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Intelligence, but not emotional intelligence, predicts Iowa Gambling Task performance

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Abstract

The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is a famous and frequently-used neuropsychological task that is thought to reflect real-world decision-making. There has been some debate, however, about the degree to which the IGT involves cold (cognitive) versus hot (emotional) processing. The present study incorporated 68 healthy individuals and used measures of cognitive intelligence (IQ) and emotional intelligence (EIQ) to predict IGT performance. Higher IQ scores significantly predicted better IGT performance, whereas no EIQ–IGT relationship was observed. The implications of this research on clinical and experimental use of the IGT are outlined.

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... The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is known to elicit emotion-based learning in a pure discovery learning environment (Bechara, Tranel, & Damasio, 2000). Further, researchers find that IQ predicts performance on the IGT (Demaree, Burns, & DeDonno, 2010). The IGT is a psychological task designed to simulate real-life decision making. ...
... Individuals better at cognitively processing these emotional responses tend to have higher scores on the IGT than those who do not adequately process emotions. Individuals with higher IQ have also been found to perform better on the IGT (Demaree et al., 2010). ...
... The present study provides evidence that IQ predicts pure discovery learning of hold'em poker. In addition when combined with findings from other research (Demaree et al., 2010), the present study suggests that IQ predicts learning of tasks when both cognitive and emotional factors are present. It is possible that for pure discovery learning to be effective, both cognitive and emotional factors need to be present. ...
Article
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the predictive ability of IQ on pure discovery and guided discovery learning of a complex real-world task. Hold'em poker is a game of skill with significant complexity. Its attributes resemble real-life activities such as stock market investing, shopping for a home, and the battles of war. To explore pure discovery learning, a group received no guidance while playing a total of 720 hands of poker. To investigate guided discovery learning, a group received poker strategies while playing the game. Results revealed that IQ explained a significant proportion of the variance in pure discovery but not guided discovery learning of hold'em poker. Results suggest that IQ predicts learning of tasks when both cognitive and emotional factors are present. It is possible that for pure discovery learning to be effective, both cognitive and emotional factors need to be present.
... This increase in skin conductance has been suggested as evidence that participants have begun to learn the deck values at a pre-conscious, emotional level, before they have formed an explicit cognitive understanding of the task (Bechara et al., 2000(Bechara et al., , 1994. However, the extent to which successful IGT performance is driven more by implicit, emotion-based versus explicit, cognitive processes remains a matter of significant debate (Demaree, Burns, & DeDonno, 2010;Maia & McClelland, 2004). ...
... Despite the large body of research examining the influence of emotion or cognitive ability separately on IGT performance, there is a surprising paucity of research that aims to disentangle the relative contributions of cognitive versus emotional processes within the same study. To our knowledge, only one study (Demaree et al., 2010) has directly compared the influences of cognitive intelligence (IQ) versus emotional intelligence (EI) on IGT performance in a healthy sample. Interestingly, findings from the latter study showed IQ to be a better predictor of IGT performance than EI, suggesting that the IGT may, in fact, tap cognitive processes to a greater extent than emotional ones (at least EI). ...
... However, the conclusions of the Demaree et al. (2010) study are limited by several factors. First, the authors used a single, self-report measure of emotional intelligence, the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS; Schutte et al., 1998), which implicitly assumes that patients can reliably access and accurately report on their EI abilities. ...
... Cattell-Horn-Carroll theory (CHC) of cognitive abilities has been regarded as a common taxonomy for intelligence researchers (McGrew, 2009), and in this taxonomy, cognitive abilities are placed on the three strata: III (g-general), II (broad abilities, such as fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence), I (narrow abilities, such as inductive reasoning) (McGrew, 2009). In laboratory research, existing studies have found that fluid intelligence (IQ) could predict IGT performance for both healthy and clinical adult samples (Johnson et al., 2006;Fein et al., 2007;Demaree et al., 2010;Webb et al., 2014). Compared with adult studies, only a few studies tapped the relationship between IQ and IGT of children and early adolescents. ...
... Moreover, a recent study showed that training of EI could lead to improved IGT performance for healthy adults (Alkozei et al., 2019). On the other hand, EI-IGT relationship was not observed in other studies (Demaree et al., 2010). We believe that two reasons might account for the inconsistency. ...
... Firstly, different measurements of EI could produce different results. The Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEI) used by Demaree et al. (2010) is based on the ability EI model, whereas the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire (TEIQue) used by Sevdalis et al. (2007) and Telle et al. (2011) is based on trait EI model. Ability EI refers to the ability to perceive, express, understand and regulate emotion in the self and others (Mayer and Salovey, 1993), and it reflects more of cognitive ability (Petrides, 2011). ...
Article
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The current study mainly explored the influence of fluid intelligence (IQ) and emotional intelligence (EI) on affective decision-making from a developmental perspective, specifically, during the transition from childhood into early adolescence. Meanwhile, their age-related differences in affective decision-making were explored. A total of 198 participants aged 8–12 completed the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), the Cattell’s Culture Fair Intelligence Test and the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form. Based on the net scores of IGT, the development of affective decision-making ability did not increase monotonically with age, and there was a developmental trend of an impaired IGT performance in early adolescence (aged 11–12), especially in the early learning phase (first 40 trials) of the IGT. More importantly, IQ and EI played different roles for children and early adolescents: IQ and EI jointly predicted the IGT performance for 8–10 years old children, whereas only EI contributed to the IGT performance of 11–12 years old early adolescents. The present study extends the evidence how cognitive processing and emotional processing interact in affective decision-making from the developmental perspective. Furthermore, it provides insights of future research and intervention with early adolescents’ poor affective decision-making.
... Empirically, most existing studies have concentrated on adult samples, and only a few studies have examined whether fluid intelligence can predict IGT performance in children. Studies with adults samples, both healthy and clinical samples, have found that fluid intelligence can predict IGT performance (e.g., Demaree, Burns, & DeDonno, 2010;Fein, McGillivray, & Finn, 2007;Haaland & Landrø, 2007;Johnson, Yechiam, Murphy, Queller, & Stout, 2006;Levine et al., 2005;Nakamura et al., 2008;Webb, DelDonno, & Killgore, 2014). However, the existing research showed that fluid intelligence does not contribute to IGT performance in children (Crone & van der Molen, 2004;Lehto & Elorinne, 2003). ...
... First, only a few child studies have examined the relationship between fluid intelligence and IGT performance, so more research may be required to confirm the results. Second, child studies used a single index of IGT performance-the number of selected advantageous cards (Crone & van der Molen, 2004;Lehto & Elorinne, 2003), whereas adult studies applied multiple indices, including indices that focused on the overall IGT performance (e.g., the overall net score and the number of selected advantageous cards) and indices that focused on the progression of the IGT performance (e.g., the net scores in each block) (e.g., Demaree et al., 2010;Fein et al., 2007;Haaland & Landrø, 2007;Johnson et al., 2006;Levine et al., 2005;Nakamura et al., 2008;Webb et al., 2014). Hence, in the present study, we use multiple indices of IGT performance (overall net score and net scores in five blocks) to explore the relationship between fluid intelligence and IGT performance in children. ...
... Some studies found there was a negative correlation between "surround" (a facet of EI that focuses on these three aspects: personal stress, stress in the workplace and life events) and IGT performance in female students (Sarmány-Schuller, 2009). However, other studies have found no correlation between EI and IGT performance (e.g., Demaree et al., 2010). ...
... For example, cognitive intelligence predicts performance on the IGT (Dunn et al., 2006;Guillaume et al., 2009;Maia & McClelland, 2004;Toplak, Sorge, Benoit, West, & Stanovich, 2010). Recent work suggests that cognitive intelligence, rather than emotional intelligence, is more strongly associated with performance on the IGT (Demaree, Burns, & DeDonno, 2010;Li et al., 2017;Webb, DelDonno, & Killgore, 2014). These studies found no association between EI and performance on the IGT (Demaree et al., 2010) or that EI failed to contribute above and beyond cognitive ability in the prediction of IGT performance (Li et al., 2017;Webb et al., 2014). ...
... Recent work suggests that cognitive intelligence, rather than emotional intelligence, is more strongly associated with performance on the IGT (Demaree, Burns, & DeDonno, 2010;Li et al., 2017;Webb, DelDonno, & Killgore, 2014). These studies found no association between EI and performance on the IGT (Demaree et al., 2010) or that EI failed to contribute above and beyond cognitive ability in the prediction of IGT performance (Li et al., 2017;Webb et al., 2014). However, none of these studies measured somatic markers (i.e., SCRs) simultaneously with each decision trial. ...
... However, recent work suggests that cognitive processes may explain IGT performance more accurately and comprehensively (e.g., Dunn et al., 2006;Maia & McClelland, 2004). Some studies recently suggested that cognitive intelligence is more positively associated with IGT performance than EI (Demaree et al., 2010;Li et al., 2017;Webb et al., 2014). However, an important limitation is that these studies did not simultaneously measure SCRs with IGT performance when contrasting these individual differences. ...
