Article

Effects of home preparation on pesticide residues in cabbage

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Abstract

Experiment was carried out to evaluate the pesticides (chlorpyrifos, p,p-DDT, cypermethrin, chlorothalonil) residue levels in cabbage in the process of home preparation by washing with different concentrations of acetic acid and sodium chlorine, and tap water, preserving in refrigerator, and stir-frying for different time. Results showed that washing by tap water and/or detergent solution for cooking are necessary to decrease the concentration of pesticide residues in cabbage. Washing with acetic acid solutions (at 10% concentration for 20 min) caused 79.8%, 65.8%, 74.0% and 75.0% loss of the above pesticides, respectively. Washing with NaCl solutions (at 10% concentration for 20 min) produced 67.2%, 65.0%, 73.3% and 74.1% loss, respectively, and washing by tap water (for 20 min) were 17.6%, 17.1%, 19.1% and 15.2% loss, respectively. The reductions due to the refrigeration (for 48 h) were 3.4%, 2.6%, 3.1% and 3.6%, respectively, and those due to the stir-frying (for 5 min) were 86.6%, 67.5%, 84.7% and 84.8%, respectively. The data indicated that washing by detergent solutions and stir-frying of cabbage are the most effective home preparations for the elimination of pesticide residues.

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... The treatment such as dipping food in an acetic acid solution has potential for decontaminating the residues of organochlorine pesticides such as hexachlorobenzene (HCB), lindane and DDT in potatoes. The treatment of cabbage by dipping it in 10% acetic acid for 20 min can remove pesticides such as chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, p, p-DDT and cypermethrin to a significant degree [14]. Washing hot peppers, sweet peppers as well as eggplants with 2% acetic acid solution for 1 min reduced profenofos residues [15]. ...
... Treating hot pepper, sweet pepper and eggplant surfaces with 1% NaCl solution for 1 min delaminated profenofos pesticide residue [15]. An analysis of potatoes with 10% NaCl led to the decontamination of pesticides such as HCB, lindane, DDT, dimethoate, pirimiphos-methyl and malathion [7], as well as chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin and p, p-DDT residues in cabbage [14]. Soaking of brinjal in 0.1% sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO 3 ) for 10 min may decontaminate pesticides residues of chlorpyrifos, quinalphos, profenophos, cyhalothrin and malathion [17]. ...
... The treatment of dipping fish in 2% vinegar (acetic acid solution) was found to reduce lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, DDT, methoxychlor and cypermethrin residue concentrations by 55-60% in Channa striatus, 51-56% in Clarias gariepinus, 56-61% in Anabas testudineus as well as 60-64% in Trichogaster trichopterus, which is higher than the reduction percentage values of cypermethrin, profenofos and methomyl pesticides in Chinese kale [13,19], as well as of chlorpyrifos in cauliflower [33]. Contrarily, the removal percentage of lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, DDT, methoxychlor and cypermethrin is lower than the reduction percentage values of chlorpyrifos (65-79%), chlorothalonil (79.8%), p,p'-DDT (65.8%) as well as cypermethrin (74%) in Chinese cabbage [14,22]; hexachlorobenzene (HCB), lindane, and DDT in potatoes [7]; and profenofos residues in hot pepper (76.6%), sweet pepper (95.7%) and eggplant (94.6%) [15]. ...
Article
Substantial quantities of pesticides are routinely applied to enhance agricultural crop production. Pesticides used in this way continuously accumulate in the environment and in foods. Harvested crops contain pesticide residues at various concentrations, with potential harmful impacts on human health. Hence, it is of value to identify techniques for the effective decontamination of tainted foods. However, cleaning with water or household agents, e.g., acetic acid and sodium bicarbonate, are recognized treatments for the efficient degradation of pesticides from vegetables and fruits. There is an apparent void of information about the decontamination treatments for raw fishes using household agents that are affordable for all classes of consumers. Hence, the present study was performed to determine the most efficient household technique for reducing pesticide residue levels from precooked raw fish to ensure the utmost food safety. Fish muscles of four species of fishes, viz., Clarias gariepinus, Channa striatus, Anabas testudineus and Trichogaster trichopterus, were treated with six treatments: washing with running tap water (T1), dipping in normal water (T2), dipping in 2% salt solution (T3), dipping in 2% vinegar (T4), dipping in 0.1% sodium bicarbonate solution (T5) as well as dipping in 0.1% sodium bicarbonate solution + 2% vinegar + 2% salt solution + lemon juice (T6), as fish muscle is the major consumable portion of fish. The current study demonstrated that the removal percentage of lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan, dieldrin, endrin, DDT, methoxychlor and cypermethrin residues against the treated household treatments, in downward order, were soaking in 0.1% sodium bicarbonate solution + 2% vinegar + 2% salt solution + lemon juice solution (T6) > soaking in 2% vinegar (T4) solution > soaking in 0.1% sodium bicarbonate (T5) solution > soaking in 2% salt (T3) solution > washing with running tap water (T1) > soaking in stable normal water (T2). The treatment of raw fish muscle samples by soaking them in 0.1% sodium bicarbonate solution + 2% vinegar + 2% salt solution + lemon juice was found to be the most efficient household treatment, performing significant reductions (%) in pesticide concentration: 72-80% (p < 0.05) in Channa striata, 71-79% (p < 0.05) in Clarias gariepinus, 74-80% (p < 0.05) in Anabas testudineus as well as 78-81% (p < 0.05) in Trichogaster trichopterus before cooking.
... The grape samples spiked with methamidophos (60 g dissolved in 100 L of water) stored at 0 ± 0.5°C showed degradation half-life of 267 days and took 2,295 days to reach legal limit of 0.01 mg/kg, whereas the compound showed half-life of 90 days (pH 5 in water) when exposed to sunlight due to the photolytic breakdown of chemicals (Athanasopoulos, Pappas, Kyriakidis, & Thanos, 2005). A study demonstrated that storage of cabbage spiked with p,p-dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, and cypermethrin showed very poor reductions of residues under cold conditions, lying within the range of 2% to 4% only (Zhang, Liu, & Hong, 2007). On the other hand, storage of organophosphorus spiked cucumbers at 4°C showed elimination of 60% to 80% residues after 48 hr while around 90% pesticide reduction was obtained when the storage temperature was raised to 25°C, suggesting that pesticide (Liang et al., 2012) reduction occurs more efficiently at higher temperatures (Liang, Wang, Shen, Liu, & Liu, 2012). ...
... This study indicated that the acetic acid dip treatment was more efficient in removing organophosphorus pesticides than organochlorines due to their greater stability. Cabbage washed for 20 min using 10% acetic acid showed a reduction of 65% to 79% of various pesticides such as chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, p,p-DDT, and cypermethrin (Zhang et al., 2007). Similarly, acetic acid washing (2%) for 1 min eliminated 60% to 100% of profenofos residues from hot pepper, sweet pepper, and eggplant (Radwan et al., 2005). ...
... Another study by Liang et al. (2012) reported approximately 50% to 75% reduction of organophosphorus pesticides from cucumber washed with 5% NaCl solution for 20 min. However, higher concentrations of NaCl (10%) resulted in only a slight increase in efficacy (40% to 90%) in the reduction of pesticides such as, HCB, lindane, DDT, dimethoate, pirimiphos-methyl, and malathion (Soliman, 2001), and reduced up to 74% residues of chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, cypermethrin, and p,p-DDT residues (Zhang et al., 2007). The higher concentration of NaCl can cause plasmolysis leading to the death of the microbes (Frazier & Westhoff, 1988). ...
Article
Fresh fruits and vegetables are a rich source of micronutrients. However, many foodborne illnesses have been linked to the consumption of fresh fruits and vegetables as they are reported to harbor contaminants such as microorganisms and pesticides. Recently reported foodborne outbreaks have been linked to a diverse group of fruits and vegetables due to the presence of various pathogens including Salmonella, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes. Also, the increased use of pesticides has resulted in the deposition of chemical residues on the surface of fruits and vegetables, which has led to the adverse health conditions such as cancer, birth defects, and neurodevelopmental disorders. Fresh commodities are subjected to various treatments to prevent or minimize these outbreaks, and the main targets of such treatments have been the elimination of pathogens and degradation of toxic chemical residues. Here, we have discussed various decontamination methods including simple household washing, chemical treatments, and modern technologies with their mode of action for microbial and pesticide removal. The simple household processes are not very effective in the removal of pathogenic organisms and pesticides. The use of modern techniques like cold plasma, ozone, high hydrostatic pressure, and so on, showed better efficacy in the removal of microorganisms and pesticides. However, their industrial use is limited considering high installation and maintenance cost. In this review, we suggest combined methods based on their mode of decontamination and suitability for a selected fruit or vegetable for effective decontamination of microbes and pesticide together to reduce the treatment cost and enhance food safety.
... In cabbage, washing with tap water provided the least effective, while still significant, reduction (approx. 15-19%) of chlorpyrifos, p,p-DDT, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil, compared with washing in different solutions (Zhang et al., 2007). In cucumbers, the initial diazinon residue level decreased by 22.3% after rubbing for 15 s under running water (Cengiz et al., 2006), similar to the 23% carbaryl residue dissipation after washing (Hassanzadeh et al., 2010). ...
... Soliman (2001) confirmed that washing with 10% acetic acid solution led to somewhat higher removal of HCB, lindane, p,p-DDT, dimethoat, pirimiphosmethyl and malathion from potatoes, compared with 10% sodium chloride solution, while both solutions were more effective than washing with tap water. Zhang et al. (2007) reported that washing with 10% acetic acid and 10% sodium chloride solutions caused at least a 3-fold higher removal of chlorpyrifos, p,p-DDT, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil from cabbage compared with water washing, while acetic acid was more effective than sodium chloride only for chlorpyrifos removal. The results of washing green chillies with salt water did not differ significantly from ordinary washing with tap water but their dipping in 2% sodium chloride solution for 10 minutes removed higher amounts of triazophos and acephate residues (Phani- . ...
... Techniques of frying and baking also proved to be effective for pesticide reduction in vegetables. Thus chlorpyrifos, p,p-DDT, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil were effectively reduced by up to 86.6, 67.5, 84.7 and 84.8% from cabbage by stir-frying at 100 °C for 5 min (Zhang et al., 2007), microwave-and oven-baking reduced profenofos in potatoes by 98% (Habiba et al., 1992), while potato frying reduced 35.2, 30.1, 35.3, 53.4, ...
Article
Full-text available
Pesticides are one of the major inputs used for increasing agricultural productivity of crops. However, their inadequate application may produce large quantities of residues in the environment and, once the environment is contaminated with pesticides, they may easily enter into the human food chain through plants, creating a potentially serious health hazard. Nowadays, consumers are becoming more aware of the importance of safe and high quality food products. Thus it is pertinent to explore simple, cost-effective strategies for decontaminating food from pesticides. Various food processing techniques, at industrial and/or domestical level, have been found to significantly reduce the contents of pesticide residues in most food materials. The extent of reduction varies with the nature of pesticides, type of commodity and processing steps. Pesticides, especially those with limited movement and penetration ability, can be removed with reasonable efficiency by washing, and the effectiveness of washing depends on pesticide solubility in water or in different chemical solvents. Peeling of fruit and vegetable skin can dislodge pesticide residues to varying degrees, depending on constitution of a commodity, chemical nature of the pesticide and environmental conditions. Different heat treatments (drying, pasteurization, sterilization, blanching, steaming, boiling, cooking, frying or roasting) during various food preparation and preservation processes can cause losses of pesticide residues through evaporation, co-distillation and/or thermal degradation. Product manufactures, from the simplest grain milling, through oil extraction and processing, juicing/pureeing or canning of fruits and vegetables, to complex bakery and dairy production, malting and brewing, wine making and various fermentation processes, play a role in the reduction of pesticide contents, whereby each operation involved during processing usually adds to a cumulative effect of reduction of pesticides present in the material. There is diversified information available in literature on the effect of food processing on pesticide residues which has been compiled in this article. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31043]
... Zhang et al. 40 added that the application of an intensive washing process to pepper samples did not lead to a significant reduction of the residue level of pesticides. Similarly, Valverde et al. 31 mentioned no significant differences were found between the residue levels in the 'edible' and 'inedible' parts of peppers since the pesticide residues did not reside on the surface of peppers. ...
