Article

A Longitudinal Study of the Determinants and Outcomes of Career Change

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Abstract

The present longitudinal field study investigated the antecedents and consequences of an actual career change. The framework for this study was Rhodes and Doering's (1983) model of career change. We examined the effect of individual and organisational characteristics on career change behaviour. The individual characteristics were: traits (Openness to Experience, Extraversion, Conscientiousness and general self-efficacy), demographic factors (age, gender, marital status, and children), human capital (education level and occupational tenure), job satisfaction, job search activity and intentions to leave; and organisational factors (job security and salary). The findings showed that a range of individual characteristics were associated with career change including, Openness to Experience, Extraversion, gender, age, educational level, and occupation tenure. However, job security was the only organisational factor related to career change. One year after career change, individuals reported higher job satisfaction, improved job security and a reduction in the number of hours worked.

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... In these cases, work transitions might be complex, because workers have to integrate a relatively unknown occupational context and learn new skills. In order to be able to do that, they might decide-or are asked-to enroll in a formal qualification process (Carless & Arnup, 2011). In such cases, vocational education and training (VET) is often preferred, as it allows to obtain quite quickly a qualification and to integrate a new career domain (Masdonati, Fournier, & Pinault, 2015). ...
... Actually, the antecedents of career change are factors that "might pull individual toward a new career or push them away from the old" (Ibarra, 2006, p. 77). Beyond this bimodal classification, the reasons of career change highlighted in past research may be divided into five distinct categories: avoiding job insecurity or poor work conditions; coping with a particular life event or personal circumstance; reducing dissatisfaction and work frustration; performing a meaningful, interesting work; looking for a work-life balance (Bahr, 2010;Barclay et al., 2011;Carless & Arnup, 2011;Dieu & Delhaye, 2009;Donohue, 2007;Fournier, Gauthier, Perron, Masdonati, Zimmermann, & Lachance, 2017;Howes & Goodman-Delahunty, 2014;Khapova, Arthur, Wilderom, & Svensson, 2007;Négroni, 2007;Peake & McDowall, 2012). ...
... family situation, network, social support), and to situational factors (e.g. concomitant life circumstances, timing, chance events, socioeconomic context) (Bahr, 2010;Carless & Arnup, 2011;Higgins, 2001;Hostetler et al., 2007;Ibarra, 2006;Khapova et al., 2007;Peake & McDowall, 2012). Among moderator factors, the necessity to go back to school in order to qualify for a new occupation may influence the decision and the experience of a career change, and is sometimes considered as an obstacle to it (Ibarra 2006;Juntunen & Bailey, 2014). ...
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We report the results of qualitative research on adults who enrolled in a vocational and education training (VET) program with the intention of changing their careers. The participants were 30 adults aged between 25 and 45 years. A modified version of the consensual qualitative research method was applied to transcriptions of semi-structured interviews with the participants. There appeared to be two main reasons underlying the decision to enrol in a VET program with the aim of initiating a career change. Based on the reasons given, two groups (career changers and proactive changers) and five distinct categories were recognized. The career changers included individuals who wished to change careers due to dissatisfaction with their current situation. In this group, the decisions were motivated by either health problems or personal dissatisfaction. The proactive changers included individuals who wished to reorient their career because of a desire to undertake new projects. In this group, there were three categories of reasons: a wish to attain better working conditions, a search for personal growth and a desire to have an occupation that fitted the person's vocation. Thus, the participants reoriented their careers according to various motivations, pointing to the existence of a heterogeneous population and the complexity of the phenomenon. The results highlight the importance of understanding the subjective reasons behind career changes and the need to adjust career interventions accordingly.
... In the organizational perspective, which focuses on the decision-making process (Sullivan & Al Ariss, 2019), job satisfaction is the main, negative, predictor of organizational and occupational turnover (Carless & Arnup, 2011;Griffeth et al., 2000). The costs of organizational turnover for organizations are high (e.g., Griffeth et al., 2000), yet organizational turnover models have limited explanatory power. ...
... If job change cannot provide desired outcomes, but occupational turnover can, then this could lead to occupational turnover intention and actual occupational turnover (Blau, 2007;McGinley et al., 2014). Tests of this model have confirmed that job search and occupational turnover intention are important predictors of occupational turnover (Carless & Arnup, 2011). However, because explained variance appears even lower than in organizational turnover models (Blau, 2007), other predictors and individual differences have been included (see, e.g., Carless & Arnup, 2011). ...
... Tests of this model have confirmed that job search and occupational turnover intention are important predictors of occupational turnover (Carless & Arnup, 2011). However, because explained variance appears even lower than in organizational turnover models (Blau, 2007), other predictors and individual differences have been included (see, e.g., Carless & Arnup, 2011). More recently, CA has become a prominent individual difference in the career literature (Rudolph et al., 2017), addressed in the next section. ...
Article
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The purpose of this article is to investigate the relationship between career adaptability (CA) and organizational embeddedness (OE) and organizational and occupational turnover intention among employees in the Netherlands. Logistic regression analysis was utilized to examine survey data obtained from 173 employees with various occupations, who worked for (semi-)public and private organizations in the Netherlands. The variable measuring CA did not contribute to explaining organizational or occupational turnover intention. The variable measuring OE contributed to explaining organizational and, to a lesser extent, occupational turnover intention. In addition, for moderately to higher embedded workers, the odds of organizational turnover increased when they had higher CA. Our results suggest that the fostering of CA, in general, does not influence the likelihood of workers making transitions. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.
... Career mobility has become a rather common phenomenon and is considered a normal aspect of today's careers (Ahn, Dik, & Hornback, 2017;Carless & Arnup, 2011). ...
... Most of the respective literature discusses mobility across jobs and organizational boundaries (Rodrigues & Guest, 2010), while mobility between different occupations has rarely been addressed. Given the growing appreciation for occupations as important points of orientation in career trajectories, more knowledge on the processes involved in occupational mobility is needed (Anteby, Chan, & DiBenigno, 2016;Carless & Arnup, 2011). Because -occupations are institutionally defined and regulated bundles of qualifications‖ (Grunow & Mayer, 2007, p. 3), the change to a new occupation represents a major transition in career paths (Feldman & Ng, 2007). ...
... To date, there is little research on explaining occupational change (Carless & Arnup, 2011). Some prior research has focused on work-related predictors of mobility, such as job resources (De Cuyper, Mauno, Kinnunen, & Mäkikangas, 2011), while other studies have discussed personal attributes or traits (e.g. ...
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Most prior research on career mobility has focused on people changing jobs and organizations. We know little about processes involved in individuals changing occupations, although these changes cause high individual, organizational, and public costs. Moreover, occupations are increasingly acknowledged as important anchors in times of more boundaryless careers. The current study investigates the impact of early satisfaction with the trained occupation (VET satisfaction) on occupational change by analyzing 10-year longitudinal panel data gathered in Switzerland (N = 905). Results from regression analyses showed that VET satisfaction predicted occupational change up to ten years after graduation. VET satisfaction in turn was affected by work characteristics experienced during VET, and VET satisfaction mediated the relationship between work characteristics during VET and occupational change. Using a subsample (N = 464) for which data were available on jobs taken up after graduation, we showed that VET satisfaction explained occupational change over and above work satisfaction in jobs held after graduation, highlighting the formative role of early experience during VET. Our findings inform both theory and practice. To fully comprehend occupational change, established turnover models also need to reflect on early formative vocational experiences. Firms should pay attention to favorable work characteristics already during VET and adjust adverse conditions to reduce undesired occupational mobility.
... The lives of workers are changing in the global economy of the 21 st century, and employees in modern organizations often feel less secure in maintaining long-term jobs (Liu, Englar-Carlson, & Minichiello, 2012). The notion of "one life-one career" is no longer relevant (Arthur & Rousseau, 1996;Carless & Arnup, 2011). Understanding the phenomenon of career transition is becoming critical due to the changing nature of work (Terblanche, 2020). ...
... Despite this, there has been a limited understanding of the determinants of career change (Rhodes & Doering, 1983). Carless & Arnup (2011) added that career change is still not well understood in this modern day. ...
... A career change in this study refers to a transition to a new occupation that is not part of a career progression (Rhodes & Doering, 1983). Carless & Arnup (2011) elaborated that career change can be a change of work position in a different occupation category or field, where new training is undertaken, making the previous skills and responsibilities largely irrelevant. In a study, Ibarra (2004) gave examples of career change like when a litigator leaves law to run a non-profit organization or a corporate employee starts his or her own business. ...
Article
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The notion of "one life-one career" is no longer relevant. The era of digitalization has significantly changed the way things are done. This study uses Rhodes and Doering's (1983) integrated model of career change. We determined which of the independent variables, singly or in combination, predicts the career change of Overseas Filipino Professionals. Among the 12 factors, only the current position in the company has a significant coefficient (β = 6.94) at a p-value of .003. This means that employees with a higher position in the company, the greater the propensity that they will change career. The personality traits do not show a statistically significant relationship with career change having a p-value above 0.05 (p=.919). This means that career change is not affected by personality traits. With the six facets of job satisfaction, only the work at present job has a significant (β = 2) at a p-value of .001. This means that when people are satisfied with their present work, the more they will be ready for a career change. With the 23 factors combined, only the current salary and work in present job has a significant (β = 3.368 and 2.512) at a p-value of .040 and .001 respectively. This means that when people are satisfied with their present work, they tend to have a decent and higher salary compared to their previous company.
... Career change refers to a transition to a new occupation that is not part of a career progression (Rhodes & Doering, 1983;Lawrence, 1980). As further explained by Carless & Arnup (2011), a career change can be a change of work position in a different occupation category or field, where new training is undertaken, making the previous skills and responsibilities largely irrelevant. As an example of a career change, Ibarra (2004) cited a litigator leaving law to run a non-profit organization or a corporate employee starting his or her own business. ...
... Yet, there have been limited studies on personality and career change, and none that has used the five-factor model as a framework. Carless & Arnup (2011). The Big-Five Theory on personality traits believed that individual characters could affect their interpretations and reactions to their environment (Marchalina, Ahmad, & Gelaidan, 2020;Santos, 2016). ...
... Heppner, Multon, & Johnson (1994) added that self-efficacy is a key attribute that facilitates career change. On the contrary, Carless & Arnup (2011) revealed that general self-efficacy was unrelated to a career change. Workers are empowered and build confidence when making a successful career change (Masdonati, Fournier, & Lahrizi, 2017). ...