Article
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Emotional Intelligence (EI) is a set of adaptive skills that involve emotions and emotional information. Prior research suggests that lower EI individuals behave maladaptively in social situations compared to higher EI individuals. However, there is a paucity of research on whether EI promotes adaptive decision-making. Leveraging the somatic marker hypothesis, we explore whether EI moderates the relationship between skin conductance responses (SCRs) and risky decision-making. In two separate sessions in the behavioral lab, participants (N = 52) completed tests of emotional intelligence and made a total of 5,145 decisions involving risk. At Time 1, participants completed an ability test of EI and cognitive intelligence. At Time 2, participants completed 100 decision trials of the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). Consistent with prior research using the IGT, participants played a computerized card game with real monetary rewards in which two "safe" decks led to higher average monetary rewards and two "risky" decks led to higher average losses. We found that EI moderates the relationship between physiological arousal, as measured by SCRs, and risk-taking. Specifically, lower EI individuals exhibited a maladaptive, positive association between SCRs and risk-taking, whereas higher EI individuals did not exhibit a relationship between SCRs and risk-taking. Our findings suggest one important way in which low EI may lead to maladaptive decision-making is through appraising physiological arousal incorrectly. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2019 APA, all rights reserved).
... Второй проблемой становится отсутствие комплексных исследований. Вебб с соавторами в 2014 г., предваряя собственное исследование, отмечали [49], что известна только одна работа с одновременным фиксированием свойств IQ и EQ на неклинической выборке -работа Демари с соавторами [24]. В ней обнаружено, что академический интеллект оказывается лучшим предиктором успешности выполнения Айова-теста, чем ЭИ, а значит прогнозы в IGT задействует в большей степени когнитивные факторы, чем эмоциональные. ...
... Студенческая выборка рассматривалась в качестве фоновой для установления связей. Именно для такой выборки Демари c соавторами [24] впервые получили данные о связи ЭИ со стратегиями в IGT в группе нормы, что позволяло соотнести с ними наши результаты. ...
... В исследовании Демари c соавторами [24] на студенческой выборке для измерения вербального интеллекта также использовалась шкала Милл-Хилла, как и нами, и была установлена его преимущественная роль в регуляции стратегий в IGT. наши результаты можно считать сходными, но с поправками на то, что ЭИ также проявился в роли предиктора динамики выборов (у студентов -в меньшем числе показателей, чем у руководителей). ...
Article
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In this theoretical and empirical study, the roles of intelligence and emotional intelligence are considered in the multi-stage decision strategies in an uncertain situation, as modeled by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The hypotheses about the contribution of academic and emotional intelligence to the decision strategy regulation, involving prognostic activity, are verified. Two groups of participants were compared: 1) students and 2) corporate managers, a total 142 people (88 women and 54 men). Groups differed in age, but did not differ significantly in academic intelligence. Significant differences are established in several scales of emotional intelligence. The following methods were used: 1) A computerized version of the Iowa Gambling Task. 2) IQ tests: Two subtests from the ICAR for measuring fluid intelligence and two subtests from the ROADS battery for measuring verbal intelligence. 3) D. Lusin's Emln questionnaire. Correlation and regression analysis were used to process the data. Verbal intelligence is a significant positive predictor of strategic success for a greater number of strategy indicators in managers than in students, but not at the first stage of the task. For the first time, a positive role of fluid intelligence is established - following a greater outcome awareness towards the middle of the task. The emotional intelligence scales were also established as significant predictors, but to a greater degree among the managers. In general, based on the analysis of the decision effectiveness predictors at different stages of the strategic task, a greater integration of cognitive and emotional processes in the dynamic regulatory systems can be inferred for the managers.
... Previous research has evidenced the important role of high-level cognitive functions, especially WM, for successful performance in the IGT (Bagneux et al., 2013;Demaree et al., 2010;Hawthorne and Pierce, 2015;Maia and McClelland, 2004;Stocco et al., 2009). In SZP, impaired WM is arguably a core symptom related to prefrontal abnormalities, as supported by behavioral observations (Anticevic et al., 2011;Collins et al., 2014;Park et al., 1999;Strauss et al., 2012), consistent hypofrontality during WM tasks (Glahn et al., 2005) and alterations of prefrontal D1 receptor transmission involved in WM deficits (Abi-Dargham et al., 2002). ...
... This pattern of decision-making is in keeping with reported intact sensitivity to immediate and reliable rewards in schizophrenia, as opposed to more complex or temporally remote rewards Juckel et al., 2006;Waltz et al., 2007). Past research has indicated that the IGT is a cognitively demanding task requiring high-level cognitive functions such as holding the experimental contingencies in WM (Bagneux et al., 2013;Demaree et al., 2010;Hawthorne and Pierce, 2015;Maia and McClelland, 2004;Stocco et al., 2009). Integration of information across decks and trials is particularly important to capture gain frequency since this parameter differs between decks A/C and decks B/D. ...
Article
Background: Patients with schizophrenia (SZP) have been reported to exhibit impairments in reward-based decision-making, but results are heterogeneous with multiple potential confounds such as age, intelligence level, clinical symptoms or medication, making it difficult to evaluate the robustness of these impairments. Methods: We conducted a meta-analysis of studies comparing the performance of SZP and healthy controls (HC) in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) as well as comprehensive analyses based on subject-level data (n = 303 SZP, n = 188 HC) to investigate reward-based decision-making in SZP. To quantify differences in the influence of individual deck features (immediate gain, gain frequency, net loss) between SZP and HC, we additionally employed a least-squares model. Results: SZP showed statistically significant suboptimal decisions as indicated by disadvantageous deck choices (d from 0.51 to −0.62) and lower net scores (d from −0.35 to −1.03) in a meta-analysis of k = 29 samples (n = 1127 SZP, n = 1149 HC) and these results were confirmed in a complementary subject-level analysis. Moreover, decision-making in SZP was characterized by a relative overweighting of immediate gain and net losses and an underweighting of gain frequency. Moderator analyses revealed that in part, decision-making in the IGT was moderated by intelligence level, medication and general symptom scores. Conclusion: Our results indicate robust impairments in reward-based decision-making in SZP and suggest that decreased cognitive resources, such as working memory, may contribute to these alterations.
... This implies that further investigation of the emotional components and executive functions should be performed to determine the key factors of decision-making performance on IGT. The role of stable personality traits such as impulsivity and risk-seeking have been widely investigated, although less attention has been paid to the emotional intelligence parameter ( Bar-On et al., 2005;Demaree et al., 2010;Webb et al., 2014). Based on the somatic markers hypothesis, Bar-On et al. suggest that decision-making impairment in patients with brain lesions in IGT could be related to abnormal parameters of social and emotional intelligence. ...
... Our results are partially consistent with the findings of Bar-On et al. (2005) on the impact of emotional intelligence on IGT performance: the interaction was observed in the clinical group, but not in the controls. Webb et al. (2014) and Demaree et al.( 2010) also show that emotional intelligence scores significantly predict IGT performance until starting to control for intelligence quotient. That means that the cognitive component could play a higher role in IGT performance in patients with right frontal lobe tumours than emotional intelligence. ...
... Emotionally intelligent people may use the capacity to adapt to others' strategy and context in order to attain their goals (Ford and Tamir, 2012). Some research has explored the influence of EI on cognitive processes, such as decision making and problem solving (Day and Carroll, 2004;Jordan and Troth, 2004;Reis et al., 2007;Demaree et al., 2010;Fernández-Berrocal et al., 2014;Webb et al., 2014). EI enhances the ability to learn and solve problems. ...
... Evidence suggests a positive relation between EI in general and cognitive control (Day and Carroll, 2004;Jordan and Troth, 2004;Reis et al., 2007;Demaree et al., 2010;Fernández-Berrocal et al., 2014;Webb et al., 2014), but this study demonstrated that it is specifically a negative association between Managing Emotions and impulsivity. However, we did not find any association between self-reported measures of EI (SEIS) and impulsivity. ...
Article
The relationship between intelligence quotient (IQ) and cognitive control processes has been extensively established. Several studies have shown that IQ correlates with cognitive control abilities, such as interference suppression, as measured with experimental tasks like the Stroop and Flanker tasks. By contrast, there is a debate about the role of Emotional Intelligence (EI) in individuals' cognitive control abilities. The aim of this study is to examine the relation between IQ and EI, and cognitive control abilities evaluated by a typical laboratory control cognitive task, the Stroop task. Results show a negative correlation between IQ and the interference suppression index, the ability to inhibit processing of irrelevant information. However, the Managing Emotions dimension of EI measured by the Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), but not self-reported of EI, negatively correlates with the impulsivity index, the premature execution of the response. These results suggest that not only is IQ crucial, but also competences related to EI are essential to human cognitive control processes. Limitations and implications of these results are also discussed.
... Bu çalışmaların bir kısmı iki yapı arasında anlamsız ilişkiler ortaya koyarken, bir kısmı düşük ve anlamlı ilişkiler rapor et-mektedirÖrneğin, IGT ile ölçülen karar performansı ile Raven Standart Progresif Matrisler Testi (RSPM) ile ölçülen akıcı (analitik) zeka arasındaki ilişkiyi inceleyen çalışmaların bir kısmı anlamsız sonuçlar rapor ederken, 10,11 bir kısmı düşük ilişkiler rapor etmektedir. 8,12 Diğer taraftan, analitik düşünceyi değerlendiren Bilişsel Yansıma Testi (Cognitive Reflection Test: CRT) ile IGT arasındaki ilişkiyi inceleyen çalışmalar ise, analitik zekanın karar vermenin önemli bir yordayıcısı olabileceğini belirtmektedir. 13,14,15 Bu çelişkili sonuçlar karar vermeyi ölçen IGT'nin farklı puanlama biçimlerinin kullanılmasından kaynaklanabilmektedir. ...
