging, and other biological activities [5,6]. ...
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Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is an unusual mucin glycoprotein. In China, it is popular among consumers due to its skin whitening activity. However, the relationship between protein, sialic acid, and the whitening activity of EBN after digestion is still unclear. In the present work, the whitening activity (antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory activity) of digested EBN were studied by HepG2 and B16 cell models. The dissolution rate of protein and sialic acid was 49.59% and 46.45% after the simulated digestion, respectively. The contents of free sialic acid and glycan sialic acid in EBN digesta were 17.82% and 12.24%, respectively. HepG2 cell experiment showed that the digested EBN had significant antioxidant activity, with EC50 of 1.84 mg/mL, and had a protective effect on H2O2-induced oxidative damage cells. The results of H2O2-induced oxidative damage showed that the cell survival rate increased from 40% to 57.37% when the concentration of digested EBN was 1 mg/mL. The results of the B16 cell experiment showed that the digested EBN had a significant inhibitory effect on tyrosinase activity, and the EC50 value of tyrosinase activity was 7.22 mg/mL. Cell experiments showed that free sialic acid had stronger antioxidant activity and tyrosinase inhibitory activity than glycan sialic acid. The contribution rate analysis showed that protein component was the main antioxidant component in digestive products, and the contribution rate was 85.87%; free sialic acid was the main component that inhibited tyrosinase activity, accounting for 63.43%. The products of the complete digestion of EBN are suitable for the development of a new generation of whitening health products.
... Breeding pairs build U-shaped cup nests from the salivary laminae they secrete and thread using their beaks (Babji et al., 2015;Dacuan, n.d.). These nests are translucent white or yellowish, depending on the breeding pair, the age of the nest, and its exposure to sunlight or breeze (Caabay and Cadigal, 2014;Marcone, 2005). Breeding pairs remain faithful to their nesting sites, leaving worn marks on the walls (Caabay and Cadigal, 2014). ...
Article
The intensifying extraction, privatization, and conservation of maritime spaces are transforming seascapes globally. Amidst rapid coastal change and the ambiguous reconfiguration of oceans as frontiers are coastal dwellers who occupy the shadows of these seascapes. In contrast to the capture of high-profile marine species, the harvest of the edible nests of balinsasayaw (swiftlet, Aerodramus fuciphagus) remains largely concealed at the interstitial spaces between land, coast, and sea. In the Philippines, harvesters known as busyador negotiate social relations, political networks, and karst systems to extract these lucrative nests. Despite the nest industry growing in value in Southeast Asia, we show how the busyador struggle in precarious social relations and spaces peripheral to coastal governance in northern Palawan Island. Building on the concept of ‘seascape assemblages’, we emphasize the importance of the less visible human-nonhuman relations that shape the nest harvest and trade. We trace the marginal social histories of the balinsasayaw by highlighting the precarious nature of the harvest, revealing how the busyador are subject to unfair working conditions, dispossession, and violence. We argue that as state actors and local elites reconfigure oceans as frontiers for development and conservation, struggles over labour and tenure rights, livelihood opportunities, and justice at sea are disregarded.
... [15]. The higher protein and carbohydrate content in half cup EBN can be possibly explained due to the complete structure of the nest, which was composed almost entirely of pure mucin-rich glycoprotein that hardens in contact with air, forming a cup-shaped nest with little impurities [37]. In contrast, stripe-shaped EBN are the pieces collected from the edge of the EBN nest, which adheres to the surface of the bird house and have more impurities trapped to its harden texture. ...
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Edible bird’s nest (EBN) produced by Aerodramus fuciphagus has a high demand for nutritional and medicinal application throughout the world. The present study was to evaluate the authentication of a man-made house EBN, which are half cup and stripe-shaped by FTIR. Next, both samples were compared according to their metabolite, nutritional, and mineral composition. The results indicated that the FTIR spectra of both EBN samples were identical and similar to the reference, suggesting the authenticity of the EBN used. The metabolites that contribute to the possible medicinal properties of EBN were found by using GC-MS. The results of the proximate analysis, followed by the standard AOAC method, inferred that both EBN shapes to be rich in crude protein and carbohydrate contents. However, the proximate composition between the half cup and stripe-shaped EBN showed significant differences. Major mineral elements detected were calcium and sodium, and magnesium contents were significantly different between both EBN. Additionally, the half cup and stripe-shaped EBN had a low level of heavy metal content than the maximum regulatory limit as set by the Malaysian Food Act 1983. This study concludes that the nutritional composition varied between the samples and thus suggests that nutrient content should be considered as criteria for the grading requirement of commercialized EBN.
... Edible bird nest (EBN), produced from the saliva of the swiftlets, is consumed worldwide and is often regarded as a medicinal food (Marcone, 2005). EBN comprises many exceedingly nutritious substances like glycoproteins, carbohydrates, minerals and both essential and non-essential amino acids. ...
