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Physical and chemical characterization of Dead Sea mud

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... The previous studies that investigated the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics of peloids have been published in various of countries like Spain Carretero et al. 2014;Sanchez-Espejo et al. 2014), Italy (Cara et al. 2000;Sanchez-Espejo et al. 2014), Portugal (Quintela et al. 2015), Romania (Calin et al. 2020;Hoteteu et al. 2018), Hungary (Gerencser et al. 2010), Slovenia (Sečovlje Salina Piran Bay) (Glavas et al. 2017), Croatia (Mihelcic et al. 2012), Greece (Kamitsou et al. 2018), Tunisia (Khiari et al. 2014;Sanchez-Espejo et al. 2014), South Africa (Ncube et al. 2020), Brazil (da Silva et al. 2015, Argentina (Baschini et al. 2010), Cuba (Martínez-Villegas et al. 2020) and Mongolia (Tserenpil et al. 2010), and Dead Sea (Khlaifat et al. 2010;Kamitsou et al. 2018;Kotova et al. 2016) and Crimean salt lakes (Kotova et al. 2016). Even though there have been a few earlier reports (Karagülle et al. 1997a, b), the knowledge about the physical, chemical, and mineralogical properties of natural peloids in Turkey is still limited (Karakaya et al. 2010;Celik Karakaya et al. 2017;Celik Karakaya and Karakaya 2018). ...
... Therefore, Gölemezli green peloid may have bactericidal effects, and may be used in dermatologic diseases (i.e., acne). Interestingly, Gökçeada peloid (a salt lagoon slime) was black like the other salt lagoon/lake slimes, Dead Sea mud (Khlaifat et al. 2010), and Techirghiol Lake peloid (Calin et al. 2020). The color is black in lagoon/lake slimes because of ferrous sulfide formed by the reduction of ferric hydroxide by hydrogen sulfide (a product of sulfate-reducing bacteria) (Carretero 2020b;Kotova et al. 2016). ...
... The other minerals (i.e., chloride-serpentine, sphalerite, pyrite, magnesium calcite, cristobalite) were found in one of five peloids. This finding is in line with the studies from Spain Carretero et al. 2014;Sanchez-Espejo et al. 2014), Italy (Cara et al. 2000;Sanchez-Espejo et al. 2014), Portugal (Quintela et al. 2015), Slovenia (Glavas et al. 2017), Croatia (Mihelcic et al. 2012), Greece (Kamitsou et al. 2018), Tunisia (Sanchez-Espejo et al. 2014, South Africa (Ncube et al. 2020), Brazil (da Silva et al. 2015, Argentina (Baschini et al. 2010), Dead Sea (Khlaifat et al. 2010;Kotova et al. 2016;Kamitsou et al. 2018), and Crimean salt lakes (Kotova et al. 2016), which found that the solid phase of investigated peloid included both clay and non-clay minerals. In addition, a recent review evaluating the mineral and physical and chemical properties of peloids concluded that peloids are formed mainly by clay minerals (e.g., montmorillonite, kaolinite) and quartz, calcite, feldspars (e.g., albite), and dolomite (Carretero 2020a). ...
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To investigate the physical, chemical, and mineralogical characteristics of peloids, which are being used traditionally and historically across Turkey, and evaluate their suitability and potential for use in peloidotherapy. Five peloid samples were gathered from their places of origin, namely Gölemezli, Dalyan, Köprüköy, Gökçeada, and Dikili. Mineral analysis and physical and chemical analyses including electrical conductivity , density, cations, anions, trace elements, organic matters, and water retention capacity at 105°C were performed. The peloids contained a combination of clay minerals (mainly montmorillonite, kaolinite, and muscovite) and non-clay minerals (mainly quartz, cal-cite, dolomite, and albite) except for Gölemezli peloid, which was dominated by calcite. The other minerals (i.e., chloride-serpentine, sphalerite, pyrite, magnesium calcite, cristobalite) were also found in some peloids. Gölemezli, Dalyan, and Köprüköy peloids had high total organic matters, mainly humic substances. The water retention capacity was high in Dalyan, Köprüköy, and Dikili peloids. All peloids had a pH value slightly greater than 7 (range 7.93-8.69). Dalyan, Köprüköy, and Dikili peloids had a high water retention capacity. Dalyan and Gökçeada peloids had a high electrical conductivity, 22.040 and 9.020 μS/cm, respectively. The density of peloids was ranged between 1.240 (Gölemezli) and 1.450 (Gökçeada) g/cm 3. Total miner-alization of investigated peloids was greater than 1000 mg/L: Köprüköy, 2754.8 mg/L; Gölemezli, 3092.8 mg/L; Dikili, 4044.6 mg/L; Gökçeada, 6576.6 mg/L; and Dalyan, 11782.9 mg/L, mainly sodium , magnesium, calcium, chloride, sulfate, bicarbonate, and metasilicic acid. The levels of trace elements were low (≤ 2.0 mg/L) in all peloids. The peloids contained various amounts of clay minerals (mainly montmoril-lonite, kaolinite, and muscovite), non-clay minerals (mainly quartz, calcite, dolomite, and albite), organic matters (mainly humic acid), cations (mainly sodium, magnesium, and calcium), anions (mainly chloride, sul-fate, and bicarbonate), and insoluble compounds (main-ly metasilicic acid). The physical, chemical, and miner-alogical properties of peloids suggest their suitability and potential for use in peloidotherapeutic applications.
... It is well known for its therapeutic properties for skin diseases, as it contains a unique composition of minerals. Khlaifat et al., 2010 focused on studying the chemical and physical properties of DS mud samples collected from three different locations (north, middle, and south collection points). The results indicated that the chemical analysis of mud samples has revealed high CaO concentrations (20.61 -27.86 wt.%), high CO2 concentrations (15.47 -25.01 wt.%) and high SiO2 concentrations (23.74 -33.66 wt.%) while the total soluble salts (T.S.S), chlorides and sulfates were 10.19, 4.48 and 0.056 wt.% respectively. ...
... Regarding physical properties, it was found that in individual grain size characteristic, most the samples are classified as fine grained, the liquid limit values range from 7 to 23, plasticity index range from 5 to 18, and the specific gravity ranges from 2.257 to 2.386. The variation in DS mud samples prosperities depends on the collection locations and this due to the different processes taking place at the different location [16]. Physical properties of DS mud were also studied by Arab and Alshikh, 2012 who found that the liquid limit value was about 44, plasticity index was about 15 and Plastic limit value was about 29 [17]. ...
... It was concluded that there is risk regarding mineral toxicity from DS mud or DS mud-based products [34]. Similarly, Khlaifat et al., 2010, determined physical and chemical properties of 24 different DS mud samples collected from three different locations on the eastern seaside of the DS. Their results showed that the mud samples were rich in some elements (Barium, Vanadium, Strontium, lead, cadmium and zinc), although there were significant differences between mud samples collected from different locations, there was no strong correlation between the location and the elements content. ...
Article
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The Dead Sea has been known for its therapeutic and cosmetic properties. The unique climatic conditions in the Dead Sea area make it a renowned site worldwide for the field of climatotherapy, which is a natural approach for the provision of medications for many human diseases including unusual exclusive salt composition of the water, a special natural mud, thermal mineral springs, solar irradiation, oxygen-rich and bromine-rich haze. This review focuses on the physical, chemical, and biological characteristics of the Dead Sea mud and salts, in addition to their contaminants, allowing this review to serve as a guide to interested researchers to their risks and the importance of treatment. Beneficial effects of Dead Sea mud and salts are discussed in terms of therapy and cosmetics. Additional benefits of both Dead Sea mud and salts are also discussed, such as antimicrobial action of the mud in relation to its therapeutic properties, and the potency of mud and salts to be a good medium for the growth of a halophilic unicellular algae, used for the commercial production of β-carotene; Dunaliella.
... Concluding the discussion note that carbonate soils of the western DS area are typical also (with some reserves) for its eastern (Jordanian) shores where both coarse sandy gravel sediments (Taqieddin et al. 2000) and mud flats composed of lime carbonates (Khlaifata et al. 2010) are met. This feature allows considering of saturated lime carbonate as cohesionless soil like very fine sands. ...
... Lime carbonates demonstrate one more peculiarity, e.g. very low cation exchange capacity (CEC) (Khlaifata et al. 2010) that allows use of TEM resistivity method for determining of porosity of both sands and DS mud as suggested by Kafri and Goldman (2005) Table 3 in the Section 3.2.4). Sandy-gravel sediments, for comparison, are characterized by heighten Vs values of 300 -650 m/s, that apparently could be caused by increased the soil stiffness reported by Mahasneh (2004). ...
... On the other hand our tests have shown that unsaturated (or naturally moist) lime carbonates have a low friction angle of ~2 o and cohesion of 18 kPa caused by apparent cohesion or suction effect (Terzaghi et al., 1996). After Khlaifata et al. (2010) lime carbonates demonstrate also very low cation exchange capacity (CEC) that allows use of TEM resistivity method for determining of porosity of both sands and DS mud as suggested by Kafri and Goldman (2005) . Note also that significant difference of Vs in sands and lime carbonates allows mapping of different lithology along DS coastal areas. ...
... In the past years, several studies have been carried out in order to determine the basic physico-chemical characteristics of geological materials with potential therapeutic and/or cosmetic applications and geological materials already used in various spa centres around the world [5][6][7][8][9][10][11][12][13][14] . Most studies point out that the main factors determining the final characteristics of peloids are the chemical composition, mineralogy, cation exchange capacity (CEC), and grain size distribution of the initial geological material. ...
... Khlaifat et al. 9 reported the bulk composition of N Dead Sea mud is mainly represented by total carbonates (40.21%), quartz (18.01%), and kaolinite (12.64%). Mud samples also contain clay (8.76%), dolomite (5.05%), gypsum (3.85%), pyrite (8.93%), and total feldspar (2.55%). ...
... The Bulk mineralogy of Lo Pagán Lagoon sediment is dominated by phyllosilicates (41 wt. %) and calcite (40 wt.%), followed by quartz (9 wt.%), 9 45.75 The mud of ‗Cappetta' 5 n.a. ...