... With reference to the results reported by Zhang et al., 40 the increase of reduction of chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, chlorothalonil and p,p-DDT in cabbage from 5 min to 10 or 20 min is comparatively quite small. Such a decreasing trend of reduction agrees well with the logarithmic increase curve. ...
... Moreover, all tested soaking solutions gave higher % removal of profenofos residues from eggplant than the two other peppers. Zhang et al. 40 reported that soaking with acetic acid or salt solution (at 100 g kg −1 concentration for 20 min) caused greater loss of chlorpyrifos, p,p-DDT, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil when compared to tap water. Besides, soaking with detergent was the most effective home preparation for the elimination of pesticide residues. ...
Article
Nowadays, the use of pesticides is inevitable for pest-control in crops, especially the fruit and vegetables. After the harvest from raw agricultural commodities, the amount of pesticide residues in food is mainly influenced by the storage, handling and processing that follow. If good agricultural and good manufacturing practices are enforced effectively, the amount of pesticide residues would be brought below the corresponding maximum residue level. Thus, the consumption of raw and/or prepared fruit and vegetables would be safe. Nonetheless, reports regarding pesticide residues in fruit or vegetables on mass media have been worrying consumers, who are concerned about the adverse effects of pesticide residues. As a result, consumers perform household processing before consumption to reduce any related risks. However, can these preparations effectively remove pesticide residues? Reviewing the extensive literature, it showed that, in most cases washing and soaking can only lead to certain degree of reduction in residue level, while . other processing such as peeling, soaking in chemical baths and blanching can reduce pesticide residues more effectively. In general, the behaviour of residues during processing can be rationalised in terms of the physico-chemical properties of the pesticide and the nature of the process. In contrast, the reported studies are diversified and some areas still lack sufficient studies to draw any remarks. Recommendations are provided with respect to the available information that aim to formulate an environmental friendly, cost-effective and efficient household processing of fruit and vegetables to reduce pesticide residues.
... Washing vegetables with tap water and detergent solutions prior to cooking is important to decrease the residue concentration. Washing with Acetic acid solutions (at 10% concentration for 20 min, Washing with Sodium chloride solutions (at 10% concentration for 20 min), washing with tap water (for 20 min) and refrigeration reduces PR in vegetables like cabbage [22]. Washing with detergents is more effective than washing with just tap water. ...
... Washing with 10% acetic acid solution has given the highest reduction percentages of 74%-79.8% [22]. ...
... So it is clear that the results obtained from this study agree with the results of previous researchers [6], [22], [23], [24], [27]. But the results obtained in this kind of a research may vary according to the type of pesticide and type of vegetable used. ...
Article
Full-text available
Pesticides are widely used by the farmers in agriculture to increase the yield by controlling any undesirable plant or animal species. Pesticide residues can remain in fruits and vegetables as a result of neglecting recommended dosages of pesticides at the application and neglecting pre-harvest intervals. It is important to identify methods for removing pesticide residues in order to ensure food safety. This study was conducted to identify the methods for removal of pesticide residues in vegetables, to evaluate the effectiveness of those methods and to suggest the most appropriate method among them. Tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) and Gotukola (Centella asiatica) were selected for the study as according to previous studies they contain higher amounts of pesticide residues and both are consumed mainly as fresh salads. Samples were collected from Central Market, Kandy. Analysis was carried out for the pesticides of Fipronil, Thiamethoxam, Imidacloprid and Pymetrozine, which are recommended for Tomato and Gotukola. Two samples from each vegetable were taken. In the first sample, tomato was spiked with 1000 ppm Fipronil and gotukola was spiked with 1000 ppm Pymetrozine. In the second sample, both vegetables were spiked separately with a mixture of all the four pesticides. Each spiked sample was divided into 4 portions; one part was kept as the control for direct residue analysis and the other three parts were subjected to removal methods; washing twice with tap water for 1 minute, dipping in 3% salt solution for 10 minutes and dipping in 4% vinegar solution for 10 minutes. The samples were extracted for pesticide residue analysis using QuEChERS, AOAC 2007.01 method. Residual analysis was carried out using Liquid Chromatography-tandem Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS-MS). According to the results, vinegar treatment has given the highest pesticide residual reduction. Salt treatment also has given considerable reduction percentages. Washing with tap water has given the lowest reduction percentages for all the four pesticides in both tomato and gotukola. So people are advised to consume these vegetables after dipping in 4% vinegar solution for 10 minutes. However, further studies should be carried out using more samples and for more pesticides by changing the concentrations of solutions and changing the time of applying treatments.
... Sample preparation and extraction. The method for extraction of pesticide residues in food called QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) based on the extraction by acetonitrile and partitioning with anhydrous magnesium sulphate was used for extraction of spiked myclobutanil from tomato fruits [6,19,20,21]. ...
... It was shown that the reduction percentages after washing of cabbage with tap water for 20 min on chlorpyrifos, p,p-DDT, cypermethrin, chlorothalonil) residue levels were 17.6%, 17.1%, 19.1% and 15.2%, respectively, [21]. ...
... In this context, dipping of vegetables in acetic acid solutions (@10% for 20 min) reduced more than 70% of the pesticide residue. [10] Similarly, Kumari [11] also reported that washing curb residues from 20 to 77% by dipping and may increase the reduction up to 32 to 100% through the boiling of vegetables. Moreover, the cooking of tomatoes facilitated to purge most pesticide residues from contaminated vegetables. ...
... The present results are in corroboration with the findings of Ismail et al. [24] and Soliman. [25] Likewise, Zhang et al. [10] also reported that partial removal of pesticide residue was done by the washing operation in cabbages. Osman et al. [16] reported that citric acid and acetic acid with 1 and 2% solution washing was more effective than other treatments like H 2 O 2 , KMnO 4 , and tap water for chlorpyrifos residues reduction in horticultural crops. ...
... Stir-frying was the cooking method used most frequently in the meal boxes included in our study. The most likely explanation is that stir-frying is an effective cooking method to reduce hygiene risks during the production or distribution process [22]. However, it is necessary to develop menus to replace stir-fried or deepfried food, because these are cooking techniques using excessive oil. ...
... Therefore, it is necessary to encourage consumers of meal boxes to supplement their daily snacks with fruits and dairy products. 3.0 ± 0.2 4) 2.9 ± 0.2 2.9 ± 0.3 0.624 2.9 ± 0.2 2.9 ± 0.3 0.836 1) grains, meat, vegetable, fruit, and dairy pattern, 2) dietary diversity score, 3) n(%), 4) Mean ± SD, 5) p value using Student's t-test or Fisher's exact test 6) 0.12 ± 0.81 0.00 0.55 ± 1.74 0.343 0.31 ± 1.30 0.00 0.331 1) 1/3 of daily recommended servings for [19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28][29] year-old Korean men, 2) 1 serving for rice=210g, 3) 1 serving for meat=60g, 4) 1 serving for vegetable = 70g, 5) 1 serving for fruit=100g, 6) 1serving for dairy product=100ml, 7) mean ± SD, 8) p value using Student's t-test ...
... To estimate the potential pesticide exposure from contaminated food, it is important to estimate the level of exposure at the point of consumption after processing. It has already been reported that commercial and household processing such as washing, peeling, cooking, blanching and concentrating can reduce residue levels in food, which further reduces the impact on human health (Abou-arab, 1999;Soliman, 2001;Zohair, 2001;Byrne and Pinkerton, 2004;Pugliese et al., 2004;Zhang et al., 2007). ...
... According to Zhang et al., (2007), washing cabbage by detergent solutions are the most effective home methods of pesticide residues elimination. Authors indicated that washing with acetic acid solutions (at 10% concentration for 20 min) caused 79.8, 65.8, 74.0 and 75.0% ...
Book
This book covers the problems related to acetic acid in the food industry. People have been using acetic acid to produce food for thousands of years and continue to find new uses for it. The first two chapters are related to the bacteria that not only produce acetic acid, but also use it for intracellular function and interspecies communication. In the remaining chapters, the authors describe known and new uses of acetic acid in vegetable, fruit, fish and dairy products. A separate chapter describes the use of acetic acid to remove pesticides from the surface of fruit and vegetable peels. The described methods work well in industry and at home. Currently, the industry is obliged to minimize wastewater. Therefore, the last two chapters describe the latest methods of recovering acetic acid from sewage and its possible reuse. This book is - in principle - intended for students and staff of agricultural academies, but may also be of interest to food producers who will find in it a number of tips for food technology related to the use of acetic acid.
... Complete removal of carbosulfan and oxamyl pesticides from spiked tomato juice was achieved after 15 and 30 min of ozonation, respectively [5,7,8,18]. In another study, it was concluded that ozone as a powerful oxidant is effective in solving the problems of the food industry like mycotoxin and pesticide residues by ozone application on fruits and vegetables without forming hazardous residues [3,5,19,20,21,22]. On the other hand, it was shown that the cucumber and strawberry washing with tap water could not increase the percentage of reduction for all the examined pesticides; organophosphorus (diazinon, malathion, chloropyrifos, quinalphos, profenofos) and organochlorines (chlorothalonil, alpha-endosulfan and beta-endosulfan) more than 20% [11,9,20,21]. ...
... It was shown that the reduction percentages after washing of cabbage with tap water for 20 min on chlorpyrifos, p,p-DDT, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil residue levels were 17.6%, 17.1%, 19.1% and 15.2%, respectively [22]. Alcalde et al. [6] showed that the degradation of pesticides residues during ozonation could be well-explained by the reactivity of pesticides residues with the formed OH . ...
Article
This study was performed to investigate the effect of ozonation treatment at different ozone concentrations (0.5, 2 and 5) ppm for different periods of time (5, 10 and 15) minutes on reducing the percentage of spiked myclobutanil of (2, 6 and 10) ppm on lettuce leaves using gas chromatography equipped with micro electron capture detector. The results showed that ozonation treatment at 0.5, 2 and 10 ppm significantly reduced the spiked myclobu-tanil concentration on lettuce, after 15 minutes of ozone treatment. The concentration of myclobutanil did not reach the allowed maximum residues limits in Codex Alimntarous and European regulations (0.05) ppm. The maximum reduction percentages after 15 min of ozone treatment at 0.5 ppm were 87.48, 90.00 and 92.80% for spiked concentrations of my-clobutanil at 2, 6 and 10 ppm, respectively. On the other hand, the maximum reduction percentages after ozone treatment for 15 min at 2 ppm were 90.55, 96.77 and 97.95% for spiked concentration of my-clobutanil at 2, 6 and 10 ppm, respectively. At last the maximum reduction percentages for 15 min at 5 ppm ozone concentration were 94.49, 98.30 and 99.00% for spiked concentrations of myclobutanil at 2, 6 and 10 ppm, respectively. Meanwhile, the reduction percentages after soaking with tap water for 15 min were 17.56, 19.32 and 22.51% for 2, 6 and 10 ppm spiked myclobutanil concentrations on lettuce fruits. It was concluded from this research that ozone treatment has a significant effect on myclobutanil spiked concentration and it could be used as a method for reduction of this pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. Ozone affected the pesticides residues concentration in a concentration-time dependent manner.
... Sample preparation and extraction. The method for extraction of pesticide residues in food called QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) based on the extraction by acetonitrile and partitioning with anhydrous magnesium sulphate was used for extraction of spiked myclobutanil from tomato fruits [6,19,20,21]. ...
... It was shown that the reduction percentages after washing of cabbage with tap water for 20 min on chlorpyrifos, p,p-DDT, cypermethrin, chlorothalonil) residue levels were 17.6%, 17.1%, 19.1% and 15.2%, respectively, [21]. ...