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Every year, there are about 13.3 million cases of acute kidney injury (AKI). Although AKI is a preventable and treatable disease, if left untreated, it has high risk of multiple organ failure and progression to end stage kidney disease. Acute tubular necrosis (ATN) has been recognised as one of the major causes of AKI. Till to date, there is no effective supplement or medication in treating or reversing AKI. Most of the treatment strategies involve preventative measure to minimise the occurrence of AKI or to reverse the cause of AKI. Hence one of the primary area of research interests is to explore the potential treatment for AKI. Edible bird nests (EBN) are edible food produce by the swiftlet’s saliva, which is rich in sialic acids. Sialic acids are monosaccharides that play a vital role in maintaining the integrity and proper function of the human organs, including kidneys. EBN also contains epidermal growth factor, which is widely believed to have rejuvenation and tissue repairing properties. We initiate this study to study the potential reno-protective effect of edible bird’s nests by studying the Wistar rat model of gentamicin-induced AKI. Besides renal profiles, renal histology was also semiquantitatively assessed. In our study, pre-treatment with EBN prevented and ameliorated the gentamicin-induced AKI. To a lesser extent, post-treatment with EBN also protected the kidney from the toxic effect of gentamicin. Our findings are highly indicative that EBN possesses reno-protective properties.
... This natural product has been used as a traditional medicine and, most often, as a luxury ingredient in bird's nest soup, particularly in China, for more than 400 years (Dai et al., 2020;Hobbs, 2004). EBNs are one of the most valuable animal by-products (Marcone, 2005), and their market value is around USD 1,000-10,000/kg depending on their grade, shape, type, and origin (Hao & Rahman, 2016). Male swiftlets usually build EBNs over a period of 35 days during the breeding season (Chua & Zukefli, 2016). ...
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Edible birds’ nests (EBNs) have traditionally been produced in Southeast Asia. Indonesian farmers construct buildings for swiftlets and harvest their nests. EBN farming does not directly degrade forest resources and is therefore considered a sustainable means of production, whereas the expansion of other agricultural activities often relies on the degradation of natural resources. This study examines the relationship between natural resources and agricultural livelihoods, focusing on Indonesian EBN farmers. Using survey data that we collected in 2017, combined with satellite information on the extent of the forest in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, we measured production efficiency and identified the natural and social factors that enhance production performance. The results show that a forest extent ranging between 2,000 and 6,000 meters from nesting building is positively associated with the production efficiency of EBN farming, perhaps because extensive forest could help swiftlets to collect food and build nests. Conversely, while EBN farming is a sustainable and profitable option, the initial costs of constructing buildings to house swiftlets may deter farmers from participating in the process.
... The amino acid fingerprint profile of cave EBN, house EBN, white fungus, egg white, fish swimming bladder, and jelly are all distinct from each other and could be identified by HPLC (Hun et al., 2016). Proximate nutritional analysis shows that addition of adulterants, such as karaya gum, red seaweed, and tremella fungus, could account for 2-10% of the final weight of EBN and reduce the crude protein content of EBN up to 6.2% (Marcone, 2005). Authentic EBN contains more than 3 mg epidermal growth factor (EGF) in 1 g of protein as detected using a simple immunoblotting assay (Yang et al., 2014). ...
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Edible bird’s nest (EBN) is a traditional Chinese delicacy made of the saliva of swiftlets found in Southeast Asia. With increasing demands for EBN, quality control of EBN products is important for safe consumption. The processing steps are particularly important for efficient extraction of bioactive compounds. Geographical location, collection place, and harvesting season contribute to differences in nutritional contents in EBN. Concerns regarding presence of adulterant, chemical, and microbial contaminants in EBN as well as authentication and chemical composition measuring methods are discussed in this review. Recent discoveries of beneficial health functions of EBN in antimicrobial and antiviral actions, immunomodulation, cancer prevention and treatment, tissue regeneration, cardiometabolic maintenance, antioxidant action and neuroprotection are also reviewed. Our review provides an update on the recent research on EBN.