Article
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Makirina Bay peloid mud was analysed in the interest of determining its physico-chemical and geochemical characteristics in order to assess the suitability of peloid mud use for cosmetic and/or therapeutic purposes as material for mud wraps or baths. The properties of Makirina Bay peloid mud were compared with various raw geological materials (Dead Sea mud, the mud of ‘Capetta’, Lo Pagán lagoon sediments, and peloid mud from Morinje Bay) already applied or with potential to be used in various spa centres. Makirina Bay peloid mud is represented mostly by sandy silt and has a relatively high Corg content (5%) and cation exchange capacity (CEC) value (63.82 meq/100g). The mineral composition of peloid mud is dominated by dolomite and quartz, followed by illite/muscovite, aragonite, halite, calcite, and pyrite. The calculated contamination factor (CF) and index of geoaccumulation (Igeo) values for the majority of heavy metals showed that the peloid mud had a low contamination status. The highest CF and Igeo values were for lead, at 2.2 and 0.5 respectively, but the pollution load index value was < 1, indicating that no heavy metal contamination of the peloid mud exists. Geochemical analyses have shown the adequate comparability of Makirina Bay peloid mud with raw materials already successfully used in purposes related to wellness and therapy. © 2015, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.
... Figures 10 and 11 show the variety of evaporite formations, structures, and mineral both on the former lakebed and in shallow waters of the Dead Sea. Many minerals hav been discovered, such as halite, calcite, aragonite, and gypsum, mostly in aggregation with clay minerals [64], as surface cover, and as individual layers of up to 2 m thicknes visible in sinkhole or canyon walls [29]. Evaporite minerals and salt formations. ...
... Figures 10 and 11 show the variety of evaporite formations, structures, and minerals both on the former lakebed and in shallow waters of the Dead Sea. Many minerals have been discovered, such as halite, calcite, aragonite, and gypsum, mostly in aggregations with clay minerals [64], as surface cover, and as individual layers of up to 2 m thickness visible in sinkhole or canyon walls [29]. tion made it difficult for international researchers to start new projects. ...
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This paper aims to identify and discuss the chances, solutions, and possible drawbacks related to the establishment of safe geotourism sites in subsidence-affected areas, exemplarily applied to the Ghor Al-Haditha sinkhole site at the southeastern shore of the Dead Sea. Such safe areas shall be established in the territory of the proposed future UNESCO Global Geopark (UGGp) in Jordan. The highlights of the geopark and the basis of its creation are the subsidence features and stream channels found along the SE shoreline of the Dead Sea, which form both a natural hazard and geological heritage of high international significance and have attracted many researchers so far. This recent and ongoing formation is related to the sharp regression of the lake, the specific geomechanical conditions, and the hydrogeologic and climatic background of the surroundings. Nearby communities have suffered in economic terms from these natural phenomena, including flash floods and droughts in this semi-arid to arid region. We here present a concept on how to integrate geoscientific research for hazard monitoring and early warning to maintain safety for inhabitants and visitors on the one hand and reach sustainable economic development through the establishment of geotourism sites on the other hand. This highlight area of the proposed UGGp serves as a starting example for delineating safe zones for walkways and infrastructure. This involves two-way knowledge transfer between spatial planning and hydrogeophysical monitoring, a network of community-supported geophysical surveillance, and regular maintenance and adaptation. The cross-cutting benefits for the territory involve the delineation of safe areas for agriculture and geotourism, the increase of sustainable tourism in the region with a shift towards alternative ways of income, more investment in infrastructure, a growth of international visibility of the region, enhanced environmental education with focus on responsible water usage, and involvement in international research and education projects.
... About 99% of kaolin is a mixture of aluminosilicates, mainly kaolinite and illite, with a small amount of feldspar and quartz [27][28][29]. Kaolin clay is used in cosmetology because of its beneficial effect on dry and sensitive skin, as this type of skin tends to delaminate and form wrinkles and furrows. In the cosmetics industry, kaolin is added to powders, creams, soaps, dusting powders, cleansing milk, toothpaste, and shampoos [30]. ...
... Kaolin is widespread. For example, it is present in the composition of cosmetically used mud from the Dead Sea [29,30]. It has cleansing, remineralizing, stimulating blood circulation, anti-aging properties, and influence on the oxygen exchange [30]. ...
Article
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The average woman uses 12 different cosmetic products every day, but they can have a negative effect on human health. Therefore, in recent years, consumer preferences have changed towards buying natural or ecological cosmetics free from preservatives or unnecessary dyes. The aim of this work is to discuss the use of dyes, minerals, and vitamins in cosmetics in terms of their safety and impact on human health. These substances are very important in the cosmetics industry. Most of them are of natural origin. Some minerals used in the production of face masks or creams are recommended to work against inflammations such as ulcers and acne. Clay minerals have exceptional qualities, among others, low or no toxicity and high bio-compatibility. However, some of them may be harmful. For example, the safety of using talc has been widely debated in recent years. Cosmetic-grade talc cannot contain detectable fibrous asbestos minerals. Moreover, talc should not be applied to the skin when the epidermal barrier is missing or significantly disrupted. The use of talc in cosmetic products in the European Union is restricted. Vitamins are one of the most commonly used, biologically active, and easily accessible components in cosmetics. For example, provitamin B5 (D-panthenol) is a bioactive substance. In cosmetic preparations, it has a softening, repairing, and anti-inflammatory effect and is responsible for regulating sebum secretion. However, some vitamins may be harmful to human health. For example, the use of skin-whitening cosmetics containing vitamin C causes allergic contact dermatitis, whereas the most common adverse effect of topical use of vitamin A is skin irritation, erythema, and peeling. Dyes, which are used to color cosmetics, do not improve the condition of the skin, hair, or nails. Some of them may be harmful to human health. For example, the dye CI 60730 (Acid Violet 43) is prohibited for use in eye products and cosmetics that have contact with mucous membranes. In conclusion, some of the popular cosmetic ingredients discussed in this paper may exert a negative influence on human health, and many of these harmful effects have been discovered recently. Therefore, there is a need for further studies on the possible negative effects of dyes, minerals, and vitamins used in cosmetic products.
... Sawarieh et al. (2000) described several fine-material outcrop sequences in sinkholes at the Ghor Al-Haditha site as marl and clay, both of a greenish-grey colour. This is similar to the composition of Dead Sea mud sampled at the eastern shoreline by Khlaifat et al. (2010), which typically consists of > 40 % fine carbonates (aragonite, calcite, CO 2 ), up to 20 % clay, 20 % quartz, and, additionally, halite, water, and further minerals in fractions. The absence of another source for such fine-material layers forces the assumption that the majority of silty-clayey fine-material layers included in the alluvial fan are Dead Sea mud, probably in different mineral compositions depending on the environmental conditions during sedimentation. ...
... Such a process was previously proposed by Arkin and Gilat (2000) for the Dead Sea sinkholes, although the relatively low clay content of up to 20 % detected in the fine-material sediments around the Dead Sea (e.g. Khlaifat et al., 2010) indicates that such a process accounts for only a minor portion of the subrosion process. ...
Article
Full-text available
Near-surface geophysical imaging of alluvial fan settings is a challenging task but crucial for understating geological processes in such settings. The alluvial fan of Ghor Al-Haditha at the southeast shore of the Dead Sea is strongly affected by localized subsidence and destructive sinkhole collapses, with a significantly increasing sinkhole formation rate since ca. 1983. A similar increase is observed also on the western shore of the Dead Sea, in correlation with an ongoing decline in the Dead Sea level. Since different structural models of the upper 50 m of the alluvial fan and varying hypothetical sinkhole processes have been suggested for the Ghor Al-Haditha area in the past, this study aimed to clarify the subsurface characteristics responsible for sinkhole development. For this purpose, high-frequency shear wave reflection vibratory seismic surveys were carried out in the Ghor Al-Haditha area along several crossing and parallel profiles with a total length of 1.8 and 2.1 km in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The sedimentary architecture of the alluvial fan at Ghor Al-Haditha is resolved down to a depth of nearly 200 m at a high resolution and is calibrated with the stratigraphic profiles of two boreholes located inside the survey area. The most surprising result of the survey is the absence of evidence of a thick (> 2–10 m) compacted salt layer formerly suggested to lie at ca. 35–40 m depth. Instead, seismic reflection amplitudes and velocities image with good continuity a complex interlocking of alluvial fan deposits and lacustrine sediments of the Dead Sea between 0 and 200 m depth. Furthermore, the underground section of areas affected by sinkholes is characterized by highly scattering wave fields and reduced seismic interval velocities. We propose that the Dead Sea mud layers, which comprise distributed inclusions or lenses of evaporitic chloride, sulfate, and carbonate minerals as well as clay silicates, become increasingly exposed to unsaturated water as the sea level declines and are consequently destabilized and mobilized by both dissolution and physical erosion in the subsurface. This new interpretation of the underlying cause of sinkhole development is supported by surface observations in nearby channel systems. Overall, this study shows that shear wave seismic reflection technique is a promising method for enhanced near-surface imaging in such challenging alluvial fan settings.
... In such cases, the mud is preheated to 50 o C and then applied to the affected area while the patient is covered with a woolen blanket protected by a fi lm of plastic (7). The Dead Sea mud is believed to be a rich source of various minerals and salts (8). The physical and chemical characteristics of 24 Dead Sea mud samples collected from different locations on the eastern shore of Dead Sea has shown that mud sample's composition varied because of different phenomena taking place at different sampling points (8). ...
... The Dead Sea mud is believed to be a rich source of various minerals and salts (8). The physical and chemical characteristics of 24 Dead Sea mud samples collected from different locations on the eastern shore of Dead Sea has shown that mud sample's composition varied because of different phenomena taking place at different sampling points (8). Although the effects of Dead Sea salts on various skin biochemical processes were previously investigated, there are no reports, to date, that assessed, quantitatively, the effect of different levels of minerals and salts on skin microcirculation and temperature as surrogate indices of irritation. ...
Article
The aim of the study was to investigate skin microcirculation, flux, and temperature changes induced by the application of Dead Sea mud (DSM) formulas with different mud salts and mineral contents using laser Doppler flowmetry. Instrumental analysis of eight over-the-shelf DSM products and four different samples of nonformulated Dead Sea mud were carried out to determine their contents of various salts and elements, including K, Na, Cl, Mg, Mn, Ca, SO3, SiO2, Al, Br, Fe, Hg, Cr, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Cd, Pb, and Sr. Three DSM samples with different levels of salts were then used to study the influence of salt content on skin irritation potential using laser Doppler flowmetry. Fifteen healthy nonsmoking females aged 18-45 years participated in the study. Subjects were randomly assigned to either "Salted" mud group (n = 5), "As is" mud group (n = 5), or "Over-the-Shelf" mud group (n = 5). Five circular areas were marked on the ventral aspect of each forearm. One forearm was assigned randomly for mud treatment and the other forearm was untreated. Ten milliliters of mud was applied on the assigned forearm and left for 30 minutes. Two reading protocols were designed and used to study the effects of tested type of mud on skin blood flux and temperature during mud application (protocol 2) as well as before and after mud removal (protocol 1). All types of tested mud were not associated with a significant measurable elevation in skin temperature and skin blood flow. All types of Dead Sea mud did not cause detectable microcirculatory and skin temperature changes regardless of their different mineral and salts contents.