Article
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of ozonation treatment at different ozone concentrations (0.5, 2 and 5) ppm for different periods of time (5, 10 and 15) minutes on reduction percentage of spiked myclobutanil of (2, 6 and 10) ppm on tomato fruits using gas chromatography equipped with micro electron capture detector. The results showed that ozonation treatment at 0.5, 2 and 10 ppm significantly reduced the spiked myclobutanil concentration on tomato fruits, after 15 minutes of ozone treatment the concentration of myclobutanil was reached the allowed maximum residues limits in Co-dex Alimntarous and European regulations (0.3) ppm. The maximum reduction percentages after 15 min of ozone treatment at 0.5 ppm were 82.60, 85.96 and 90.31 % for spiked concentrations of myclobu-tanil at 2, 6 and 10 ppm, respectively. On the other hand, the maximum reduction percentages after ozone treatment for 15 min at 2 ppm were 88.82, 88.13 and 96.56 % for spiked concentration of my-clobutanil at 2, 6 and 10 ppm, respectively. At last the maximum reduction percentages for 15 min at 5 ppm ozone concentration were 92.31, 94.80 and 98.32 % for spiked concentrations of myclobutanil at 2, 6 and 10 ppm, respectively. Meanwhile, the reduction percentages after soaking with tap water for 15 min were 12.37, 14.44 and 15.29% for 2, 6 and 10 ppm spiked myclobutanil concentrations on tomato fruits. It was concluded from this research that ozone treatment has a significant effect on myclobutanil spiked concentration and it could be used as a method for reduction of this pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. Ozone affected the pesticides residues concentration in a concentration-time dependent manner.
... It was shown that the reduction percentages after washing of cabbage with tap water for 20 min on chlorpyrifos, p,p-DDT, cypermethrin, chlorothalonil) residue levels were 17.6%, 17.1%, 19.1% and 15.2%, respectively [26]. ...
Article
This study was performed to examine the effect of ozonation treatment at different ozone concentrations (0.5, 2 and 5) ppm for different periods of time (5, 10 and 15) minutes on reduction percentage of spiked chlorfenapyr of (2, 6 and 10) ppm on lettuce leaves using gas chromatography equipped with mi-cro electron capture detector. The results showed that ozonation treatment at 0.5, 2 and 10 ppm significantly reduced the spiked chlorfenapyr concentration on lettuce, after 15 minutes of ozone treatment the concentration of chlorfenapyr did not reach the allowed maximum residues limits in European regulations (0.01) ppm. The maximum reduction percentages after 15 min of ozone treatment at 0.5 ppm were 85.81, 88.47 and 91.21% for spiked concentrations of chlorfenapyr at 2, 6 and 10 ppm, respectively. On the other hand, the maximum reduction percentages after ozone treatment for 15 min at 2 ppm were 88.94, 93.25 and 94.77 % for spiked concentration of chlorfenapyrat 2, 6 and 10 ppm, respectively. At last the maximum reduction percentages for 15 min at 5 ppm ozone concentration were 92.25, 96.33 and 97.15 % for spiked concentrations of chlorfenapyrat 2, 6 and 10 ppm, respectively. Meanwhile , the reduction percentages after soaking with tap water for 15 min were 7.20,10.137 and 2.02 % for2, 6 and 10 ppm spiked chlorfenapyr concentrations on lettuce fruits. It was concluded from this research that ozone treatment has a significant effect on chlorfenapyr spiked concentrations and it could be used as a method for reduction of this pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables, but it need more than 15 min of ozone treatment to reduce its concentration below the European maximum residue limit. Ozone affected the pesticides residues concentration in a concentration-time dependent manner.
... It was shown that the effect of cabbage washing with tap water on chlorpyrifos, p,p-DDT, cypermethrin, chlorothalonil) residue levels. Their results showed that the reduction percentage after washing with tap water for 20 min were 17.6%, 17.1%, 19.1% and 15.2%, respectively [21]. ...
Article
This study was conducted to investigate the effect of ozonation treatment at different ozone concentrations (0.5 and 2) ppm for different periods of time (5 and 15) minutes on reduction percentage of spiked chlorfenapyr of (2 and 10) ppm on tomato fruits using gas chromatography equipped with mi-cro electron capture detector. The results showed that ozonation treatment at 0.5 and 2 ppm significantly reduced the spiked chlorfenapyr concentration on tomato fruits, although after 15 minutes of ozone treatment the concentration of chlorfenapyr did not reach the allowed maximum residues limits in the Euro-pean regulations (0.01) ppm. The maximum reduction percentages after 15 min of ozone treatment at 0.5 ppm were 78.72 and 88.88 % for spiked concentration of chlorfenapyr at 2 and 10 ppm, respectively. On the other hand, the maximum reduction percentages after ozone treatment for 15 min at 2 ppm were 84.97 and 92.90 % for spiked concentration of chlorfenapyr 2 and 10 ppm, respectively, on tomato fruits. Meanwhile, the reduction percentages after soaking with tap water for 15 min were 10.24 and 13.43 % for2 and 10 ppm spiked chlorfenapyr concentrations on tomato fruits. It was concluded from this research that ozone treatment had a significant effect on chlorfenapyr spiked concentration and it could be used as a method for reduction of this pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables. Ozone affected the pesticides residues concentration in a concentration time dependent manner.
... However, all of them employed acidic or alkaline electrolyzed waters, not being comparable therefore with ours where electrolyzed water has a neutral pH that probably does not affect the stability of the tested fungicides. Many factors affect the pesticide removal rate, among others, the physicochemical properties of the pesticides (K ow value, solubility and pKa) but also the physical and chemical characteristics of the cleaning solution, such as cleaning fluid temperature, pH and polarity (Radwan et al., 2005;Lin et al., 2006;Zhang et al., 2007;Kin and Huat, 2010;González-Rodríguez et al., 2011). Water-soluble pesticides are more readily removed than lowpolarity materials (Burchat et al., 1998;Timme and Walz-Tylla, 2004). ...
Article
Concerns about chemicals and pesticides in food plants have increased dramatically during the last decade. Following stricter legislation and studies about toxicity and human health risks, new ways of reducing toxic residues are urgently required. In this study, oxidizing agents such as electrolyzed water (EW), chlorine dioxide (ClO2) and photocatalysis have been used during the postharvest phase in order to remove the residues of cyprodinil, tebuconazole and iprodione from the surface of peaches, nectarines and apricots. Moreover, the disinfection capability of these agents has also been tested as an alternative to sodium hypochlorite. Our results show that pesticide removal from stone fruits by oxidizing technologies significantly varies depending on the treatment used and the target substance. ClO2 significantly reduced tebuconazole residues from all the fruits (by more than 60%) and photocatalysis similarly reduced iprodione residues (between 50 and 70%). However, EW achieved a percentage of residue reduction similar to that of tap water, never exceeded 40%. In contrast, EW reduced the superficial microbiota to undetectable counts, also decreasing the percentage of rotted fruit from 32 to 7%. Photocatalysis produced similar results since it was able to decrease the microorganisms present on the fruit surface by nearly 2 log units and the incidence of disease by 50%. It was concluded that a strategy combining photocatalysis treatment during cold storage to reduce pesticide residues and spoilage microorganisms with electrolyzed water washing to reduce any remaining microbial contamination prior to commercialization will substantially reduce disease and ensure the safety of stone fruits for human consumption.
... 7 Although it is not effective, washing with or without reagents such as sodium chloride (NaCl), sodium carbonate (Na 2 CO 3 ), or acetic acid (CH 3 COOH) is the most common first step to remove dirt particles, microbial load, and pesticides. [8][9][10][11] The search for alternative and practical food-processing technologies to degrade or remove pesticides in food products has been intensified recently. The focus for such innovative technologies for pesticide removal has been on ozone, non-thermal plasma (NTP), pulsed electric fields (PEF), gas phase surface discharge plasma (GPSDP), ultrasonication (US), and alkaline electrolyzed water (AEW). ...
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Background: The consumption of pesticides-contaminated sour cherry as fruit or juice has become a major health concern, and thus, intensified the search for alternative processing technologies such as pulsed electric fields (PEF), ozone (O), and ultrasonication (US). The novelties of this experimental study for sour cherry juice were four-fold: (1) to quantify the removal efficiency of the new processing technologies of PEF, O, US, and their combinations for the pesticides of chlorpyrifos ethyl, tau-fluvalinate, cyprodinil, pyraclostrobin, and malathion; (2) to detect their impacts on physical, bioactive and sensory properties; (3) to determine their microbial inactivation levels of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Bacillus cereus, Pseudomonas syringae subs. syringae, and Penicillum expansum; and (4) to jointly optimize multiple responses of physical, quality, and sensory properties, pesticides, microbial inactivation. Results: Except for all the O treatments, the physical, bioactive and sensory properties of sour cherry juice were not adversely affected with the treatments. The joint optimization pointed to PEF1 (24.7 kV cm-1 for 327 μs), PEF2 (24.7 kV cm-1 for 655 μs), PEF2+O+US, US, and PEF2+O as the five best treatments, respectively. PEF2+O+US better achieved both pesticide removal and microbial inactivation. Conclusion: PEF2+O+US provided promising reductions in pesticide and microbial loads. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
... Cooking methods, such as steaming, boiling, stewing and frying, involve high temperatures that can degrade some thermolabile pesticides well. For example, the degradation rate of chlorpyrifos in stir-fried cabbage is approximately 86.6% (Zhang et al., 2007). Nonetheless, this method partially degrades nutrients and changes the colour and taste of food. ...
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In agriculture, pesticide residues have always posed a major safety hazard to human health. With the development of agricultural production and improvements in science and technology, additional methods for degradation of pesticide residues have emerged. Amongst them, ozone treatment recently became a popular method owing to its outstanding technical advantages. This review is an in‐depth analysis of the mechanisms by which ozone treatment degrades pesticide residues. The main mechanism involves direct oxidation by oxygen atoms, and indirect oxidation driven by hydroxyl radicals. The effects of ozone treatment on pesticide residues in food with respect to the ozone concentration, duration of ozone treatment, type of food, variety of pesticides, level of pesticide residues and environmental factors have been discussed. Furthermore, the impact of ozone treatment on the quality of food is highlighted. Low levels of ozone result in minor changes to the visual and sensory characteristics of food. In addition, this article discusses several restrictions surrounding the current application of ozone treatment for the degradation of pesticide residues. More specifically, the most crucial issue is the potential toxicity of ozonation byproducts generated by the process, which is also the current focus of research on ozone treatment for the degradation of pesticide residues. After weighing the advantages and disadvantages of ozone treatment, it is recommended as a method of degrading pesticide residues. Using ozone to degrade pesticide residues in food has many technical advantages, but there are also some limitations to be considered.
... Washing during industrial processing of citrus juice allows removing partially the pesticides residue. Many studies have reported that food processing, including washing, peeling and juice processing; can greatly reduce pesticide residue in agricultural products (Zhang et al., 2007). However, some treatments, such as drying, induce a high concentration of pesticides due to water loss (Cabras et al., 1997, Lentza-Rizos et al., 2006. ...
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The aim of this work was to investigate the effects of different drying processes on drying kinetics, physico-chemical properties and antioxidants of industrial lemon by-product. Lemon byproduct was submitted to infrared drying (50–75 °C), convective drying (50–75 °C), microwave drying (90–350 W) and combined air-microwave drying (90 W/50 °C; 90 W/75 °C). Lemon byproduct is rich in water (3.18 ± 0.12 g water/g d.b), but also in phenols (5.52 ± 0.08 g GAE/100 g d.b), with a radical scavenging activity of 8.381 ± 0.400 mg Trolox Equivalent/g of extract. The drying time of industrial lemon byproduct varies between 27 min (350 W) and 480 min (infrared drying at 50 °C). Combined-air microwave drying (590 W/75 °C) and convective air drying at 75 °C allow better retention of phenols and flavonoids (more than 60%). Infrared drying of lemon byproduct at 75 °C was in favour of maximal water and oil retention capacities and radical scavenging activity; whereas color preservation is achieved after microwave drying (90 W) and convective drying (50 °C).
... According to the questionnaire survey of consumption habits of bayberry, the number of people who eat bayberry without washing is 25.7%, 46.6% of those who washed with water within 1 min, and 27.7% of those who wash bayberries with other methods. It was reported (Zhang et al. 2007;Radwan et al. 2004) that pesticide residues could be removed by washing the fruit with sodium chloride; therefore, the experiment was conducted by washing, water rinsing for 1 min, and salt water immersion for 20 min. The results showed that the 2,4-D sodium average removal rate using salt water immersion for 20 min was 5.0%, and the average removal rate for washing for 1 min was 49.9%. ...