... Bu iki bilişsel süreç arasındaki anlamlı ilişkileri rapor eden literatür bulguları mevcut çalışma sonucuyla tutarlıdır. 8,12 Aracı değişkenlerin modele eklenmesiyle bu ilişkinin düştüğü ve aracı değişkenler olan kurulumu değiştirme, planlama ve problem çözme ve çalışma belleğinin karar vermeyi anlamlı olarak yordadığı görülmüştür. Bu sonuçlar doğrultusunda, akıcı zeka ve karar verme arasındaki ilişkinin ilgili belirtilen bilişsel işlevler aracılığıyla gerçekleştiği sonucuna varılabilir. ...
... After calculating fALFFs of slow-4 and slow-5, we examined group differences in slow-4 and 5 fALFFs associated with the IGT total net score by using an analysis of covariance interaction model [statistical significance was set at a voxel height threshold of p < 0.001 and cluster-size threshold of p < 0.05; family-wise error (FWE) corrected (two-sided), with the Gaussian random field theory approach] while controlling for age, sex, and IQ, which have been reported to affect IGT performance (65)(66)(67)(68)(69). Additionally, we examined differences in fALFFs in whole brain voxels of the OCD and CTL groups while controlling for age, sex, and IQ [significance threshold set at a voxel height threshold of p < 0.001 and cluster size threshold of p < 0.05; FWE corrected (two-sided), with the Gaussian random field theory approach]. ...
Article
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Background Symptoms of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have been conceptualized as manifestations of decision-making deficits. Patients with OCD exhibit impairment during the decision-making process, as assessed by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). This impairment is independent of clinical severity and disease progression. However, the association between the decision-making deficit and resting-state brain activity of patients with OCD has not been examined. Methods Fifty unmedicated patients with OCD and 55 matched control subjects completed IGT. Resting-state brain activity was examined using the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFFs). fALFF analysis focused on the slow-4 and 5 bands. Group comparisons were performed to determine the association between IGT performance and fALFFs. Results There was a significant group difference in the association between the IGT total net score and slow-4 fALFFs in the left putamen (voxel height threshold of p < 0.001; cluster size threshold of p < 0.05; family wise error-corrected). Higher putamen slow-4 fALFFs were correlated with lower IGT scores for OCD patients ( r = −0.485; p < 0.0005) and higher IGT scores for control subjects ( r = 0.402; p < 0.005). There was no group difference in the association between the IGT total net score and slow-5 fALFFs. Conclusions These findings in unmedicated patients demonstrate the importance of resting-state putamen activity for decision-making deficit associated with OCD, as measured by IGT. The inverse correlation may be explained by the hypersensitive response of the putamen in patients with OCD.
... Brabec et al.'s (2012) study, using the IGT and the TMMS for EI, did not find any association between EI and the total scores (nor for the net block scores) on the behavioral task. Demaree et al. (2010) found the same outcomes using the EIS. In the same way, using the SREIS, Webb et al. (2014) did not find any correlation. ...
Article
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Although emotion and cognition were considered to be separate aspects of the psyche in the past, researchers today have demonstrated the existence of an interplay between the two processes. Emotional intelligence (EI), or the ability to perceive, use, understand, and regulate emotions, is a relatively young concept that attempts to connect both emotion and cognition. While EI has been demonstrated to be positively related to well-being, mental and physical health, and non-aggressive behaviors, little is known about its underlying cognitive processes. The aim of the present study was to systematically review available evidence about the relationship between EI and cognitive processes as measured through " cool " (i.e., not emotionally laden) and " hot " (i.e., emotionally laden) laboratory tasks. We searched Scopus and Medline to find relevant articles in Spanish and English, and divided the studies following two variables: cognitive processes (hot vs. cool) and EI instruments used (performance-based ability test, self-report ability test, and self-report mixed test). We identified 26 eligible studies. The results provide a fair amount of evidence that performance-based ability EI (but not self-report EI tests) is positively related with efficiency in hot cognitive tasks. EI, however, does not appear to be related with cool cognitive tasks: neither through self-reporting nor through performance-based ability instruments. These findings suggest that performance-based ability EI could improve individuals' emotional information processing abilities.
... There are a few exceptions: the risk adjustment measure from the loss condition in the adapted Cambridge Gambling Task and the delay discounting measures were correlated with IQ, with delay discounting also being correlated with years in education. Previous studies have also suggested that gambling (Demaree et al., 2010;Webb et al., 2014) and delay discounting (Shamosh and Gray, 2008) correlate with intelligence. Therefore, it is recommended that studies using these measures take particular care to control for IQ and years of education. ...
Article
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In mental health practice, both pharmacological and non-pharmacological treatments are aimed at improving neuropsychological symptoms, including cognitive and emotional impairments. However, at present there is no established neuropsychological test battery that comprehensively covers multiple affective domains relevant in a range of disorders. Our objective was to generate a standardised test battery, comprised of existing, adapted and novel tasks, to assess four core domains of affective cognition (emotion processing, motivation, impulsivity and social cognition) in order to facilitate and enhance treatment development and evaluation in a broad range of neuropsychiatric disorders. The battery was administered to two hundred participants aged 18-50 years (50% female), 42 of whom were retested in order to assess reliability. An exploratory factor analysis identified eleven factors with eigenvalues greater than 1, which accounted for over 70% of the variance. Tasks showed moderate to excellent test-retest reliability and were not strongly correlated with demographic factors such as age or IQ. The EMOTICOM test battery is therefore a promising tool for the assessment of affective cognitive function in a range of contexts.
... However, there has been little evidence to suggest that the IGT performance reflects (or is associated with) social or emotional processes (e.g., see Torralva et al., 2013;Torralva et al., 2007). Rather, many researchers have proposed that the IGT relies more on cognitive (Hinson, Jameson, & Whitney, 2002) than on emotional abilities (Demaree, Burns, & DeDonno, 2010), specifically, reversal learning (i.e., the ability to use feedback to change an existing, and previously correct, response pattern; Fellows & Farah, 2005), working memory (Levine et al., 2005), and attention (Gansler, Jerram, Vannorsdall, & Schretlen, 2011). Thus, although the IGT has been widely researched in clinical populations, it is not clearly a measure of decision making that is sensitive to social reasoning, so such an instrument is yet to emerge. ...
Article
Objective: Examination of social cognition as a target for assessment and intervention is beginning to gain momentum in a number of illnesses and acquired disorders. One facet of social cognition is decision making within interpersonal situations. This skill forms an important part of our everyday lives and is commonly impaired in those with neurological and mental health conditions. A novel task was developed to allow the assessment of decision making specifically within a social context and was examined within a group known to experience this difficulty. Method: Participants with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) were compared to healthy control participants on the Social Decision Making Task (SDMT), which required the participant to learn who the "friendly" players were in a game of toss. Participants also completed a nonsocial decision-making task, the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) as well as a battery of neuropsychological tests and social cognition tasks. Current social functioning was also examined. Results: Consistent with predictions, the TBI group made poorer decisions on the SDMT than the control group; however, group differences were not evident on the IGT. No significant relationships were observed between the SDMT and either measures of executive functioning (including working memory and reversal learning) or social cognition (including emotion recognition and theory of mind). Performance on the SDMT and the IGT were not associated, suggesting that the two tasks measure different constructs. Conclusions: The SDMT offers a novel way of examining decision making within a social context following TBI and may also be useful in other populations known to have specific social cognition impairment. Future research should aim to provide further clarification of the mechanisms of action and neuroanatomical correlates of poor performance on this task.
... As far as decision-making is concerned, the results are mixed, such that it is difficult to conclude whether high EI would lead people to make their decisions intuitively on an affect-based manner (as reported by Leary, Reilly, & Brown, 2009) or rationally, based on deliberate and thoughtful reasoning (as suggested by Laborde, Dosseville, & Scelles, 2010). The few studies which examined whether EI improved decision-making in the lab have yielded contradictory results (Day & Carroll, 2004;Demaree, Burns, & DeDonno, 2010;Telle, Senior, & Buttler, 2011). Therefore, we currently do not know whether EI would help people to put emotions aside when the decision-making process requires it. ...
Article
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Are emotionally intelligent people sentimental? Does their greater sensitivity handicap them or are they able, as theory would expect, to experience and regulate emotions flexibly, depending on their goals? We examined this issue in organizational settings. Good managers are indeed expected to be both attuned to feelings (theirs as well as their subordinates’) and able to put them aside when needed to take tough (but necessary) decisions. Our results show that emotionally intelligent managers do make better managers, as reflected by greater managerial competencies, higher team efficiency and less stressed subordinates. Moreover, and most importantly, emotionally intelligent managers are not just nicer managers. As our results show, emotional intelligence has nothing to do with sentimentality. Actually, it is managers with low EI who have the greatest difficulties to put their emotions aside and not let them interfere when inappropriate.
... We demonstrate a similar finding involving emotional, rather than nonemotional stimuli, thus further extending the generalizability of IQ. Furthermore, our results complement findings from other types of tasks showing that intelligence (and working memory) are very important for performance involving pre-anticipatory emotional activation (Bechara, Damasio, Tranel, & Anderson, 1998;Hinson, Jameson, & Whitney, 2002) and that EI measured as a trait fails to predict performance in this domain (Demaree, Burns, & DeDonno, 2010). ...
Article
We examined how general intelligence, personality, and emotional intelligence – measured as an ability using the MSCEIT – predicted performance on a selective-attention task requiring participants to ignore distracting emotion information. We used a visual prime in which participants saw a pair of faces depicting emotions; their task was to focus on one of the faces (the target) while ignoring the other (the distractor). Next, participants categorized a string of letters (word or nonword), which was either congruent to the target or the distractor. The speed of response to categorizing the string was recorded. Given the emotional nature of the stimuli and the emotional information processing involved in the task, we were surprised to see that none of the MSCEIT branches predicted performance. However, general intelligence and openness to experience reduced response time.
