Fluphenazine and Social Therapy in the Aftercare of Schizophrenic Patients: Relapse Analyses of a One-Year Controlled Study of Fluphenazine Decanoate and Fluphenazine Hydrochloride
The ability of long-acting fluphenazine decanoate and oral fluphenazine hydrochloride to forestall relapse among newly discharge schizophrenic patients is examined in the context of high and low degrees of social therapy (ST). A total of 105 patients were randomly assigned to the various treatments and maintained under controlled conditions for two years or until relapse. Relapse rates for all treatments remained traditionally high. Relpase rates for long-acting fluphenazine decanoate and oral fluphenazine hydrochloride are nearly identical in the first year, indicating that drug noncompliance does not adequately explain early schizophrenic relapse. However, patients who received long-acting fluphenazine decanoate and ST have a reduced risk of relapse over time. Relapsers who received long-acting fluphenazine decanoate appeared more affectively disturbed than other relapsers, yet both groups were diagnostically and symptomatically equivalent prior to treatment. Personal discomfort and intrafamilial stress are important predictors.
Available from: PubMed Central
- "However, the majority of studies evaluating the safety and efficacy of these medications are typically 1 year or less in duration (Leucht et al., 2011; Kishimoto et al., 2014). Although there are some clinical trials on long-acting injectable antipsychotics that are 2 years in duration (Hogarty et al., 1979; Macfadden et al., 2010; Detke et al., 2014; Lambert et al., 2011; Rosenheck et al., 2011), few studies have examined these medications for longer durations. As schizophrenia is often a lifelong disorder, and as long-acting injectable treatments in schizophrenia are intended for long-term use, there is need for longer term data. "
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to assess the long-term safety and efficacy of olanzapine long-acting injection (LAI). A 6-year, single-arm, open-label extension study of olanzapine LAI was conducted at 127 sites in 25 countries. Patients were 18-76 years of age, were diagnosed with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder (N=931), and had been previously enrolled in one of three clinical trials of olanzapine LAI. Patients received flexibly dosed (45-405 mg) olanzapine LAI every 2-4 weeks. The mean duration of exposure was ∼3 years. A total of 393 (42.2%) patients completed the study. The mean weight change was +2.1 kg (P<0.001), with 40.6% of patients experiencing 7% or higher weight gain. Treatment-emergent categorical changes occurred in fasting glucose, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels. Pharmacokinetic analyses revealed no systemic accumulation of olanzapine after long-term treatment. There were 36 occurrences of post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome, all resolving within 72 h. The mean Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale total and subscale scores did not change significantly over the course of the study, indicating clinical stability. Olanzapine LAI appeared effective as a long-term maintenance treatment, with a safety profile generally consistent with the known profile of oral olanzapine, except for injection-related events (including post-injection delirium/sedation syndrome).
Available from: David M Taylor
- "Depot or long-acting antipsychotics confer better protection against psychotic relapse than their oral equivalents (Hogarty et al., 1979; Tiihonen et al., 2011). Conventional, or first generation, antipsychotic depots are widely used and have a low acquisition cost, but are associated with a high risk of tardive dyskinesia (Novick et al., 2010). "
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ABSTRACT: Paliperidone palmitate (PP) is a recently introduced long-acting atypical, or second-generation, antipsychotic. Published data on PP are currently limited to controlled trials and case reports. In this observational study, we followed up 200 consecutive patients prescribed PP in normal practice. After 1 year, 65% of patients were still receiving PP. The number of admissions to hospital in the year following PP initiation was 0.49/patient compared with 0.69/patient/year, 3 years before initiation (P=0.0001). The mean number of bed days fell from 38.78 to 23.09/patient/year over the corresponding period (P=0.0001). The median number of bed days 3 years before PP initiation was 21.50/year and in the year following PP initiation, it was 0. Outcomes were numerically but not statistically better in those continuing PP than in those who ceased PP within a year of initiation. PP was effective and well-tolerated and, given its positive effect on hospital bed days, broadly cost-effective.
Available from: Josep Maria Haro
- "Prior research has shown differential rates of psychiatric hospitalization among oral antipsychotics, as clozapine and olanzapine were found to be associated with a lower rehospitalization rate compared with other oral antipsychotics [11,12]. Long-acting injection (LAI, depot) antipsychotic formulations are recommended for the treatment of non-adherent patients , as depot medications ensure adherence during the injection duration and may help reduce the risk of relapse [14-16]. It has been reported that LAI formulations can reduce the risk of relapse in patients with adherence difficulties . "
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ABSTRACT: Hospitalization is a costly and distressing event associated with relapse during schizophrenia treatment. No information is available on the predictors of psychiatric hospitalization during maintenance treatment with olanzapine long-acting injection (olanzapine-LAI) or how the risk of hospitalization differs between olanzapine-LAI and oral olanzapine. This study aimed to identify the predictors of psychiatric hospitalization during maintenance treatment with olanzapine-LAI and assessed four parameters: hospitalization prevalence, incidence rate, duration, and the time to first hospitalization. Olanzapine-LAI was also compared with a sub-therapeutic dose of olanzapine-LAI and with oral olanzapine.
This was a post hoc exploratory analysis of data from a randomized, double-blind study comparing the safety and efficacy of olanzapine-LAI (pooled active depot groups: 405 mg/4 weeks, 300 mg/2 weeks, and 150 mg/2 weeks) with oral olanzapine and sub-therapeutic olanzapine-LAI (45 mg/4 weeks) during 6 months' maintenance treatment of clinically stable schizophrenia outpatients (n=1064). The four psychiatric hospitalization parameters were analyzed for each treatment group. Within the olanzapine-LAI group, patients with and without hospitalization were compared on baseline characteristics. Logistic regression and Cox's proportional hazards models were used to identify the best predictors of hospitalization. Comparisons between the treatment groups employed descriptive statistics, the Kaplan--Meier estimator and Cox's proportional hazards models.
Psychiatric hospitalization was best predicted by suicide threats in the 12 months before baseline and by prior hospitalization. Compared with sub-therapeutic olanzapine-LAI, olanzapine-LAI was associated with a significantly lower hospitalization rate (5.2% versus 11.1%, p < 0.01), a lower mean number of hospitalizations (0.1 versus 0.2, p = 0.01), a shorter mean duration of hospitalization (1.5 days versus 2.9 days, p < 0.01), and a similar median time to first hospitalization (35 versus 60 days, p = 0.48). Olanzapine-LAI did not differ significantly from oral olanzapine on the studied hospitalization parameters.
In clinically stable schizophrenia outpatients receiving olanzapine-LAI maintenance treatment, psychiatric hospitalization was best predicted by a history of suicide threats and prior psychiatric hospitalization. Olanzapine-LAI was associated with a significantly lower incidence of psychiatric hospitalization and shorter duration of hospitalization compared with sub-therapeutic olanzapine-LAI. Olanzapine-LAI did not differ significantly from oral olanzapine on hospitalization parameters.Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov: http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00088491.
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