... Sawarieh et al. (2000) described several fine-material outcrop sequences in sinkholes at the Ghor Al-Haditha site as marl and clay, both of a greenish-grey colour. This is similar to the composition of Dead Sea mud sampled at the eastern shoreline by Khlaifat et al. (2010), which typically consists of > 40 % fine carbonates (aragonite, calcite, CO 2 ), up to 20 % clay, 20 % quartz, and, additionally, halite, water, and further minerals in fractions. The absence of another source for such fine-material layers forces the assumption that the majority of silty-clayey fine-material layers included in the alluvial fan are Dead Sea mud, probably in different mineral compositions depending on the environmental conditions during sedimentation. ...
... Such a process was previously proposed by Arkin and Gilat (2000) for the Dead Sea sinkholes, although the relatively low clay content of up to 20 % detected in the fine-material sediments around the Dead Sea (e.g. Khlaifat et al., 2010) indicates that such a process accounts for only a minor portion of the subrosion process. ...
Article
Full-text available
Near-surface geophysical imaging of alluvial fan settings is a challenging task but crucial for understating geological processes in such settings. The alluvial fan of Ghor Al-Haditha at the southeast shore of the Dead Sea is strongly affected by localized subsidence and destructive sinkhole collapses, with a significantly increasing sinkhole formation rate since ca. 1983. A similar increase is observed also on the western shore of the Dead Sea, in correlation with an ongoing decline in the Dead Sea level. Since different structural models of the upper 50m of the alluvial fan and varying hypothetical sinkhole processes have been suggested for the Ghor Al-Haditha area in the past, this study aimed to clarify the subsurface characteristics responsible for sinkhole development. For this purpose, high-frequency shear wave reflection vibratory seismic surveys were carried out in the Ghor Al-Haditha area along several crossing and parallel profiles with a total length of 1.8 and 2.1km in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The sedimentary architecture of the alluvial fan at Ghor Al-Haditha is resolved down to a depth of nearly 200m at a high resolution and is calibrated with the stratigraphic profiles of two boreholes located inside the survey area. The most surprising result of the survey is the absence of evidence of a thick (>2–10m) compacted salt layer formerly suggested to lie at ca. 35–40m depth. Instead, seismic reflection amplitudes and velocities image with good continuity a complex interlocking of alluvial fan deposits and lacustrine sediments of the Dead Sea between 0 and 200m depth. Furthermore, the underground section of areas affected by sinkholes is characterized by highly scattering wave fields and reduced seismic interval velocities. We propose that the Dead Sea mud layers, which comprise distributed inclusions or lenses of evaporitic chloride, sulfate, and carbonate minerals as well as clay silicates, become increasingly exposed to unsaturated water as the sea level declines and are consequently destabilized and mobilized by both dissolution and physical erosion in the subsurface. This new interpretation of the underlying cause of sinkhole development is supported by surface observations in nearby channel systems. Overall, this study shows that shear wave seismic reflection technique is a promising method for enhanced near-surface imaging in such challenging alluvial fan settings.
... The concentration and toxicity of heavy metals in the Dead Sea black mud, except Pb, were found less than their contents in other types of mud irrespective of the variation during the raining seasons [3]. Another study of physical and chemical properties of Dead Sea mud and fine mud particles, collected from the eastern shore showed the mineralogical compositions to be carbonate, quartz and kaolinite, with small amounts of dolomite, gypsum, pyrite, and feldspar [4]. The collected samples were found rich with Strontium (Sr, 410-810 ppm), Barium (Ba, 155-380 ppm), Vanadium (V, 209-264 ppm), and Lead (Pb, 108-114 ppm). ...
... The collected samples were found rich with Strontium (Sr, 410-810 ppm), Barium (Ba, 155-380 ppm), Vanadium (V, 209-264 ppm), and Lead (Pb, 108-114 ppm). They found no correlation between the heavy metal contents and the sampling locations, other properties such as electrical conductivity, cation exchange capacity, pH and others were also investigated [4]. The safety of Dead Sea black mud and mud-derived cosmetic products was proved using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry [5]. ...
Article
Mud and salt samples from six different locations have been collected from the eastern shore of the Dead Sea, Jordan. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WDXRF) showed twenty-five elements in the mud and salt samples. Shape and grain size of the studied samples were characterized by Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM). Quantitative phase analysis (QPA) based on X-ray diffraction (XRD) of mud samples revealed that five minerals are dominant namely Quartz, Kaolinite, Calcite, Topaz and Dolomite while the salt samples are mainly composed of Halite. The radiation hazard parameters and the activity concentrations of ²²⁶Ra, ²³²Th, ²²⁸Ra, ⁴⁰K and ¹³⁷Cs have been quantified by γ-ray spectrometry. Noticeable differences were recognized from location to another but all of the obtained values were within the world activity concentration range.
... Carbonate soils of the western DS area are typical also (with some reserves) for its eastern (Jordanian) shores where both coarse sandy grave sediments (Taqieddin et al. 2000) and mud flats composed of lime carbonates (Khlaifata et al. 2010) are met. Sandy-gravel sediments are characterized by heighten Vs values of 300 -650 m/s. ...
... Lime carbonates demonstrate one more peculiarity, e.g. very low cation exchange capacity (CEC) (Khlaifata et al. 2010) that allows use of TEM resistivity method for determining of porosity of both sands and DS mud as suggested by Kafri and Goldman (2005). Note also that significant difference of Vs shows mapping of different lithology along DS coastal areas. ...
Article
Full-text available
Geotechnical and geophysical properties of Dead Sea (DS) sediments are of a great importance in the DS sinkhole problem. DS sinkholes are formed on the alluvial fans and mud flats. The first are composed of sandy-gravel sediments. Second ones are brine saturated lime carbonates. We reveal following features of the DS soil properties. Sandy-gravel sediments are presented by coarse sands, which are characterized by Vs = 300 – 650 m/s. Such increased shear wave values can be caused by increased the soil stiffness described in the literature. Brine saturated lime carbonates (DS mud) are characterized by low Vs values of 120 – 250 m/s. They do not exhibit cohesion. It is explained by mineralogical composition of the Dead Sea material, composed predominantly of calcite and not clay minerals, whereas other Israeli clays are comprised largely of montmorillonite (spectite) clay minerals. This feature allows considering of saturated lime carbonate as cohesionless soil like fine sands. Lime carbonates demonstrate also very low cation exchange capacity (CEC) that allows use of TEM resistivity method for determining of porosity of both sands and DS mud. Note also that significant difference of Vs in sands and lime carbonates allows mapping of different lithology along DS coastal areas.
... The lithological units simulated in the model are (1) alluvial fan sediments ("alluvium"), which comprise sand and gravels and which form a superficial aquifer, and (2) lacustrine sediments ("mud"), which comprise interbedded evaporites (such as gypsum, aragonite, calcite, and halite) and carbonates in clay to silt size (Khlaifat et al., 2010) and which are considered an aquiclude Siebert et al., 2014;Strey, 2014;Sachse, 2015). Geologically, these lithological units represent, respectively, the terrestrial and lacustrine facies of the Pleistocene Lisan and/or Holocene Ze'elim formations. ...
Article
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Karst groundwater systems are characterized by the presence of multiple porosity types. Of these, subsurface conduits that facilitate concentrated, heterogeneous flow are challenging to resolve geologically and geophysically. This is especially the case in evaporite karst systems, such as those present on the shores of the Dead Sea, where rapid geomorphological changes are linked to a fall in base level by over 35 m since 1967. Here we combine field observations, remote-sensing analysis, and multiple geophysical surveying methods (shear wave reflection seismics, electrical resistivity tomography, ERT, self-potential, SP, and ground-penetrating radar, GPR) to investigate the nature of subsurface groundwater flow and its interaction with hypersaline Dead Sea water on the rapidly retreating eastern shoreline, near Ghor Al-Haditha in Jordan. Remote-sensing data high- light links between the evolution of surface stream channels fed by groundwater springs and the development of surface subsidence patterns over a 25-year period. ERT and SP data fromtheheadofonegroundwater-fedchanneladjacenttothe former lakeshore show anomalies that point to concentrated, multidirectional water flow in conduits located in the shallow subsurface (< 25 m depth). ERT surveys further inland show anomalies that are coincident with the axis of a major depression and that we interpret as representing subsurface water flow. Low-frequency GPR surveys reveal the limit between unsaturated and saturated zones (< 30 m depth) surrounding the main depression area. Shear wave seismic reflection data nearly 1 km further inland reveal buried paleochannels within alluvial fan deposits, which we interpret as pathways for groundwater flow from the main wadi in the area towards the springs feeding the surface streams. Finally, simulations of density-driven flow of hypersaline and undersaturated groundwaters in response to base-level fall perform realistically if they include the generation of karst conduits near the shoreline. The combined approaches lead to a refined conceptual model of the hydrological and geomorphological processes developed at this part of the Dead Sea, whereby matrix flow through the superficial aquifer inland transitions to conduit flow nearer the shore where evaporite deposits are encountered. These conduits play a key role in the development of springs, stream channels and subsidence across the study area.
... The white laminae are composed of 85-99% aragonite and minor amounts of gypsum. The dark laminae are mostly detrital, containing clay-to silt-sized calcite, quartz, and a minor amount of clay minerals (Charrach et al., 2007;Khlaifat et al., 2010). Brine-saturated lime carbonates (DS mud) do not exhibit cohesion (Frydman et al., 2008). ...