... 34 Gözden geçirilmiş formun yayınlanmasından sonra hala birçok çalışmada gözden geçirilmiş form yerine asıl formun yeğlendiği ve kullanıldığı gözlenmiştir. [35][36][37][38][39][40] Gözden geçirilmiş formun Türkçe çevirisi yapılmıştır. 41 SDZT-33 Türkçeye uyarlama denemesi de daha önce yapılmıştır. ...
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Objective: This study demonstrates the reliability and validity of the Turkish Form of Acute Stress Symptoms Scale which was developed according to DSM-5 criteria to measure the severity of acute stress disorder. Methods: This research was carried out with the patients who fulfilled the criteria of any stress related disorders according to DSM-5 criterion in inpatient and outpatient psychiatric clinics of Celal Bayar University, School of Medicine. Except for acute or post-traumatic stress disorders, patients with any other mental or physical disease were excluded. Fifty patients were included in the study. As the control group, 150 volunteers without any mental or physical diseases were invited. Beside Acute Stress Symptoms Scale, Peritraumatic Dissociative Experiences Questionnaire (PDEQ) which is the most commonly used self-rated instrument to rate the experience of recent trauma is utilized for concur-rent validity. In reliability analyses, internal consistency coefficient and item-total correlation coefficients were calcu-lated. In validity analyses, factor analysis and correlation analysis with PDEQ were performed. Results: The mean age of the study group was 32.1±12.0 years, and 57.7% of the sample group (n=116) were female. 31.3% of the group were college graduates, 36.3% primary school graduates, 29.9% is high school graduates. Disease duration in acute stress disorder group was 4.08±4.57 years. For the internal consistency of Acute Stress Symptoms Severity Scale, Cronbach’s alpha coefficient was found to be 0.95. Item-total score correlation coefficients were between 0.76 and 0.88 and all were statistically significant. For the exploratory factor analysis, sample adequacy was tested, Kaiser-Meier-Olkin (KMO) coefficients was 0.91 and Bartlett coefficient was 1388. Single-factor solution was obtained and the eigenvalue was 5.40, representing 77.8% of the total variance. Factor loadings of the items were between 0.82-0.92. The coefficient of correlation analysis with PDEQ was calculated as r=0.88. Area under the curve is found 0.99 as the result of ROC analysis. Conclusion: With these findings, it is shown that the severity of Acute Stress Symptoms Scale is reliable and valid for Turkish.
... One possibility is that more task-specific capacities such as working memory, intelligence, and inhibition play a crucial role. On the other hand, although some studies have indeed found IGT performance to be linked to variables such as working memory, inhibition, intelligence, and personality (e.g., Crone et al., 2003;Demaree et al., 2010;Franken & Muris, 2005;Suhr & Tsanadis, 2007), such links seem to emerge inconsistently and are, overall, rather weak (e.g., Dunn et al., 2006;Toplak et al., 2010). ...
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The Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is one of the most popular experimental paradigms for comparing complex decision-making across groups. Most commonly, IGT behavior is analyzed using frequentist tests to compare performance across groups, and to compare inferred parameters of cognitive models developed for the IGT. Here, we present a Bayesian alternative based on Bayesian repeated-measures ANOVA for comparing performance, and a suite of three complementary model-based methods for assessing the cognitive processes underlying IGT performance. The three model-based methods involve Bayesian hierarchical parameter estimation, Bayes factor model comparison, and Bayesian latent-mixture modeling. We illustrate these Bayesian methods by applying them to test the extent to which differences in intuitive versus deliberate decision style are associated with differences in IGT performance. The results show that intuitive and deliberate decision-makers behave similarly on the IGT, and the modeling analyses consistently suggest that both groups of decision-makers rely on similar cognitive processes. Our results challenge the notion that individual differences in intuitive and deliberate decision styles have a broad impact on decision-making. They also highlight the advantages of Bayesian methods, especially their ability to quantify evidence in favor of the null hypothesis, and that they allow model-based analyses to incorporate hierarchical and latent-mixture structures.
... Affective decision-making (henceforth decision-making) is best defined as the strategic process of choice under risk and the result of the interaction between 'rational' and 'emotional' processes [5]. Most commonly measured with gambling tasks, decision-making is, if poor, a correlate of problem behaviours [6,7] and low cognitive ability [8,9], but also a risk marker for future risk-taking behaviours [10] and psychopathology [11,12] in children and adolescents. If school characteristics were found to be significantly associated with individual pupils' decision-making as early as at primary school, the findings of this study could have significant implications for educational policy by revealing what type of school context may have a role in shaping adaptive reward responses. ...
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Purpose School-level characteristics are known to be associated with pupils’ academic and cognitive ability but also their socioemotional development. This study examines, for the first time, whether primary school characteristics are associated with pupils’ affective decision-making too. Methods The sample included 3,141 children participating in the Millennium Cohort Study with available data on their school’s characteristics, according to the National Pupil Database, at age 7 years. Decision-making was measured using the Cambridge Gambling Task at age 11 years. We modelled data using a series of sex-stratified linear regression analyses of decision-making (risk‐taking, quality of decision‐making, risk adjustment, deliberation time, and delay aversion) against four indicators of school composition (academic performance and proportions among pupils who are native speakers of English, are eligible for free school meals and have special educational needs). Results After adjustment for individual and family-level confounding, schools with a higher average academic performance showed more delay aversion among males, and among females, higher deliberation time and lower risk-taking. Schools with proportionally more native English speakers had higher deliberation time among males. Schools with proportionally more pupils eligible for free school meals showed lower scores on quality of decision-making among males. Schools with proportionally more children with special educational needs showed better quality of decision-making among males and lower risk-taking among females. Conclusion The findings of this study can be used to target support for primary schools. Interventions aiming to support lower-achieving schools and those with less affluent intakes could help to improve boys’ affective decision-making.
... The understanding of the "hot" component of decision-making extends to not only emotions per se, but to general processing of emotional information. This has led to a line of research investigating the role of stable personality traits such as impulsivity and risk-seeking, although less attention has been paid to emotional intelligence ( Bar-On, Tranel, Denburg & Bechara, 2003;Demaree, Burns & DeDonno, 2010;Webb, DelDonno & Killgore, 2014). Based on the somatic markers hypothesis, Bar-On and colleagues (2003) suggest that decision-making impairment in patients with brain lesions in IGT could be related to abnormal parameters of social and emotional intelligence. ...
Article
Objective Decision-making in the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) has been intensively studied regarding both the “hot” and “cold” components. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex is a key region involved in processing somatic marker information, though recent findings suggest dorsolateral regions are also important. The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is also known as a substrate of executive functions—the cold component of decision-making. However, there is contradictory evidence about the role of executive functions, as well as the hot component of decision-making—emotional intelligence. Previous findings suggest that patients with right frontal lobe lesions find decision-making more problematic in IGT. The goal of this study is to replicate previous findings on IGT performance in patients with dorsolateral lesions compared to controls. Methods We obtained data from patients with right frontal lobe tumors (n = 12), localized in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and healthy controls (n = 21) who undertook the IGT, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT), and D-KEFS Color-Word Interference Test. Results The performance in the IGT, WCST, and EI tests is impaired in the clinical group. At the subgroup level, we found patients had lower EI scores regarding the ability to use “emotions for thinking facilitation”. However, we found an interaction between the EI scores regarding the ability “the perception and identification of emotions” and the performance on WCST only in the patient group. Conclusion This study raises the possibility of identifying components of EI which could be helpful in understanding the impairment of patients with right dorsolateral lesions.
... There were no significant group differences in net scores, unlike in previous work in both disorders in adolescent samples (63,64). This may be due to a highly medicated sample (65-67), due to the relatively high IQ across all groups that may have compensated for suboptimal performance in patient groups (68,69), or due to our use of a shortened version of the IGT. Indeed, the previous report of performance differences on the IGT in adolescents with OCD found significant differences only on the final 20 trials (63). ...
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Background: The aim of the current paper is to provide the first comparison of computational mechanisms and neurofunctional substrates in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and adolescents with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) during decision making under ambiguity. Methods: Sixteen boys with ADHD, 20 boys with OCD, and 20 matched control subjects (12-18 years of age) completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging version of the Iowa Gambling Task. Brain activation was compared between groups using three-way analysis of covariance. Hierarchical Bayesian analysis was used to compare computational modeling parameters between groups. Results: Patient groups shared reduced choice consistency and relied less on reinforcement learning during decision making relative to control subjects, while adolescents with ADHD alone demonstrated increased reward sensitivity. During advantageous choices, both disorders shared underactivation in ventral striatum, while OCD patients showed disorder-specific underactivation in the ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex. During outcome evaluation, shared underactivation to losses in patients relative to control subjects was found in the medial prefrontal cortex and shared underactivation to wins was found in the left putamen/caudate. ADHD boys showed disorder-specific dysfunction in the right putamen/caudate, which was activated more to losses in patients with ADHD but more to wins in control subjects. Conclusions: The findings suggest shared deficits in using learned reward expectancies to guide decision making, as well as shared dysfunction in medio-fronto-striato-limbic brain regions. However, findings of unique dysfunction in the ventromedial orbitofrontal cortex in OCD and in the right putamen in ADHD indicate additional, disorder-specific abnormalities and extend similar findings from inhibitory control tasks in the disorders to the domain of decision making under ambiguity.