Article
Edible bird's nest (EBN) swiftlet existed naturally 48,000 years ago in caves as their natural dwellings. Nowadays, edible bird's nest has become a very important industry due to its high nutritional, medicinal and economic value. Additionally, edible bird's nest has a long quality guarantee period. Obviously, the nutritional components and medicinal functions vary depending on geographical origins. Recently, the global demand for edible bird's nest has markedly increased, accompanied by the increasing attention of all key players of the global food trade system, i.e., producers, consumers, traders and the authorities to obtain safe and high-quality edible bird's nest. Hence, this target can be accomplished via the enforcement of an efficient and universal geo-tracing technique. Current methods of the geo-tracking of edible bird's nest, i.e., automation, physical and analytical techniques have several limitations and all of them fail to discriminate different quality grades of edible bird's nest. Meanwhile, in many studies and applications, polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) has proven to be a “cutting edge” technique for greatly enhance food traceability from field to fork through its ability in distinguishing the food products in terms of their quality and safety. This article provides an overview of (1) edible bird's nest as a multiuse strategic food product, (2) quality issues associated with edible bird’s nest including implications that the site of acquisition of the edible bird’s nest has food safety implications, (3) current regulations and geo-tracking approaches to ensure the safety and quality of edible bird’s nest with the special focus on polymerase chain reaction-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis technique as a vigorous and universal geo-tracing tool to be suggested for edible bird's nest geo-traceability.
Conference Paper
The economic motivation for adulteration and mislabeling of origin is significant as edible bird’s nest (EBN) rank amongst the world’s most expensive animal products for food and traditional medicinal uses. The aim of this study is to determine the geographical origin of Malaysian Edible Bird’s Nest by using bio element fingerprinting techniques using carbon, nitrogen and sulphur (CNS) isotopes in order to avoid product fraud, and to guarantee product quality and safety. The samples used were authentic processed EBNs from different states in Malaysia and supplied by Ministry of Health, Malaysia. The ground EBN samples were analyzed using Elemental Analyzer Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometer (EA-IRMS) system. The EBN measured δ¹³C values cover a range of -26.99‰ to -23.80‰ and the δ¹⁵N values cover a range of 5.05‰ to 8.06‰. The carbon isotope values are typical of Calvin (C3) plant sources. The nitrogen isotope values show that the swifts feed on relatively small primary consumer insects. This is also evidenced by the substantial overlap of δ¹⁵N values from the different locations. From the analysis, a statistically significant correlation does exist between the δ¹³C and δ15N values for the EBNs. The EBN measured δ³⁴S values covered a range of +1.9‰ to +14.3‰ with a mean value of +7.8‰. Higher δ³⁴S values were observed for EBN produced in the state of Sarawak compared to the EBN produced in the other states of Kelantan, Malacca, Negeri Sembilan, Perak and Selangor. Stable carbon, nitrogen and sulphur isotope analysis of Malaysian EBNs has shown potential for distinguishing between the various states in which they are produced, based on preliminary data. Using additional stable isotope data such as that derived from hydrogen and/or oxygen and combining trace element profiling would likely improve the reliability of the determination of geographical origin and classification rates.
Article
In this study, water-insoluble fraction of edible birds' nest (EBN) was treated with dynamic high pressure microfluidization (DHPM) under 40, 80, 120, and 160 MPa of pressure. The results displayed a remarkable pressure-related increase in protein solubility upon DHPM treatment. In addition, circular dichroism spectra also revealed that DHPM treatment induced conformational changes such as increase in α-helix and β-turn, whereas intrinsic fluorescence spectroscopy showed that tryptophan residues were less exposed to solvent. Furthermore, the increased surface hydrophobicity accompanied by reduced particle size was observed in DHPM treated samples, which was in good agreement with results of atomic force microscopy analysis, showing de-aggregation of large proteins in EBN water-insoluble fraction. Hence, our study shows that DHPM treatment can solubilize proteins from EBN water-insoluble fraction, and is an alternative method to traditional stewing to release the functional ingredients from EBN insoluble fraction, which can be introduced into industrial EBN food processing.
Article
Edible bird’s nest (EBN) hydrolysates have been proven to exhibit enhanced bioactivities. However, being a macromolecule, fractions with different molecular weights would have different properties and bioactivities. Hence, this research was aimed to determine the chemical properties and antioxidant activities of freeze-dried (EBNFD) and spray-dried EBN (EBNSD) hydrolysates fractionated using gel permeation chromatography (GPC). Overall, two well-separated fractions were identified (EBNfFD1, EBNfFD2, EBNfSD1 and EBNfSD2). EBNFD demonstrated significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) peptide (3.6%), total carbohydrate (27.7%) and sialic acid (18.2%) contents than that of EBNSD. Similar trend was observed in low molecular weight fractionates (EBNfFD2 and EBNfSD2). Meanwhile, the first fractionates (EBNfFD1 and EBNfSD1) exhibited significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) hydroxyl radical (•OH) scavenging activity. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy demonstrated that all EBN fractionates have similar spectrum, except in the region of N—H (amide II) and C—H alkyl group. In conclusion, EBN fractionates with different molecular weights showed different chemical properties and antioxidant activities.