Article
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A recent study found that 49% of employees had change careers from a wide range of industries. However, most successful career switchers take years to learn new skills, network, and be financially prepared. The study uses the literature review as a means to examine available scientific literature on the demographic characteristics, personal, and organizational factors as determinants of a career change. The content analysis of scientific literature was used. The sources came from research databases such as google scholar, directory of open access journals, PubMed, and other websites. The findings suggest that demographic characteristics, personal, and organizational factors are determinants of a career change.
... Every occupation is characterized by a specific set of work role requirements that define the tasks to be executed and the capabilities needed to perform well in the work role (Dierdorff, Rubin, & Morgeson, 2009). When crossing occupational boundaries (e.g., when an engineer becomes a marketer), individuals usually have to acquire fundamentally new skills and knowledge through vocational or professional education and training (Carless & Arnup, 2011;. They also have to adapt to an unfamiliar work environment and redefine their identities (Ibarra & Barbulescu, 2010). ...
... Accordingly, Ng et al. (2007) propose in their theoretical model that open individuals should have a higher preference for career mobility because crossing career boundaries satisfies their desire for variety. In line with this proposition, recent meta-analytical findings about the antecedents of turnover show that open individuals are more likely to voluntarily leave their organization (Rubenstein, Eberly, Lee, & Mitchell, 2018), and there is also empirical evidence showing that openness to experience relates positively to changing one's occupation (Carless & Arnup, 2011). When changing their organization, individuals must identify with a new social group (Ashforth & Mael, 1989), encounter new experiences in an unfamiliar work environment, and frequently perform new work tasks. ...
... Furthermore, older employees perceive themselves as being less employable than their younger counterparts (Wittekind et al., 2010) and report having fewer career opportunities (Van Veldhoven & Dorenbosch, 2008). Accordingly, previous studies have found that age is negatively related to occupational and organizational boundary crossings (Carless & Arnup, 2011;Kattenbach et al., 2014). Thus, consistent with previous studies investigating career mobility, we included gender and age as control variables. ...
Article
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This study investigates the joint effects of individual characteristics and the labour market on career mobility. We propose that level of education, openness to experience, and a favourable labour market relate positively to employees crossing organizational, industrial, and occupational boundaries. Management programme alumni (N = 503) provided information through an online survey about their career histories, their level of education, and their openness to experience. Additionally, we used the unemployment rate as an indicator for yearly changes in the labour market. The results of our cross-classified multilevel analysis indicate that both individual characteristics and the labour market are determinants of career mobility. Level of education had a positive effect on organizational and industrial boundary crossing, and changes in the labour market related to organizational boundary crossing. Against our assumptions, openness to experience had no effect on career mobility, and none of the predictors were related to occupational boundary crossing. Our results demonstrate the importance of investigating career mobility from a boundary perspective combined with a focus on both individual and contextual characteristics. The dominance of education compared to personality and the difficulty of explaining occupational mobility open new research avenues and yield practical implications for employees, career counsellors, and organizations.
... Diversas são as razões que impulsionam as pessoas à decisão de mudarem o percurso de suas trajetórias profissionais. Quando se trata de uma transição de natureza voluntária, ou seja, que foi realizada por escolha própria, a literatura destaca que ela ocorre por fatores como a necessidade de equilibrar a vida familiar e o trabalho (Cabrera, 2007;Gomes & Teixeira, 2000;Quishida & Casado, 2009;Uvaldo, 2010), por necessidade de encontrar um trabalho que lhe traga mais identidade profissional (Joia & Mangia, 2017;Uvaldo, 2010), para adquirir novos conhecimentos e ampliar habilidades (Chudzikowski et al., 2009;Donohue, 2007;Joia & Mangia, 2017), poder trabalhar com mais autonomia (Carless & Arnup, 2011), desvincular-se das pressões negativas dos ambientes corporativos, pela insegurança e instabilidade dos empregos, por conflitos relacionais e insatisfação com o empregador, o trabalho ou com o chefe (Carless & Arnup, 2011;Rigotti et al., 2014) e ainda pelo choque percebido entre a realidade do mercado de trabalho e expectativas relativas ao exercício da profissão (Peake & McDowall, 2012). Por outro lado, as transições de caráter involuntário são aquelas propiciadas pelas variáveis externas à escolha do indivíduo, como demissões ou falências, mudanças de cidade ou de país, doenças incapacitantes, transferências e promoções inesperadas ou indese-jadas e até mesmo a conclusão dos estudos e ingresso da atividade profissional (Anderson et al., 2012). ...
... Diversas são as razões que impulsionam as pessoas à decisão de mudarem o percurso de suas trajetórias profissionais. Quando se trata de uma transição de natureza voluntária, ou seja, que foi realizada por escolha própria, a literatura destaca que ela ocorre por fatores como a necessidade de equilibrar a vida familiar e o trabalho (Cabrera, 2007;Gomes & Teixeira, 2000;Quishida & Casado, 2009;Uvaldo, 2010), por necessidade de encontrar um trabalho que lhe traga mais identidade profissional (Joia & Mangia, 2017;Uvaldo, 2010), para adquirir novos conhecimentos e ampliar habilidades (Chudzikowski et al., 2009;Donohue, 2007;Joia & Mangia, 2017), poder trabalhar com mais autonomia (Carless & Arnup, 2011), desvincular-se das pressões negativas dos ambientes corporativos, pela insegurança e instabilidade dos empregos, por conflitos relacionais e insatisfação com o empregador, o trabalho ou com o chefe (Carless & Arnup, 2011;Rigotti et al., 2014) e ainda pelo choque percebido entre a realidade do mercado de trabalho e expectativas relativas ao exercício da profissão (Peake & McDowall, 2012). Por outro lado, as transições de caráter involuntário são aquelas propiciadas pelas variáveis externas à escolha do indivíduo, como demissões ou falências, mudanças de cidade ou de país, doenças incapacitantes, transferências e promoções inesperadas ou indese-jadas e até mesmo a conclusão dos estudos e ingresso da atividade profissional (Anderson et al., 2012). ...
... E houve aqueles que apontaram a influência de fatores externos, como ajustes na empresa e piora do clima organizacional, fim de contrato de trabalho, não encontrar emprego na área de especialidade e ter que acompanhar a família em mudança residencial, como verificado em algumas respostas como as descritas a seguir: "Trabalhava com RH [recursos humanos] e fui desligada da instituição" e "[...] nunca consegui uma posição na área da Psicologia que eu realmente queria trabalhar". Os efeitos negativos do mundo corporativo compõem uma gama de motivos que envolvem mudanças nas trajetórias da carreira, como a pressão, sobrecarga, estresse, conflitos e ambientes que inviabilizam espaço para expressar a criatividade (Carless & Arnup, 2011;Gomes & Teixeira, 2000), assim como demissões em massa (Kilimnik & Rodrigues, 2000). Praticamente um terço dos psicólogas/os declarou transições de natureza involuntária na época da coleta de dados (2016) A Figura 2 aponta que a primeira classe gerada, classe 1, Estudos, Parcerias e Planejamento (19,23% do corpus; 10 ST), reuniu como principal estratégia de enfrentamento das transições o ato de estudar. ...
Article
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A construção da carreira ao longo da vida requer habilidades de gerenciamento e adaptação às transições. Assim, este estudo objetivou descrever os motivos e as estratégias utilizadas por uma amostra de 91 psicólogas/os para lidar com as transições. A pesquisa ocorreu por uma plataforma online que continha um questionário sobre as transições na carreira. Com uso do software IraMuteQ foram analisados dois corpus: motivos e estratégias. O eixo central sobre os motivos das transições aponta a busca por autonomia e crescimento profissional, qualidade de vida, exploração de novos interesses, insatisfação com a remuneração e fatores externos. No campo das estratégias, ganhou destaque a aquisição de novas experiências, estudos, busca por parcerias, pesquisas sobre o mercado de trabalho, cultivo do networking e a dedicação à pesquisa e à docência. Os motivos e as estratégias apontadas corroboram outros achados da literatura com psicóloga/o e com outros grupos profissionais.
... External employability refers to opportunities on the external labor market, such as switching to a similar or particular job in another organization, while internal employability focuses on the within-organization labor market, such as opportunities to remain employed within the current organization (Rothwell & Arnold, 2007). Previous research provided a potential explanation for older workers' being less likely to make career-oriented job changes (Carless & Arnup, 2011); for example, if they lose their job, it is difficult to find new employment (Dietz & Walwei, 2011). In addition, Van der Heijden (2002) noted that mature workers tend to have higher professional and organization-specific expertise and more relevant knowledge and skills compared to younger workers. ...
... Dynamic markets demotivate employers to invest in long-term relationships with employees (Garibaldi & Taddei, 2013;International Labour Organization, 2014), and as a result, workers are no longer willing to invest in organization-orientated career development because their employment benefits have been decreased or have disappeared (Ball, 2009). The volatile labor markets force workers to revise their careers more frequently and consider jobs in fields outside of their educational or training backgrounds (Carless & Arnup, 2011;Hess, Jepsen, & Dries, 2012). Workers are required to adopt more often to shifts in demanded skills (Barclay, Stoltz, & Chung, 2011). ...
Chapter
The purpose of this chapter is to explore how organizations and higher education institutions can help mature workers maintain and improve their employability in the dynamic labor market. This chapter addresses the issues regarding career learning for mature workers and provides a guide for policymakers and human resource development (HRD) professionals for handling these issues. Several recommendations were generated for policy makers and HRD professionals: 1) the new trends manifested in local, regional, national, and global labor markets should be understood; 2) a more strategic policy to grow the availability and quality of jobs in aging labor markets should be developed; 3) mature workers' specific needs and interests should be recognized; 4) an age diverse environment should be developed in the workplace; 5) training and development programs to enhance transformational leadership behaviors should be provided to managers; and 6) longer-term personal development plans for mature workers should be established.
... Thus, there is still little research on the consequences of employer changes. The few previous studies confirm that voluntary employer changes have a positive effect on mental health (Liljegren and Ekberg 2009) and job satisfaction (Chadi and Hetschko 2014) and is associated with improved working conditions such as increased job security, reduced working hours (Carless and Arnup 2011), better salary, better possibilities for development and more appropriate work tasks (Grund 2009). To our knowledge, there is no scientific report about the effect on the workers' work ability. ...
... Yet, we suppose that there is more to it than that, when it comes to work ability. Many working conditions can change due to a voluntary employer change, which may have a direct impact on work ability-and of course job satisfaction-such as leadership quality, work-privacy conflict, travel time to work, colleagues, work tasks, influence at work, working environment and work equipment (Grund 2009;Carless and Arnup 2011;Garthe and Hasselhorn 2020). Several studies confirmed the relationship between physical and psychological working conditions and work ability (Alavinia 2008;van den Berg et al. 2008;Sanders et al. 2011;Attarchi et al. 2014;Weale et al. 2019). ...