... Given that EI is in part defined by the ability to adaptively use emotions in guiding decision-making, it makes sense to expect that IGT performance and EI would be positively related. However, studies have shown no associations between performance on the IGT and trait EI (Brabec, Gfeller, & Ross, 2012;Demaree, Burns, & DeDonno, 2010). In contrast, better performance on the IGT was shown to be associated with better ability EI in one study (Webb, DelDonno, & Killgore, 2014), but this relationship did not remain significant after controlling for IQ. ...
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Higher levels of emotional intelligence have been associated with better inter and intrapersonal functioning. In the present study, 59 healthy men and women were randomized into either a three-week online training program targeted to improve emotional intelligence (n = 29), or a placebo control training program targeted to improve awareness of nonemotional aspects of the environment (n = 30). Compared to placebo, participants in the emotional intelligence training group showed increased performance on the total emotional intelligence score of the Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test, a performance measure of emotional intelligence, as well as subscales of perceiving emotions and facilitating thought. Moreover, after emotional intelligence training, but not after placebo training, individuals displayed the ability to arrive at optimal performance faster (i.e., they showed a faster learning rate) during an emotion-guided decision-making task (i.e., the Iowa Gambling Task). More specifically, although both groups showed similar performance at the start of the Iowa Gambling Task from pre- to posttraining, the participants in the emotional intelligence training group learned to choose more advantageous than disadvantageous decks than those in the placebo training group by the time they reached the “hunch” period of the task (i.e., the point in the task when implicit task learning is thought to have occurred). Greater total improvements in performance on the Iowa Gambling Task from pre- to posttraining in the emotional intelligence training group were also positively correlated with pre- to posttraining changes in Mayer–Salovey–Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test scores, in particular with changes in the ability to perceive emotions. The present study provides preliminary evidence that emotional intelligence can be trained with the help of an online training program targeted at adults; it also suggests that changes in emotional intelligence, as a result of such a program, can lead to improved emotion-guided decision-making.
... Указанное исследование обнаружило, что IQ оказывается лучшим предиктором успешности выполнения Айова теста, а значит выполнение IGT задействует в большей степени когнитивные факторы, чем эмоциональные (по крайней мере больше, чем эмоциональный интеллект). В указанном исследовании Х. Демари (Demaree et al., 2010) для оценки когнитивных способностей на студенческой выборке применялась вербальная шкала Милла-Хилла, а не традиционные «золотые стандарты» тестов интеллекта (шкалы Векслера и Стэнфорд-Бине). В исследовании же К. Вебба применялся тест Векслера для взрослах (WASI) на материале выборки испытуемых, которые различались как по возрасту, так и по образованию. ...
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Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is frequently used as a convenient model for studying processes of decision making and prognosis. Clinical studies generally provide support for Damasio's "somatic markers" hypothesis. Many studies stress out the leading role of emotional components of IGT performance regulation in comparison with intellectual components. In our study the verbal, fluid and general intelligence were measured on a sample of adult subjects (n = 116) from the non-clinical group. Using linear regression, we showed that intelligence was a significant predictor of the successful decision making in IGT, in particular in three last blocks. Verbal IQ also became a positive predictor of the preferences of "good" decks (in block 4). However, intelligence did not significantly predict success in the earliest stage of the game, when the game was the most undefined and cognitive markers haven't been revealed yet. Thus obtained results reflect the dynamics of decision-making components and changing in the intelligence impact in decisionmaking regulation. Higher intelligence provides more accurate cognitive representations of the task, choices of correct decks and as a result gaining more money in the task. We conclude by noting that the emotional influences and regulation predicted by the somatic marker hypothesis probably have the leading role at the earliest stages of decision making under uncertainty, where prognostic activity is not yet defined through cognitive markers. Uncertainty reduction related to the formation of game strategies through the large number of trials allows cognitive factors of adaptation and orienting in probabilistic environment take the leading role in decision-making regulation in IGT. © 2018 National Research University Higher School of Economics. All rights reserved.
... According to Demaree., et al, 2010, the term emotional intelligence (EI) has generally been defined as the ability to perceive and express emotion, the ability to regulate emotion, and the ability to utilize emotions when solving problems (P. 2). ...
... IQ and not EI predicted IGT performance in research utilizing a self-report measure of EI and a measure of verbal IQ in young adults (<25years) (Demaree et al., 2010). More similar to our research, a study utilizing the WASI and three different measures of EI (including the MSCEIT) that were analyzed simultaneously while controlling for IQ, found that cognitive and not emotional intelligence (controlled for EI) predicted IGT performance in a younger cohort (age:18-45) (Webb et al., 2014). ...
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The links between emotions, bio-regulatory processes, and economic decision-making are well-established in the context of age-related changes in fluid, real-time, decision competency. The objective of the research reported here is to assess the relative contributions, interactions, and impacts of affective and cognitive intelligence in economic, value-based decision-making amongst older adults. Additionally, we explored this decision-making competency in the context of the neurobiology of aging by examining the neuroanatomical correlates of intelligence and decision-making in an aging cohort. Thirty-nine, healthy, community dwelling older adults were administered the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), an ecologically valid laboratory measure of complex, economic decision-making; along with standardized, performance-based measures of cognitive and emotional intelligence (EI). A smaller subset of this group underwent structural brain scans from which thicknesses of the frontal, parietal, temporal, occipital, cingulate cortices and their sub-sections, were computed. Fluid (online processing) aspects of Perceptual Reasoning cognitive intelligence predicted superior choices on the IGT. However, older adults with higher overall emotional intelligence (EI) and higher Experiential EI area/sub-scores learned faster to make better choices on the IGT, even after controlling for cognitive intelligence and its area scores. Thickness of the left rostral anterior cingulate (associated with fluid affective, processing) mediated the relationship between age and Experiential EI. Thickness of the right transverse temporal gyrus moderated the rate of learning on the IGT. In conclusion, our data suggest that fluid processing, which involves “online,” bottom-up, cognitive processing, predicts value-based decision-making amongst older adults, while crystallized intelligence, which relies on “offline” previously acquired knowledge, does not. However, only emotional intelligence, especially its fluid “online” aspects of affective processing predicts the rate of learning in situations of complex choice, especially when there is a paucity of cues/information available to guide decision-making. Age-related effects on these cognitive, affective and decision mechanisms may have neuroanatomical correlates, especially in regions that form a subset of the human mirror-neuron and mentalizing systems. While superior decision-making may be stereotypically associated with “smarter people” (i.e., higher cognitive intelligence), our data indicate that emotional intelligence has a significant role to play in the economic decisions of older adults.
... In the literature, this turning point is called the inflexion point(Gansler, Jerram, Vannorsdall, & Schretlen, 2011). This awareness of risk is particularly important in the decision-making task and may explain the performance and the strategy used by participants.Some research has underlined a greater influence of cognitive abilities, measured by the intellectual quotient (IQ), rather than a benefit related to an emotional component to explain IGT performances(Demaree, Burns, & DeDonno, 2010;Webb, DelDonno, & Killgore, 2014). However, in a wide-ranging meta-analysis,Toplak, Sorge, Benoit, West and Stanovic (2010) reported that the majority of studies on this topic do not show any significant effect of IQ on IGT performances. ...
Thesis
Dans cette thèse, nous nous sommes intéressés au raisonnement et à la capacité décisionnelle des experts. A l’exception d’une étude qui est composée de deux populations expertes différentes (Joueurs d’échecs et joueurs de Go), nous nous sommes concentrés sur la population d’expert du jeu d’échecs. Notre objectif initial était de montrer l’influence de certains processus émotionnels dans les décisions expertes. Dans ce travail, nous nous sommes intéressés aux liens pouvant être établis entre la théorie des marqueurs somatiques et les théories en psychologie de l’expertise. Notre idée est que les marqueurs somatiques offrent un cadre intéressant afin d’étudier et de comprendre les performances expertes.Nous avons tout d’abord étudié les capacités de prise de décision générales des experts, en dehors de leur champ d’expertise, à l’aide d’un test spécialement créé pour étudier les marqueurs somatiques (Iowa Gambling Task ; IGT) et d’autres épreuves se focalisant sur les aspects de décision ambiguë (Balloon Analog Risk Task ; BART) et en connaissance des risques (Game of Dice Task ; GDT). L’objectif était de voir si les joueurs d’échecs sont meilleurs que les novices dans ces tâches et de mieux comprendre le type de contexte décisionnel pouvant amener les joueurs experts à dépasser les capacités de la population générale. Nous observons que la prise de décision des experts est meilleure principalement dans le cadre de l’IGT. Ainsi, contrairement à ce qui apparait parfois dans la littérature, les performances des joueurs d’échecs ne semblent pas se limiter exclusivement à leur domaine d’expertise.Nous avons ensuite étudié les décisions des experts au sein de leur domaine de compétence. Nous avons ainsi réalisé deux études utilisant des positions d’échecs. Il s’agit d’une tâche d’amorçage et d’une adaptation de l’effet d’Einstellung (ou effet d’attitude). L’objectif de ces études était d’observer l’influence du traitement automatique des positions sur la performance des joueurs d’échecs. Nos résultats semblent indiquer que les experts procèdent à un traitement automatique des positions pouvant amener à l’activation de schémas et procédures de résolution spécifiques à la situation. Cet activation automatique peut entraîner une amélioration des performances pouvant aller jusqu’à la mise en place d’une décision intuitive pour les joueurs experts. Mais celle-ci peut également venir perturber la décision des joueurs en focalisant leur attention sur des aspects moins pertinents de la situation.Pour ce qui concerne les compétences générales des experts, en dehors de leur champ d’expertise, les résultats obtenus semblent indiquer une utilisation efficace de la voie émotionnelle de la décision responsable de l’activation des marqueurs somatiques. Dans les études menées dans le domaine d’expertise, la théorie des marqueurs somatiques permettrait également, selon nous, d’expliquer les différents modes de décision des experts. Nous proposerons donc dans cette thèse un modèle des décisions expertes incluant la modalité somatique.En résumé, nos résultats semblent indiquer que la théorie des marqueurs somatiques est un cadre interprétatif intéressant pour les décisions expertes. Ces marqueurs sont reliés à de précédentes situations ayant provoqué une réaction émotionnelle et pourraient venir assister les décisions experts dans et hors de leur domaine d’expertise. Néanmoins, de plus amples recherches, incluant des mesures physiologiques, doivent être menées afin de confirmer l’intérêt des marqueurs somatiques dans la décision experte.