Article
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Edible bird nests (EBNs) are highly demanded globally and has long been used as a healthy food since ancient times. This study investigated the physicochemical properties of Myanmar EBN and preparation of EBN soup by double boiling technique. The protein content of Myanmar EBNs was found to be high value of 53.5%-59.3 % which showed the good source of nutritional food. The protein content in EBN samples may differ due to the harvesting season, habitat and the diet of swiftlets. The moisture content was about 15.6%. The mineral content (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium and zinc) was analyzed by AAS. The mineral contents in EBNs were found in the increasing order of Zn<K<Mg<Na<Ca. The calcium (0.71%) and magnesium (361.3 ppm) contents were in a satisfactory level for consumers. After soaking the EBNs, the nitrate and nitrite contents in the soaking water were found to be 0.27 ppm and 4.0 ppm respectively and the values are low level. The nitrite level in Myanmar edible bird's nests may be safe for consumption. The EBN soup was prepared by double boiling method which was suitable to maintain its functional biological properties and the best cooking time was found within a period of two hour at 90 o C. The important factors are raw EBN quality, cooking time and cooking temperature to maintain the texture and nutritional values in soup. If the temperature may be too high or the time of cooking is too long protein content was destroyed because of the exceedingly high temperature. The investigation results in this study will be beneficial for the researchers, scientists, EBN manufactures and nutraceutical industries in Myanmar.
Article
Edible bird's nest (EBN) is built by seven species of Aerodramus and Collocalia (Apodidae), using salivary gland secretion mixed with feathers or grass during the breeding. Its rich nutritional values such as anti-aging activity, immunomodulatory and antioxidant activity make consumers flock to it. Consumers' pursuit, on the one hand, aroused the arrogance of counterfeiters, which eventually leads to food safety problems. On the other hand, it promotes the in-depth studies of EBN in all aspects, such as compositions, biological activities, authenticity identification, quality control, and so on. This paper presented the origins and classifications of EBN and the current situation of EBN industry in detail; reviewed the nutritional compositions, pharmacological actions, identification, inspection and content determination of EBN comprehensively; and prospected the future research directions to provide suggestions for the further study.
Article
Edible bird’s nests (Bnest) collected from house and cave of eight provinces in the southern part of Thailand were characterised. Bnest from different locations had differences in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra and energy‐ dispersive X‐ray (EDX) spectroscopy patterns but there was no distinctive difference in protein patterns. Crystallinity values of cave‐Bnest from Phatthalung province (PL‐C) and house‐Bnest from Songkhla province (SK‐H) (38.79% and 35.52%, respectively) were higher than those of other samples. PL‐C and SK‐H samples had different thermal behaviours, as determined by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Both samples were used for the production of Bnest beverage using the retort process (121 °C for 11 min). Colour, soluble solid content, drained weight, and sterility were determined in both beverages. Average L*‐value and soluble solid content of SK‐H were higher than those of PL‐C (P < 0.05). Higher a* and b*‐values and drained weight were found in the latter. However, aerobic/anaerobic mesophiles and thermophiles were not detected in both samples. The beverage containing PL‐C generally showed higher acceptability for all attributes, especially appearance, texture, and overall likeness (P < 0.05), than that with SK‐H. Therefore, the habitat, where bird’s nest was collected, had a marked influence on the characteristics of both dried nest and resulting sterilised bird’s nest beverages. House‐Bnest and cave‐Bnest collected from different locations in southern part of Thailand had different characteristics and qualities. The sterilized beverage containing the selected cave bird’s nest showed higher quality and acceptability than that with the selected house bird’s nest.
Article
This study aimed to investigate the immunomodulatory effect of edible bird’s nest (EBN) in vitro and in vivo studies. EBN-treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed that EBN specifically enhanced the expansion of CD3⁺ T-cells. The restoration of lymphocyte subpopulations under the influence of immunosuppressive drug has been successfully recovered in CD3⁺ T-cells, not CD45RA⁺ B-cells and CD335⁺ NK-cells. In addition, oral administration of EBNs in Sprague-Dawley rats revealed their potential to increase the number of peripheral blood T-cells. Our study also demonstrated that EBN treatments affected the numbers of the Peyer’s patches, spleen weight and length, and cellularity of the periarteriolar lymphoid sheath. Interestingly, we observed that elevation of serum interleukin-2 (IL-2) had been correlated with the proliferation of T-cells in the animal model. Therefore, these results are essential for developing therapeutic strategies in improving immunity, particularly T-cell homeostasis, under immunosuppressive therapy.
Article
In-situ tracking structural changes of protein residues was developed by two-dimensional correlation surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (2DC-SERS). The change order of SERS fingerprints during artificial nitrification of edible bird's nest (EBN) was interpreted as the structural changes of amino acid residues. It inherently realizes reliable recognition of natural EBN and artificially dyed fakes. Both this direct structural tracking of protein residues and the indirect azo dye testing of nitrites/nitrosamines could be used as indicators for discriminating different EBN before and after the artificial dyeing. Limit of detection (LOD) for nitrite and NDMA is about 40.6 ppb and 88.1 ppb, respectively. A conceptual logical circuit of the OR gate was constructed by considering the protein structural indicator (INPUT1) and the nitrite indicator (INPUT2) as two independent inputs for automatic recognition of different EBN samples. A data-driven analog soft independent modeling (DD-SIMCA) model could quickly distinguish normal EBN from A-EBN with 98% specificity.