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Preharvest fruit-drop is a challenge to bayberry production. 2,4-D sodium as a commonly used anti-fruit-drop hormone on bayberry can reduce the yield loss caused by preharvest fruit-drop. The persistence and risk assessment of 2,4-D sodium after applying on bayberries were investigated. A method for determining 2,4-D sodium in bayberry was established based on LC-MS-MS. The average recoveries of 2,4-D sodium were at the range of 93.7-95.8% with relative standard deviations (RSDs) ranging from 0.9 to 2.8%. The dissipation rates of 2,4-D sodium were described using first-order kinetics, and its half-life ranged from 11.2 to 13.8 days. A bayberry consumption survey was carried out for Chinese adults for the first time. The safety assessments of 2,4-D sodium were conducted by using field trail data as well as monitoring data. Results showed that the chronic risk quotient and the acute risk quotient were calculated to be 0.23-0.59 and 0.02-0.05%, respectively, for Chinese adults, indicating low dietary risk for adults and children. In the end, the household cleaning steps were compared, and results showed that water rinsing for 1 min can remove 49.9% 2,4-D sodium residue, which provides pesticide removal suggestion for consumers.
... One of the most well-known methods of plant prevention to plant pathogenic fungi is chemical control by deploying different groups of fungicides (Yaqub and Shahzad, 2006). Chemical control can generate resistance of fungi to fungicides and can cause environment pollution with direct effect of human health (Zhang et al., 2007;Damalas and Eleftherohorinos, 2011). In recent years, the trend of using different chemicals in plant production has been minimized. ...
... It is essential to diminish the residue level of vegetables before consumption. It has been reported that commercial and household processing such as washing, peeling, cooking, blanching and concentrating can reduce residue levels in food, which further minimize the impact of hazards on human health (Soliman, 2001;Zohair, 2001;Byrne and Pinkerton, 2004;Pugliese et al., 2004;Zhang et al., 2007). ...
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The study was conducted in the experimental field and Pesticide Analytical Laboratory of Entomology Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute (BARI), Gazipur during 2014-15 to evaluate the effect of different decontaminating solutions in the removal of organophosphorus insecticide residues in brinjal and chilli. Five insecticide viz. diazinon, malathion, fenitrothion, quinalphos and chloropyrifos formulation were sprayed in brinjal and chilli plant. Estimation of residues was done using Gas Chromatograph equipped with Flame Thermaionic Detector. The results indicated that dipping in 2 % salt water solution for 15 minutes followed by washing under tap water plus cooking was found to be more effective in reducing all pesticides tested when compared with other treatment solutions both in brinjal and chilli. This study facilitated to standardize simple cost effective approaches to eliminate harmful pesticide residues from brinjal and chilli which could be adept by home makers.
... Effects of different kitchen washing methods for prochloraz residue removal from bayberries vThe initial residue concentrations of prochloraz in our bayberry pulp test samples were 2.5 mg/kg. Previous studies have shown that washing fruit with salt (NaCl) water is an effective means for prochloraz removal (Zhang et al. 2007;Radwan et al. 2004). We performed three experimental treatments to remove prochloraz residue from bayberries. ...
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The bayberry is an important economic fruit as well as a minor crop in China, and few pesticide products are registered for bayberry. Prochloraz is a widely used fungicide with a high detection rate on bayberry. This study evaluated the potential dietary risk of prochloraz for different populations in China based on field trial data and market surveillance. The results indicate that one-time applications at dosages of 1000 and 1500 mg/kg with a recommended preharvest interval of 20 days do not pose a chronic or acute dietary risk. However, applying the above dosages twice will cause a potential short-term dietary risk. Risk assessment results conducted on surveillance samples indicated acceptable long-term risks for the general population, with a hazard quotient < 0.82. Furthermore, simulated washing and wine production processes were performed to mimic household practices to investigate residue transfer and distribution. We found that rinsing with tap water for 1 min was an effective way to remove residue, and the processing factors of prochloraz for both bayberry and wine were < 1, indicating that wine production could reduce residue levels. Prochloraz had a strong capacity to transfer to wine due to its high log Kow value, with transfer percentages up to 43%. This study supports the recommendation on good agricultural practices for prochloraz application and provides a guide for safe consumption.
... The best results were obtained when concentrations of 10% solutions were used (Abou-Arab 1999a) (Table 1). Zhang, Liu, and Hong (2007) used tap water, acetic acid, and NaCl solutions at concentrations of 2%, 6%, and 10% in the removal of some pesticide residues in pumpkin samples. In the study, different washing times (5, 10, and 20 min) were also tried. ...
Article
Pesticides are chemicals frequently used in agriculture to obtain maximum yield and improve product quality. Thousands of active ingredients and formulations of different pesticides are commercially available. Besides their advantages, a major disadvantage of pesticides is their residues, even though strict maximum residue limits have been set for each pesticide and permitted agricultural commodity. Permanence of pesticide residues on agricultural products depends on several factors such as the properties of pesticide, formulation, and applied concentration. Light, temperature, plant morphology, and plant growth factors are also effective in determining permanence. Degradation effects of the processing treatments rely on the dissolution of pesticides in the surrounding atmosphere, hydrolysis, microbial degradation, oxidation, penetration, and photo-degradation. Various steps applied during food processing, such as washing with water or other aqueous solutions, peeling, chopping, pickling, heat treatments, and processes such as drying, canning, fruit juice and concentrate production, malt, beer and wine production, oil production, and storage have certain effects on the presence of pesticide residues as well. Only washing with water can remove pesticide residue up to 100%, depending on the location of residue, residence time on food, water solubility of residue, washing temperature, and agents used to increase effectiveness. Besides washing, skin removal or peeling is one of the most effective treatments for residue removal, especially on non-systemic pesticides. During cooking, residues might be evaporated or hydrolyzed. Effects of storage temperature on reduction are related to volatilization, penetration, metabolism of pesticide, moisture content, and microbial growth, if any. In refrigerated or frozen storage, residues are stable or degrade slowly. Drying may increase the residue content because of the concentration, but in sun-drying reduction may occur because of photo-degradation. Clarification and filtration may eliminate residues retained in suspended particles. The degradation product, however, may be more toxic than the initial compound in some cases.
... Similar results were reported by Harinath reddy et al. Tap water wash was the least effective treatment and the findings of present investigations are in conformity with the findings of Zhang et al. (2006) who reported that washing of cabbage curds with water removed cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos residues up to 19.1 and 17.6% respectively, Panhwar et al. (2013) reported that washing of cauliflower curds with water removed profenophos residues by 14.32% was removed from spinach leaves). ...
Article
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Studies were undertaken to establish decontamination methods of commonly used insecticides Cypermethrin 25% EC @ 300 ml a.i./ha, Profenophos 40% EC @ 1000 ml a.i./ha sprayed at recommended dose in open field situations. The zero day samples from two various treatments were collected separately in large quantities and made into 2 sets, each in 4 replications. One set of sample from each treatment (in 4 replications) was analyzed for deposits of the pesticide. The remaining sets of samples of zero day from each treatment samples were subjected to various (Tap water wash, soaking in 2% salt solution for 10 min followed by tap water wash and hot water cooking of leafy vegetable for ten min) decontamination methods separately and the residues were calculated to know the efficiency of the various decontamination methods in the removal of pesticide residues from the spinach samples. Among various decontamination methods tested, hot water treatment wash was found to be very effective in removing pesticide residues to an extent of 50-90% varying with type of pesticides followed by common methods i.e., 2% salt solution wash was also effective method removing residues in the range of 30-65%, tap water in the range of 13-55%.
... To lessen dietary exposure to pesticides, it is important to detect and quantify the residue in dry fish as well as discover the strategies that successfully support in reducing the residue content at different level. It has been reported that commercial and household processing such as washing, peeling, cooking, blanching and concentrating can reduce residue levels in food, which further minimize the impact of hazards on human health (Soliman, 2001;Zohair, 2001;Byrne and Pinkerton, 2004;Pugliese et al., 2004;Zhang et al., 2007). The present study was taken on to detect and quantify the amount of leftover residue of insecticide in different dry fish samples collected from different local market of Bangladesh. ...
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This study was taken on to detect, quantify and decontamination of the residue of organochlorine pesticides in ten popular dry fish samples collected from different regions of Bangladesh. Out of 60 dry fish, thirty (30) percent dry fish were contaminated with endrin (0.05-0.18ppm), heptachlor epoxide-0.07ppm and endrin ketone-0.09ppm. Among those, fifteen percent samples were in above MRL (above 0.1ppm). Most of the sample of Loitta and Kanchki from Bogra were contaminated. Churi, Chingri, Hangor and Chanda collected from different location contained no detectable organochlorine residue. However, these detected organochlorine residues were considerably unsafe for consumer. Hence, it is required to minimize the left over residue from contaminated dry fish by using a technique which can be adopted easily at home. Therefore, to evaluate certain methods for removal of pesticide residues from endrine contaminated dry fish by using some household product. Estimation of residues was done using Gas Chromatography equipped with Electron Captured Detector. The results indicated that dipping in 2% vinegar solution for 15 minutes followed by washing with tap water was found to be more effective in reducing endrin pesticide (66%) when compared with other treatment solutions (0-54%) in Loitta fish. On the other hand, combination of two treatments (dipping in 2% vinegar+cooking) was reduced pesticide residues upto 98 percent from Loitta fish. This study helped to standardize simple cost effective strategies to eliminate harmful pesticides from dry fish which could be practiced by home makers.
... Pesticides could easily penetrate into the rough structure of vegetables with large surface area, while it was difficult for US to penetrate into these vegetables because US would lose energy while passing through any obstacles. Moreover, adhesive forces between the pesticides and vegetables also increased with large surface and small contact angle [26,27]. Therefore, it was more difficult for pesticides to get detached from vegetables with larger surface area, resulting in the lower removal efficiency of pesticides from these vegetables. ...
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Pesticide residue in vegetables has been considered as a serious food safety problem across the whole world. This study investigates a novel advanced oxidation process (AOP), namely the coupled free chlorine/ultrasound (FC/US) process for the removal of three typical pesticides from lettuce. The removal efficiencies of dimethoate (DMT), trichlorfon (TCF) and carbofuran (CBF) from lettuce reached 86.7%, 79.8% and 71.3%, respectively by the FC/US process. There existed a synergistic effect in the coupled FC/US process for pesticide removal and the synergistic factors reached 22.3%, 19.0% and 36.4% for DMT, TCF and CBF, respectively. Based on the analysis of mass balance of pesticides, the synergistic effect was probably attributed to the efficient oxidation of pesticides both in vegetables and in water by the generated free radicals and FC. The surface area and surface structure of vegetables strongly affected the removal of pesticides by FC/US. The removal efficiency of DMT increased from 80.9% to 88.1% as solution pH increased from 5.0 to 8.0, and then decreased to 84.1% when solution pH further increased to 9.0. When the ultrasonic frequency changed from 20 to 40 kHz, a remarkable improvement in pesticide removal by FC/US was observed. As the FC concentration increased from 0 to 15 mg L–l, the removal efficiencies of pesticides increased firstly, and then became stagnant when the FC concentration further increased to 25 mg L–l. The pesticide degradation pathways based on the identified intermediates were proposed. The total chlorophyll content was reduced by less than 5% after the FC/US process, indicating a negligible damage to the quality of vegetables. It suggests that the FC/US process is a promising AOP for pesticides removal from vegetables.
... For example, washing of harvested produce with or without chlorine has shown to reduce the pesticide residues (Kaushik, Satya, and Naik 2009). Household preparations containing different proportions of vinegar, common salt, and tap water or refrigeration followed by multiple stir frying has shown to remove a major portion of pesticide residues from vegetables (Zhang, Liu, and Hong 2007). Similarly, nanofiltration (Chen et al. 2004), activated carbon filtration (Foo and Hameed 2010), reverse osmosis (Bonne et al. 2000), distillation, adsorption (Tepus, Simonic, and Petrinic 2009), photocatalytic degradation (Devipriya and Yesodharan 2005), photodegradation (Tanaka and Reddy 2002), ionizing irradiation (Basfar, Khaled, and Al-Saqer 2012), gamma irradiation, biodenitrification reactors (Aslan and Turkman 2006), electrolysis adsorption (Vlyssides et al. 2005), microwaving (Salvador et al. 2002), electrochemical oxidation (Arapoglou et al. 2003), and ozonation (Ikeura, Kobayashi, and Tamaki 2011a;Wu et al. 2007a) are few other approaches used commercially to decrease the load of residues. ...