Article
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The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of voluntary employer changes on self-reported work ability among older workers in Germany and whether a honeymoon-hangover effect (HHE) exists here. In research on job satisfaction, three typical periods around a voluntary employer change characterize a HHE: a deterioration in the old job (deterioration), an initial increase in the new job (honeymoon) and a subsequent decline over time (hangover). Whether a HHE exists in respect to work ability following a voluntary employer change remained open. The analyses are based on data from the first three waves of the lidA study (2011, 2014, 2018), a representative cohort study of older employees in Germany born in 1959 or 1965. Data from 2502 workers who participated in all three study waves was analyzed. Fixed-effects regression analyses including lag and lead variables were conducted. A deterioration, honeymoon and hangover period were found. Work ability increased substantially following the voluntary employer change. Our study shows that voluntary employer changes have the potential to maintain work ability at higher working age, but not to increase the work ability in the long-term perspective. However, despite the existence of a hangover period, the positive overall effect of the voluntary change should not be underestimated.
... Για τη μεταβλητή της ηλικίας, οι Parrado et al., (2007) έρχονται να επιβεβαιώσουν τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας του Harper (1995), καταλήγοντας στο συμπέρασμα ότι τα νεαρά άτομα είναι πιο πιθανό να αλλάξουν επάγγελμα, εύρημα στατιστικά σημαντικό για τα περισσότερα δείγματα της έρευνάς τους. Ανάλογα ήταν και τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας των Carless & Arnup (2011), η οποία κάλυπτε μία μεγάλη κλίμακα Αυστραλών εργαζομένων για το χρονικό διάστημα 2001 -2006, όπου το φύλο βρέθηκε να αποτελεί προγνωστικό παράγοντα επαγγελματικής αλλαγής. Οι Carless & Arnup (2011) διαπίστωσαν ότι οι άντρες είναι πιο πιθανό να αλλάξουν σταδιοδρομία σε σύγκριση με τις γυναίκες κατά 0,77 φορές (OR = 0,77, p < ,05). ...
... Ανάλογα ήταν και τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας των Carless & Arnup (2011), η οποία κάλυπτε μία μεγάλη κλίμακα Αυστραλών εργαζομένων για το χρονικό διάστημα 2001 -2006, όπου το φύλο βρέθηκε να αποτελεί προγνωστικό παράγοντα επαγγελματικής αλλαγής. Οι Carless & Arnup (2011) διαπίστωσαν ότι οι άντρες είναι πιο πιθανό να αλλάξουν σταδιοδρομία σε σύγκριση με τις γυναίκες κατά 0,77 φορές (OR = 0,77, p < ,05). Σε σχέση με την ηλικία, η έρευνα ανέδειξε ξεκάθαρα ότι οι νεαρότεροι σε ηλικία είναι πιθανότερο να αλλάξουν επάγγελμα κατά 0,98 φορές σε σύγκριση με τους μεγαλύτερους σε ηλικία (OR = 0,98, p < ,01). ...
... A career change is an important event in both the working life and personal or family life of individuals, and it has become increasingly frequent in recent years. Career change is defined as the transition from one job to another, which is typically in a different field from the one for which an individual originally developed skills and responsibilities (Carless & Arnup, 2011), or as the "entry into a new occupation which requires fundamentally different skills, daily routines, and work environments from the present oneˮ (Feldman, 2002, p. 76). Previous studies have sought to delineate the main predictors for career change, with the research outcomes demonstrating that youths are more mobile than older individuals: "increased mobility is a prominent feature of the modern career and the trend appears to be amplified with successive generationsˮ (Lyons, Scweitzer, & Ng, 2015, p. 16). ...
... Concerning gender, men are more flexible and appear to be more willing to change careers than women (Carless & Arnup, 2011). That said, the decision to make a career change, although often voluntary and independent from work-related circumstances or conditions, can also be involuntary, particularly when job conditions or labour market forces become unfavourable or outright adverse. ...
Article
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T The present study, based on qualitative data, investigates the significant career change through the life-course lens. Biographical interviews were conducted with people who changed their profession and the findings were characteristically reflective and subjective, foregrounding the participants’ interpretations of their layers of reality. Different type of resources: individual (Agency), community (Networking), and society (Labour market) were taken into account and the endeavour enabled to capture the triggers involved in career change process. The distinction between voluntary and involuntary career change decision helps to understand the reasons for which the change is chosen. There are major differences between those who leave involuntary their desired profession and those who discover that they have a calling for the software development. Moreover, the results advocate for the importance of early vocational counselling. On the other hand, evidence of discrimination encountered by new programmers could be addressed by HR departments in the IT organizations
... Για τη μεταβλητή της ηλικίας, οι Parrado et al., (2007) έρχονται να επιβεβαιώσουν τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας του Harper (1995), καταλήγοντας στο συμπέρασμα ότι τα νεαρά άτομα είναι πιο πιθανό να αλλάξουν επάγγελμα, εύρημα στατιστικά σημαντικό για τα περισσότερα δείγματα της έρευνάς τους. Ανάλογα ήταν και τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας των Carless & Arnup (2011), η οποία κάλυπτε μία μεγάλη κλίμακα Αυστραλών εργαζομένων για το χρονικό διάστημα 2001 -2006, όπου το φύλο βρέθηκε να αποτελεί προγνωστικό παράγοντα επαγγελματικής αλλαγής. Οι Carless & Arnup (2011) διαπίστωσαν ότι οι άντρες είναι πιο πιθανό να αλλάξουν σταδιοδρομία σε σύγκριση με τις γυναίκες κατά 0,77 φορές (OR = 0,77, p < ,05). ...
... Ανάλογα ήταν και τα αποτελέσματα της έρευνας των Carless & Arnup (2011), η οποία κάλυπτε μία μεγάλη κλίμακα Αυστραλών εργαζομένων για το χρονικό διάστημα 2001 -2006, όπου το φύλο βρέθηκε να αποτελεί προγνωστικό παράγοντα επαγγελματικής αλλαγής. Οι Carless & Arnup (2011) διαπίστωσαν ότι οι άντρες είναι πιο πιθανό να αλλάξουν σταδιοδρομία σε σύγκριση με τις γυναίκες κατά 0,77 φορές (OR = 0,77, p < ,05). Σε σχέση με την ηλικία, η έρευνα ανέδειξε ξεκάθαρα ότι οι νεαρότεροι σε ηλικία είναι πιθανότερο να αλλάξουν επάγγελμα κατά 0,98 φορές σε σύγκριση με τους μεγαλύτερους σε ηλικία (OR = 0,98, p < ,01). ...
... Although general intra-organizational mobility was found to negatively predict perceived success among employees from USA (Valcour & Tolbert, 2003), upward mobility was found to predict increased job satisfaction (Fasang et al., 2012) and career satisfaction (Kalleberg & Mastekaasa, 2001;Rigotti et al., 2014). Carless and Arnup (2011) found that occupational change had positive effects on job satisfaction and perceived job security among employees from Australia. Boundaryless mindset has been found to be positively related to employees' satisfaction with their career progress (Briscoe et al., 2012); in contrast, organizational mobility preference was negatively related to career satisfaction (Enache et al., 2011;Rodrigues et al., 2015;Verbruggen, 2012). ...
... Until now, most work has only focused on the effects of boundaryless careers on career success, and has largely ignored how career success might influence individuals' boundaryless careers. Several empirical studies tapped into this important question by examining the effect of career success on individuals' subsequent career mobility (Carless & Arnup, 2011;Cheramie et al., 2007;Hougaard et al., 2017;Stumpf, 2014). For example, Cheramie et al. (2007) found that executives' compensation negatively predicted subsequent job movements. ...
Article
The concept of boundaryless careers characterizes emerging career patterns that are less dependent on traditional organizational career management. Based on an evidence-based review of literature on the relationship between career boundarylessness and career success published from 1994 to 2018, we found that boundaryless careers have mixed effects on the various indictors of career success, and these effects depend on the operationalization of career boundarylessness, the motives (voluntary vs. involuntary), career competencies, adaptive capabilities and career resources held by individuals, as well as the structural constraints and institutional support for boundary-crossing behaviors. In addition, career success was also found to predict subsequent career mobility. Based on these findings, we develop an integrative model to understand the complicated and dynamic relationship between boundaryless careers and career success. This review serves as an important step to integrate theories and research on boundaryless careers and career success, and more interdisciplinary work should be done in the future to examine this question.
... Changes in jobs as well as in careers have become an accepted and necessary part of modern career trajectories (e.g., Hall & Moss, 1998), and Carless and Arnup (2011) find that younger individuals are more likely to change occupations than older ones. As skilled and gifted employees leaving an industry create a deficit of talent as well as a threat to a sustainable employment in the industry (Chang & Busser, 2020), the study of the dynamic evolution of their vocation becomes relevant. ...
... Higher rates of career changes may be found among young professionals who are still shaping their vocational identities (Bieger et al., 2005;Carless & Arnup, 2011), even if they do not yet have their first formal job contract after their education phase. The educational phase is assumed to be related to the decision to leave the industry to a certain extent. ...
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Career change of young talent aggravates human resource shortages in various industries and the analysis of vocational commitment during the educational phase becomes paramount. Knowledge transfer modes and dynamics in the education of young professionals can influence their vocation or “calling” in the sector they are specialising for. With the background of the knowledge-based view, the goal of this study is to identify knowledge transfer-related aspects of education that exert a relevant influence on apprentices’ vocational commitment. The findings of the study of 331 hospitality apprentices in Bavaria, Germany, reveal that both academic sources and firm sources in the apprenticeship-based, also called dual, educational system affect the vocational commitment of apprentices. Specifically, the satisfaction with the training in the educational centre, the existence of organisational mentorship, and a personalised training system in the firm significantly affect vocational commitment after the educational stage. Consequently, educators along with mentors and managers in the partner firms can help enhance their students’ vocational commitment and potentially decrease their likelihood of leaving a sector.