Article
Evaporite karst is intensively developing at the Dead Sea (DS), both along its western and eastern shores. The collapse of overlying sediments into evaporite karst cavities results in sinkhole formation. The dissolution is produced by undersaturated water, aggressive concerning halite. The evaporite karst is developing rapidly, in the time scale of months to years, so groundwater aggressiveness is a relevant factor for sinkhole susceptibility assessment. The present study analyzes sinkhole development concerning groundwater aggressiveness. The aggressiveness is evaluated from bulk resistivity (ρx) of the aquifer, measured from the surface using the Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) method, and from resistivity (ρw) of groundwater filling its pores. We suggest a methodology for water aggressiveness determination and its classification concerning salt. We then demonstrate a significant correlation between water aggressiveness and the actual distribution of sinkholes in five study areas along the Dead Sea. Conversely, we show that the timing of sinkholes occurrence within recent decades does not correlate with water aggressiveness. The timing is attributed to the multiple factors that control the dissolution of salt and consequent collapse. Acknowledging that the real hydrogeological conditions involve multifactorial processes, we shortly analyze other concurrent factors, including water table depth, existing salt karstification east of the salt edge, and site location relative to the salt edge.
... Considering the fact that the most of determined metals and non-metals found in larger quantities in the soil are actually in the form of oxides, we recalculated their percentage composition in the sample of peloids in the form of oxides, as shown in Table III. For further examination of the chemical properties of our peloid, we compared its chemical composition with the: Makirina Bay peloid mud (Croatia, [12]), Dead Sea (Near East, divided between Israel and Jordan [14]), "Cappeta" (Lucarnia Area, Italy, [15]) and Lo Pagan Lagoon (Spain, [16]). Makirina Bay peloid mud is used for local inhabitants and tourists as mud wraps, mud samples from N basin of the Dead Sea are used in spa hotel clinic for therapy, the mud of "Cappetta" in sulphur thermal centres and Lo Pagan natural muddy lagoon sediment is used in Spanish spas. ...
Article
Full-text available
Igalo (Montenegro) is known for a number of natural therapeutic factors (sea peloid, mineral water, sand and salt), is close to the sea and is extremely valuable. Peloid from Igalo is known as a resort of healing, cosmetic or aesthetic application. Also, there are studies of medical application and biological activity of some other peloids, which are directly related to their chemical composition. In this paper we analysed the content of light and potentially toxic elements as well as the most important non-metals present in the composition of peloid and listed their main and well-known biological roles. The chemical composition of the Igalo peloid was compared with several peloids from the region (Croatia, Italy, Spain), as well as the chemical composition of peloids obtained from the Dead Sea, because these peloids showed an extraordinary therapeutic potential and they are already used for medical purposes (spa centres, balneotherapy etc.). Also, we have determined some environmental indicators based on the data of the content of metals. The obtained value means that there is no potentially toxic element pollution in the sediment. Rezumat Igalo (Muntenegru) este cunoscut pentru o serie de factori terapeutici naturali (peloidul marin, apa minerală, nisip, sare). În această lucrare, am analizat conținutul în elemente potențial toxice, precum și nemetalele mai importante prezente în compoziția peloidelor. Compoziția chimică a Igalopeloidului a fost comparată cu cu a altora (Croația, Italia, Spania), precum și cu cele din Marea Moartă, deoarece acestea prezintă un potențial terapeutic și sunt folosite în scopuri medicale. De asemenea, am stabilit indicatori de mediu pe baza datelor privind conținutul în metale. Valoarea obținută reflectă lipsa elementelor în sediment.
... Considering the fact that the most of determined metals and non-metals found in larger quantities in the soil are actually in the form of oxides, we recalculated their percentage composition in the sample of peloids in the form of oxides, as shown in Table III. For further examination of the chemical properties of our peloid, we compared its chemical composition with the: Makirina Bay peloid mud (Croatia, [12]), Dead Sea (Near East, divided between Israel and Jordan [14]), "Cappeta" (Lucarnia Area, Italy, [15]) and Lo Pagan Lagoon (Spain, [16]). Makirina Bay peloid mud is used for local inhabitants and tourists as mud wraps, mud samples from N basin of the Dead Sea are used in spa hotel clinic for therapy, the mud of "Cappetta" in sulphur thermal centres and Lo Pagan natural muddy lagoon sediment is used in Spanish spas. ...
... The red and black star indicates the position of the Numeira Mud Factory, which is now defunct after being destroyed by sinkhole formation at the site. clay minerals; predominantly kaolinite, smectite and illite (20 %-30 %); and quartz (20 %-40 %), with smaller percentage contents of evaporites (predominantly halite), hydrated organic material and silt (Khlaifat et al., 2010;Khoury, 2002;Salameh et al., 2019;Sneh, 1979;Yechieli et al., 1993). Interbedded in a spatially variable proportion with these marly layers are distributed lenses or layers of evaporites, such as halite and gypsum, up to 1 m in thickness in channel exposures (Al-Halbouni et al., 2017). ...
Article
Full-text available
Enclosed topographic depressions are characteristic of karst landscapes on Earth. The developmental relationship between depression types, such as sinkholes (dolines) and uvalas, has been the subject of debate, mainly because the long developmental timescales in classical limestone karst settings impede direct observation. Here we characterize the morphometric properties and spatio-temporal development of ∼1150 sinkholes and five uvalas formed from ∼1980 to 2017 in an evaporite karst setting along the eastern coast of the hypersaline Dead Sea (at Ghor Al-Haditha, Jordan). The development of sinkhole populations and individual uvalas is intertwined in terms of onset, evolution and cessation. The sinkholes commonly develop in clusters, within which they may coalesce to form compound or nested sinkholes. In general, however, the uvalas are not defined by coalescence of sinkholes. Although each uvala usually encloses several clusters of sinkholes, it develops as a larger-scale, gentler and structurally distinct depression. The location of new sinkholes and uvalas shows a marked shoreline-parallel migration with time, followed by a marked shoreline-perpendicular (i.e. seaward) growth with time. These observations are consistent with theoretical predictions of karstification controlled by a laterally migrating interface between saturated and undersaturated groundwater, as induced by the 35 m fall in the Dead Sea water level since 1967. More generally, our observations indicate that uvalas and the sinkhole populations within them, although morphometrically distinct, can develop near-synchronously by subsidence in response to subsurface erosion.
... Khoury, 2002). It is also referred to as 'lime carbonates' because of the high content of carbonate minerals (Khlaifat et al., 2010). It even Fig. 9. Relative density distribution of sinkholes. ...
Thesis
Full-text available
Sinkholes and depressions are typical landforms of karst regions. They pose a considerable natural hazard to infrastructure, agriculture, economy and human life in affected areas worldwide. The physio-chemical processes of sinkholes and depression formation are manifold, ranging from dissolution and material erosion in the subsurface to mechanical subsidence/failure of the overburden. This thesis addresses the mechanisms leading to the development of sinkholes and depressions by using complementary methods: remote sensing, distinct element modelling and near-surface geophysics. In the first part, detailed information about the (hydro)-geological background, ground structures, morphologies and spatio-temporal development of sinkholes and depressions at a very active karst area at the Dead Sea are derived from satellite image analysis, photogrammetry and geologic field surveys. There, clusters of an increasing number of sinkholes have been developing since the 1980s within large-scale depressions and are distributed over different kinds of surface materials: clayey mud, sandy-gravel alluvium and lacustrine evaporites (salt). The morphology of sinkholes differs depending in which material they form: Sinkholes in sandy-gravel alluvium and salt are generally deeper and narrower than sinkholes in the interbedded evaporite and mud deposits. From repeated aerial surveys, collapse precursory features like small-scale subsidence, individual holes and cracks are identified in all materials. The analysis sheds light on the ongoing hazardous subsidence process, which is driven by the base-level fall of the Dead Sea and by the dynamic formation of subsurface water channels. In the second part of this thesis, a novel, 2D distinct element geomechanical modelling approach with the software PFC2D-V5 to simulating individual and multiple cavity growth and sinkhole and large-scale depression development is presented. The approach involves a stepwise material removal technique in void spaces of arbitrarily shaped geometries and is benchmarked by analytical and boundary element method solutions for circular cavities. Simulated compression and tension tests are used to calibrate model parameters with bulk rock properties for the materials of the field site. The simulations show that cavity and sinkhole evolution is controlled by material strength of both overburden and cavity host material, the depth and relative speed of the cavity growth and the developed stress pattern in the subsurface. Major findings are: (1) A progressively deepening differential subrosion with variable growth speed yields a more fragmented stress pattern with stress interaction between the cavities. It favours multiple sinkhole collapses and nesting within large-scale depressions. (2) Low-strength materials do not support large cavities in the material removal zone, and subsidence is mainly characterised by gradual sagging into the material removal zone with synclinal bending. (3) High-strength materials support large cavity formation, leading to sinkhole formation by sudden collapse of the overburden. (4) Large-scale depression formation happens either by coalescence of collapsing holes, block-wise brittle failure, or gradual sagging and lateral widening. The distinct element based approach is compared to results from remote sensing and geophysics at the field site. The numerical simulation outcomes are generally in good agreement with derived morphometrics, documented surface and subsurface structures as well as seismic velocities. Complementary findings on the subrosion process are provided from electric and seismic measurements in the area. Based on the novel combination of methods in this thesis, a generic model of karst landform evolution with focus on sinkhole and depression formation is developed. A deepening subrosion system related to preferential flow paths evolves and creates void spaces and subsurface conduits. This subsequently leads to hazardous subsidence, and the formation of sinkholes within large-scale depressions. Finally, a monitoring system for shallow natural hazard phenomena consisting of geodetic and geophysical observations is proposed for similarly affected areas.
... In areas situated on alluvial fans the surficial deposits are composed of Holocene sandy-gravel sediments (from pebbles to boulders). Mud areas are composed of lime carbonates (not clays as suggested by authors) made up of about 95% clay to silt sized calcite, with the other 5% being authigenic aragonite, quartz and gypsum (Frydman et al., 2008;Khlaifata et al., 2010). These sediments were deposited by seasonal floods and DS water. ...
Article
It seems the highly saline conditions of the Dead Sea (DS) coast line are not favorable for the use of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) method for detection of underground caverns before sinkhole formation (short-time prediction). The location of the formed caverns within the salt layer (significantly more than the penetration depth of the electromagnetic waves) combined with the saline DS brine (groundwater) covering the salt layer from above, characterized by low electrical resistivity, makes the application of electromagnetic waves (EW) impossible. However, our experience has shown that GPR technique in its 2D and 3D modifications can be a very efficient tool to predict sinkhole susceptibility. Case histories of GPR studies in the Mineral Beach and Nahal David sites are presented. The GPR study has shown that the method is effective in both urban sites and at most of sites of human activities of the Dead Sea coast (dwellings, routes, agricultural areas etc.), but it fails in areas composed of saline mud in the subsurface (some areas lower than −400 m elevation). The fan areas are composed of sandy-gravel sediments and the penetrating depth of the electromagnetic waves varies but is usually limited to the first meters up to 8–10 m (maximum to 13–15 m), but in any case not deeper than the water table (depending on the dielectric constant, which as a rule is 4–25). In areas covered by Dead Sea mud, penetration depth is limited to the first meter due to the low electrical resistivity of the sediments. Models of sinkhole formation and principles of cavity detection in the DS area are discussed to understand the fundamentals of GPR use for the prediction of sinkhole susceptibility.