... This factor is important, as it reduces confounding variables, such as poor IGT performance due to medication side effects, drug withdrawal, or pathologies of major mental illness and provides more confidence that we are assessing the ASPD phenotype. Another limitation of the study is that we did not control for IQ, which has been shown to affect IGT performance (Demaree et al., 2010). ...
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Studies suggest that abnormalities of the dopaminergic system underlie decision-making deficits, a hallmark of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and psychopathy. The dopamine transporter gene (DAT1) is of particular interest due to a polymorphism that controls dopamine transporter (DAT) activity. However, the association between DAT1 genotypes and decision-making in ASPD has never been studied. The current study investigated the effect of DAT1 genotype on decision-making, as measured by the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT), in ASPD and healthy controls. A total of 17 participants with ASPD and 16 healthy control participants without ASPD were sampled. The Hare Psychopathy Check- list-Revised and the IGT were administered to all participants. All participants provided blood samples for genotyping. Data revealed a novel interaction effect between DAT1 genotype and diagnosis, whereby ASPD participants with low DAT activity genotypes performed significantly worse on the IGT and selected from disadvantageous decks more often, whereas the low DAT activity genotype in the healthy control group was associated with better performance on the IGT, and they selected from disadvantageous decks less often. We demonstrate, for the first time, that low DAT activity genotypes in ASPD with high psychopathic traits contribute to poor decision-making.
... However, other research in adults with brain injury ( Bar-on, Tranel, Denburg, & Bechara, 2003) and 3-to 5-year-old children (Hongwanishkul et al., 2005) found no relation between hot EF and intelligence. Most existing studies assessing the relation between hot EF and intelligence in adults have found that Gf is correlated with performance on gambling tasks (Demaree, Burns, & DeDonno, 2010). However, when assessed in children, fluid intelligence did not contribute to performance on a gambling task . ...
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This study examined whether hot and cool executive functions (EFs) differentially predicted functional outcomes and the independent and mediating roles of theory of mind (ToM). 126 children completed tests of hot and cool EF, ToM, intelligence, and academic achievement. Parents completed questionnaires of peer problems and prosocial behavior. Hot and cool EFs differentially predicted intelligence and academic achievement, supporting a hot-cool distinction. ToM predicted word reading and prosocial behavior but did not mediate any associations between EF and functional outcomes. Findings contribute to current understandings of EF and its relationship with functional outcomes in middle childhood.
... A very large number of studies have reported relations of cognitive test scores to miscellaneous life outcomes. For example, cognitive ability has been related to aspects of decision making (e.g., Demaree et al. 2010, Mata et al. 2007, Pachur et al. 2009, Peters et al. 2006, Shamosh & Gray 2008, to performance in simulations of complex systems (e.g., Ackerman & Cianciolo 2002, Gonzalez et al. 2005, Kroner et al. 2005, Wittmann & Hattrup 2004, and to specific outcomes such as the likelihood of staying on a job with a financial penalty for an early exit (e.g., Burks et al. 2009). (See Kuncel et al. 2010 for a review of much of the recent literature.) ...
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Adult age differences in a variety of cognitive abilities are well documented, and many of those abilities have been found to be related to success in the workplace and in everyday life. However, increased age is seldom associated with lower levels of real-world functioning, and the reasons for this lab-life discrepancy are not well understood. This article briefly reviews research concerned with relations of age to cognition, relations of cognition to successful functioning outside the laboratory, and relations of age to measures of work performance and achievement. The final section discusses several possible explanations for why there are often little or no consequences of age-related cognitive declines in everyday functioning.
Article
Background: The hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, the biological substrate of stress reactivity, and related genetic variations play a crucial role in the initiation and maintenance of drug addiction. On the behavioral level, substance abusers are characterized by impulsivity and the inability to pursue long-term goals. The neural substrate of these behaviors is assumed to be related to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC). One of the most established paradigms to assess VMPFC deficiency is the IOWA gambling task (IGT). Aims: The aim of this study was to investigate the interplay between the HPA axis-related genetic variation on corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH; secreted from the hypothalamus and constituting the starting point of the HPA axis) gene and opioid addiction, with respect to IGT performance. There is some evidence that stress and pathological HPA axis hyperactivity, in the same way as drug addiction, is related to a poorer IGT performance. Methods: In total, 138 long-term opioid addicts (mean age 38.63 years [SD 9.15]) and 160 healthy controls (mean age 22.57 years [SD 5.86]) performed the IGT and were genotyped for 6 SNPs covering the CRH gene and adjacent regions (rs3176921, rs6999780, rs7816410, rs1870393, rs1814583, and rs11996294). The first 5 of these 6 SNPs build a haplotype block spanning 15 kb on the CRH gene. Results: We found a significant group difference in the total IGT score, with higher scores in controls than in opioids. Most interestingly, there was a 3-way interaction, group × haplotype × block. Carriers homozygous for the TGTAA-haplotype differed in IGT performance dependent on group. In the control group, carriers homozygous for the TGTAA-haplotype showed a linear learning curve across blocks of trials, which was not observed in participants without this homozygosity. There were diametric effects in opioid addicts. Controlling for age and gender did not change the findings. Conclusion: This study provides genetic evidence for the interplay between stress, decision-making, and opioid addiction.
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Decision-making impairments have been highlighted in opioid-dependent individuals using the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT). The objective of this study was to assess decision-making under uncertainty in opioid-dependent subjects. The sample included 64 abstinent opioid-dependent individuals under treatment and 48 control subjects. Group equivalence was analyzed considering age, gender and educational variables. In both groups, most subjects showed borderline performance, followed by disadvantageous performance and advantageous performance. Both groups showed a preference for low punishment frequency decks (B and D). In both groups, education and gender do not account for IGT performance, and learning differences in the IGT could be in part attributable to cognitive functions as assessed by the MoCA. Opioid-dependent individuals and the control group showed no significant differences in performance. Key words : Decision-making, Iowa Gambling Task, opioid dependence, punishment frequency
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Studies that use the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) and its age-appropriate versions as indices of affective decision-making during childhood and adolescence have demonstrated significant individual differences in scores. Our study investigated the association between general intellectual functioning and socioeconomic status (SES) and its effect on the development of affective decision-making in preschoolers by using a computerized version of the Children's Gambling Task (CGT). We administered the CGT and the Columbia Mental Maturity Scale (CMMS) to 137 Brazilian children between the ages of 3 and 5 years old to assess their general intellectual functioning. We also used the Brazilian Criterion of Economic Classification (CCEB) to assess their SES. Age differences between 3- and 4-years-old, but not between 4- and 5-years-old, confirmed the results obtained by Kerr and Zelazo (2004), indicating the rapid development of affective decision-making during the preschool period. Both 4- and 5-years-old performed significantly above chance on blocks 3, 4, and 5 of the CGT, whereas 3-years-old mean scores did not differ from chance. We found that general intellectual functioning was not related to affective decision-making. On the other hand, our findings showed that children with high SES performed better on the last block of the CGT in comparison to children with low SES, which indicates that children from the former group seem more likely to use the information about the gain/loss aspects of the decks to efficiently choose cards from the advantageous deck throughout the task.
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This series of studies describes the development of a measure of emotional intelligence based on the model of emotional intelligence developed by Salovey and Mayer [Salovey, P. & Mayer, J. D. (1990). Emotional intelligence. Imagination, Cognition and Personality, 9, 185–211.]. A pool of 62 items represented the different dimensions of the model. A factor analysis of the responses of 346 participants suggested the creation of a 33-item scale. Additional studies showed the 33-item measure to have good internal consistency and testretest reliability. Validation studies showed that scores on the 33-item measure 1.(a) correlated with eight of nine theoretically related constructs, including alexithymia, attention to feelings, clarity of feelings, mood repair, optimism and impulse control;2.(b) predicted first-year college grades;3.(c) were significantly higher for therapists than for therapy clients or for prisoners;4.(d) were significantly higher for females than males, consistent with prior findings in studies of emotional skills;5.(e) were not related to cognitive ability and6.(f) were associated with the openness to experience trait of the big five personality dimensions.
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Emotional intelligence has become a fashionable topic in the popular press, and has been heralded as an effective predictor of successful performance. However, little empirical evidence has borne out these claims. The present study was conducted in order to determine the relationship of emotional intelligence, cognitive ability, and personality with academic achievement. Emotional intelligence was assessed using the EQ-i (total EQ-i score and five EQ-i composite factor scores). Both cognitive ability and personality (in terms of extraversion and self control) were significantly associated with academic achievement. None of the EQ-i factor scores, nor the total EQ-i score, was significantly related to academic achievement.