... For example, washing of harvested produce with or without chlorine has shown to reduce the pesticide residues (Kaushik, Satya, and Naik 2009). Household preparations containing different proportions of vinegar, common salt, and tap water or refrigeration followed by multiple stir frying has shown to remove a major portion of pesticide residues from vegetables (Zhang, Liu, and Hong 2007). Similarly, nanofiltration (Chen et al. 2004), activated carbon filtration (Foo and Hameed 2010), reverse osmosis (Bonne et al. 2000), distillation, adsorption (Tepus, Simonic, and Petrinic 2009), photocatalytic degradation (Devipriya and Yesodharan 2005), photodegradation (Tanaka and Reddy 2002), ionizing irradiation (Basfar, Khaled, and Al-Saqer 2012), gamma irradiation, biodenitrification reactors (Aslan and Turkman 2006), electrolysis adsorption (Vlyssides et al. 2005), microwaving (Salvador et al. 2002), electrochemical oxidation (Arapoglou et al. 2003), and ozonation (Ikeura, Kobayashi, and Tamaki 2011a;Wu et al. 2007a) are few other approaches used commercially to decrease the load of residues. ...
Article
Consumers' awareness toward nutritionally superior foods and improved knowledge of human health have enhanced the inclusion of fruits and vegetables as an integral part of regular dietary intake. However, concerns regarding the safety and quality of foods especially with reference to the outbreak of foodborne illnesses cause a major complication in the consumption of fruits and vegetables. Other major concerns, besides the safety of food from foodborne pathogens, include spoilage due to microbes and chemical pesticide residues. Traditionally, fresh fruits and vegetables are sanitized using chemicals, viz., chlorine, peracetic acid, electrolyzed water, hydrogen peroxide, etc. All these chemicals have been proven to exhibit ill effects over the consumers and the environment over a period of time, and thus, there is a great need for a safe alternative technique, which is eco-friendly and sustainable industrially. Ozone treatment is one such green technology available with multiple benefits such as antimicrobial nature, shelf life extension, pesticide residue removal, starch modification, waste water treatment, and many other industrial applications. It was also approved by FDA as a Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) sanitizer because of its eco-friendly nature (degradation into nonharmful oxygen after a short half-life) in addition to its inherent antimicrobial and antiethylene activity. This review focouses on ozone, its mode of action, and its applications in different horticultural crops with potential industrial use. ARTICLE HISTORY
... Other oxidative compounds include weak acids such as NaOCl and CH 3 COOH, which have also been reported to effectively reduce pesticide residues, particularly dimethoate (Zhang et al. 2007). In this study, although not as effective as KMnO 4 , NaOCl and CH 3 COOH also ...
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The load of pesticide residues in fresh produce poses risks to food safety and human health. The reduction of pesticide residues on 'Super Hot' red chilis was determined using various washing agents. Freshly-harvested red chilis were exogenously applied with 100 μL L-1 chlorpyrifos for 5 min and air-dried overnight. Fresh chilis were washed with distilled water, 0.1% CH 3 COOH, 0.001% KMnO 4 , 1.0% NaCl, 0.1% NaHCO 3 , or 0.02% NaOCl for 20 min and stored in ambient room conditions (31 ± 1 °C and 65 ± 11% RH) for 4 d. In another experiment, chilis were washed with distilled water, 0.001% KMnO 4 or 0.1% NaHCO 3 , and dried in a hot air oven at 50 °C for 24 h. Thereafter, the pesticide residues and quality of fresh and dried chilis were evaluated. The fruit washed with 0.001% KMnO 4 had the lowest toxicity of chlorpyrifos. In terms of quality, fresh chili washed with NaOCl, NaHCO 3 , and KMnO 4 had lower weight loss, better visual quality, and less shriveling. The use of 1% NaCl promoted decay. All washing agents did not affect the firmness and surface color of fresh chili. Drying itself reduced the degree of toxicity of pesticide residues whether it was washed with the washing agents or unwashed. Chilis washed with either distilled water or NaHCO 3 and then dried resulted in a higher extractable color and lower occurrence of non-enzymatic browning. The use of 0.001% KMnO 4 as a washing agent for 20 min can best reduce residues from chlorpyrifos applied 4 d earlier in fresh chili, and hot air oven-drying was able to reduce the residues further.
... In other fruits such as citrus, apple, and guava, half-life of prochloraz was varied about 10, 58-87, 11-18, and 10 days (Zheng et al. 2012;Fang et al. 2017;Zhang et al. 2010). Effective methods to remove fungicide residues are soaking with a salt solution or rinsing under running water (Radwan et al. 2004;Zhang et al. 2007;Zhao et al. 2019). Although washing durian before peeling sounds unlikely, it can be easily achieved. ...
Article
Fruit rot diseases are the serious problem in durian production for domestic consumption and export. Fungicides are commonly applied to reduce postharvest loss caused by postharvest diseases. The objective of this research was to study the efficacy of fungicides for controlling durian fruit rot diseases. Diseased durian cv. ‘Monthong’ were collected from three orchards from Tha Mai district, Chanthaburi province. Fungi were then isolated by tissue transplanting method and identified based on morphological characteristics. Three fungi including Fusarium solani, Lasiodiplodia theobromae, and Phomopsis sp. were confirmed as causal agents of fruit rot on durian. Ten concentrations of two ready-mix fungicides, which were Bumper P® (prochloraz 40% + propiconazole 9% W/V EC) and Custodia® (azoxystrobin 12% + tebuconazole 20% W/V SC), were evaluated towards the inhibition of the fungal growths. From in vitro experiment, both treatments could inhibit the mycelial growth at different levels. The EC50 of Bumber P® and Custodia® were 9.7–49.11 and 7.93–196.73 mg L−1 and respectively. In vivo experiments by dipping fruits showed that Bumper P® and/or Custodia® at the minimum rate of 1 ml L−1 exhibited strong control durian fruit rot caused by F. solani and Phomopsis sp., but both fungicide mixtures could not control L. theobromae. The results of residue analysis illustrated that no residues were detected in the edible pulp. This is important to ensure that the treated durian is safe for consumptions and these fungicides are suitable for the postharvest application in durian.
... These findings are also justified with the previous findings (Randhawa et al., 2014;Abdullah et al., 2016) who applied different household washing techniques for mitigation of pesticide residues in different vegetables. The recent work has also conformity with the findings of Zhang et al. (2007) who examined different concentration of sodium chloride and acetic acid, refrigeration, frying and tap water washing was successful reduced the level of 4 pesticides in cabbage. Tap water washing for 20 min minimize 17%, 17%, 19% and 15% and 10% acetic acid solutions for 20 min decreased 79%, 65.8%, 74% and 75.0%. ...
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Spinach is highly contaminated with different pesticide residues. This study was designed to evaluate organochlorine and pyrethroid pesticide residues present in various washing treatments (T0-T13) of fresh and chemically washed spinach with respect to maximum residues limits. Efficiency of washing solutions (citric acid, acetic acid, garlic extract and ginger extract) of different concentrations (w/v %) along with tap water in spinach was investigated for residues dissolution. Results showed that the highest reductions in endosulfan, deltamethrin and cypermethrin residues were 0.008 ± 0.008 mg.kg-1 (53%), 0.023 ± 0.024 mg.kg-1 (76%) and 0.017 ± 0.014 mgkg-1 (83%) in treatment of T5 (10% acetic acid) followed by 0.035 ± 0.029 mg.kg-1 (50%), 0.051 ± 0.029 mg.kg-1 (73%) and 0.037 ± 0.048 mg kg-1 (81%) in treatment T11 (10% ginger extract) while the lowest reductions in residues were 0.304 ± 0.004 mg.kg-1 (23%), 0.432 ± 0.030 mg.kg-1 (35%) and 0.468 ± 0.016 mg kg-1 (38%) in treatment T2 (5% citric acid), respectively. In conclusion, 10% acetic acid, ginger extract and mixture of acetic and citric acids can effectively minimize pesticide residues in treated spinach.
... Thus, the dietary exposure of pesticides was underestimated in the present study. However, according to the Chinese eating habits, vegetables may be washed, peeled, boiled or fried in the home cooking process, resulting in the degradation of pesticide residues (Keikotlhaile et al., 2010;Liang et al., 2012;Zhang et al., 2007). As these processing factors were not considered, the actual exposure level was overestimated in this respect. ...
Article
In the present study, 48 pesticide residues in 19,786 vegetable samples collected from Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (Xinjiang) of China over four seasons during 2010–2014 were quantitatively analyzed by gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometer (GC-MS/MS) or liquid chromatograph tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS). The potential exposure risks were then evaluated. Overall, pesticide contamination is the most serious risk in the first three months of the calendar year (Jan–Mar); thereafter the levels of contamination tend to decrease. There were 6325 samples (31.97%) that contained pesticide residues, and 768 samples (3.88%) that exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs). The highest residue rates and those exceeding MRLs rate were found in celery. Leafy vegetables and legume vegetables were more contaminated than other vegetable groups. The most frequently detected pesticide was procymidone (6.43%). Some banned or restricted pesticides such as HCB, DDT and carbofuran were detected. The highest detected concentration was in cypermethrin (7.40 mg/kg). The target hazard quotient (THQ) of all pesticides was <1, and the hazard index (HI) was 0.0872. The results supported that pesticide residues in vegetables may not pose a serious threat to public health in Xinjiang, despite a high detection rate. More importantly, continuous monitoring and tighter regulation of pesticide residues is highly suggested to promote food safety.
... The preparation of leafy vegetables has little or no influence on organochlorine pesticides, synthetic pyrethroids and organophosphorus compounds Tarnagda et al. [7]. There are a number of data available for the removal of organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticides during industrial and household vegetable and fruit processing [7,8,[10][11][12][13][14][15][16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23][24][25][26][27][28]. Similar data on babenda are less numerous. ...
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The uncontrolled use of pesticides on leafy vegetables has been frequently reported in recent years. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of pH, total acidity and various technological processes for the preparation of babenda on pesticide residues contained in leafy vegetable. The "babenda" is a Burkinabè dish consisting mainly of Hibiscus sabdariffa, Amaranthus hybridus and Cleome gynandra coarsely cut from steamed rice. The Quick, Easy Cheap Effective Rugged Safe Method (QuEChERS) and Gas Chromatography with Microelectron Capture Detector (GC-μECD) were used. Six pesticides were detected in 180 samples of leafy vegetables and cereal sauce (babenda) collected in 5 cities of Burkina Faso. Results showed that 56% of the samples contained residues among which 41.66% contained concentrations above the LMR and 25% contained multiple pesticides. There were found a correlation between pH and dieldrin content. Compared with the diuron with an average value of 0.0625-0.0969 mg.kg-1 , there is no correlation between this molecule and the pH (5.86) whose acidity varies between 0.04-0.10. The pH has an influence on the cypermethrin and the diuron. However acidity has an effect on the degradation of Lamda-cyhalothrines, 2, 4 DDT, dieldrin, heptachlor. For treatments of 150°C and 300°C, organochlorine pesticides are little or no degradation. There is a considerable reduction as the temperature increases. Only lindane, heptachlor, aldrin, alpa-endosulfan and 2, 4 DDT which have undergone total destruction from 250 and 300°C. Significant reductions were observed in all treatments applied. Future research needs to focus on the integration of food safety parameters into actual applied research at the level of babenda producers.
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Fruits and Vegetables are a rich source of vitamins & minerals and protect us from micronutrient deficiencies as well as gastrointestinal imbalances. Increasing demand for fruits & vegetables in recent few years have also led to an exponential increase in the occurrence of foodborne illnesses. These foodborne illnesses have often been linked to the pathogens found in fruits & vegetables, residual pesticides as well as organic & inorganic deposits. Household decontamination methods & techniques form the last barrier to prevent the illness carriers in the entire supply chain from farm to fork. In this review, we have summarized various decontamination techniques employed at household level to ensure safe intake. The techniques range from potable water wash to chemical aids to heat treatments to modern methods employed to reduce microbial load, residual pesticide level and organic/inorganic non-natural contaminants. No single technique was able to cleanse the produce as well as preserve integrity & sensorial parameters. Hence, multiple hurdle concept for combination technologies is the preferred way for future decontamination strategies. There is a need for research in identifying complimenting technologies, which can be used in combination to reduce contaminants as well as preserve the organoleptic properties and shelf life of produce.