Preprint
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Edible bird’s nests (EBNs) have been traditionally produced in Southeast Asia and consumed in China. Indonesian farmers construct buildings for swiftlet birds and harvest their nests. Farming EBNs does not directly degrade forest resources and is therefore considered as a sustainable farming product, while the expansion of other agricultural activities often relies on the degradation of natural resources. This study examines how natural resources and agricultural livelihood are associated, focusing on Indonesian EBN farmers. Using our survey data combined with satellite information on the forest extent of Central Kalimantan, Indonesia, we measure production efficiency and identify the natural and social factors that enhance production performance. The results show that natural factors, such as forest extent and the existence of ponds, are positively associated with the production efficiency of EBNs. These natural resources could help swiftlets in collecting food and building nests. On the contrary, while farming EBNs is a sustainable and profitable option, the initial costs necessary for constructing a building to house the swiftlets may negatively impact farmers’ participation in the process.
Article
A major challenge in biodiversity management is overharvesting by unsustainable harvesters. If a scenario could be created where sustainable harvesters benefit more than the unsustainable ones, even in the short term, the issue of overharvesting would be solved. Everyone would then follow the lead of sustainable harvesters. However, creating such a scenario is not an easy task; the difficulty is intensified if the habitat is open‐access and there is no property rights system. Swiftlets in Sarawak, Malaysia, present a special case where sustainable harvesters are believed to be more beneficial than unsustainable harvesters. Edible nests built by adult swiftlets are used as ingredients for a traditional luxurious soup in Chinese cuisine. A rise in nest prices has increased the instances of unsustainable harvesters wrongfully collecting nests along with the eggs and fledglings, which are then abandoned. Swiftlets live in caves and build nests on cave ceilings. It is known that swiftlets escape from cave ceilings when these harvesters take the nests, never to return to the same place. This ecological feature appears to work as the swiftlet's indirect punishment against unsustainable harvesters. This study constructs a stage‐structured population model and examines the effect of property rights and the indirect punishment by swiftlets on the population dynamics of the bird, and on the economic return of both sustainable and unsustainable harvesters. Our findings are as follows: the indirect punishment by swiftlets provides sustainable harvesters a higher short‐term return than unsustainable harvesters under the property rights system, as long as swiftlets return to their original cave after escaping from the unsustainable harvesters. While previous studies regarding the management of the commons have stressed the importance of rules and regulations for sustainable harvesting without considering the ecological uniqueness of each species, this study suggests that ecological exploration and the discovery of ecological features are also essential for designing a sustainable framework.
Article
Edible Bird’s Nest (EBN) is mainly used as a functional food where its quality is affected by many factors including geographical region. This study aims to differentiate the EBN from West Malaysia (WM) and East Malaysia (EM) based on amino acid profiles by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) combined with multivariate approach. A total of 33 authentic EBN samples were collected from WM (n = 23) and EM (n = 10) for classification. The data obtained was used to identify the reliable potential markers between WM and EM via serial multivariate analysis including hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA), principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA). EBN samples from WM and EM were clearly distinguished by the developed OPLS-DA model with high prediction ability (Q²) of 62.7 %. The model’s robustness was validated and blind test samples were 100 % properly allocated to their respective groups. Glycine, cysteine, tryptophan and aspartic acid were proposed as potential markers to classify the EBN from WM and EM. Overall, the predictive model shows high accuracy for EBN classification.
Article
In order to reveal the color formation mechanism of blood-red edible bird’s nests (EBNs) and develop a quick and specific strategy to distinguish the artificial fake one, multiple methods of UPLC-TOF/MS, UV, NMR, FT-IR and 2D IR were used to detect the chemical markers of the reddening reaction, the results showed that the reddening substances were C9H10N2O5 and C9H9NO6, which were verified as products of a phenol-keto tautomerism evolved from L-tyrosine. Moreover, natural and artificial red EBNs with varying degrees of chemical fumigation also can be successfully distinguished using the chemical markers, and the protein variation in SDS-PAGE gel could also support the distinction. This work established a systematic method of chemical identification for both natural and artificial blood-red EBNs, and provided a new identification strategy for food safety control that can promote the development of a healthier market of EBNs.