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This paper presents the outcome of a large-scale epidemiological study which shows that a test of general intelligence—The Australian Army General Classification test—is a good predictor of mid-life mortality. This conclusion was reached through a series of univariate and multivariate (i.e. multiple regression) analyses in which death rate was employed as the criterion and 57 psychological and demographic variables acted as predictors.
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Modern economic theory ignores the influence of emotions on decision-making. Emerging neuroscience evidence suggests that sound and rational decision making, in fact, depends on prior accurate emotional processing. The somatic marker hypothesis provides a systems-level neuroanatomical and cognitive framework for decision-making and its influence by emotion. The key idea of this hypothesis is that decision-making is a process that is influenced by marker signals that arise in bioregulatory processes, including those that express themselves in emotions and feelings. This influence can occur at multiple levels of operation, some of which occur consciously, and some of which occur non-consciously. Here we review studies that confirm various predictions from the hypothesis, and propose a neural model for economic decision, in which emotions are a major factor in the interaction between environmental conditions and human decision processes, with these emotional systems providing valuable implicit or explicit knowledge for making fast and advantageous decisions.
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All choices under uncertainty can be modeled as attempts to maximize expected utility. Yet many studies show that human choices do not maximize expected economic utility. Here we investigate one such behavior, known as “probability matching”, and demonstrate that it maximizes an ecologic utility that goes beyond economic utility. To start we present data from a psychological experiment on a game of chance discovery called “Iowa Gambling”. We then derive a mathematical model of game-playing behavior that optimizes ecologic utility, which includes informatic utility in learning and ergonomic utility in effort – as well as economic utility in earning. The model offers a good fit to the data, which supports our claim that human choices are made to optimize a combination of utilities that go beyond just economic utility. To close, we explore applications of probability matching to real-world situations of chance discovery such as web surfing and war fighting.
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It is a hallmark of a good model to make accurate a priori predictions to new conditions (Busemeyer & Wang, 2000). This study compared 8 decision learning models with respect to their generalizability. Participants performed 2 tasks (the Iowa Gambling Task and the Soochow Gambling Task), and each model made a priori predictions by estimating the parameters for each participant from 1 task and using those same parameters to predict on the other task. Three methods were used to evaluate the models at the individual level of analysis. The first method used a post hoc fit criterion, the second method used a generalization criterion for short-term predictions, and the third method again used a generalization criterion for long-term predictions. The results suggest that the models with the prospect utility function can make generalizable predictions to new conditions, and different learning models are needed for making short-versus long-term predictions on simple gambling tasks.
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Lower delay discounting (better self-control) is linked to higher intelligence, but the basis of this relation is uncertain. To investigate the potential role of working memory (WM) processes, we assessed delay discounting, intelligence (g), WM (span tasks, 3-back task), and WM-related neural activity (using functional magnetic resonance imaging) in 103 healthy adults. Delay discounting was negatively correlated with g and WM. WM explained no variance in delay discounting beyond that explained by g, which suggests that processes through which WM relates to delay discounting are shared by g. WM-related neural activity in left anterior prefrontal cortex (Brodmann's area 10) covaried with g, r= .26, and delay discounting, r=-.40, and partially mediated the relation between g and delay discounting. Overall, the results suggest that delay discounting is associated with intelligence in part because of processes instantiated in anterior prefrontal cortex, a region known to support the integration of diverse information.
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Following damage to the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, humans develop a defect in real-life decision-making, which contrasts with otherwise normal intellectual functions. Currently, there is no neuropsychological probe to detect in the laboratory, and the cognitive and neural mechanisms responsible for this defect have resisted explanation. Here, using a novel task which simulates real-life decision-making in the way it factors uncertainty of premises and outcomes, as well as reward and punishment, we find that prefrontal patients, unlike controls, are oblivious to the future consequences of their actions, and seem to be guided by immediate prospects only. This finding offers, for the first time, the possibility of detecting these patients' elusive impairment in the laboratory, measuring it, and investigating its possible causes.
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Following damage to specific sectors of the prefrontal cortex, humans develop a defect in real-life decision making, in spite of otherwise normal intellectual performance. The patients so affected may even realize the consequences of their actions but fail to act accordingly, thus appearing oblivious to the future. The neural basis of this defect has resisted explanation. Here we identify a physiological correlate for the defect and discuss its possible significance. We measured the skin conductance responses (SCRs) of 7 patients with prefrontal damage, and 12 normal controls, during the performance of a novel task, a card game that simulates real-life decision making in the way it factors uncertainty, rewards, and penalties. Both patients and controls generated SCRs after selecting cards that were followed by penalties or by reward. However, after a number of trials, controls also began to generate SCRs prior to their selection of a card, while they pondered from which deck to choose, but no patients showed such anticipatory SCRs. The absence of anticipatory SCRs in patients with prefrontal damage is a correlate of their insensitivity to future outcomes. It is compatible with the idea that these patients fail to activate biasing signals that would serve as value markers in the distinction between choices with good or bad future outcomes; that these signals also participate in the enhancement of attention and working memory relative to representations pertinent to the decision process; and that the signals hail from the bioregulatory machinery that sustains somatic homeostasis and can be expressed in emotion and feeling.
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Deciding advantageously in a complex situation is thought to require overt reasoning on declarative knowledge, namely, on facts pertaining to premises, options for action, and outcomes of actions that embody the pertinent previous experience. An alternative possibility was investigated: that overt reasoning is preceded by a nonconscious biasing step that uses neural systems other than those that support declarative knowledge. Normal participants and patients with prefrontal damage and decision-making defects performed a gambling task in which behavioral, psychophysiological, and self-account measures were obtained in parallel. Normals began to choose advantageously before they realized which strategy worked best, whereas prefrontal patients continued to choose disadvantageously even after they knew the correct strategy. Moreover, normals began to generate anticipatory skin conductance responses (SCRs) whenever they pondered a choice that turned out to be risky, before they knew explicitly that it was a risky choice, whereas patients never developed anticipatory SCRs, although some eventually realized which choices were risky. The results suggest that, in normal individuals, nonconscious biases guide behavior before conscious knowledge does. Without the help of such biases, overt knowledge may be insufficient to ensure advantageous behavior.
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The somatic marker hypothesis proposes that decision-making is a process that depends on emotion. Studies have shown that damage of the ventromedial prefrontal (VMF) cortex precludes the ability to use somatic (emotional) signals that are necessary for guiding decisions in the advantageous direction. However, given the role of the amygdala in emotional processing, we asked whether amygdala damage also would interfere with decision-making. Furthermore, we asked whether there might be a difference between the roles that the amygdala and VMF cortex play in decision-making. To address these two questions, we studied a group of patients with bilateral amygdala, but not VMF, damage and a group of patients with bilateral VMF, but not amygdala, damage. We used the "gambling task" to measure decision-making performance and electrodermal activity (skin conductance responses, SCR) as an index of somatic state activation. All patients, those with amygdala damage as well as those with VMF damage, were (1) impaired on the gambling task and (2) unable to develop anticipatory SCRs while they pondered risky choices. However, VMF patients were able to generate SCRs when they received a reward or a punishment (play money), whereas amygdala patients failed to do so. In a Pavlovian conditioning experiment the VMF patients acquired a conditioned SCR to visual stimuli paired with an aversive loud sound, whereas amygdala patients failed to do so. The results suggest that amygdala damage is associated with impairment in decision-making and that the roles played by the amygdala and VMF in decision-making are different.
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On a gambling task that models real-life decisions, patients with bilateral lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VM) opt for choices that yield high immediate gains in spite of higher future losses. In this study, we addressed three possibilities that may account for this behaviour: (i) hypersensitivity to reward; (ii) insensitivity to punishment; and (iii) insensitivity to future consequences, such that behaviour is always guided by immediate prospects. For this purpose, we designed a variant of the original gambling task in which the advantageous decks yielded high immediate punishment but even higher future reward. The disadvantageous decks yielded low immediate punishment but even lower future reward. We measured the skin conductance responses (SCRs) of subjects after they had received a reward or punishment. Patients with VM lesions opted for the disadvantageous decks in both the original and variant versions of the gambling task. The SCRs of VM lesion patients after they had received a reward or punishment were not significantly different from those of controls. In a second experiment, we investigated whether increasing the delayed punishment in the disadvantageous decks of the original task or decreasing the delayed reward in the disadvantageous decks of the variant task would shift the behaviour of VM lesion patients towards an advantageous strategy. Both manipulations failed to shift the behaviour of VM lesion patients away from the disadvantageous decks. These results suggest that patients with VM lesions are insensitive to future consequences, positive or negative, and are primarily guided by immediate prospects. This 'myopia for the future' in VM lesion patients persists in the face of severe adverse consequences, i.e. rising future punishment or declining future reward.
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The nascent field of neuroeconomics seeks to ground economic decisionmaking in the biological substrate of the brain. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of Ultimatum Game players to investigate neural substrates of cognitive and emotional processes involved in economic decision-making. In this game, two players split a sum of money;one player proposes a division and the other can accept or reject this. We scanned players as they responded to fair and unfair proposals. Unfair offers elicited activity in brain areas related to both emotion (anterior insula) and cognition (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex). Further, significantly heightened activity in anterior insula for rejected unfair offers suggests an important role for emotions in decision-making.