... In addition, career transitions can be of several types (Heppner and Scott, 2006): entry or reentry transitions (e.g., the passage from school to work or labor market reintegration after a break), maintenance transitions (e.g., a role change within the same company or occupation), advancement transitions (e.g., a promotion toward a better position), and leave-or-seek transitions (e.g., a change of occupational sector). The latter are also called career or occupational changes and they imply a shift to a new occupation that is not in line with the previous occupation (Ibarra, 2006;Carless and Arnup, 2011;Peake and McDowall, 2012). While research on normative transitions and upward mobility is abundant, career changes have been less studied (Sullivan and Al Ariss, 2021). ...
... Depending on the reasons and outcomes of this process, career changes can represent both opportunities to grow and perturbing periods in workers' careers (Carless and Arnup, 2011;Chudzikowski, 2012;Masdonati et al., 2017). Intentionality or willingness is a key dimension that tends to differentiate the experience of career changes (Heppner and Scott, 2006;Fouad and Bynner, 2008;Stuart et al., 2009;Zacher, 2017). ...
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Like any other career process, career changes are influenced by relationships. Moreover, involuntary career changes are a challenging, yet understudied, career transition. Based on a relational perspective of work and careers, we investigated the way people's social environment affects the process and experience of involuntary career changes. Specifically, we aimed to identify the sources of relational influences and to understand how these influences affect career changes. Semi-structured interviews were carried out with 14 adults who were forced to change career because of unemployment or health issues. Through thematic analysis, we identified three sources of relational influences (personal, work, and institutional environment) and three forms of influence that others had on career changes (positive, negative, and ambivalent). These influences manifested at four distinct moments of the process: When participants were leaving their former job, when they were shifting between their former occupation and a new livelihood, when they were exploring new career options, or when they were trying to implement their new career plan. Overall, results suggest that involuntary career changes are deeply shaped by heterogeneous and differentiated relational influences. The effect of the personal environment varied depending on the moment of the career change process. In particular, family and friends tended to be perceived as barriers when it came to shifting from the old to a new occupation and implementing a new career plan. The work environment mostly had a negative effect on the career change experience, suggesting the labor market might be somewhat refractory toward adult career changers. Institutions played a critical role throughout the change process, with support structures often being perceived as inappropriate, but with guidance professionals generally recognizing participants' difficulties. Moreover, diverse forms of ambivalence characterized the identified relational influences, which were sometimes both appreciated and avoided or had ambiguous and fluctuating effects. Finally, although being a fundamentally social experience, involuntary career changes were also characterized by moments of loneliness that reflected the inadequacy of available support and a sense of shame associated with the status of career changer. Study limitations, research perspectives, and practical implications at the labor market, institutional, and individual levels are addressed.
... Die meisten psychologischen Studien zu beruflichen Ver?nderungen haben individuelle Carless and Arnup (2011) zeigten, dass Alter und T?tigkeitsdauer negativ und Bildungsstand positiv mit beruflichen Ver?nderungen zusammenh?ngen. Sowohl Nooney und Kollegen (2010) als auch Carless und Arnup (2011) Erwerbst?tigen seit mindestens 10 Jahren bei ihrem aktuellen Arbeitgeber besch?ftigt waren (und dass diese Verteilung ?ber die letzten 10 Jahre konstant geblieben ist). ...
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Dieses Kapitel thematisiert berufliche Veränderungen, bei denen Erwerbstätige sich neu orientieren wollen oder müssen. Zuerst werden die Relevanz und grundlegende Dimensionen beruflicher Veränderungen beschrieben, und berufliche Veränderungen werden von anderen Veränderungen im Arbeitskontext abgegrenzt. Der anschließende Überblick zum aktuellen Forschungsstand betrachtet individuelle und kontextuelle Faktoren, die berufliche Veränderungen vorhersagen, Konsequenzen beruflicher Veränderungen, sowie Ressourcen, die dabei helfen können, berufliche Veränderungen erfolgreich zu bewältigen.
... Sabır, hoşgörü, özveri, sürekli çalışmayı ve yenilikleri takip etmeyi gerektiren öğretmenlik mesleğinde başarılı olmanın yolu bu mesleği severek ve isteyerek yapmaktan geçmektedir (Bob-Chui, 1995;Carless ve Arnup, 2011;Richardson ve Watt, 2005;Wagner ve Imanuel, 2014). Bu durum öğretmenlerin mesleklerine ilişkin taşıdıkları olumlu tutumla yakından ilişkilidir. ...
... Es gibt zwar eine ganze Reihe von Studien zu «Career Change» (Berufs-oder Stellenwechsel) (Carless & Arnup, 2011;Carrillo-Tudela, Hobijn, She, & Visschers, 2016;Sheldon, 2005) und zu beruflichem Erfolg (Ng, Eby, Sorensen, & Feldman, 2005;Roberts, Kuncel, Shiner, Caspi, & Goldberg, 2007), welche interessant sind und durchaus plausible Zusammenhänge zeigen, z.B. zwischen familiärer Herkunft, Intelligenz, Persönlichkeitsmerkmalen und Berufserfolg. Sie genügen aber nicht, da sie zu punktuell angelegt sind und die mögliche Dynamik beruflicher Verläufe nicht adäquat berücksichtigen. ...
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Wirtschaftliche und politische Entwicklungen haben in den letzten Jahren und Jahrzehnten zu grossen Veränderungen auf allen Ebenen geführt (z.B. wirtschaftliche Globalisierung, Wandel zur Dienstleistungsgesellschaft). Auf der individuellen Ebene sind statt klaren Normen und fixen Abläufen Wahlfreiheit, Offenheit und Flexibilität getreten, was mehr Entscheidungen und Anpassungsfähigkeit auf Seiten der Person verlangt. Was die Veränderungen auf der individuellen Ebene und im Verlauf des Berufslebens bedeuten, ist noch wenig untersucht worden. Wie wurden und werden diese Anpassungen beispielsweise von der Generation, die heute im mittleren Erwachsenenalter (ca. 45-55-jährig) steht, bewältigt? Um solche Fragen zu beantworten, braucht es Längsschnittdaten, welche Berufsverläufe über eine längere Zeit verfolgen. Anhand der Daten der Zürcher-Längsschnittstudie, welche eine repräsentative Deutschschweizer Stichprobe mit dem Jahrgang 1963 umfasst, konnten in einem ersten Projekt verschiedene Aspekte von Laufbahnen vom 15. bis zum 49. Lebensjahr beschrieben werden. Wichtige Fragen blieben jedoch offen, die mit diesem Folgeprojekt geklärt werden sollten. Durch eine Erweiterung der Stichprobe sollte es möglich sein, insbesondere auch Fragen betreffend Laufbahnmustern und Berufsverläufen bestimmter Personen- und Berufsgruppen genauer zu analysieren. Zusätzlich sollten zentrale Aspekte der Persönlichkeit erneut untersucht werden. Neu wurden auch die aktuelle Lebenssituation und gesundheitliche Aspekte differenziert erhoben. Der Rücklauf beträgt für die gesamte Stichprobe 71%: 806 Personen haben erneut teilgenommen, und von diesen Personen liegen nun Angaben über ihre Berufslaufbahn und deren Determinanten vom 15. bis zum 52 Lebensjahr vor. Durch die differenzierte Erfassung der Berufslaufbahn und einer Vielzahl von psychosozialen Merkmalen aus der Jugendzeit und im mittleren Erwachsenenalter war es möglich, Laufbahnen unter einer ganzheitlichen, entwicklungspsychologischen Sicht zu betrachten. Die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass wir erwartungsgemäss sowohl Kontinuität wie auch Wandel finden. Erstaunlich ist aber doch die grosse Kontinuität resp. Anpassungsfähigkeit und kontinuierliche Weiterentwicklung, die sich in unseren Daten zeigt. Die erste Berufswahl und die erste Berufsausbildung sind wegweisend für die weitere Entwicklung. Trotzdem sind danach noch vielfältige Anpassungen und Veränderungen möglich. Die berufliche Laufbahn konnte sehr differenziert untersucht werden und es ist gelungen, verschiedene klare Muster in Berufsverläufen zu identifizieren. Die Muster unterscheiden sich deutlich zwischen den Geschlechtern und teilweise zwischen wirtschaftlichen Sektoren/Ausbildungsberufen. Während sich bei Frauen im Durchschnitt mehr Kontinuität abzeichnet, fallen bei Männern mehr berufliche Wechsel auf (z.B. in Richtung Spezialisierung und Aufstieg). Die Durchlässigkeit im Schweizer Bildungssystem zeigt sich auch in unseren Daten; viel Personen bilden sich weiter auf Fachhochschulniveau oder in der höheren Berufsbildung. Erstaunlich war die grosse Adaptationsfähigkeit der Personen, welche sich oft unabhängig von ihrem beruflichen Werdegang, möglichen Schicksalsschlägen oder ihrer aktuellen Lebenslage in verschiedenen Lebensbereichen gut entwickelt haben. Je nach Sektor verlaufen Laufbahnen auch unterschiedlich: Im Dienstleistungssektor kann eher von Kontinuität ausgegangen werden, während im Produktionssektor (Industrie, Gewerbe) eher Anpassungen in Form von Weiterbildung und Weiterentwicklung notwendig sind. Dennoch gibt es Gruppen von Personen, welche schwierigere Entwicklungen zeigen: Dies zeigt sich teilweise bereits bei Verhaltensproblemen in der Schule (erfasst durch die Einschätzung der Lehrpersonen), bei Auffälligkeiten im Bereich Suchtverhalten mit 15 Jahren, oder auch bei weniger erfolgreichen schulischen Laufbahnen (tiefe Schulabschlüsse). Einzelne Laufbahnmuster stehen weiter mit möglichen gesundheitlichen Problemen in einem Zusammenhang: Speziell die Gruppe der handwerklich-technischen Berufe beklagt sich über gesundheitliche Probleme, wahrscheinlich mitverursacht durch jahrzehntelange körperliche Beanspruchung. Einzigartig an der Studie war die Wiederholungsmessung der Persönlichkeit im Alter von 52 Jahren. Es zeigte sich, dass sich Persönlichkeitsmerkmale teilweise (manchmal auch beruflich bedingt) verändern, aber auch stabil bleiben und die Jugendpersönlichkeit damit ein guter Prädiktor für die Vorhersage der Laufbahn sein kann. Interessant war der Befund, dass die Passung zwischen Persönlichkeit und Berufstätigkeit (gemessen nach den Berufsfeldern von J. Holland) insgesamt sehr gross ist über die Laufbahn sogar teilweise noch zunimmt. Trotz Veränderungen auf dem Arbeitsmarkt und dem Druck nach Flexibilisierung und ständiger Veränderung bleibt die Persönlichkeit eine wichtige Steuergrösse beruflicher Entscheidungen. Unsere Studie zeigt eine Reihe von Ressourcen und auch Risikofaktoren für berufliche Entwicklungsverläufe und die spätere Lebenssituation (z.B. auch im Bereich Gesundheit) auf: Dies sind zum einen bekannte strukturelle Merkmale (Herkunftsfamilie, absolvierte Schulbildung) und persönliche Merkmale (Intelligenz, Selbstwirksamkeit, Instrumentalität, etc.), aber auch weitere bisher weniger beachtete Merkmale erwiesen sich als relevant: Bedeutung von Unterbrüchen in der Berufslaufbahn, Investition in Aus- und Weiterbildung, «Job-Involvement» (Arbeitsumfang), Prädiktionskraft von «sozio-emotionalen-Kompetenzen», Aspekte sozialer Unterstützung, etc. Die Ergebnisse sind bedeutsam auf verschiedenen Ebenen und für verschiedene Zielgruppen: Die Ergebnisse stellen beispielsweise auf der Ebene Berufsbildung und Arbeitsmarkt eine Bestätigung für den eingeschlagenen Weg dar. Die Berufsbildung bildet offenbar eine gute Grundlage und Voraussetzung. Das System ist zudem durchlässig genug, um dies zu ermöglichen. Sie weisen aber auch auf sensible Punkte im System hin, wo noch Handlungsbedarf besteht, z.B. Diversity-Management von weniger privilegierten Gruppen. Ansätze zur Steigerung der Work-Life-Balance v.a. bei den Frauen sind weiter zu suchen, damit ihr Potenzial der Schweizer Wirtschaft möglichst kontinuierlich zur Verfügung steht; dies kann den Bereich Arbeitsausgestaltung betreffen (z.B. Arbeitsumfang), gezielte Unterstützung durch Vorgesetzte, aber auch Begleitung durch geeignete Karriereberatung. Damit könnte auch der Fachkräftemangel speziell im Gesundheits- und in anderen Dienstleistungsbereichen teilweise entschärft werden. Eine breite Palette weiterer Handlungsempfehlungen können für verschiedene Bereiche formuliert werden, wie für die Schule (z.B. Wichtigkeit von Abschlüssen, Karriereaspiration, Aufbau sozio-emotionale-Kompetenzen), das Elternhaus (z.B. im Bereich Erziehungsstil, Förderung von Autonomie) und die Berufsbildung und Wirtschaft (z.B. Aufbau von guten Beziehungen).