... Dead Sea mud (DSM) masks are also popular at spa body sessions at Dead Sea spa centers and are a well-known component of a number of facial and body mask products manufactured by the cosmetic industry in Jordan. Dead Sea black mud is a blend of Dead Sea minerals and organic matters naturally formed over thousands of years on the bed of the Dead Sea (6). This unique product is rich in various minerals including magnesium, potassium, calcium, and chloride. ...
Article
Dead Sea mud (DSM) is commonly used by patients with various skin conditions because of its contents of healing elements. No study was published to show whether DSM application weakens or strengthens skin barrier function. In this study, we investigated the impact of 30-minute single application of various types of DSM ("As Is" mud, mud with extra Dead Sea salt, and over-the-shelf mud) on the barrier function of normal skin. The influence of 30-minute application of various types of DSM was investigated noninvasively on skin barrier properties of healthy female adult volunteers (n = 75) on predetermined circular areas. Skin hydration, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), erythema and melanin levels, and skin pH were measured directly, 30 minutes, and 60 minutes after mud removal. Thirty-minute single application of DSM was well tolerated with short-lived moisturizing effects, which was enhanced by the presence of humectant ingredients, and with no negative impact on barrier integrity, pH, and erythema and melanin levels.
... Such a process was previously proposed by Arkin and Gilat (2000) for the Dead Sea sinkholes, although 685 the relatively low clay content of up to 20% detected in the fine material sediments around the Dead Sea (e.g. Khlaifat et al. 2010) indicates that such a process accounts for only a minor portion of the subrosion process. Thirdly, even alluvial material at the subrosion interface gets washed out. ...
Preprint
Full-text available
Near-surface geophysical imaging of alluvial fan settings is a challenging task, but crucial for understating geological processes in such settings. The alluvial fan of Ghor Al-Haditha at the southeast shore of the Dead Sea is strongly affected by localized subsidence and destructive sinkhole collapses, with a significantly increasing sinkhole formation rate since ca. 1983. A similar increase is observed also on the western shore of the Dead Sea, in correlation with an ongoing decline of the Dead Sea level. Since different structural models of the upper 50 m of the alluvial fan and varying hypothetical sinkhole processes have been suggested for the Ghor Al-Haditha area in the past, this study aimed to clarify the subsurface characteristics responsible for sinkhole development. For this purpose, high-frequency shear wave reflection vibratory seismic surveys were carried out in the Ghor Al-Haditha area along several crossing and parallel profiles with a total length of 1.8 km and 2.1 km in 2013 and 2014, respectively. The sedimentary architecture of the alluvial fan at Ghor Al-Haditha is resolved down to a depth of nearly 200 m in high-resolution, and is calibrated with the stratigraphic profiles of two boreholes located inside the survey area. The most surprising result of the survey is the absence of evidence for a thick (> 2–10 m) compacted salt layer formerly suggested to lie at ca. 35–40 m depth. Instead, seismic reflection amplitudes and velocities image with good continuity a complex interlocking of alluvial fan deposits and lacustrine sediments of the Dead Sea between 0–200 m depth. Furthermore, the underground of areas affected by sinkholes is characterized by highly-scattering wave fields and reduced seismic interval velocities. We propose that the Dead Sea mud layers, which comprise distributed inclusions or lenses of evaporitic chloride, sulphate, and carbonate minerals as well as clay silicates, become increasingly exposed to unsaturated water as the sea level declines, and are consequently destabilized and mobilized by both dissolution and physical erosion in the subsurface. This new interpretation of the underlying cause of sinkhole development is supported by surface observations in nearby channel systems. Overall this study shows that shear wave seismic reflection technique is a promising method for enhanced near-surface imaging in such challenging alluvial fan settings.
... The unique therapeutic efficiency of the Dead Sea mud was unfortunately limited by some studies that indicated the presence of heavy meals. For example, Momani et al. (2009) and Khlaifat et al. (2010) examined the presence and numerical detection of heavy metals concentrations. Both studies analyzed heavy metal content in the black mud and have found that the readings were less than their contents in other types of mud except for Pb. ...
Article
Full-text available
This paper described the experimental remediation of the Dead Sea mud and the quantitative determination of some heavy metals. Herein, two chelating agents were employed as extracting aqueous solution: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and citric acid. The study was focused on the main known heavy metals that were reported previously to be in the Dead sea mud which are: Co, Ni, Pb, Zn and Cr. Findings had indicated that citric was efficient in removal of the aforementioned heavy metals. Physicochemical parameters that were expected to affect the removal of metals in the Dead Sea mud were optimized. Those parameters were the chelating agent concentration, mixing time and speed, type of washing water, temperature and pH. The results showed that the best removal of heavy metals from Dead Sea mud can be achieved under optimum citric concentration, 1.5 g/50 mL for treatment of 10 g mud. Optimum mixing speed and time were found to be 800 rpm and 1 hr time, respectively. Regarding washing water, it was found that the use of the same water for repeated washing provided better removal percentages. pH values and temperature had effect on removal percentages of the heavy metals from mud. However, working at pH 7 and room temperature would provide convenient results for heavy metal removal.
... The slight influence of the CEC effect would be explained in two ways. At first, lime carbonate either does not contain or contain negligible content of kaolinitic clay ($2.35 mequiv/100 g and low total specific surface area), resulting in low CEC values (Khlaifat et al., 2010). This is in agreement with the composition of the fine detritus material in the DS basin (Haliva-Cohen et al., 2012). ...
Article
Evaporite karst has intensively developed recently along the Dead Sea (DS) coastal area in Israel and Jordan. It takes place in very saline groundwater dissolving buried salt layers, causing collapse of the surface. In this paper, groundwater salinity throughout the DS coastal area is investigated using the Transient Electromagnetic (TEM) method. Twenty-eight TEM soundings along the DS coastal area were carried out close to observation boreholes to calibrate resistivity–salinity relationships. Groundwater electrical conductivity was measured in these boreholes, and its salinity was analyzed at the laboratory by the Geological Survey of Israel (GSI). Quantitative relationships between bulk resistivity (ρx), water resistivity (ρw) and chloride concentration (Ccl) were derived in the resistivity range less than 1.0 Ω·m that enabled to evaluate the salinity of the aquifer in in situ conditions. Average values of the effective porosity of sandy sediments, φe = 0.32, and of silty ones, φe = 0.44, were used to generate the corresponding Archie equations. The study has shown that a DS aquifer with bulk resistivity in the range of 0.55–1.0 Ω·m contains in pores brine with 50–110 gchloride/l of (22–50% of that in saturated conditions, respectively), i.e. it keeps the potential to dissolve up to 114–174 g/l of salt.
... Khoury, 2002). It is also referred to as 'lime carbonates' (Frydman et al., 2008) because of the high content of carbonate minerals (Khlaifat et al., 2010). It even Fig. 9. Relative density distribution of sinkholes. ...
Article
Ground subsidence and sinkhole collapse are phenomena affecting regions of karst geology worldwide. The rapid development of such phenomena around the Dead Sea in the last four decades poses a major geological hazard to the local population, agriculture and industry. Nonetheless many aspects of this hazard are still incompletely described and understood, especially on the eastern Dead Sea shore. In this work, we present a first low altitude (¡150 m above ground) aerial photogrammetric survey with a Helikite Balloon at the sinkhole area of Ghor Al-Haditha, Jordan. We provide a detailed qualitative and quantitative analysis of a new, high resolution digital surface model (5 cm px −1) and orthophoto of this area (2.1 km²). We also outline the factors affecting the quality and accuracy of this approach.
... As a result of the lowering water level, the emerging and growing Lisan Peninsula has divided the lake into two parts. The deeper northern part reaches 770 m b.s.l. and the shallower southern portion has actually disappeared and is used for the industrial extraction of potassium (Khlaifat et al. 2010). The extraordinary climate "supports" the development of tourism. ...
Article
Full-text available
The Dead Sea along with Jerusalem belongs to one of the most well-known spots visited by tourists in Israel. Because of many factors, such as the water level of the Dead Sea at a depth of 430 m b.s.l. (in 2015), average salinity of 26%, hot springs and many healing salts located there, it is a unique tourist attraction on a global level. Its attractiveness is heightened by its proximity to other sites of interest, such as the Jewish fortress at Masada, Jericho, Qumran, where the Dead Sea Scrolls were found, as well as Petra, Madaba and Al-Karak on the Jordanian side of the Dead Sea. High salinity and a microclimate create perfect conditions for the development of health resorts and medical tourism. Extracting healing salts from its waters for the needs of the chemical industry is important for both the economy and medical tourism. However, as a consequence of the agricultural and urban use of the waters of the River Jordan, which flows into the Dead Sea, a persistent decrease in the lake water level has been observed over the last century. This has created a number of economic and political issues. The problems which still have to be resolved are associated with the Red Sea-Dead Sea Conduit (Canal), the division of Jordan’s water resources, conservation of the unique reservoir of the Dead Sea and the threat of hindering the development of tourism within the region. The presentation of these issues is the main aim of this research paper. The study is based on the analysis of changes in tourism flows, results of research studies and the prognosis of changes in the water level of the Dead Sea. It presents an assessment of the effects of this phenomenon on the tourist economy. At the current level of tourism flows within the region, the tourist capacity of local beaches will be exceeded in areas where the most popular tourist resorts are located. Increased expenditure on development of tourism infrastructure in the coastal zone can also be observed. The predicted decreasing water level will result in further modifications and expansion of tourism infrastructure, decreased accessibility to the coastline for tourists, increased costs of visiting and may lead to an ecological disaster.
... The well-known peloids in the scientific literature and used in spas are French (from Dax), Italian (Centini et al., 2015), Portuguese (Quintela et al., 2015), Turkish (Karakaya et al., 2010) or Israeli (Khalaifat et al., 2010). Few spas employ peloids in Spain and these have recently been studied by Carretero et al. (2010) and Pozo et al. (2013). ...