Article
The vegetables, Chinese kale and Pakchoi, which are popular among the Thai people, are found to have problems with residues of pesticide. The pesticide residues in both Kale and Pakchoi were chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin. This research was to study the efficiency of pesticide residue reduction in Chinese kale and Pakchoi samples by using various household wash processing. The process included washing with normal water, 0.10% NaCl, baking soda, water flowing, and blanching. Pesticide residues were extracted from Chinese kale and Pakchoi to determine the amount of chlorpyriphos and cypermethrin residue by using analytical tools such as Gas Chromatography— Flame Photometric Detector (FPD) and Gas Chromatography—Electron Capture Detector (ECD). The results showed that the household processes for reducing the chlorpyrifos residue in Chinese kale and Pakchoi were the following: residues were reduced by 52.70–65.41%, 58.33–62.14%, 59.46–80.52%, and 46.04–62.85% when washed with normal water, 0.10% NaCl, baking soda, and water flowing through, respectively. Similarly, the household processes for reducing cypermethrin residue in Chinese kale and Pakchoi were the following: residues were reduced by 51.13–66.29%, 33.75–45.65%, 38.14–63.64%, and 44.88–61.63% when washed with normal water, 10% NaCl, baking soda, and water flowing through, respectively. Also, blanching reduced the chlorpyrifos residue by 37.96–50.44% and the cypermethrin residue by 47.86–52.42%. Therefore, while washing vegetables by soaking and dissolving substances, baking soda is the most effective when used for washing for at least 15 min to reduce the residue of pesticides. The consumers should be provided vegetables that are cleaned and have had a proper washing for removing pesticide residues and toxic residues.
Article
Chlorpyrifos is one of the most heavily used pesticides in domestic and agricultural insect prevention globally. Given the potential neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos and its high detection rates in food and drinking water, health risks attributable to chlorpyrifos residue in Chinese drinking water and food in both China and Denmark were assessed in this study. Mixed left-censored handling models were used to deal with the non-detected values in chlorpyrifos concentrations. Results show that chronic exposure imputed to chlorpyrifos residue is much lower than the reference dose, and will thus not pose appreciable health risk to the consumer. Compared to the total exposure from chlorpyrifos in drinking water and food sources, chronic exposure from drinking water sources in China accounts for 0-4.4%. Health risk owing to chlorpyrifos in food within China is 6-7-fold higher than in Denmark, and this coincides with the fact that all application of chlorpyrifos is banned in Denmark, in contrast to China. However, the Danish consumers are still exposed from imported food items. The main health risk contributors in China are the food groups of Grains and grain-based products and Vegetable and vegetable products, while the main chronic health risk contributor in Denmark is the food group of imported fruit and fruit products.
Article
This research aimed to compare the efficiency of five washing solutions (0.9% NaCl, 0.1% NaHCO3, DI water, 0.001% KMnO4, and 0.1% acetic acid) for removing carbaryl residues from cucumber and chili. The vegetables were soaked in 10 mg/L of carbaryl solution for 30 min and then washed for 30 min in one of the five washing solutions and the results compared. Each experiment was performed in triplicate and the amounts of carbaryl residues remaining were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The results showed that 0.001% KMnO4 was the most effective at removing carbaryl from both vegetables. Washing with 0.001% KMnO4 reduced carbaryl residues to 64% and 28%, respectively, of the original concentrations. Washing with DI water was the least effective method of removing carbaryl residues. Hopefully, the results will encourage further research, into reducing carbaryl contamination by washing with chemical solutions, which will enable producers to reduce pesticide residues.
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Field studies on residues and dissipation of lambda-cyhalothrin in green pepper fruits were conducted during 2016. Residues were quantified at different harvest intervals of (2h), 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 15 days after insecticide application. Persistence, dissipation, half-life value and safe harvest interval of the insecticide in green pepper were calculated. Results revealed that, loss percentages of initial deposits were higher in sweet pepper fruits than leaves. The half-life (t ½) values of lambda-cyhalothrin were 2.68 and 3.45 in green pepper fruits and leaves, respectively. Data indicated that pepper fruits could be consumed safely after 6 days of treatment with lambda-cyhalothrin. The pre harvest interval (PHI) value was reduced to two hours after spraying with washing the fruits with 1% sodium carbonate or frying the fruits in boiling oil when comparing with the maximum residue limit (MRL) (0.01 mg/kg). While pickling process was, however, don't alter this value. Lambda – cyhalothrin residues significantly decreased the levels of the all tested quality parameters (total soluble sugar, glucose, acidity, total soluble solids, ascorbic acid, β-carotene, and protein) in pepper fruits throughout the experiment with the exception that the dry matter. Lambda-cyhalothrin residues were significantly reduced the levels of N %, P %, K %, iron mg/kg, manganese mg/kg, calcium % and zinc %. Conclusively, results clearly revealed that the PHI value (6 days) was reduced to two hours after spraying with washing the fruits with 1% sodium carbonate or frying the fruits. Lambda-cyhalothrin residues were significantly reduced the levels of some quality parameters and elements.
Article
The behaviour of residues of tebuconazole, prochloraz, and abamectin in rehmannia during rehmannia decoction processing was systemically assessed. The pesticides were determined by ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) after each processing step including washing, steaming and drying, carbonising, and boiling. Results showed that the pesticide residues significantly decreased after the steps of washing, carbonising, and boiling. Washing reduced pesticide residues by 41.2%–60.0%; carbonising reduced pesticides by 27.1%–71.1% in both prepared rehmannia and unprepared rehmannia. After boiling, the concentrations of tebuconazole and prochloraz were 0.0002–0.0022 mg kg⁻¹ in decoctions. Abamectin was not detected in rehmannia after carbonising, and it was not detected in decoctions either. The processing factors (PFs) were less than 1 during food processing, indicating that the full set of processing can reduce the residues of tebuconazole, prochloraz, and abamectin in rehmannia decoction.
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Removal of pesticide residues from fresh produce is important to reduce pesticide exposure to humans. This study investigated the effectiveness of commercial and homemade washing agents in the removal of surface and internalized pesticide residues from apples. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mapping and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) methods were used to determine the effectiveness of different washing agents in removing pesticide residues. Surface pesticide residues were most effectively removed by sodium bicarbonate (baking soda, NaHCO3) solution when compared to either tap water or Clorox bleach. Using a 10 mg/mL NaHCO3 washing solution, it took 12 and 15 min to completely remove thiabendazole or phosmet surface residues, respectively, following a 24 h exposure to these pesticides, which were applied at a concentration of 125 ng/cm². LC–MS/MS results showed, however, that 20% of applied thiabendazole and 4.4% of applied phosmet had penetrated into the apples following the 24 h exposure. Thiabendazole, a systemic pesticide, penetrated 4-fold deeper into the apple peel than did phosmet, a non-systemic pesticide, which led to more thiabendazole residues inside the apples, which could not be washed away using the NaHCO3 washing solution. This study gives us the information that the standard postharvest washing method using Clorox bleach solution for 2 min is not an effective means to completely remove pesticide residues on the surface of apples. The NaHCO3 method is more effective in removing surface pesticide residues on apples. In the presence of NaHCO3, thiabendazole and phosmet can degrade, which assists the physical removal force of washing. However, the NaHCO3 method was not completely effective in removing residues that have penetrated into the apple peel. The overall effectiveness of the method to remove all pesticide residues diminished as pesticides penetrated deeper into the fruit. In practical application, washing apples with NaHCO3 solution can reduce pesticides mostly from the surface. Peeling is more effective to remove the penetrated pesticides; however, bioactive compounds in the peels will become lost too.
Article
Food safety problems caused by pesticide residues in vegetables have become a top issue to raise public concern. In this study, bell peppers were grown in an experimental field and sprayed with two systemic (azoxystrobin and difenoconazole) and one contact (chlorothalonil) fungicides. Ozone (ozonated water and water continuously bubble with ozone) or conventional domestic (washing with distilled water, detergent, acetic acid, sodium bicarbonate, and sodium hypochlorite solutions) procedures were investigated to identify the most effective way to remove fungicide residues in bell peppers. The residues in the fruits and the washing solutions were determined by solid–liquid extraction with a low-temperature partition (SLE/LTP) and liquid–liquid extraction with a low-temperature partition (LLE/LTP), respectively, and analyzed by gas chromatography. Water continuously bubbled with ozone a concentration of 3 mg L⁻¹ was the most efficient treatment with removal of fungicides residues ranging from 67% to 87%. However, similar treatment at a lower concentration (1 mg L⁻¹) did not only efficiently removed fungicide residues (between 53% and 75%) but also preserving the quality of the fruit along a storage time of 13 days. Among the conventional solutions, sodium bicarbonate at 5% showed good efficiency removing between 60% and 81% of the fungicide residues from bell peppers, affecting the color quality of the fruit. Overall, the most affected physicochemical parameters in bell peppers after the treatments were weight loss, color, and vitamin C content.
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Flubendiamide belongs to a new chemical class, the phthalic acid diamides, widely used on tomato in India for the management of fruit borers. Flubendiamide is registered for use in India on tomato, but Maximum Residue Limits are not available as per Food Safety and Standards Authority of India. A research project was taken to study the dissipation pattern of flubendiamide on tomato cv. Nirupama in both open field and poly-houses, when applied twice @ 48 g a.i. ha-1, first spray was given 50 days after planting (fruit initiation) followed by the second spray at 10 days interval as per the farmers practice. Flubendiamide residues were quantified through regular sampling till the residues are below the determination level (BDL) of 0.05 mg kg-1 following the validated QuEChERS (Quick, Easy, Cheap, Effective, Rugged, and Safe) method. The qualitative and quantitative analysis of flubendiamide were performed on HPLCPDA and LC-MS/MS. Initial deposits of 1.23 mg kg-1 were detected in the tomato samples collected from poly-house, which dissipated to BDL at the 10th day with half-life of 6.18 days. In open fields, deposits of 0.90 mg kg-1dissipated to BDL at the 7thday with half-life of 6.07 days, and indicated that dissipation was slow in poly-house when compared to the open field due to various factors. MRL of 3 mg kg-1in polyhouse tomato and 2 mg kg-1 in open field tomato is recommended based on the OECD (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development) calculator and chronic hazard exposure assessment taking into consideration of average body weight, national per capita tomato consumption and acceptable daily intake (ADI) of flubendiamide. Among the various decontamination methods tested, veggy wash was found very effective in removing flubendiamide residues to the extent of 65.39 % which can be recommended as risk mitigation method for food safety, followed by 4%acetic acid solution (61.63%) and tap water wash was least effective (17.71%) in removing flubendiamide residues from tomato.
Chapter
Pesticides are substances that kill pestiferous organisms. They include insecticides against insect pests, herbicides against weeds, fungicides against fungal pathogens, acaricides against spiders and mites, molluscicides against slugs, and so on. Pesticide use is increasing worldwide with thousands of products available that are applied in million tons per year. Agriculture is the sector with the highest pesticide use, with fruit producing or viticulture being much more pesticide-intensive than arable cropping. Pesticide use is being justified by securing higher yields that are considered more important to human society than potential side effects of pesticides. It is estimated that only about 10% of the applied pesticides are actually effective against the pests or diseases they are intended to control. Besides agriculture, pesticides are also applied in private gardens, on railway tracks, in airplanes, in landscaping, on sports grounds, golf courses and even in nature conservation areas. Manufacturers and regulators are reassuring that pesticides are among the best tested substances and everything is alright as long as they are applied according to their recommendations. However, pesticide drift leads to contaminations far away from their location of application, thus can affect everybody. When pesticide residues are found in food products, maximum residue limits convey safety-but these limits are being adjusted steadily.