Chapter
Edible bird’s nest (E-BN) or “Caviar of the East” is a premium and expensive cuisine well-known for the Chinese. It is saliva secreted from two specific swiftlets (Aerodramus maximus and Aerodramus fuciphagus). Two types of E-BN, namely house nests, and cave nests, are abundant in the South-East Asia region. The constituents, especially nitrate and nitrite, can be varied, depending on habitat, or feed available, etc. Protein (e.g., glycoprotein) is the major component of E-BN, followed by carbohydrates. Sialic acid is another essential constituent related to health promotion. E-BN is commonly utilized for the manufacturing of beverages or instant soup. E-BN in other forms such as capsules can serve as a supplement in the future due to its health promoting impact. In addition, the selected technology for quality improvement of E-BN especially from broken nests or flakes or other co-products is still required, while maintaining the eating quality to meet consumer’s demand. Thus, E-BN can be fully exploited and is still considered a valuable bird’s product with health benefits.
Book
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A marked decline in some swiftlet populations has been attributed to the harvesting of their nests which are prized in Chinese cuisine and traditional medicines. Documentation is provided on the history and volume of the trade.
Article
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A simple procedure suitable for rapid transmethylation of triacylglycerols, other neutral lipids (including cholesteryl esters), and glycerophospholipids is described. Lipids in diethyl ether solution (50 volumes), in the presence of methyl acetate (1 vol), are reacted with 1 M sodium methoxide in methanol (1 vol) at room temperature. Essentially complete transmethylation can occur within a few minutes with no hydrolysis. Glassware and reagent requirements are minimal and samples are ready for gas-liquid chromatography analysis with very little work-up.
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The purpose of this study was to report on the age, sex, breed, and mineral composition of 16 647 canine bladder uroliths submitted to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre between February 1998 and April 2003. Each urolith submission was accompanied by a questionnaire. Of the submissions, approximately 43.8% were struvite and 41.5% oxalate. Struvite uroliths were most common in female dogs. Mixed breed dogs predominated, followed by the shih tzu, bichon frise, miniature schnauzer, Lhasa apso, and Yorkshire terrier. Oxalate uroliths were most common in males and in the miniature schnauzer, bichon frise, Lhasa apso, shih tzu, and Yorkshire terrier. Urate uroliths were most common in male Dalmations. Other urolith types, including cystine, xanthine, silica, and calcium phosphate, were less commonly reported. A review of risk factors for the various uroliths is presented, along with some recommendations for treatment and prevention.
Article
The purpose of this study was to report on the age, sex, breed, and mineral composition of 16 647 canine bladder uroliths submitted to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Centre between February 1998 and April 2003. Each urolith submission was accompanied by a questionnaire. Of the submissions, approximately 43.8% were struvite and 41.5% oxalate. Struvite uroliths were most common in female dogs. Mixed breed dogs predominated, followed by the shih tzu, bichon frise, miniature schnauzer, Lhasa apso, and Yorkshire terrier. Oxalate uroliths were most common in males and in the miniature schnauzer, bichon frise, Lhasa apso, shih tzu, and Yorkshire terrier. Urate uroliths were most common in male Dalmations. Other urolith types, including cystine, xanthine, silica, and calcium phosphate, were less commonly reported. A review of risk factors for the various uroliths is presented, along with some recommendations for treatment and prevention.
Article
This research paper reports on the findings of the first scientific investigation into the various physicochemical properties of the palm civet (Kopi Luwak coffee bean) from Indonesia and their comparison to the first African civet coffee beans collected in Ethiopia in eastern Africa. Examination of the palm civet (Kopi Luwak) and African civet coffee beans indicate that major physical differences exist between them especially with regards to their overall color. All civet coffee beans appear to possess a higher level of red color hue and being overall darker in color than their control counterparts. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that all civet coffee beans possessed surface micro-pitting (as viewed at 10,000× magnification) caused by the action of gastric juices and digestive enzymes during digestion. Large deformation mechanical rheology testing revealed that civet coffee beans were in fact harder and more brittle in nature than their control counterparts indicating that gestive juices were entering into the beans and modifying the micro-structural properties of these beans. SDS–PAGE also supported this observation by revealing that proteolytic enzymes were penetrating into all the civet beans and causing substantial breakdown of storage proteins. Differences were noted in the types of subunits which were most susceptible to proteolysis between civet types and therefore lead to differences in maillard browning products and therefore flavor and aroma profiles. This was confirmed by electronic nose analysis which revealed differences between the palm civet coffee (Kopi Luwak) and African civet coffee aroma profiles. Analytical techniques for the authentification of palm civet (Kopi Luwak) and African civet coffee are also explored. It would appear that SDS–PAGE may serve as the most reasonable and reliable test to help confirm the authenticity of civet coffee. Electronic nose data was able to distinguish both civet coffees from their control counterparts and further indicated that processing through the civets gastro-intestinal track substantially modified these coffees.