Article
Peloids were prepared with kaolin and bentonite (saponite) (90:10, wt:wt) and medicinal mineral waters (MMW) from Lanjarón Spa (Granada, Spain), “Salud V” (‘sodium chloride-rich, calcic, bicarbonate and ferruginous’) (samples Sp), and “El Salado” (‘chloride and sodium-rich, bicarbonated, calcic and ferruginous’) (samples Ep) along a maturation time (MT) of 1, 3 and 6 months. The granulometry was silty clay, N89% of the particles being b20 μm, with clay increasing slightly with MT (P b 0.05). The cooling time parameters Δtind and Δt −22,5 °C, changed according to sample (differences of N50%), with a complex dependance; depending on MMW, cooling times decreased with increasing mineralization (e.g. ‘dry residue’ versus Δt−22,5 °C, P b 0.1); in samples Ep there was a positive relationship with MT. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Image Analysis (IA), of the microfabric showed it to depend on MMW. The microfabric also changed with MT, reaching an optimum state of better structure and porosity after 1 month for Sp and 3 months for Ep (“house of cards”), later degrading with time. This study has practical potential since: 1) it uses relatively common and easily-accessible raw materials; for example, the MMW are in current use. 2) Peloids with physical properties suitable for spa use were obtained: fine texture, cooling times of up to 30 min above indifferent temperature, and evolved microfabric. And 3) it provides information on optimum MT according to each property studied, which is always of interest in the spa industry.
... Khoury, 2002). It is also referred to as 'lime carbonates' (Frydman et al., 2008) because of the high content of carbonate minerals (Khlaifat et al., 2010). It even Fig. 9. Relative density distribution of sinkholes. ...
Conference Paper
The widespread development of sinkholes and land subsidence poses a major geological hazard to infrastructure, local population, agriculture and industry in the Dead Sea area. For assessment of the key physical factors in this development, repeated photogrammetric and field surveys at Ghor Al-Haditha in Jordan have been undertaken. Recent results provide evidence for subrosion based on strong periodic water flows, as the basic underlying physical process of such land subsidence phenomena. From combined Helikite-and Quatrocopter-based pho-togrammetric surveys, high resolution Digital Surface Models from October 2014 and October 2015 are compared. Change detection reveals: (1) active subsidence in a hundred metre-scale depression zone, (2) a highly-dynamic spring and canyon system connected with recent sinkhole collapses and (3) the rapid formation of new sinkholes both in alluvium and mud cover sediments. The formation of new sinkholes has been documented locally by means of aerial and field observations during a storm with strong rainfall. A new artesian spring formed in the former Dead Sea bed (mud-flat) at this event. The alluvial sediment load of the stream, a periodic location change of the spring and a connected uphill sinkhole cluster formation provide strong evidence for subrosion of weak material with subsequent underground void collapse. Additionally a documented lake and its' subsequent drainage forming a new canyon reveals the local penetration of the aquiclude behavior of the mud-flat in the major depression area, which can be explained by an under-saturated groundwater flow at a strong hydrostatic gradient. Furthermore an enlargement of the investigated area in the 2015 survey indicates a continuation of subsidence and sinkhole activity towards the North. It reveals several points of emanation of water streams in the mud-flat beneath the alluvial cover and vegetation as an indicator of relatively fresh groundwater inflow. This repeated photogrammetry and field survey confirms the hypothesis of a large-scale, channelized subterranean water flow in a 3d network of interconnected tubes. This subsurface karstic channel network is hence responsible for sinkhole formation and rapid land subsidence at the Ghor Al-Haditha sinkhole area and perhaps elsewhere around the Dead Sea.
... Dead Sea mud is a suspension of very fi ne clay particles in water (4); it is the natural sediment of solid mineral clays with an interstitial solution of inorganic salts and sulfi de compounds that arise from microbiological activity (5). It is characterized by its blackish color and the distinct sulfur smell (1). ...
Article
The physical stability of Dead Sea mud mask formulations under different conditions and their rheological properties were evaluated as a function of the type and level of thickeners, level of the humectant, incorporation of ethanol, and mode of mud treatment. Formulations were evaluated in terms of visual appearance, pH, moisture content, spreadability, extrudability, separation, rate of drying at 32 degrees C, and rheological properties. Prepared mud formulations and over-the-shelf products showed viscoplastic shear thinning behavior; satisfactory theological behavior was observed with formulations containing a total concentration of thickeners less than 10% (w/w). Casson and Herschel-Bulkley models were found the most suitable to describe the theological data of the prepared formulations. Thickener incorporation decreased phase separation and improved formulation stability. Bentonite incorporation in the mud prevented color changes during stability studies while glycerin improved spreadability. Addition of 5% (w/w) ethanol improved mud extrudability, slightly increased percent separation, accelerated drying at 32 degrees C, and decreased viscosity and yield stress values. Different mud treatment techniques did not cause a clear behavioral change in the final mud preparation. B(10)G and K(5)B(5)G were labeled as "best formulas" based on having satisfactory physical and aesthetic criteria investigated in this study, while other formulations failed in one or more of the tests we have performed.
... Dead Sea mud is a suspension of very fi ne clay particles in water (4); it is the natural sediment of solid mineral clays with an interstitial solution of inorganic salts and sulfi de compounds that arise from microbiological activity (5). It is characterized by its blackish color and the distinct sulfur smell (1). ...
... The salts cations can penetrated and inserted into the structure of the clay minerals. Thus, the therapeutic effects can be associated with two mechanisms: the presence of the salts themselves and the changes suffered by the clay minerals when the salts ions are intercalated inside them [8][9][10][11][12][13][14][15] . ...
Article
Full-text available
La Laguna Mar Chiquita, ubicada en la provincia de Cordoba, Argentina, es el mayor lago salino de America del Sur, con una superficie variable entre 2.000 y 6.000 km2. Durante las ultimas decadas 50 y 60 el lodo recogido directamente del fondo del lago se utilizaba ampliamente para la aplicacion topica sobre la piel y las sales precipitadas en la costa se utilizaban para banos domiciliarios. Posteriores incrementos del nivel de agua (decadas de los 70, 80, 90) disminuye la posibilidad de utilizar estos materiales. Sin embargo, durante la ultima decada la disminucion de los niveles de agua ha incrementado el potencial de reutilizacion de los lodos y depositos de sales de este lago. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar la composicion de los lodos y sales obtenidas a partir de Laguna Mar Chiquita como materiales naturales con posibles usos terapeuticos. La salinidad del agua, de 28 a 360 g/l como minimo y maximo reportado, se ha alcanzado en los valores de las ultimas decadas, como bajo como 33 g / L, con contenidos de sal superiores a 70 g / L en la presente. Los iones disueltos predominantes son el cloruro y el sodio. El sulfato estaba presente en proporciones menores en el agua pero era el anion mas importante de las sales precipitadas. El pH era neutro o ligeramente alcalino. La composicion dominante del lodo, con posible aplicacion terapeutica, era una mezcla de ilita-predominante como filosilicatos, cuarzo, plagioclasa, feldespato, moscovita, calcita y halita. Las aguas y los lodos de la Laguna Mar Chiquita mostraron una importante similitud con los de la Lo Pagan en el Mar Menor, Murcia, Espana, lugar relacionado con el turismo que promueva ampliamente la utilizacion de los lodos con fines terapeuticos.
... Prav tako lahko v peloidu iz zaliva Makirina izpostavimo tudi prisotnost organizmov, kot so {koljke, saj se njihove biserne plasti (nacre), predvsem v tradicionalni (kitajski) medicini, že dolgo uporabljajo kot sredstvo za pospe{evanje regeneracije kože (lee et al., 2012). Karbonatni minerali prevladujejo tudi v zdravilnem blatu iz Mrtvega morja (Khlaifat et al., 2010) (Komar et al., in press). Ker zna{a KIK glinenih mineralov, kot je ilit, med 10 in 40 meq/100g (WeaVer & pollard, 1973), je ta najverjetneje povezana z vsebnostjo organske snovi v peloidu. ...
Article
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Recent marine sediments from Makirina bay are according to their organoleptic properties, treated as peloid or healing mud, already frequently used by local people and tourists as pomades. The application of peloids in balneotherapy is mainly intended for therapeutic treatment generally related to muscle-bone skin pathologies and purposes of wellness and relaxation. Recent studies point out that one of the main factors determining the final characteristics of peloids are grain size distribution, mineralogy, cation exchange capacity (CEC), elemental and microbiological composition of initial geological material. As reported by previous studies Makirina Bay peloid is represented mostly by sandy silt with relatively high CEC value (63.82 meq/100g). Peloid mineral composition is dominated by dolomite and quartz, followed by illite/muscovite, aragonite, halite, calcite, and pyrite. The average concentrations of potentially toxic elements (PTE) in Makirina bay peloid determined in this research are: As (17.6 mg/kg), Cr (92.09 mg/kg), Cu (44.5 mg/ kg), Mo (31.8 mg/kg), Pb (28.9 mg/kg) and Zn (69.2 mg/kg) and are comparable to previous results. PTE contents in benthic algae Codium bursa (C. bursa) are: As (8.8 mg/kg), Cr (15.7 mg/kg), Cu (5.6 mg/kg), Mo (0.7 mg/kg), Pb (3.6 mg/ kg) and Zn (16.3 mg/kg). Calculated Transfer factors (TF) from surficial peloid (0-5 cm) to benthic algae C. bursa are <1 for all analysed PTE, indicating no PTE transfer or bioaccumulation of PTE in C. bursa. Results of microbiological research correspond to previous studies and showed no coliforms and E. coli presence in Makirina bay peloid. Our studies have shown the adequate comparability of Makirina Bay peloid with peloids already successfully used in various spa centres around the world in purposes related to wellness and therapy, but additional researches (determination of Cr and Mo mobilities) are necessary before potential use of Makirina bay peloid.
Article
This study assessed the effects of liman peloid, followed by bath and heliotherapy in psoriatic patients at Cervia, Emilia, Italy. The psoriatic patients were randomized into two groups: group 1 with 56 patients, treated with liman applications, bath, and heliotherapy, and group 2 with 35 subjects, treated with mud-bath therapy using a clay peloid mixed with tap water and heliotherapy. Data was collected for the following: psoriasis area and severity index (PASI); delta-PASI (difference between post- and pre-treatment PASI); delta-PASI3 and delta-PASI6, 3 and 6 months after the end of treatment, respectively; psoriasis recurrences; and the use of both topical and systemic drugs. Although not significant, a decrease in PASI was recorded in group 1 at the end of treatment and after 3 and 6 months. Compared with group 2, there was a significant change in delta-PASI, delta-PASI3, and psoriasis recurrences in group 1 as well as a significant reduction in the topical use of drugs, both cortisone and nonsteroid drugs. This is the first and preliminary study which documented the efficacy of a specific protocol of liman bath heliotherapy in psoriatic patients as documented by a reduction in delta-PASI and delta-PASI3, a decrease in psoriasis recurrences, and use of topical drugs.