... The topic of career development is inherently dynamic, and numerous longitudinal studies in this area exist (e.g., Biemann, Zacher, & Feldman, 2012;Carless & Arnup, 2011). ...
Chapter
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We describe how a dynamic way of thinking can challenge existing knowledge and traditional ways of conducting empirical research in the field of organizational behavior. By a “dynamic way of thinking,” we mean a focus on within-unit development over time, including change and stability in individual, team, or organizational characteristics. A dynamic approach also examines between-unit differences in within-unit development, as well as antecedents and consequences of development. Over the past two decades, there has been a rapid growth in theory development and empirical studies adopting a dynamic way of thinking. To illustrate the importance of dynamic approaches for advancing the field of organizational behavior, we selectively review research on personality and emotions, work-related attitudes and well-being, work motivation and behavior, career development, job design, leadership and entrepreneurship, teams and diversity, and human resource management. We conclude the chapter by outlining implications for future theory development and empirical research.
... For example, changes in household composition may stimulate employees to change to a more family-friendly employer with, for example, a more flexible work environment (Kronenberg and Carree 2012). Other important nonpecuniary reasons for changing jobs are job satisfaction and job security (Carless and Arnup 2011;Clark 2001). Involuntary job changes occur due to layoffs or firm closures. ...
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Recruiting employees to an entrepreneurial venture is a challenging task. From the employee’s perspective, accepting a position in an entrepreneurial venture potentially implies considerable uncertainty. This paper provide a literature review and identifies research gaps related to labor mobility of employees into and out of entrepreneurial firms. Who works for an entrepreneur? What are the conditions under which the employees of entrepreneurial firms work? Additionally, labor mobility after an employee works for an entrepreneurial firm is discussed. In conclusion, the quality of the jobs generated by entrepreneurial firms may be questionable (and still relatively unexplored in empirical research), but they are nevertheless important from a labor dynamic perspective. Better understanding about motives to work for an entrepreneur, issues related to job security beyond survival rates, and job quality may contribute to ease the recruitment problems that many entrepreneurial firms struggle with. Furthermore, the relevance and potential pros and cons of working for an entrepreneurial firm in future career paths (entrepreneur or employee) need to be carefully addressed in future research.
... Indeed, previous studies predominantly reported a negative relationship between age and per- ceived employability (Froehlich et al., 2015;Kinnunen et al., 2014;Peeters et al., 2016;Rothwell and Arnold, 2007;Van der Heijden, 2002;Wittekind et al., 2010). In particular, other studies have found that the number of career-oriented job changes declines with age ( Carless and Arnup, 2011) and that older workers losing their job struggle to find new employment ( Dietz and Walwei, 2011). The latter findings point to the possibility that it is external employability in particular (as opposed to internal employability) that is negatively related to age. ...
Article
Demographic and labour market changes increase the need to enhance the employability of employees across all ages. The purpose of this study is to explore the role of transformational leadership in employees’ employability. While we hypothesised that age is negatively related to perceived internal and external employability, we expected a positive relationship for transformational leadership, and that transformational leadership would moderate the relationship between age and employability. Hypotheses were tested using a sample of 1006 employees in the German automotive industry. Results show age to be negatively related to internal and external employability, with both relationships being comparably strong. Transformational leadership was positively related to internal and external employability, with the relationship with internal employability being stronger. Moreover, transformational leadership buffered the negative relationship between age and internal employability. These results suggest that transformational leadership is crucial in protecting lifetime employability and that it should be promoted.
... Currently, a higher educational level in women has increased their knowledge and skills, producing changes in the job search (Choi et al., 2003). Carless and Arnup (2011) assert that the higher the women's educational level, the more job search competences women have, and this affects motivational attributes. However, in the Spanish family culture (Flaquer, 2004;Moreno, 2010), women's jobs are considered secondary, and they prefer jobs where they can balance work-family life (Gómez, 2008). ...
Article
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We examined motivation and behaviors in women’s active job search in Spain and the gender gap in this process. The current crisis in Spain and the increase in the number of unemployed people have revealed new inequalities that particularly affect women’s employability, especially the most vulnerable women. This paper addresses two exploratory studies: the first study analyzes gender differences in the active job search using a sample of 236 Spanish participants; the second study explores the heterogeneity and diversity of unemployed women in a sample of 235 Spanish women. To analyze the active job search, the respondents were invited to write open-ended responses to questions about their job search behaviors and complete some questionnaires about their motivation for their active job search. The content analysis and quantitative results showed no significant differences in motivational attributes, but there were significant gender differences in the job search behavior (e.g., geographical mobility). Moreover, the results showed heterogeneity in unemployed women by educational level and family responsibilities. The asynchronies observed in a neoliberal context reveal the reproduction of social roles, social-labor vulnerability, and a gender gap. Thus, women’s behavior is an interface between employment and family work, but not their motivations or aspirations. Our results can have positive implications for labor gender equality by identifying indicators of effectiveness in training programs for women’s job search, and it can contribute to designing intervention empowerment policies for women.
... Since the rate of career change starts climbing at rather young ages (Nooney, Unruh and Yore, 2010), differences are expected in the way ACP students in different age groups acknowledge the social utility values and/or material rewards for teaching (Joseph and Green, 1986;Serow and Forest, 1994). Therefore, age is identified to have possible influences on ACP students' teaching career choices (Carless and Arnup, 2011;Tsabari, Tziner and Meir, 2005). ...
... One study found a negative relationship between executives' age and their likelihood to change jobs (Cheramie, Sturman, & Walsh, 2007). Another study found that "career changers" were, on average, five years younger than "career stayers" (Carless & Arnup, 2011). A longitudinal study across 20 years showed that older people were more likely to follow a traditional career path (i.e., long-term full time employment in one organization ;Biemann, Zacher, & Feldman, 2012). ...
Article
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This article for the 50th anniversary issue of the Journal of Vocational Behavior theoretically integrates, reviews, and critically discusses research that investigates vocational behavior and development based on life stage, lifespan, and life course perspectives. First, we describe key tenets of these perspectives and associated theories of vocational behavior and development. Second, we present a theoretical framework that integrates the lifespan and life course perspectives by addressing (a) relationships between age and important work and career outcomes (i.e., career decisions and success, job search and turnover, work motivation and behavior, attitudes, occupational health and well-being), (b) age-related person and contextual mechanisms of these relationships, and (c) interactive effects of age with person characteristics, contextual characteristics, and/or work and career outcomes. Third, based on the theoretical framework, we summarize cumulative empirical evidence for these age-related associations and effects for the various work and career outcomes. Moreover, we review conceptual and empirical articles on aging, life stage, lifespan, and life course development published in the Journal of Vocational Behavior over the past 50 years. Finally, we conclude with a discussion of theoretical implications and directions for future research that adopts an integrated lifespan and life course perspective on vocational behavior and development. Below is a 50 days' free access to the article. Anyone clicking on this link before June 09, 2021 will be taken directly to the final version of your article on ScienceDirect, which they are welcome to read or download: https://authors.elsevier.com/c/1cxZhRM4J4lR
... In relation to economically liberal countries, the frequency of employer changes tends to be low in the German labor market (Buchholz 2008). However, in our study, the proportion of EL (7.1%) and RL (6.4%) over four years is notably high, considering that older employees, in particular, were found to have substantial obstacles to employer change and change rarely (Bailey and Hansson 1995;Carless and Arnup 2011). The high proportion of RS found in the study Content courtesy of Springer Nature, terms of use apply. ...
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Objective The aim of this prospective study was to examine employer changes among older workers and to relate them to psychosocial work factors, health, and work ability. Four groups of employees as elaborated by Hom et al. (2012) were distinguished: Enthusiastic leavers (EL), reluctant leavers (RL), enthusiastic stayers (ES), and reluctant stayers (RS). Methods Repeated Measures ANOVA analyses were based on data from the second and third waves (2014, 2018) of the German lidA Cohort Study, a representative study of employees born in 1959 or 1965. Results The largest proportion of participants was ES (73.3%), 13.2% stayed with their employer although they would have preferred to leave (RS). 7.1% changed employer between 2014 and 2018 voluntarily (EL), 6.4% involuntarily (RL). Analyses confirmed that the four groups already differed in 2014 in terms of health, work ability, and psychosocial work factors and that these outcomes change in different characteristic patterns over time. Most outcomes improved substantially following the change among EL. RS already reported poor outcomes in 2014 and exhibited a further deterioration while staying at the undesired workplace. Conclusion Our findings indicate that an employer change is followed by improvements of work, health, and work ability. We conclude that an inclusive labor market policy for older workers allowing for high job mobility may have the potential to contribute to considerable improvements of workers' individual working conditions, health, and work ability, thereby increasing the work participation. Also, the considerable group of RL requires increased political and scientific attention.