Thesis
Ce travail de thèse est une contribution à la valorisation des écorces de l’orange « Maltaise demi-sanguine » tunisienne. L’objectif de ce travail est (i) d’étudier l’efficacité des différentes méthodes d’extraction en termes de teneurs en phénols totaux (PT), en flavonoïdes totaux (FT), en flavonoïdes individuels (FI) et en activité antioxydante des extraits et (ii) d’examiner l’effet inhibiteur de l’extrait contre la corrosion de l’acier en milieu acide et basique. Pour cela, cinq méthodes d’extraction ont été utilisées : l’extraction conventionnelle par solvant, ECS (éthanol (80%), m/v: 5g:50ml, 30 min, 35°C et agitation mécanique à l'obscurité, 3 extractions successives), l’extraction assistée par micro-ondes, EAM (éthanol (80%), m/v: 5g:50ml, 3 extractions successives, 180s, 67-108°C et 100-400W ou à 35°C), l’extraction assistée par ultrasons, EAU (éthanol (80%), m/v: 5g:50ml, 30 min, 35°C, 100-200W et 3 extractions successives), l’extraction sous haute pression, EHP (éthanol (80%), m/v: 5g:50ml, 30 min, 35°C, 0,1-100 MPa et 1 seule extraction) et l’extraction par CO2 supercritique, SC-CO2 (éthanol (80%), m/v: 5g:50ml, 30 min, 35-80°C/10-22 MPa et 3 extractions successives). Ce coproduit est riche en ingrédients fonctionnels comme les phénols totaux (1,968±0,002 g EAG/100g MS) et la vitamine C (0,105±0,003 g/100g MS). Dix flavonoïdes individuels (FI) ont été identifiés dans l’extrait des écorces de l’orange Maltaise. La néohespéridine (0,860±0,003 g/100g de poudre des écorces d’orange) et l’hespéridine (0,551±0,001 g/100g de poudre des écorces d’orange) sont les composés majoritaires. Les conditions opératoires d’extraction qui ont permis d’obtenir les teneurs les plus élevées en PT et FT sont 200 W, 76°C pendant 180s pour l’EAM, 125 W pendant 30 min à 35°C pour l’EAU, 80°C et 10 MPa pour l’extraction SC-CO2 et 50 MPa, 35°C pendant 30 min pour l'EHP. La comparaison des différentes méthodes d’extraction aux mêmes conditions opératoires (m/v:5g/50ml, éthanol 80%, 35°C, 3 extractions successives) montre que l’EAM présente les teneurs les plus élevées en PT et en FT, suivie par EAU, ECS, EHP et l’extraction SC-CO2, ainsi qu’en flavonoïdes individuels majoritaires. Cependant, la valeur de l’activité antioxydante n’est pas systématiquement corrélée à la teneur en phénols la plus élevée et elle diffère selon le test utilisé. Pour le test ABTS, l’activité antioxydante suit l’ordre décroissant suivant : EHP, ECS, SC-CO2, EAM, EAU, alors que c’est EHP, ECS, EAM, EAU, SC-CO2, pour le test DPPH. L’étude de l’effet anti-corrosion de l’extrait des écorces de l’orange Maltaise ainsi que ses composés antioxydants majoritaires (la néohespéridine, la naringine et l’acide ascorbique) a révélé une efficacité d’inhibition significative de la corrosion de l’acier par l’extrait des écorces d’orange (95%) par rapport à celle de ses composés antioxydants individuels : l’acide ascorbique (92%), la néohespéridine (87%) et la naringine (56%). Le potentiel anti-corrosion de l'extrait des écorces d'orange n’est pas due uniquement à l'activité antioxydante de ces composés mais probablement à des actions en synergie de différentes molécules et à la formation d'un film tridimensionnel de surface attribué à d’autres composés présents dans l’extrait comme la pectine
Article
This study investigated the effectiveness of gelatinized starch (GS) in the removal of surface and internalized pesticide residues from basil leaves. Surface activity of GS was confirmed by surface tension and fluorescence study. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) mapping was applied for in situ and real-time tracking of pesticides over time. Results showed that gelatinized starch has better and safer pesticide removing effect compared to commercial surfactants. Simulation study showed that starch fragment can adjust its three-dimensional conformation according to the size of the guest with ~ four repeating α-1,4-d-glucopyranose residues interacting efficiently with pesticides. However, washing by small molecular weight surfactants will lead to a "secondary contamination" due to its amphilphilic nature and small molecular size, which can escort pesticide deeper into the leaf. Due to the wide availability, easy fabrication, efficient rinsing effect and bio-safety nature, GS should be highly recommended in family practice.
Article
Background Pesticide residues (PR) present in food are potentially toxic components to humans and can be the cause of severe health problems, depending on the means and amounts of individual exposure. Among the different routes of pesticide exposure, the most likely exposure is through the direct consumption of fresh foods. Scope and approach To remove PR from fresh agricultural products and improve food safety for consumers, various pesticide removal methods have been studied in recent decades. Several cleaning techniques such as usage of surfactants, ozone (O3), ionic solvent, and chlorine treatment have been applied to reduce the presence of pesticides. However, none of these methods have been reported as being successful in removing PR without any physical or chemical side effects to the food itself. Therefore, there is a crucial need for investigation of more effective, sustainable, and environment-friendly pest and pesticide removal practices. Key findings and conclusions Ultrasound-assisted cleaning (UAC) is considered to be an environment-friendly and effective pesticide eliminating process which is unique in its ability to remove the contaminants compared to conventional methods. It is also a time and energy-saving method of cleaning. This review gathers and focuses on the most relevant works on the UAC techniques of organic or inorganic pesticides applied during the growth of fresh vegetables, which are mostly eaten raw or after minimal processing. The findings of the reviewed works suggest that ultrasonication itself would be beneficial as a vegetable-cleaning technology, or could be readily combined with another suitable method.
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Home processing can reduce pesticide residues in agricultural products, and the common forms of treatment include washing, peeling, blanching, and cooking. In this study, the removal effects of tap water, micron calcium solution, alkaline electrolyzed water (AlEW), ozone water, active oxygen, and sodium bicarbonate on 10 typical pesticide residues in kumquat, cucumber, and spinach were investigated. The residue magnitudes were determined by chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS, LC-MS/MS), combined with the QuEChERS pretreatment method. The model tests showed that the results of soaking and greenhouse were close. The removal effects of pesticide residues in kumquat and cucumber washing by alkaline electrolyzed water with a high pH value, micron calcium, and active oxygen solution were better than other washing solutions. The sodium bicarbonate solution, ozone water, and active oxygen solution were more effective in reducing pesticide residues in spinach than others. Active oxygen solution showed a better removal efficiency for the 10 pesticides than other treatments because of its alkalinity and oxidizability. Among the ten pesticides, pyrethroid pesticides had a higher removal rate. Additionally, chlorpyrifos were the most difficult to remove. For the majority of pesticides, the pesticide residue magnitudes showed a gradual reduction when increasing the washing time. The results indicated that alkaline solutions were effective for the reduction of pesticide residues when the washing time was longer than 15 min.
Article
Washing, which is the first step in both household and industrial scale food processing, contributes to the reduction of pesticide residues over the surface of fruits. In this study, it was aimed to investigate the effectiveness of different type of non-toxic washing agents (tap water and different concentrations of sodium carbonate, sodium chloride, acetic acid, apple cider and grape vinegar solutions) on residues of abamectin, buprofezin, imazalil, thiophanate-methyl in orange. The residue of pesticides were determined by QuEChERS extraction followed by liquid chromatography equipped with triple quadrupole mass spectrophotometer (LC-MS-MS). The results prevailed that pesticide residue levels decreased gradually during washing steps with processing factors <1. Maximum and minimum reduction ratio was obtained for thiophanate-methyl and abamectin as 84% and 2%, respectively. The reductions in residue levels were mainly related with the octanol-water partition coefficient in addition to type and concentration of the solutions. Effectiveness order of the treatments was the alkaline solutions (10% sodium carbonate) > acidic solutions (%8 acetic acid) > vinegar solutions ≈ neutral solutions (10% sodium chloride) > tap water. In practical applications, household solutions easily found at home preferably sodium carbonate may be used along with tap water to decrease pesticide residues in fresh produce.
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Vegetables play an important role in human nutrition and health. Cultivation of vegetable crops is an integral part of the agricultural economy of many developing countries. Vegetable crop productivity and quality are seriously affected by several biotic and abiotic stresses, which destabilize rural economies in many countries. Moreover, absence of proper post-harvest storage and processing facilities leads to qualitative and quantitative losses. In the past four decades, conventional breeding has contributed significantly for the improvement of vegetable yields, quality, post-harvest life, and resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses. However, there are many constraints in conventional breeding, which can only be overcome by advancements made in modern biology. In the last decade various traits such as biotic stress resistance, quality and storage life have been successfully engineered into vegetable crops and some of them have been commercialized. In recent years significant progress has been made to manipulate vegetable crops for abiotic stress tolerance, quality improvement and pharmaceutical and industrial applications. Although the progress in commercialization of transgenic vegetable crops has been relatively slow, transgenic vegetables engineered for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical use will contribute significantly to the value added agriculture in near future.
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Residues of the organolchlorine pesticides namely. (alpha + beta hexaehlorocychlohexane. lindane. aldrin, dieldrin, endrine and total DDT) and the organophosphorus pesticides (pirimiphos-methyl and malathion) were determined in home-produced tomatoes and cucumbers used for consumption in two Egyptian Governorates. The analysed samples were collected randomely and periodically during March 1994 - April 1995 from the markets in Kalyubia and Cairo Governorates. Results showed that most of the tested samples contained VCR' low amounts of alpha + beta-HCH, lindane and DDT, below the acceptable limits of the FAO. Aldrin. dieldrin and endrin residues were found frequently in a few number of the investigated samples. below the acceptable limits. Residues of alpha and beta HCH were found to be higher than the acceptable limit in. only. two samples of cucumbers. The organophosphorus insecticides pirimiphos-methyl and malathion were detected in most of the tomato and cucumber samples at very low levels below the allowed maximum residue limits.
Article
After various cooking treatments (washing, boiling, frying, baking etc.') of food samples, which had been prepared by dipping Chinese cabbage, potato, green peas and carrot in solutions containing 12 kinds of pesticides, the remaining pesticides were determined and the results were compared with those in filter paper samples reported previously. In most samples, the remaining percentage in food samples was less than that in paper samples. The correlation of behaviors of the pesticides between both samples was tested with respect to each pesticide or treatment. Among pesticides, 13 pairs in all of 23 pairs were estimated to be correlated significantly, and among treatments, the values after washing with water, washing with detergent and boiling, were found to be significantly correlated. As a screening test to consider the behavior of pesticides in foods during cooking treatments, filter paper might be applicable as food substitute in certain pesticides or treatments. © 1985, The Pharmaceutical Society of Japan. All rights reserved.
Article
GC-ECD and GC-MS analyses of profenofos residues in tomatoes and tomato products were carried out. The effects of the pesticide on some enzyme systems (transaminases and oxidoreductases) and quality attributes of tomato fruits were also studied. The results showed that the GC-ECD analysis allowed an accurate determination of profenofos residues. GC-MS analysis was less susceptible to interfering compounds than the GC-ECD analysis. In addition, the GC-MS technique allowed the identification of the studied pesticide and ensured that profenofos extraction and cleanup steps were acceptable. The fresh tomatoes had considerable amounts of profenofos (26.6-8.7 ppm) depending on the time from pesticide application. Washing tomatoes with tap water resulted in about 15-30 % reduction of the pesticide residues. More residues (89 %) were removed as the treated tomatoes were processed into tomato juice. Moreover, the pesticide residues did persist in tomato puree (1.57 ppm) and tomato paste (1.16 ppm). Transaminases were differently affected by profenofos residues. While glutamic-pyruvic transaminase was inhibited by the residues, glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase was stimulated. In addition, peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase activities were induced. The apparent K(m) of the profenofos-treated tomatoes was lower (1.410 X 10(-4) M) than that (3.891 x 10(-4) M) of the untreated tomatoes. Consequently, an increase of the V(max) was observed (7.353 units) for polyphenol oxidase in the profenofos-treated tomatoes as compared to that (4.629 units) of the untreated tomatoes. The pesticide treatment increased the total soluble solids and acidity contents but decreased the glucose, protein, and ascorbic acid contents of tomatoes.