Conference Paper
Till now not much study was conducted on sea mud especially those around Penang island, Malaysia. Recently, sea mud clumps were found strewn all over the shores of Batu Ferringhi beach in Penang due to strong tidal currents. As continuous pursuits for feasible and sustainable biomaterials are ongoing, the sea mud clumps were collected and its indigenous halophilic microflora was investigated, in regards to potential use in Obvara firing technique. The pH of Penang sea mud was found to be 8.01, slightly basic, due to industrial activities. The culturability of microflora in the sea mud slurry of Batu Ferringhi beach was investigated by using nutrient agar supplemented with sodium chloride (35 g/L) as the growth medium. In assessing the microflora populations present, it was found that an assortment of bacteria, protists and flat worm larvae inhabit this biomaterial. The indigenous halophilic microflora found were mainly Gram positive and Gram negative bacilli, Gram negative coccobacillus, several types of diatoms, flat worm larvae, tintinnid, scenedesmus, paramecium, euglena, Haematococcus sp., volvox and radiolaria.
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This study aims to investigate the key success factors that influence Marketing Strategies in the International markets for Dead Sea products. The study attempts to examine the success factors that can help in setting up a good marketing strategy, which in its turn can achieve the intended goals of the companies. In order to achieve the research objectives, the study designed and developed a questionnaire according to objectives and study hypotheses. The study population consisted of all Dead Sea products companies totaling of 65 companies. The questionnaire was distributed to the companies; three questionnaires were distributed as follows: one for the general Manager, one for the Marketing Manager and the third for the Production Manager that is 195 questionnaires. 160questionnaires were collected, so the response rate is 82.05%..The collected questionnaires were coded for the purposes of the analysis. The statistical method were employed using the Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). Moreover, a structured Interview was carried out with the Marketing Managers of 20 companies. The researcher in person conducted the interviews. The findings have indicated that there is statistically significant impact of the success factors of Marketing Strategies. Moreover, there is a statistically significant impact of (Information, Employees-Experience, Regulations, and Technology) on Marketing Strategies. In addition, the findings indicated that there are differences of success factors in Marketing Strategies due to the Company-Type with Export-Experience. As well, there are differences in categories such as Information, Employees-Experience, Regulation and Technology on Marketing Strategies due to Company-Type with its Export-Experience. It is recommended that Dead Sea products companies should focus on Information because it is an important factor in the current time for all the business-Marketing Strategies and it helps to keep up with Technology development because it facilitates Managerial processes and communication with customers. In addition, do extensive market studies in the global markets to identify the supply and demand of the Dead Sea products. KEYWORDS: Marketing Strategy, International Market, Dead Sea product, Jordan, Competition.
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Since the early 1980s, a progressively increasing number of sinkholes have appeared along the Dead Sea coastal line. We propose that their appearance strongly correlates with the lowering of the Dead Sea level at its rate of approximately one m/yr. The location of areas affected by sinkhole development corresponds to the location of the salt formation deposited during the latest Pleistocene when the Lake Lisan receded to become the Dead Sea later. Water flowing to the Dead Sea from adjacent and underlying aquifers dissolves salt and creates caverns that cause ground subsidence and consequent formation of sinkholes. Before subsidence, these caverns are not visible on the surface but can be investigated with surface geophysical methods. For that, we applied Surface Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (SNMR), Transient Electromagnetic (TEM), Seismic refraction and reflection, Multichannel Analysis of Surface Waves (MASW), microgravity, and magnetic surveys and their combinations. Our geophysical results allowed us to locate the salt formation and detect caverns in salt, thus better understanding sinkhole development mechanisms. A comparison of sinkhole appearance along the western DS shore derived from the current database (2017) shows that predictions made based on geophysical data (2005-2008) are now confirmed, thus demonstrating the efficiency of our study. In this paper, we briefly present a summary of up-to-date knowledge of geology and hydrogeology of the Dead Sea basin, the physical properties of the salt rock, and the most popular models explaining mechanisms of sinkhole development. We also share our experience during geophysical studies in the framework of national and international research projects in this area for the last 20 years.
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The use of clay by humans for medicinal and wellness purposes is most probably as old as mankind. Within minerals, due to its ubiquitous occurrence in nature and easy availability, clay was the first to be used and is still used worldwide. Healing clays have been traditionally used by man for therapeutic, nutritional and skin care purposes, but they could impart some important health and skin care risks. For instance, clay particles could adsorb and make available for elimination or excretion any potential toxic elements or toxins being ingested or produced, but they could adsorb and make available for incorporation, through ingestion or through dermal absorption, toxic elements, e.g. heavy metals. Edible clays, a particular case of healing clays, have been traditionally used by man for nutritional and therapeutic purposes. Geophagy, the deliberate soil eating, earth eating, clay eating and pica (medical condition or eating disorder shown by individuals addicted to eat earth substances), has been observed in all parts of the world since antiquity, reflecting cultural practice, religious belief and physiological needs, be they nutritional (dietary supplementation) or as a remedy for disease. This paper pretends to review historical data, basic concepts and functions, as well as benefits and risks of the use of healing clays, in general, for therapeutic and cosmetic purposes, and of edible clays, in particular, for therapeutic purposes.
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Caldeiras da Ribeira Grande fumarolic field is located in the Fogo Volcano complex, São Miguel Island (Azores Archipelago, Portugal). These are associated to a geothermal system of high enthalpy that allows the existence of singular thermal muds or peloids that are continuously mixed with water inside a manmade pool. The peloids produced by the maturation (mixture) in situ are extracted from this boiling-mud pool and used directly in a local thermal centre (the “Banhos da Coroa” centre), which exists since 1811, for the relief of pain associated with rheumatic diseases and skin disorders treatment. Until this investigation, the application of sediments from Ribeira Grande for pelotherapy ends was only evaluated by human perception. Thus, this work aims the physical, mineralogical and geochemical characterization of the peloids collected inside the boiling-mud pool and the evaluation of their potential to be used for aesthetic and therapeutic purposes. The assessment of the volume of clays available for exploitation is estimated too. Sediments from Caldeiras da Ribeira Grande are naturally heated (above 36ºC in most of the cases) and present pH up to 5. The X-ray fluorescence analyses revealed a high content on Si and S, which are useful for therapeutic purposes and the risk inherent to potential toxic elements concentrations was evaluated. The X-ray diffraction data reveal presence of clay minerals, sulphates (alunite) and feldspars. Additionally to these features, silty-clay fraction also exhibits interesting features such as suitable abrasivity and high plasticity. A detailed field survey was carried out at the Caldeiras da Ribeira Grande boiling-mud pool, including the measurement of the sediments thickness at 45 points and the determination of the ratio wet to dry sediments weight. This allowed to estimate a volume of sediments available for exploitation of 84 m3, or about 36 Ton of dry sediments.
Article
The present study was carried out to assess the suitability of smectitic clays from Fayum, G. Hamza and G. Um Qamar, Egypt, for application in mud therapy. The textural, mineralogical and chemical composition of the Egyptian clay stones showed that they are comparable to those of muds used in pelotherapy in several other countries (for example, Italy, Spain, Turkey and Portugal). The Egyptian claystones have good heat capacities and their pastes can be applied in different treatments. The trace elements present in the claystones, namely, As, Pb, Cu, Zn, Co, Ni and Cr are within the normal ranges of average natural mud and shale and they are of no significant concern for human health in mud applications.
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Dead Sea (DS) mud and salts are known for their therapeutic and cosmetic properties. Previous studies confirmed their efficacy in treating the more frequent skin diseases such as psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the wound healing potential of natural and compounded skin-care product (facial mask) of DS black mud in BALB/c mice. Two full-thickness excision round wounds were created on the dorsum region of mouse. Each wound of mice test group were treated topically with 50 microL of 0.1% natural or compounded DS black mud or 50 microL of 0.2% nitrofurazone once a day for 2 consecutive days and the mice control group were left untreated. Healing was assessed by measuring the granulation tissue weight and percentage of wound contraction at day 3, 7, 14 and 21 after wounding. In addition to period of epithelialization and histological evaluation of the regenerated wound area at day 7 and 14 after wounding. Results revealed that DS black mud accelerate wound healing process by enhancing granulation, wound contraction, epithelialization, angiogenesis and collagen deposition. This may be due to high content of minerals and trace elements that possibly act as anti-microbial, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant with enhancement effect on cell proliferation, migration and fibroblast cellular activity. However, the healing property of DS black mud compounded in skin-care product was greater than that of natural black mud, when compared to reference drug, nitrofurazone.
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For many years, Israel was considered to be an unlikely area for discovering commercially exploitable minerals. Studies only reported phosphorites, which are processed at the Dead Sea Works into plant fertilizer, building materials, and chemicals for the cosmetic industry. However, a contemporary look at Israel's economic mineral deposits suggests that this view needs substantial revision. This chapter provides an overview of all the economic deposits in Israel and then presents the second author's investigations in more detail. Aside from estimates of the industrial value of these deposits, methods for further probes are provided. Examples of the ways in which descriptions of geological formations, mineralogical analyses, and geophysical methods can be applied to estimates of economic value and types of investigations are discussed, along with the specific physical-geological profiles of the region. Since water reserves are crucially related to mineral-rich deposits, new research around the Sea of Galilee is discussed.
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The concentrations of trace metals (Fe, Mn, Ni, Zn, Co, Cr, Cu and Pb) were investigated in the Dead Sea black mud and river sediments in the northern basin of the Dead Sea region, Jordan. The pH of the mud was slightly above 8 while it was around 6 for the seawater. All analyzed heavy metal content in the black mud, except Pb, was less than their contents in other types of mud. This might be due to the effect of the mildly acidic pH of seawater, which would enhance the metal solubility or incorporation within salt mineral structure, rather than precipitation. The sequential extraction results showed that Ni and Co transferred into the carbonate fraction, Mn is found mostly as manganese-iron oxide, and the residual phase contained Cr, Cu, Fe and Pb . This study illustrated that the black mud had low heavy metal contents, thus indicating low toxicity. Additionally, it shows insignificance effect of the mixing of freshwater with seawater on the heavy metal contents in the black mud.