... Building on the social cognitive career theory of Lent et al. (1994), individuals who believe that they have a needed ability and consider themselves to be effective are more likely to develop an interest in a career or career change. Studies on career change in general have shown that individuals are more likely to make a career change when they have a large network of supporters, such as family, friends, and coworkers, whom they perceive as providing social support (Carless & Arnup, 2011;Higgins, 2001). Thus, it can be assumed that social influences and the support of family, friends, and co-workers play a more important role in the decision to become a teacher for AC teachers than for TC teachers. ...
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This study investigates alternatively certified (AC) teachers' motives for teaching, their well-being, and their intention to stay in the profession. We conducted multivariate covariance analyses using a large-scale dataset of 446 traditionally certified (TC) teachers and 143 AC teachers at secondary schools in Germany. Findings show that AC teachers reported more frequently than TC teachers that they chose teaching due to social influences and because of more time for their family. Furthermore, AC teachers report significantly higher enthusiasm for teaching. No differences were found regarding emotional exhaustion or the intention to stay in the profession.
... The same study found that most of those who quit started the process with serious consideration in the last year before leaving and made the actual decision to leave within six months before the decision was made (Hasselhorn et al., 2005). The final decision on whether to quit the nursing profession is based on an individual thinking process (Carless & Arnup, 2011;Laine, van der Heijden, Wickström, Hasselhorn, & Tackenberg , 2009), which is estimated to be the result of many reasons (Flinkman et al., 2010;Hasselhorn et al., 2005). ...
Chapter
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Nursing is a profession group with a high turnover rate. The high turnover rate affects the quality, quantity and cost of patient care. For this reason, the speed of job turnover in nurses and the reasons for their leave remain up-to-date as an issue that health and nurse managers should focus on and develop effective strategies. Some of the factors that affect the turnover and need to be taken precautions are limited career opportunities, poor support, lack of recognition and negative staff attitudes. Nurses should also be provided with educational opportunities, safe working environments, and social opportunities to maintain work-life balance so that they can recognize and develop themselves. Efforts should be made to increase the organizational commitment of the employee. The shortage of qualified nurses with the appropriate skills is a global problem. The nursing work environment is characterized by a mixture of inappropriate skill and inadequate patient-staff ratios. Low participation in decision-making processes and increasing patient demands make this process even more difficult. These problems affect heavy workloads and stress levels, making nurses feel worthless and powerless
... In regard to the definition of what constitutes a career change and what differentiates it from a job change, Carless and Arnup (2011) distinguish between small and major career changes. Hence, their definition of career change is reduced to changes of the professional field which are largely unrelated to former experiences. ...
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Career shocks are the norm, not the exception. Yet, much of research and counseling on career-development holds unrealistic assumptions of a makeable career. Little is understood about the role of shocks on the career path and how the interplay of individual reactions to shocks shapes careers. The purpose of this study is to provide understanding of responses to different attributes of career shocks and career shocks as antecedents to career and job change. A qualitative approach was chosen and data were obtained from 25 semi-structured interviews with a sample of mid-career individuals who had experienced shocks in their work lives. The analysis was 2-fold and aimed at unearthing of individual responses to shocks and the question of the role of shocks on changes in the career path. Firstly, the analysis of career shocks revealed a pattern of distinct agentic responses in relation to shocks of different attributes. Secondly, from the analysis of shock attributes and corresponding responses over time career changer profiles emerged which differ in regard to career change behavior and magnitude of changes in the career (e.g., major career changes into another field). A process model which depicts how post-shock careers are shaped distinctively in relation to different shock attributes and corresponding responses is presented. This study underlines the importance of understanding the unplannable in career development and shows a variety of options for individuals to develop their careers despite shocks. Limitation stems from the investigation of a sample limited to mid-career individuals. The findings provide a new conceptual lens to theorize and conduct research on career shocks and career changes and facilitate the development of coping strategies for career shocks. The originality lies in the investigation of the momentum of career shocks on career paths with detail to different attributes of career shocks and how they impact the career path.
... The same study found that most of those who quit started the process with serious consideration in the last year before leaving and made the actual decision to leave within six months before the decision was made (Hasselhorn et al., 2005). The final decision on whether to quit the nursing profession is based on an individual thinking process (Carless & Arnup, 2011;Laine, van der Heijden, Wickström, Hasselhorn, & Tackenberg , 2009), which is estimated to be the result of many reasons (Flinkman et al., 2010;Hasselhorn et al., 2005). ...
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THE PLACE AND FUTURE OF ISLAMIC BANKING IN THE GERMAN BANKING SYSTEM
... The same study found that most of those who quit started the process with serious consideration in the last year before leaving and made the actual decision to leave within six months before the decision was made (Hasselhorn et al., 2005). The final decision on whether to quit the nursing profession is based on an individual thinking process (Carless & Arnup, 2011;Laine, van der Heijden, Wickström, Hasselhorn, & Tackenberg , 2009), which is estimated to be the result of many reasons (Flinkman et al., 2010;Hasselhorn et al., 2005). ...
... Carless and Arnup, 2011). Australian researchers found that older workers and workers with a high tenure are less likely to change professions and that changes resulted in higher job satisfaction and reduced working hours (Carless and Arnup, 2011). Research from Germany showed that a change of profession resulted in a higher income level (Nisic and Trübswetter, 2012). ...
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Occupational change encompasses change of profession, employer and work tasks. This study gives an overview on occupational change in later working life and provides empirical evidence on voluntary, involuntary and desired occupational changes in the older workforce in Germany. The analyses were based on longitudinal data from 2,835 participants of the German lidA Cohort Study, a representative study of employees born in 1959 or 1965. Multinomial logistic regression analyses were performed in order to characterise the change groups in their previous job situation. The findings indicate that occupational change among older workers is frequent. In four years, 13.4 per cent changed employer, 10.5 per cent profession and 45.1 per cent work tasks. In addition, the desire for change often remains unfulfilled: the share of older workers who wanted to but did not change was 17.6 per cent for profession, 13.2 per cent for employer and 8.9 per cent for work tasks. The change groups investigated differ in terms of their socio-demographic background , health and job factors such as seniority and leadership quality. In times of ageing populations, the potential of occupational change among older workers requires more consideration in society, policy and research. Special attention should also be paid to the group of workers who would have liked to change but feel that they cannot leave.
... On the one hand, further inspection of the studies we initially found using our key words revealed that (one or both) of our key terms were only used in the introduction or discussion to position the research in the field of contemporary careers but did not really address employability or career transitions. On the other hand, several other studies that did not result from the systematic search were added as they did study employability in relationship with transitions yet using different labels (e.g., Carless and Arnup, 2011;Equeter et al., 2018;Guan et al., 2016;Wheeler et al., 2007). This was especially apparent when considering the input-based conceptualization of employability (Forrier et al., 2009). ...
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How individuals can be employable and make successful career transitions throughout their working life is gaining increased attention from scholars in the field of vocational and organizational psychology for several decades now. Although contemporary career literature implicitly or explicitly assumes a strong connectedness between career transitions and employability, these two concepts have their own historical development in the literature. In this paper we provide a historical account of how the research fields around both have evolved, and we highlight some key insights from seminal work. We then review the literature to explore in more detail how the relationship between career transitions and employability has been empirically studied in the vocational and organizational psychology literature so far. We end with discussing the major observations from this review and formulate pathways for future research.
... Another factor affecting individual innovativeness behavior was listed to be occupational factors including professional interest and education. The way to be successful is to perform the teaching profession with love and appealingly which requires patience, tolerance, sacrifice, continuous work and following the innovations (Carless & Arnup, 2011;Richardson;Wagner & Imanuel, 2014). In this regard, we can imply that the positive attitudes of teachers and their social perception towards their profession may have an impact on their professional life and individual innovativeness. ...
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The present study aimed at revealing the individual innovativeness levels of teachers working at secondary schools and conducting an in-depth examination on the reasons of the behaviors in their category of innovativeness, and on the factors that affected their individual innovativeness. It was designed as a mixed method research in which quantitative and qualitative research techniques were used together. The quantitative data were collected through the "Individual Innovativeness Scale" and the qualitative data were gathered through a semi-structured interview form created by the researcher. The study group in the quantitative phase of the study consisted of 411 secondary school teachers while the participants in the qualitative phase included 20 teachers picked among those in quantitative phase based on the maximum diversity sampling method. Descriptive statistics were used in the analysis of quantitative data, and content analysis method was preferred for the analysis of qualitative data. According to the individual innovativeness scores, it was concluded that the majority of the participating teachers considered themselves to be low-level innovators and were placed in the early majority category of innovativeness. It has been found that no one to take place in the laggard category of individual innovativeness. In addition, it was observed that teachers had the highest mean for the sub-dimension of openness to experience and the lowest mean for the sub-dimension of resistance to change. It was found that being an investigator, being accepted to be a leader, uncertainty brought about by innovation and their skeptical behaviors against change caused the teachers to categorize their quality of innovativeness. Finally, it was revealed that the individual innovativeness behaviors of teachers were affected by individual, environmental and professional factors. Structured Abstract: The rise in social change and the rapid flow of information have necessitated an effective differentiation in all the living areas of individuals and the alteration of old habits. Therefore, individuals in the society are supposed to have an understanding of innovativeness in order to comply with the emergent innovations within the scope of change and development. The notion of individual innovativeness is highlighted as the educational organizations, which have been mostly affected by social upheavals, constantly renew themselves in the face of alterations, and the teachers have to be interested in observation and investigation in order to be able to notice and adapt to the emergent changes in the environment. As information and communication technologies occupy a large place in all areas of our lives, educational institutions assume a crucial role in accessing new information and adopting to innovations. In similar vein, it is hoped that people will have high levels of innovativeness in order to use technology and access new information. Innovative thoughts and practices force teachers to improve themselves constantly regarding education and training, and to transfer their modern and innovative knowledge into lessons. That's why, workers who have the ability to
... Data collated from the participants also showed that their career transition has given them self-respect, pride, admiration, joy and fulfilment and most of all improved quality of life. In one study it was reported that one year after career change, individuals reported higher job satisfaction, improved job security and a reduction in the number of hours worked (Carless & Arnup, 2011). Furthermore, changing workplace, and even career, can provide nurses with the opportunity to move to positions better suited to their motives, ambitions, skills, and career goals. ...