Article
A potent inhibitor of myxovirus hemagglutination has been derived by aqueous extraction from the nest-cementing substance (salivary secretions) of the Oriental swiftlet (genus Collocalia). The active material contains about 50% carbohydrate, is susceptible to the neuraminidase of influenza virus of all strains thus far tested, and lacks detectable blood group antigens.Observations on the relation between viral hemagglutinin, neuraminidase activity, and the conversion of myxoviruses to “indicators” are presented and discussed. Evidence is presented to indicate that the enzymic and hemagglutinative properties of myxovirus may be separate and dissociable functions.
Article
Simple sugars, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and their derivatives, including the methyl ethers with free or potentially free reducing groups, give an orange-yellow color when treated with phenol and concentrated sulfuric acid. The reaction is sensitive and the color is stable. By use of this phenol-sulfuric acid reaction, a method has been developed to determine submicro amounts of sugars and related substances. In conjunction with paper partition chromatography the method is useful for the determination of the composition of polysaccharides and their methyl derivatives.
1. An epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like activity was detected and partially purified from swiftlet's nest extract. 2. The partially purified EGF-like activity was able to (a) generate competitive binding curves parallel to the standard curves in radioreceptor assay and (b) stimulate thymidine incorporation in quiescent culture of 3T3 fibroblasts and the latter activity can be suppressed by mouse EGF antibody. 3. Partial characterization of the EGF-like activity in terms of pI, molecular weight and its behavior on gel filtration column suggest that it bears similar physical properties to the EGFs isolated from the mouse and the shrew.
Article
The edible bird's nest extract from Collocalia spp. was found to contain a glycoprotein which could potentiate mitogenic response of human peripheral blood monocytes to stimulation with Concanavalin A or Phytohemagglutinin A. The potentiating effect of the extract was most marked at suboptimal mitogenic concentrations of these lectins, decreasing the 50% optimal concentration of Con A and PHA by 6- and 2.5- folds respectively. The potentiating effect was exerted early during the first 10 hours following stimulation with Con A. This potentiation activity was not dialysable, but it was stable to limited digestion with trypsin, alkaline pH and extraction with ether.
Article
Peptide sequences obtained from hen ovotransferrin are compared with the complete amino acid sequence of the protein deduced from a cDNA sequence (Jeltsch and Chambon, preceding paper). Of the 705 positions of the whole protein 605 can be matched by the peptide sequences. Some possible discrepancies between the two methods are pointed out. The two halves of the chain show marked similarities in their sequences with 37% identical residues. The positions of the 15 disulphide bridges are shown; there are 6 homologous bridges in each half of the molecule and 3 extra bridges which occur only in the C-terminal half. The terminal residues of the half-molecule fragments obtained by limited proteolysis are identified. The two domains are joined by a 9-residue connecting peptide. Sequence variability has been found at 9 positions. The sequence of hen ovotransferrin is compared with the partial available for human transferrin. From this some tentative conclusions about the identities of the metal-binding residues and about the evolution of transferrin are reached.
Article
The IUPAC Commission on Oils, Fats and Derivatives undertook development of a method and collaborative study for the determination of triglycerides in vegetable oils by liquid chromatography. Three collaborative studies were conducted from 1985 to 1987. Refinements were made in the method after the first collaborative study, and the second and third collaborative studies demonstrated that the method produces acceptable results. Materials studied were soybean oil, almond oil, sunflower oil, olive oil, rapeseed oil, and blends of palm and sunflower oils, and almond and sunflower oils. Six test samples were analyzed by 18 laboratories from 11 countries in the second study; 4 test samples were analyzed by 16 laboratories from 12 countries in the third study. The method for determination of triglycerides (by partition numbers) in vegetable oils by liquid chromatography was adopted first action by AOAC INTERNATIONAL as an IUPAC-AOCS-AOAC method.
Article
The Chinese delicacy "bird's nest" is the most common cause of food-induced anaphylaxis requiring hospitalization among Chinese children in Singapore. This investigation has established an immunoglobulin E-mediated cause and has characterized the major putative allergens.