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How do the frontal lobes support behavioural flexibility? One key element is the ability to adjust responses when the reinforcement value of stimuli change. In monkeys, this ability--a form of affective shifting known as reversal learning--depends on orbitofrontal cortex. The present study examines the anatomical bases of reversal learning in humans. Subjects with lesions of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex were compared with a group with dorsolateral frontal lobe damage, as well as with normal controls on a simple reversal learning task. Neither form of frontal damage affected initial stimulus-reinforcement learning; ventromedial frontal damage selectively impaired reversal learning.
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Suitable normative information on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) is not currently available, though it is clear that there is great individual variability in performance on this assessment tool. Given that the task is presumed to measure the emotion-based learning systems that are thought to form the biological basis of 'intuition,' there is some reason to think that education (especially tertiary education) might explicitly de-emphasise the role of emotion-based learning in decision-making. This suggests the paradoxical finding that better-educated participants should show poorer performance on the IGT. We recruited 30 participants (all female, all aged 18-25) to participate in a 'real money' version of the IGT. There was no significant difference in performance in blocks 1-3 of the task (trials 1-60). However, there was a substantial effect of education on the final two blocks (trials 61-100), such that the less-well-educated participants produced twice as much of an improvement over baseline as did their university-educated colleagues. A range of possible explanations for this remarkable finding are discussed. The most likely appears to be that tertiary education specifically discourages the use of emotion-based learning systems in decision-making. These findings bear on the extent to which education has a role to play in our reliance on cognition and emotion in decision-making, including the likely role of education in the generation and maintenance of false beliefs.
Article
There is little evidence showing the relationship between the Scholastic Assessment Test (SAT) and g (general intelligence). This research established the relationship between SAT and g, as well as the appropriateness of the SAT as a measure of g, and examined the SAT as a premorbid measure of intelligence. In Study 1, we used the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth 1979. Measures of g were extracted from the Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery and correlated with SAT scores of 917 participants. The resulting correlation was.82 (.86 corrected for nonlinearity). Study 2 investigated the correlation between revised and recentered SAT scores and scores on the Raven's Advanced Progressive Matrices among 104 undergraduates. The resulting correlation was.483 (.72 corrected for restricted range). These studies indicate that the SAT is mainly a test of g. We provide equations for converting SAT scores to estimated IQs; such conversion could be useful for estimating premorbid IQ or conducting individual difference research with college students.
Article
Ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMF) damage can lead to impaired decision-making. This has been studied most intensively with the Iowa gambling task (IGT), a card game that asks subjects to overcome an initial attraction to high-payoff decks as losses begin to accrue. VMF subjects choose from the high risk decks more often than controls, but the fundamental impairments driving poor performance on this complex task have yet to be established. There is also conflicting evidence regarding the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLF) in this task. The present study examined whether poor performance on the IGT was specific for VMF damage and whether fundamental impairments in reversal learning contributed to IGT performance. We found that both VMF and DLF damage leads to impaired IGT performance. The impairment of VMF subjects, but not of DLF subjects, seems to be largely explained by an underlying reversal learning deficit.
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Chronic marijuana use has been associated with impairments of learning, memory, and executive functions. Little is known, however, about the effects of marijuana use on other cognitive domains, such as decision-making, which are thought to play an important role in addiction and drug abuse. The purpose of the present study was to determine if long-term heavy marijuana users employ different decision-making strategies than individuals with minimal marijuana exposure. Volunteers were assigned to a cannabis (n = 10) or control group (n = 10) based upon history of prior marijuana use. Demographic and neuropsychological variables were evaluated, and a decision-making task--the gambling task (GT) was administered. Although few demographic and neuropsychological differences were noted between groups, marijuana users made more decisions that led to larger immediate gains despite more costly losses than controls. These data suggest that long-term heavy marijuana users may have specific deficits in the ability to balance rewards and punishments that may contribute to continued drug-taking behavior. It is unknown, however, whether the basis for such deficits might be attributed directly to marijuana exposure or pre-existing genetic or behavioral differences.
Article
The prefrontal region of the brain, including the ventromedial sector which supports reasoning and decision-making, may undergo disproportionate aging in some older persons, but the empirical evidence is decidedly mixed. To help resolve this, we tested 80 neurologically and psychiatrically healthy Younger (aged 26-55) and Older (aged 56-85) adults on a "Gambling Task", which provides a close analog to real-world decision-making by factoring in reward, punishment, and unpredictability, yielding a sensitive index of ventromedial prefrontal function. A subset of the Older group manifested a decision-making impairment on the Gambling Task, in spite of otherwise intact cognitive functioning. This finding raises the possibility of disproportionate aging of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex in these individuals. Our finding has important societal and public policy implications (e.g., choosing medical care, allocating personal wealth), and may also help explain why many older individuals are targeted by and susceptible to fraudulent advertising.
Article
The somatic marker hypothesis (SMH; [Damasio, A. R., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., 1991. Somatic markers and the guidance of behaviour: theory and preliminary testing. In Levin, H.S., Eisenberg, H.M., Benton, A.L. (Eds.), Frontal Lobe Function and Dysfunction. Oxford University Press, New York, pp. 217-229]) proposes that emotion-based biasing signals arising from the body are integrated in higher brain regions, in particular the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC), to regulate decision-making in situations of complexity. Evidence for the SMH is largely based on performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT; [Bechara, A., Tranel, D., Damasio, H., Damasio, A.R., 1996. Failure to respond autonomically to anticipated future outcomes following damage to prefrontal cortex. Cerebral Cortex 6 (2), 215-225]), linking anticipatory skin conductance responses (SCRs) to successful performance on a decision-making paradigm in healthy participants. These 'marker' signals were absent in patients with VMPFC lesions and were associated with poorer IGT performance. The current article reviews the IGT findings, arguing that their interpretation is undermined by the cognitive penetrability of the reward/punishment schedule, ambiguity surrounding interpretation of the psychophysiological data, and a shortage of causal evidence linking peripheral feedback to IGT performance. Further, there are other well-specified and parsimonious explanations that can equally well account for the IGT data. Next, lesion, neuroimaging, and psychopharmacology data evaluating the proposed neural substrate underpinning the SMH are reviewed. Finally, conceptual reservations about the novelty, parsimony and specification of the SMH are raised. It is concluded that while presenting an elegant theory of how emotion influences decision-making, the SMH requires additional empirical support to remain tenable.
Article
Findings from a complex decision-making task (the Iowa gambling task) show that individuals with neuropsychological disorders are characterized by decision-making deficits that lead to maladaptive risk-taking behavior. This article describes a cognitive model that distills performance in this task into three different underlying psychological components: the relative impact of rewards and punishments on evaluations of options, the rate that the contingent payoffs are learned, and the consistency between learning and responding. Findings from 10 studies are organized by distilling the observed decision deficits into the three basic components and locating the neuropsychological disorders in this component space. The results reveal a cluster of populations characterized by making risky choices despite high attention to losses, perhaps because of difficulties in creating emotive representations. These findings demonstrate the potential contribution of cognitive models in building bridges between neuroscience and behavior.
Article
Persistent chaotic feeding behavior (i.e., bingeing and purging), despite consequent adverse health and psychosocial consequences, is central to the definition and diagnosis of bulimia nervosa (BN). Repeatedly choosing immediate short-term gratification when long-term consequences are deleterious may reflect deficits in decision-making ability. However, to date, there has been no systematic examination of decision-making ability in individuals diagnosed with BN. In the present study, 20 undergraduate women with minimal bulimic symptoms (Control Group) and 20 with a diagnosis of BN (BN Group) were administered the Iowa Gambling Task (GT). Results indicated that the BN Group performed significantly worse on the GT in comparison to the Control Group and GT performance was negatively correlated with bulimic symptomatology. The presence of BN symptoms also predicted GT performance above and beyond demographic variables and depressive symptoms. These findings provide evidence for the presence of decision-making deficits in individuals with BN.
Article
We reviewed previous studies comparing schizophrenia patients and healthy subjects for performance on the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) (a laboratory task designed to measure emotion-based decision-making), and found mixed results. We hypothesize that deficits in IGT performance in schizophrenia may be more specifically related to concurrent substance use disorders. To test this hypothesis, we compared schizophrenia patients with (SCZ((+))) or without (SCZ((-))) cannabis use disorders, to healthy subjects, on measures of cognition and IGT performance. A comprehensive battery of cognitive tests and the IGT were administered to three groups of subjects: (1) 13 subjects with DSM-IV diagnosis of schizophrenia and no concurrent substance use disorders (mean age: 28+/-12 (SD); 54% males); (2) 14 subjects with schizophrenia and concurrent cannabis use disorders (mean age: 29+/-9 (SD); 71% males); and (3) 20 healthy subjects (mean age 33+/-10 (SD); 60% males). Compared to the healthy group, both schizophrenia groups were cognitively more impaired, and did worse on IGT performance. There were no differences between SCZ((+)) and SCZ((-)) patients on most of the cognitive tests, and IGT performance. Schizophrenia patients show widespread impairments in several cognitive domains and emotion-based decision-making. These results are consistent with the evidence that schizophrenia reflects a dorsolateral and orbitofrontal/ventromedial prefrontal cortex dysfunction. More intriguing, it appears that the concurrent abuse of cannabis has no compounding effects on cognition, as well as emotion/affect-based decision-making.
Perceived time pressure and the Iowa Gambling Task The ability to decide advantageously declines prematurely in some normal older persons. Neur-opsychologia
  • M A Dedonno
  • H A Demaree
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