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Background: Transitioning is a common phenomenon that happens such as in a career shift provoked by either internal or external factors. This phenomenon also occurs to nurses becoming lawyers. Considering its complexity, such transition entails a process. Purpose: The study aimed at describing and uncovering the preparations, motivations, ad barriers of nurses who transitioned into nurse-lawyers in the Philippines. Methods: The study employed descriptive-qualitative research design utilizing twenty participants selected through purposive and snowball or referral sampling techniques. A semi-structured interview guide was used for the data collection using Google form. Braun and Clarke's Thematic Analysis was utilized as the primary treatment of the transcribed data. Strict observance of ethical standards in conducting research was ensured. Results: The study found out several themes and subcategories from the thematic analysis conducted. These include 1). "Pre-planning emotive expressions" 2.) "Motivations of career shift"; 3.) "Support mechanisms to afford career shift"; 4.) "Barriers to career shift"; 5.) "The interconnectedness of law and nursing"; 6.) "Impacts of the career shift". Conclusion: Generally, the career shift of the nurse-lawyers presented significant themes pertinent to their preparations, motivations, and barriers in becoming lawyers. Apparently, these are all primordial in the career transition of the nurse-lawyers. Essentially, the study provides preliminary findings that may become springboard in the construction of a grounded theory that would explicate the transition of the nurse-lawyers as a phenomenon uniting and expanding nursing and the practice of law as complementary sciences.
... According to Wendsche and Lohmann-Haislah (2017), job demands are job-related attributes (e.g. workload, job insecurity) that need constant physical and psychological effort and therefore are related to occupational stress, work exhaustion and career change (see Carless & Arnup, 2011). Contrarily, job resources refer to job characteristics (e.g. ...
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Recent decades have revealed labor turnover to be the Achilles’ heel of the hospitality industry. This has led interested members of the academic community to investigate the topic from an array of perspectives. Managerial career change, which shares certain theoretical attributes with the phenomenon of turnover, has heretofore been inexplicably overlooked by academia, despite its strong operational and strategic implications. By espousing a qualitative methodology, namely grounded theory, this study builds on existing theoretical capital and investigates the factors contributing to managerial career change, which is defined as a manager’s voluntary decision to exit the hospitality industry and seek employment in other segments of the economy. Ten in-depth interviews with individuals who had invested in hospitality degrees, so as to take on management-level positions, but subsequently decided to pursue other careers, have provided insight on the factors contributing to such decisions. Our findings should be of interest to industry stakeholders, as they may assist in further theorizing the social process leading to managerial career change.
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Coping refers to behavior that protects people from being psychologically harmed by problematic social experience, a behavior that importantly mediates the impact that societies have on their members. The protective function of coping behavior can be exercised in 3 ways: by eliminating or modifying conditions giving rise to problems; by perceptually controlling the meaning of experience in a manner that neutralizes its problematic character; and by keeping the emotional consequences of problems within manageable bounds. The efficacy of a number of concrete coping behaviors representing these 3 functions was evaluated. Results indicate that individuals' coping interventions are most effective when dealing with problems within the close interpersonal role areas of marriage and child-rearing and least effective when dealing with the more impersonal problems found in occupation. The effective coping modes are unequally distributed in society, with men, the educated, and the affluent making greater use of the efficacious mechanisms.
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There are problems of fit between standard research practices in the domain of turnover research and evolutionary decisional processes like job search. I analyze this problem from methodological, empirical, and conceptual vantage points. Reanalysis of data suggests that the ability to accurately estimate employment opportunity is related to one's temporal positioning within the turnover process. Using cybernetic decision theory as a point of departure, I propose a model conceptualizing employment search processes as a series of decision stages.
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The shift from circumscribed careers to boundarylessness confronts us with a problem outside our previous experience. No norms and few models exist to tell how to evaluate, plan, review, analyze, promote, or otherwise live out a boundaryless career. Change dominates over stability. But of all changes, the most fundamental are changes in assumptions about the way the world works, and what we mean by the terms we use.
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This work reports further theoretical development of Lee and Mitchell's (1994) unfolding model of voluntary turnover, which describes different psychological paths that people take when quitting organizations. Ambiguities in the model were identified, and hypotheses aimed at resolving these ambiguities were tested on a sample of 229 former employees from the "Big 6" public accounting firms. The results provide a theoretical and quantitative extension of an earlier qualitative assessment of the unfolding model. Implications are discussed.
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Career change research has suffered from the absence of a comprehensive theoretical framework. The proposed model of career change is based on career change research and previously tested turnover theory. Both the determinants and process of career change are explained by the model. Longitudinal panel studies are suggested for testing of the model.
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A meta-analysis of single-item measures of overall job satisfaction (28 correlations from 17 studies with 7,682 people) found an average uncorrected correlation of .63 (SD = .09) with scale measures of overall job satisfaction. The overall mean correlation (corrected only for reliability) is .67 (SD = .08), and it is moderated by the type of measurement scale used. The mean corrected correlation for the best group of scale measures (8 correlations, 1,735 people) is .72 (SD = .05). The correction for attenuation formula was used to estimate the minimum level of reliability for a single-item measure. These estimates range from .45 to .69, depending on the assumptions made.
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A meta-analysis of single-item measures of overall job satisfaction (28 correlations from 17 studies with 7,682 people) found an average uncorrected correlation of .63 (SD = .09) with scale measures of overall job satisfaction. The overall mean correlation (corrected only for reliability) is .67 (SD = .08), and it is moderated by the type of measurement scale used. The mean corrected correlation for the best group of scale measures (8 correlations, 1,735 people) is .72 (SD = .05). The correction for attenuation formula was used to estimate the minimum level of reliability for a single-item measure. These estimates range from .45 to .69, depending on the assumptions made.
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This paper investigates the social context in which career decisions are made. Results show that beyond individual-level factors such as demographics and work history, individuals' decisions to change careers are socially embedded. Findings suggest that the greater the diversity of an individual's network of advisors, the greater the likelihood that an individual will change careers. In addition, this paper explores the mechanisms through which different subsets of advice relationships — instrumental versus psychosocial — affect the decision to change careers. Results show that the greater the diversity of an individual's set of instrumental relations, the greater the number of offers he or she receives during the job search process and, further, that the number of offers received is positively related to the likelihood of changing careers. The diversity of an individual's set of psychosocial relations was related to his or her confidence to overcome career obstacles. However, confidence was not, in turn, related to career change, counter to expectations. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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This study examines the respective influence of individual characteristics and contextual factors on employees' willingness to accept major internal job changes – i.e. domestic relocation, international assignment and change of discipline – in their late careers. Data were obtained from a two-wave longitudinal survey of 584 management-level employees from different private-sector organizations located in France. Three separate hierarchical regression equations were run to test the relationships of interest in this study, one for each of the three internal mobility opportunities. The set of attitudinal variables was found to explain a significant proportion of the variance in the willingness to change discipline, but its influence was weak or null respectively in explaining willingness to accept an international posting or domestic relocation. Off-the-job embeddedness and spouse's unwillingness to move were confirmed as strong deterrents to relocation. As for the individual characteristics, openness to experience was identified as a major determinant of all the types of mobility included in this study. The results suggest that a much more dynamic role could be envisaged for late-career managers, at least for respondents corresponding to certain individual and contextual variables.
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We provide a selective review of the literature on personality and vocational behavior from 1993 to 1997. We framed the personality aspects of the research in terms of the Five-Factor Model of personality whenever possible, to enhance synthesis across the literature. Major clusters of literature reviewed included the links of personality to choice-related processes (i.e., interests, aspirations, attitudes and values, maturity, and decision-making), general career processes (i.e., job searches, career progression and changes, multiple roles, career commitment, congruence, and mentoring), occupational satisfaction and well-being (i.e., job satisfaction, occupational stress, strain, and burnout), and organizational outcomes (i.e., job performance, other desirable and undesirable outcomes). Neuroticism, extraversion, and conscientiousness emerged most frequently in associations with vocational behavior. We summarize other themes and provide recommendations for future research in this domain.
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This is the first study to examine Holland and Gottfredson’s [Holland, J. L., & Gottfredson, G. D. (1994). Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory: An inventory for understanding adult careers. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.] assertion that the Career Attitudes and Strategies Inventory (CASI) is a useful instrument for differentiating career persisters and career changers. Based on Holland’s (1996; Holland and Gottfredson) [Holland, J. L. (1996). Exploring careers with a typology: What we have learned and some new directions. American Psychologist, 51, 397–406.] expectations and empirical evidence it was hypothesized that persisters (expressed intent to remain in current career) would score higher than changers (expressed intent to change career) on the Job Satisfaction, Work Involvement, Skill Development, and Geographical Barriers scales comprising the CASI. Conversely, it was hypothesized that changers would score higher than persisters on the CASI scales measuring Dominant Style, Career Worries, Interpersonal Abuse, Family Commitment, and Risk-Taking Style. To test these hypotheses, 249 career persisters and 200 career changers completed the CASI. Results indicated that changers were more likely to take risks and were more motivated towards skill development, while persisters were more satisfied in their jobs and reported greater career concerns.
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This study examined Super's (1990) concept of recycling through the stages of adult career development in a sample of 226 Australian men and women who were approximately evenly distributed across the following four steps in the uptake of a second career: (a) contemplating a change, (b) choosing a new field, (c) implementing a change, and (d) change fully completed. A group of adults of similar age, gender, education, occupation, and career history who had no intention of switching careers was also included for comparison. Recycling predictions were supported by the finding that the three groups who were in the throes of career change displayed greater concern with Super's first (exploration) stage than the nonchanging control group. In addition, the two groups who were most intensely involved in the change process (choosing field and implementing) scored higher in exploration concern than the group whose career change was fully completed. Satisfaction also varied as a function of the participant's stage in the process of switching to a new career. Global satisfaction with the present job was highest in workers who had completed the change to a new career, but nonchangers were more satisfied than the three groups who were actively caught up in the change process. On the other hand, satisfaction with the overall pattern of career development was higher in the two stable groups (nonchangers and change-completed) than among the three groups still actively involved in making a change. Implications of these results for midlife career counseling were considered.