Article
Ovotransferrin antimicrobial peptide (OTAP-92) is a cationic fragment of hen ovotransferrin (OTf). OTAP-92 consists of 92 amino acid residues located within the 109-200 sequence of the N-lobe of OTf. This study was aimed to delineate the antimicrobial mechanism of OTAP-92 and to identify its interaction with bacterial membranes. OTAP-92 caused permeation of Escherichia coli outer membrane (OM) to 1-N-phenylnaphthylamine fluorescent probe in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggested that OTAP-92 crossed the bacterial OM by a self-promoted uptake. Cytoplasmic membrane of E. coli was found to be the target for OTAP-92 bactericidal activity, as assayed by the unmasking of cytoplasmic beta-galactosidase due to membrane permeabilization in a kinetic manner. Pretreatment of bacteria with uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone, markedly enhanced permeation of cytoplasmic membrane, suggesting that the membrane permeation due to OTAP-92 is independent of the transmembrane potential. In an E. coli phospholipid liposome model, it was demonstrated that OTAP-92 has the ability to dissipate the transmembrane electrochemical potential. Intrinsic fluorescence spectra of the two tryptophan residues in OTAP-92, using liposomal membrane, have identified the lipid-binding region as a helix-sheet motif, and suggested an adjacent Ca(2+)-sensitive site within OTAP-92. These data indicated that OTAP-92 possesses a unique structural motif similar to the insect defensins. Further, this cationic antimicrobial peptide is capable of killing Gram-negative bacteria by crossing the OM by a self-promoted uptake and cause damage to the biological function of cytoplasmic membrane.
Article
We have previously described anaphylaxis induced by edible bird's nest (BN) and demonstrated that this condition is IgE mediated. This study aimed at describing the immunochemical properties of the BN allergens. Comparative studies between 3 commercially available sources (according to the country of origin) of BN were also made. Crude extracts of commercially available processed BN from Sarawak (Malaysia), Thailand, and Indonesia and fresh unprocessed BN from the caves of Sarawak were obtained by means of aqueous extraction. Specific IgE toward these sources were determined by using fluorescence allergosorbent tests (FASTs). Cross-reactivity studies between the 3 sources of commercially available processed BN were carried out by means of FAST inhibition. Immunochemical characterization by means of IgE immunoblot, periodate treatment, and heat stability studies were carried out on fresh unprocessed BN from Sarawak. Serum from allergic patients showed differences in IgE binding to the 3 sources of commercially available BN, with the highest levels of specific IgE recorded with the Sarawak source (P <.0001). Of these, only the Sarawak and Thailand sources showed considerable cross-reactivity. Further work on the unprocessed fresh Sarawak source identified a putative 66-kd major allergen containing several isoforms. Periodate treatment resulted in loss of IgE binding. Despite a progressive decline in the molecular weights of allergens on SDS-PAGE with increasing periods of boiling, IgE binding, as assessed by means of FAST, was not affected. N-terminal sequence of the major putative allergen (66 kd) showed homology to a domain of an ovoinhibitor precursor in chicken (SWISS-PROT accession No. P10184). We have described the immunochemical properties of BN allergens. Edible BN from different sources are allergenically dissimilar. The putative major allergen is a 66-kd protein.
Article
THE sialidase of influenza virus has been investigated quantitatively using the method recently described by Warren1 for determining free sialic acid in the presence of the compound bound to muco-protein substrates. For this work, the substrate used was a mucoid derived from the nest-cementing substance of the swiftlet (Collocalia sp.). The crude material, available as Chinese `edible birds' nest', was extracted with water at 60-65° to yield a product which contained 10 per cent acid-hydrolysable sialic acid and which in high titre inhibited the agglutination of chicken erythrocytes by `indicator' virus. Active virus was sedimented from freshly gathered chorioallantoic fluid by centrifugation at 35,000g for 90 min. The virus pellet was re-suspended in water to a volume 1/50-1/100 that of the original fluid, effecting thereby a corresponding increment in hæmagglutinin titre as well as separation of virus from interfering chromogens present in chorioallantoic fluid.
Evidence that epidermal growth factor is present in SwiXet's (Collocalia) nest
  • Y C Kong
  • W M Keung
  • T T Tip
  • K K Ko
  • S W Tsao
  • M H Ng
Kong, Y. C., Keung, W. M., Tip, T. T., Ko, K. K., Tsao, S. W., & Ng, M. H. (1987). Evidence that epidermal growth factor is present in SwiXet's (Collocalia) nest. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology, 87(2), 221-226.
Features – Bird’s nest soup – Market demand for this expensive gastronomic delicacy threatens the aptly named edible-nest Swiflets with extinction in the east
  • Koon
Koon, L. C. (2000). Features -Bird's nest soup -Market demand for this expensive gastronomic delicacy threatens the aptly named edible-nest SwiXets with extinction in the east. Wildlife Conservation, 103(1), 30-35.
Canine urolithisis: a look at over 16,000 urolith submissions to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Center from
  • D M Houston
  • A E P Moore
  • M G Favrin
  • B Hov
Houston, D. M., Moore, A. E. P., Favrin, M. G., & HoV, B. (2004). Canine urolithisis: a look at over 16,000 urolith submissions to the Canadian Veterinary Urolith Center from February 1998 to April 2003. Canadian Veterinary Journal, 45, 225-230.
InXuenza virus sialidase
  • C Howe
  • L T Lee
  • H M Rose
Howe, C., Lee, L. T., & Rose, H. M. (1960). InXuenza virus sialidase. Nature, 188, 251-252.