Article
Monitoring of pesticide residues in Egyptian tomatoes and its products was studied. The average contents of HCB, lindane, dieldrin, heptachlor epoxide and DDT derivatives were detected at levels 0.009, 0.003, 0.006, 0.008 and 0.083 mg/kg, respectively. On the other hand, the levels of dimethoate, profenofos and pirimiphos-methyl were 0.461, 0.206 and 0.114 mg/kg, respectively. In ketchup and paste samples, most organochlorine and organophosphorus pesticide residues were not detectable. The distribution patterns of pesticide residues within the cuticular and subcuticular tissues in tomatoes were also studied. The skin samples were found to contain the highest levels of HCB, lindane, dieldrin and DDT derivatives. The investigation also indicated that washing with water and/or detergent solution were necessary to decrease the intake of pesticide residues. Freezing, as well as juicing and peeling, were necessary to remove pesticide residues in the skin. Cooking of tomatoes (including processing tomato to paste) helped to eliminate most pesticide residues from contaminated tomatoes. ©
Article
The effect of blanching and treatment with white vinegar containing acetic acid on dietary fibre, low-molecular-weight carbohydrates and glucosinolates was studied in two cultivars of white cabbage (Heckla and Predikant). The total content of dietary fibre and low-molecular-weight carbohydrates was similar in both cultivars (24 and 60 g/100 g DM, respectively), while the distribution between soluble and insoluble fibre differed (19% was soluble in Heckla versus 26% in Predikant, P < 0.01). Further, Heckla contained higher amounts of glucose and sucrose, while the content of fructose and total glucosinolates was lower than in Predikant. The content of individual glucosinolates differed between the two cultivars. During blanching there was a loss of dry substance (30–34 g/100 g DM), where low-molecular-weight carbohydrates primarily explained the loss (82–90%), but some of the loss was also dietary fibre (about 8%), both soluble fibre containing uronic acids (mainly Predikant) and insoluble ones containing glucose (mainly Heckla). The glucosinolate levels decreased substantially in both cultivars, although the total loss was higher in Predikant (74%) than in Heckla (50%). The individual glucosinolates were affected to different degrees (15–91%). During souring with acetic acid, the content of dietary fibre (primarily insoluble ones) decreased further, while the content of low-molecular-weight carbohydrates was less affected. The total content of glucosinolates was not affected in Heckla but was further reduced in Predikant. There was, however, a substantial increase in 4-methoxyglucobrassicin in both cultivars. It is concluded that blanching and souring decrease the content of carbohydrates and glucosinolates to a great extent and both cultivars behaved similarly. However, individual components were affected differently in the two cultivars.
Article
The aim of this study was to investigate the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide residues in market foods (cereals, vegetables, and fruits) in the Shaanxi area of China. The concentrations of eight OP pesticides were determined by gas chromatography with flame photometric detection (GC-FPD). In 18 of 200 samples, five OP pesticides, including dichlorvos, dimethoate, parathion-methyl, pirimiphos-methyl and parathion, were found in concentrations ranging from 0.004 to 0.257 mg/kg. The mean levels of dimethoate in fruits and parathion in vegetables exceeded the maximum residue limits (MRLs) allowed by the Ministry of Health, of China. Other detectable OP pesticide residues levels were below their MRLs. Demeton, diazinon and sumithion were not found in any sample. The results provide important information on the current contamination status of a key agricultural area in China, and point to the need for urgent action to control the use of some excessively applied and potentially persistent OP pesticides, such as dimethoate and parathion.
Article
Contamination of surface water and sediments by toxic chemicals is a concern in many areas of the United States. Certain organic compounds and metals accumulate in the tissues of aquatic organisms posing a health threat to consumers. Exposure and risk assessments conducted to determine health risks associated with consumption of aquatic species often assume that the levels of contaminants in the edible tissue remain unchanged after preparation and cooking. This assumption may lead to overestimatio n or underestimation of risk because removal or transformatio n of toxic constituents in the tissue may occur by thermal decomposition, volatilization, dissolution in aqueous tissue fluids or lipids that drip off the tissue, or extraction into cooking oil. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) have several properties which make them toxic in the environment. They can significantly bioacumulate and concentrate in the fatty tissues of organisms. PCBs are of particular interest because of their known toxicity, their widespread presence, and their persistence in the environment. U.S. EPA classifies PCBs as a probable human carcinogen. (U.S. EPA 1988; U.S. EPA 1997) The effects of cooking on PCB levels and other contaminants have been studied by several researchers. Some scientists have found no significant changes in PCB concentrations, while others have reported both decreases and increases in PCB levels following cooking of fish tissue. (Smith 1973; Skea 1979; Cinchy 1979; Zabik 1979; Zabik 1982; Puffer 1983; Armbruster 1989; Trotter 1989) The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of preparation and cooking on levels of PCBs found in fillets of winter flounder. The cooking methods used in this study were deep fat frying, pan frying with butter, and broiling.
Article
Monitoring of pesticide residues in potato tubers and their prepared products ("pommes frites" and chips) was undertaken. Experiments were carried out to determine changes in concentration due to the washing, peeling and cooking process (blanching and frying) to assess the stability of pesticides in potatoes and their products. Pesticide residues were quantified by using gas chromatography. Results show that malathion, HCB, lindane and p,p-DDD were predominant in potatoes and their products. The highest mean was detected in potatoes, followed by pommes frites, while the lowest mean was recorded in chips. On the other hand, potato skin samples were found to contain the highest levels of DDT and its derivatives, lindane and HCB. Peeling was necessary to remove the greatest amount of pesticides in the skin. Washing with water and/or other solutions as well as the cooking process (blanching and frying) helped to eliminate most of the pesticide residues from the potato tubers.
Article
Market samples (60) of six seasonal vegetables were monitored during 1996-1997 to determine the magnitude of pesticidal contamination. The estimation of insecticide residues representing four major chemical groups i.e. organochlorine, organophosphorous, synthetic pyrethroid and carbamate, was done by adopting a multiresidue analytical technique employing GC-ECD and GC-NPD systems with capillary columns. The tested samples showed 100% contamination with low but measurable amounts of residues. Among the four chemical groups, the organophosphates were dominant followed by organochlorines, synthetic pyrethroids and carbamates. About 23% of the samples showed contamination with organophosphorous compounds above their respective MRL values. More extensive studies covering different regions of Haryana state are suggested to get a clear idea of the magnitude of vegetable contamination with pesticide residues.
Article
Vascular plants possess an enzyme system that detoxifies cyanide by converting it to the amino acid asparagine. This paper examines the potential of three woody plants from the Salicaceae family to degrade cyanide. Pre-rooted trees were grown in carefully designed bioreactors with aqueous solution spiked with potassium cyanide at 23.0 +/- 1 degree C for a maximum of 144 h. Cyanide concentrations ranged from 0.95 to 1.15 CN mg/L. Cyanide in water and in plant tissues was analyzed spectrophotometrically. Results from the investigation indicated that significant reduction of aqueous cyanide was found during the presence of plants in all treatments. Little amounts of applied cyanide were detected in the tissues of plants, mainly in roots and bottom stem. Cyanide remaining in tissues varied with the species of plants, despite similar periods of exposure. The data also indicated that photolysis, hydrolysis, and microbial degradation were not occurring and that volatilization was minimal. In conclusion, transport and metabolism of cyanide in plants is most likely.
Article
Organochlorine (OC) pesticides were measured in the ambient air of Chiapas, Mexico during 2000-2001. Concentrations of some OC pesticides (DDTs, chlordanes, toxaphene) were elevated compared with levels in the Great Lakes region, while those of other pesticides were not (hexachlorocyclohexanes, dieldrin). While this suggests southern Mexico as a source region for the former group of chemicals, comparably high levels have also been reported in parts of the southern United States, where their suspected sources are soil emissions (DDTs, toxaphene) and termiticide usage (chlordane). Ratios of p,p'-DDT/p,p'-DDE and trans-chlordane/cis-chlordane/trans-nonachlor (TC/CC/TN) in Chiapas suggest a mixture of fresh and weathered sources, while congener profiles of toxaphene suggest emission of old residues from soils. This is supported by air parcel back trajectory analysis, which indicated that air masses over Chiapas at the time of sampling had previously passed over areas of continuing or recent use of some OC pesticides as well as areas of past use.
Article
Residues of the pesticides chlorpyrifos, dimethoate, cyhalothrin, cypermethrin, fenvalerate, deltamethrin and chlorothalonil in the autumn Chinese cabbage (Brassica chinensis L.) were studied using gas chromatography. The results indicated that the residues were dependent on the frequency and rate of pesticide application and on the weather conditions immediately following spraying. When the Chinese cabbages were treated once at normal rates, the half-lives of the seven pesticides in the vegetable were 4.7, 5.3, 2.9, 3.5, 5.4, 4.3 and 4.0 days respectively. Thus, based on the recommended preharvest intervals, the residual levels of all pesticides were within the national standards. When the Chinese cabbages were treated four times at maximal rates at 5 day intervals, the half-lives of chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil in the vegetable were 3.6, 2.9 and 5.9 days respectively, so that, based on the recommended preharvest intervals, the residual levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorothalonil exceeded the national standards for pollution-free vegetables, but the residual level of cypermethrin was within the national standard. Effects of rain on pesticide final residues in plants treated four times were more significant than in those treated once.
Article
We propose a scheme for concentrating nonmaximally pure and mixed polarization-entangled state of individual photon pairs. The scheme uses only simple linear optical elements and may be feasible within current optical technology.
Removal of 3 organophosphorous insecticide residues with ozone and its inXuence on the content of Vc and carotenoid in vegetables
  • X.-Y Yu
  • F Chen
  • D.-M Xu
  • X.-J Liu
  • X Zhang
Yu, X.-Y., Chen, F., Xu, D.-M., Liu, X.-J., & Zhang, X. (2005). Removal of 3 organophosphorous insecticide residues with ozone and its inXuence on the content of Vc and carotenoid in vegetables. Journal of Northwest Sci-Tech University of Agriculture and Forestry, 33(11), 150-154 in Chinese with English abstract.
Analysis for requirements of vegetable market in China
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Zhu, A.-P., & Zhou, Y.-H. (2001). Analysis for requirements of vegetable market in China. Journal of HuaZhong Agricultural University (Social Sciences Edition), 3(41), 26-31 in Chinese with English abstract.
Degradation method of Beta-cypermethrin residue on Greengrocery
  • C.-Z Zhang
  • A.-L Luo
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  • X.-J Liu
Zhang, C.-Z., Luo, A.-L., Wang, D.-L., & Liu, X.-J. (2004). Degradation method of Beta-cypermethrin residue on Greengrocery. Journal of Agro-Environment Science, 24, 196-200 in Chinese with English abstract.
Survey of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits in Beijing
  • X.-G Sun
  • G.-H Wu
  • Y Xue
  • X.-D Zhao
  • J Zhao
  • J Meng
Sun, X.-G., Wu, G.-H., Xue, Y., Zhao, X.-D., Zhao, J., Meng, J., et al. (2003). Survey of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits in Beijing. Chinese Journal of Food Hygiene, 15, 536-538 in Chinese with English abstract.
Study on cleaning out residue of organophosphorous insecticides in peach
  • P.-K Li
  • Q.-Z Li
  • F Liu
  • L.-N Ma
  • H.-W Li
  • Y.-L Shao
Li, P.-K., Li, Q.-Z., Liu, F., Ma, L.-N., Li, H.-W., Shao, Y.-L., et al. (2004). Study on cleaning out residue of organophosphorous insecticides in peach. Pesticide Science and Administration, 25(6), 16-20 in Chinese with English abstract.
Determination of certain organchlorine and organophosphorous pesticide in home-produced tomatoes and cucumber used for consumption in two Egyptian governorates
  • E Lakwah
  • E A Hamed
  • M S Darwish
  • A A El-Din
Lakwah, E., Hamed, E. A., Darwish, M. S., & Shams El-Din, A. A. (1995). Determination of certain organchlorine and organophosphorous pesticide in home-produced tomatoes and cucumber used for consumption in two Egyptian governorates. Annals of Agricultural Science, Moshtohor, 33, 399-407.
EVects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the Wllets of Winter Flounder. Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
  • J Moya
  • K G Garrahan
  • T M Poston
  • G S Durell
Moya, J., Garrahan, K. G., Poston, T. M., & Durell, G. S. (1998). EVects of cooking on levels of PCBs in the Wllets of Winter Flounder. Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 60, 845-851.
Degradation method of Beta-cypermethrin residue on Greengrocery
  • Zhang
Study on cleaning out residue of organophosphorous insecticides in peach
  • Li
Survey of organophosphorus pesticide residues in vegetables and fruits in Beijing
  • Sun
Removal of 3 organophosphorous insecticide residues with ozone and its influence on the content of Vc and carotenoid in vegetables
  • Yu