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Purpose – This study seeks to identify some of the factors that explain biomedical research scientists' career commitment and that prompt them to consider leaving science. It also aims to examine whether these factors differ between men and women, and between those with different family responsibilities. Design/methodology/approach – A longitudinal questionnaire survey was used to identify the demographic and work-related variables that predicted three dimensions of career commitment and intention to leave science one year later. Findings – The factors explaining career commitment and intention to remain in the profession were similar for men and women, for those with various types of family responsibilities, and for those on permanent and temporary contracts. Career planning was predicted by continuance organizational commitment and the opportunity for autonomy in the workplace, and career resilience by equitable treatment at work. Career identity, career resilience and salary were predictors of intention to leave science. Research limitations/implications – Limitations of the study include the lack of a random sample, and the fact that some instruments differ slightly from the original versions. A substantial proportion of the variance in intention to leave science was unexplained and further research should therefore explore the impact of career entrenchment, professional socialisation and aspects of personal disposition on intention to leave a profession. Practical implications – Those who manage scientists' careers should attend particularly to pay, providing opportunities for working autonomously, and fair treatment. Originality/value – A longitudinal design was used and some key workplace variables were studied. Unlike most previous studies, the moderating effects of gender, relationship status and parenthood were examined.
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Results are presented from a continuing study of men who graduated in 1970. Their first jobs after graduation were all typical of people with their degrees (in science, technology and engineering), but by 1977 they were in jobs which were identified as involving some degree of occupational change. These changes, and some of the beliefs the respondents held about them, are discussed. Tentative conclusions are drawn, and some possible implications for careers guidance are noted.
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Using longitudinal data collected over a 4-year period from a sample of medical technologists, this study found that intent to leave one's organization, intent to leave one's profession, and intended retirement age were distinguishable interrole work transitions. Job context (i.e., job satisfaction) had a significant impact on subsequent organizational and professional withdrawal intent. Organizational context (i.e., work-force reduction, shift, schedule) had a significant impact on subsequent organizational withdrawal intent, while professional context (i.e., role orientation and professional commitment) had a significant impact on subsequent professional withdrawal intent. Copyright 2000 Academic Press.
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Reports on the development and validation of the Career Transitions Inventory (CTI), a 40-item multidimensional measure of career change adjustment designed to measure perceptions of psychological resources operating when adults pursue a career transition. The initial sample consisted of 300 adults in career transition. A principle components factor analysis followed by a varimax rotation revealed 5 factors: readiness, confidence, perceived support, control, and decision independence. Results of 2 additional samples (with 43 and 104 adults, respectively) to establish validity and reliability estimates revealed that the CTI has good internal consistency, accounts for a sufficiently high proportion of the overall variance, and has moderately high stability over time. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
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Investigated the causes and process of career change in 20 public school teachers (aged 24–44 yrs). Interview questions were developed using an integrated model of career change (S. R. Rhodes and M. M. Doering; see record 1984-05374-001). Ss' reasons for career change included a lack of challenge, advancement opportunity, time for creativity, and recognition, in addition to dissatisfaction with the classroom and pay. The process of career change might include making changes in the job setting, such as speaking with administrators, applying for other teaching jobs, or seeking a promotion or other responsibility. The decision to change careers might result from investigating other academic programs; applying for jobs outside of teaching; researching the job market; and speaking with family, friends, or other teachers. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Discusses the new relationship that has replaced the "old" psychological contract (i.e., job security in exchange for hard work and loyalty) between the employee and employer in recent years. This new relationship can be described in terms of "protean careers" and "protean career contracts." The protean career is independent and directed by the needs and values of the individual; the protean career contract is thus with the self rather than with an organization. According to the authors, it takes about 7 years for an employee group that has faced major organizational trauma to adjust to the new contract. It is argued that organizations and individuals find ways of accelerating the learning process. Based on their interviews with individuals in companies that have gone through major reorganizations and reductions in force, the authors identify 3 stages of adaptation. Next, they report on how organizations like Starbucks Coffee and Beth Israel Hospital are responding to the new contract by developing new forms of corporate loyalty and learning. Lessons from these companies, together with an understanding of the stages of adaptation, provide 10 steps to promoting the new "career metacompetencies" (self-knowledge and adaptability) required by the protean career contract. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Tested a research model for studying the determinants and process associated with the intention to change careers. Questionnaires returned by 180 (of 1,907) school teachers (mean age 40.63 yrs) were submitted to path analysis on data from public school teachers. Overall, the empirical analysis provided support for the model and its causal ordering. However, lack-of-fit components suggested that a more complex model with additional paths might be more appropriate. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
Conducted a longitudinal study to examine predictors and outcomes of job and occupational change for 436 adults (aged 17–62 yrs) who participated in a vocational counseling clinic. Test and 2-yr follow-up data were used to examine occupational correspondence and job satisfaction as both predictors and outcomes of job and occupational change. Job satisfaction was measured at intake and follow-up by the 1st item of the Hoppock Job Satisfaction Blank, and the short form of the Minnesota Satisfaction Questionnaire. The Strong-Campbell Interest Inventory was used to measure vocational interests. Job and occupational change were not significantly related to correspondence or job satisfaction at intake. At follow-up, Ss who changed jobs and occupations were significantly more satisfied than nonchangers, but the hypothesized effects of change on occupational correspondence were only partially supported. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved)
Article
To test whether general self-efficacy and self-esteem relate differently to motivational and affective constructs, we collected data from samples in academic and work settings. Results suggest that general self-efficacy is more highly related to motivational variables than is self-esteem, whereas self-esteem is more highly related to affective variables than is general self-efficacy, as hypothesized. Furthermore, results support the notion that motivational and affective states differentially mediate the relationships of general self-efficacy and self-esteem with task performance. These results confirm the theoretical distinction between general self-efficacy and self-esteem and suggest that failure to distinguish between them might exact a price in terms of precision, validity, and understanding of determinants of performance. Implications for research and practice in organizations are discussed. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Three components of the literature on measuring the employer's rate of return to investments in employee training are reviewed: (1) studiesthat use large samples of firm-level or establishment-level data collected through mail or phone surveys, (2) studies that use data from one or two companies to conduct an ‘econometric’ case study, and (3) company-sponsored case studies. The strengths and weaknesses of each of these approaches are evaluated and the estimated returns on investments (ROIs) are compared. The analysis indicates that the employer's return on investments in training may be much higher than previously believed. In order to obtainaccurate information on the employer's ROI from training, researchers should be encouraged to gain access to company databases and to supplement them with data-gathering efforts to collect information on variables needed to isolate the effect of training.
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Twenty-five people who had made voluntary, radical occupational changes in mid-career were interviewed and compared and contrasted with people remaining in matched occupations. Four categories of factors emerged from the data as being important to mid-career occupational change: factors associated with the first occupation, factors associated with the second occupation, obstacles to change, and personal factors. Dissatisfaction with the first occupation and attraction to a second occupation are both necessary for change to occur but do not in all cases cause change. Dissatisfaction results from a lack of congruence between a person's work orientations and the rewards of an occupation, and attraction results from a perceived congruence between the two. Obstacles to change are most financial in nature and can deter or delay change even when dissatisfaction and attraction exist. Differing personal beliefs about the control one has over one's life and one's ability to succeed in new areas in large part determine whether obstacles deter change or not.
Article
This study proposed and tested corresponding sets of variables for explaining voluntary organizational versus occupational turnover for a sample of medical technologists. This study is believed to be the first test of the Rhodes and Doering (1983) occupational change model using occupational turnover data. Results showed that corresponding job (occupational) satisfaction and intent to leave organization (occupation) variables were each significant for explaining subsequent organization (occupation) turnover. Job insecurity was found to be a significant correlate for organizational turnover while work exhaustion was found to be a significant correlate for occupational turnover. Study limitations and directions for future research are discussed.
Article
Based on London's (1983) and London and Mone's (1987) theory of career motivation and the extrawork literature, a hypothesized model of the antecedents and outcomes of career commitment was proposed and tested. Data obtained using structured questionnaires from a sample of teachers and nurses in Singapore (N = 510) were analyzed using LISREL. Results of the LISREL analysis indicate that the model did not fit the data although work role salience, organizational commitment, career satisfaction, and organizational opportunity for development emerged as significant antecedents of career commitment. The only extrawork variable, family supportive activity, was not significantly related to career commitment directly. In terms of outcomes of career commitment, career commitment was significantly and positively related to skill development and negatively to career and job withdrawal intentions but was not significantly related to work quality. Implications of the failure of the model to fit the data for London's and London and Mone's theory are discussed and hypotheses for the model's revision are suggested.
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The following provides an overview of the field of careers by focusing on research published in the last four years. The information is organized around the major content areas of the field: attraction/ selection, socialization, commitment, mentoring, plateaus, voluntary and involuntary separations, work-family conflicts, and demographic impacts. Some general observations and suggestions for future research directions are offered.
Article
There are problems of fit between standard research practices in the domain of turnover research and evolutionary decisional processes like job search. I analyze this problem from methodological, empirical, and conceptual vantage points. Reanalysis of data suggests that the ability to accurately estimate employment opportunity is related to one's temporal positioning within the turnover process. Using cybernetic decision theory as a point of departure, I propose a model conceptualizing employment search processes as a series of decision stages. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Academy of Management Review is the property of Academy of Management and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)
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This study investigates the effects of job insecurity on four organizationally important outcomes: in-role behaviour, organizational citizenship behaviour, turnover intention, and absenteeism. A model is tested in which job insecurity is simultaneously a hindrance and a challenge stressor. In particular, job insecurity is proposed to have a predominantly harmful effect on performance, turnover intention, and absenteeism, and it is argued that these effects are mediated by (reduced) work attitudes. In addition, job insecurity is also assumed to affect these behaviours in the opposite way (i.e. a suppressor effect) because job insecurity might motivate employees to make themselves more valuable to the organization by working harder and being less absent. The model is tested with a sample of 136 German non-managerial employees. Data from supervisors (i.e. in-role behaviour and organizational citizenship behaviour), the company's personnel files (i.e. absenteeism), and self-reports (i.e. job insecurity, work attitudes, turnover intention, in-role behaviour, and organizational citizenship behaviour) were used. Structural equation modelling showed that a model that included both negative and positive effects fitted the data best. The negative effect was stronger than the positive effect. The results show that the effects of job insecurity are more complex than previously assumed. In addition, the results also extend previous research into hindrance and challenge stressors because they show that stressors should not be categorized as either hindrance or challenge. Instead, it might be more appropriate to conceptualize hindrance and challenge as two dimensions.