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s were co mpared with prediction, using shear stress power law equation, and good agreement was obtained. The ned results may find their application not only in the transportation of Dead Sea mud, but also in assessing the pumping rements for the transportation of dredged cohesive mud at in-situ water content.
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FTIR spectroscopy has been applied to NH⁺4-exchanged dioctahedral clay minerals to determine the molecular environment of NH⁺4 and to quantify N concentration. FTIR under vapour-pressure control, coupled with heating and freezing treatments has shown that NH⁺4 ion symmetry varies with the nature of clay minerals. NH⁺4 has a perfect tetrahedral symmetry in hydrated or dehydrated smectites and belongs to the T d symmetry group.The NH⁺4-bending vibration is centred at 1450 and 1425 cm⁻¹. The Si⁴⁺-Al³⁺ substitution in dioctahedral clay minerals induces the loss of symmetry elements of the NH⁺4 tetrahedron which acquires a C 2v symmetry. As a consequence, the T d-C 2v transition can be used to characterize the smectite-illite transition. Quantification of NH⁺4 content per half unit cell is provided by n NH4 = k[NH4]/[OH] where [NH4]/[OH] is the band area ratio of the NH⁺4-bending vibration to the OH-stretching vibration. k = 1.1 for hydrated smectite, 0.9 for dehydrated smectite and 0.8 for illite or tobelite. The bending vibration of NH⁺4 is chosen for the calculation because it is not affected by superimposed contributions.
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Deep black clayey sediments of the Dead Sea, previously covered with water at times of higher sea level, are being mined for therapeutic purposes and for the preparation of cosmetic products under the name Black Mud. It was claimed that the beneficial properties are due to the presence of bitumen (asphalt) as attested by the colour. Less commonly, the curative properties have been ascribed to humic acids or to organic matter derived from algae in the lake. Asphalt from the Dead Sea has been of major economic importance to the region and was used as a medication for 2000 years until the mid-20th century. Geochemical analysis of the Black Mud showed that it contains relatively little organic matter (ca. 0.6–0.8% organic carbon) and that the organic matter is mostly derived from the land masses surrounding the lake. Asphalt was totally absent and the concentration of humic acids very low. The black colour of the mud is rather due to the poorly crystallised iron sulphides. Based on this, the therapeutic properties of the mud are ascribed to its content of reduced sulphur species, its physical and chemical properties and possibly its brine content, but not to the presence of organic matter.
Article
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The unique, black, hypersaline mud mined from the Dead Sea shores is extensively used in mud packs, masks, and topical body and facial treatments in spas surrounding the lake, and in cosmetic preparations marketed worldwide, but little is known about its antimicrobiological properties. We performed detailed microbial and chemical analysis of Dead Sea mineral mud compounded in dermatological and cosmetic preparations. Using conventional bacteriological media (with or without salt augmentation), we found surprisingly low numbers of colony-forming microorganisms in the mud. The highest counts (up to 20,000 colonies per gram, mostly consisting of endospore-forming bacteria) were obtained on sheep blood agar. Test microorganisms (i.e. Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Propionibacterium acnes, Candida albicans) rapidly lost their viability when added to the mud. Zones of growth inhibition were observed around discs of Dead Sea mud placed on agar plates inoculated with Candida or with Propionibacterium, but not with Staphylococcus or Escherichia. The effect was also found when the mud was sterilized by gamma irradiation. Using (35)S-labeled sulfate as a tracer, bacterial dissimilatory sulfate reduction could be demonstrated at a low rate (0.13 +/- 0.03 nmol/cm(3).d). The antibacterial properties of Dead Sea mud are probably owing to chemical and/or physical phenomena. Possible modes of antimicrobial action of the mud in relation to its therapeutic properties are discussed.
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This paper examines some of the major oil sand deposits which occur around the world with the exception of the Alberta and Orinoco oil sands. The major accumulations of oil sands are restricted geographically to 8 countries of the world. Over 95 percent of the known in-place oil volumes occur in Canada, Venezuela and with a lesser, but nevertheless substantial, amount in the United States. The oil sands deposits of the world are described as belonging to two types: in-situ deposits which result from breaching and exposure of an existing oil trap, and migrated deposits resulting from accumulation of migrating oil at outcrop. The deposits occur in a variety of different entrapments. Notwithstanding this variety, a broad pattern to the deposit entrapment is recognized.
Article
Adsorption of petroleum heavy ends onto clay minerals in consolidated Berea sandstone cores and in friable California sand cores results in stabilization of the clays against dispersion and subsequent migration. Berea-sandstone permeability is rendered insensitive to fresh water, and the friable sand in which clays are the primary cementing material is stabilized against failure under increased flow rates. Introduction Formation damage by means of clay dispersion and migration has been recognized as a serious threat to well productivity for more than three decades. Today, there productivity for more than three decades. Today, there are a number of chemical treatments that can prevent damage caused by formation clays under conditions of fresh waterflooding. These treatments range from aqueous solutions of hydrolyzed metal ions such as hydroxy-aluminum to hydrocarbon solutions of cationic surfactants. In general, the chemical additives interact with the clay mineral surfaces and cause significant changes in those physical chemical properties that classically lead to formation damage. This paper presents experimental evidence for a natural clay stabilization mechanism. It is based on the observation that petroleum heavy ends (primarily the asphaltenes and resins) adsorb tenaciously to clay surfaces and significantly alter the physical and chemical properties of the clay. Sandstone cores, which are properties of the clay. Sandstone cores, which are normally extremely sensitive to fresh water, are stabilized effectively by treatment with hydrocarbon solutions of petroleum heavy ends. petroleum heavy ends. Background The alteration of montmorillonite properties by adsorption of heavy ends was observed during a recent study. Physical chemical properties responsible for clay Physical chemical properties responsible for clay migration are modeled by montmorillonite and the principles are applicable to other commonly occurring clays such as kaolinite and illite. In general, it was found that adsorption of asphaltenes and resins onto the clay occurs rapidly and, to a large extent, irreversibly under near-anhydrous laboratory conditions. Factors that influence this adsorption are the exchangeable cations on the clay, the basic nitrogen components of the asphaltenes and resins, and the solvent. As a result, the clay becomes hydrophobic, has a lower cation exchange capacity, has unusual X-ray diffraction properties, and will not disperse readily in distilled water. Thus, those properties that cause particle dispersion and migration - high surface charge and structural expansibility - are altered and the clay becomes physically "passive." Since the asphaltenes and resins are insoluble in water, the interactions between them and clays is optimized at low water contents. Surface dehydration can be achieved with solvents and, therefore, the heavy ends adsorb onto clays under certain natural reservoir conditions. Therefore, it is important to determine what effect this adsorption can have on rock properties. Experimental Methods The laboratory tests in this study were conducted on freshly cut, consolidated Berea sandstone cores. The sensitivity to fresh water of Berea sandstone, which contains significant amounts of kaolinite, is well documented and this material is an excellent model system for these studies. Four-inch cores were treated in the laboratory and analyzed for water sensitivity. No attempt was made to reuse the cores once the sequence of treatment and aging was completed. JPT P. 1061
Article
The Dead Sea is a hypersaline terminal lake experiencing a water level drop of about 1 m/yr over the last decade. The existing estimations for the water balance of the lake are widely variable, reflecting the unknown subsurface water inflow, the rate of evaporation, and the rate of salt accumulation at the lake bottom. To estimate these we calculate the energy and mass balances for the Dead Sea utilizing measured meteorological and hydrographical data from 1996 to 2001, taking into account the impact of lowered surface water activity on the evaporation rate. Salt precipitation during this period was about 0.1 m/yr. The average annual inflow is 265-325 × 106 m3/yr, corresponding to an evaporation rate of 1.1-1.2 m/yr. Higher inflows, suggested in previous studies, call for increased evaporation rate and are therefore not in line with the energy balance.
Article
The Dead Sea brine quality was assessed in order to provide scientific basis for researchers' needs. Four times a month, brine samples were collected from the Arab Potash Company (APC) point of intake and analyzed for physico-chemical parameters in the laboratory over 22years, and Dead Sea surface temperature and level were measured during each sampling. The mean density values for the collected samples during the last 22years ranged from 1.2040g/cm3 in 1992 to 1.2393g/cm3 in 2007, with an average value of 1.2376g/cm3. The brine salinity values ranged from 293.6 in 1992 to 339.3g/l in 2008 with an average value of 337.73g/l. The ionic dominance observed was Cl−>Mg++>Na+>Ca++>K+. The results showed that diluting the Dead Sea brine affects both magnesium and sodium chlorides significantly because of their high solubilities in fresh water and their large reserves.
Article
Standard depth-integrated models of sediment dynamics predict that concentrations of suspended fine sediment should decay at a characteristic rate that is controlled by the particle settling velocity and the depth of the water. In contrast, a model which resolves the processes of settling and dispersion in the water column has suggested that this decay rate should be independent of the settling velocity, and is controlled by dispersive processes in the water column. By revisiting the problem of sediment dispersion and settling following a point release of material, we resolve this discrepancy and confirm that depth-integrated models capture the correct physical behavior.
Article
Adsorption of asphaltenes and resins onto montmorillonite occurs rapidly and to a large extent irreversibly under near-anhydrous laboratory conditions. Factors which influence the adsorption are the exchangeable cation on the clay, the basic nitrogen components of the molecules, and the solvent. As a result of this adsorption, the physical and chemical properties of the clay are drastically altered. The fundamental principles revealed in this study lead to a better understanding of the physical and chemical behavior of clays in petroleum reservoirs.
Article
Twenty-eight patients with classical or definite rheumatoid arthritis were randomly divided into two groups of fourteen patients each. All patients were treated once a day with mud packs derived from the Dead Sea heated to 40 degrees C and applied over the four extremities, neck and back for 20 minutes. Group 1 was treated with the true mud packs and Group 2 with washed out and less concentrated mud packs. The study was double blind and of two weeks duration. All patients were evaluated by one rheumatologist both before treatment and two weeks later at the end of the treatment period. Follow-up evaluations were made one and three months after conclusion of the treatment. The clinical indices evaluated included duration of morning stiffness, hand-grip strength, activities of daily living, patient's own assessment of disease activity, number of active joints and the Ritchie index. A statistically significant improvement (p less than 0.01 or p less than 0.05) was observed in Group 1 only in most of the clinical indices, lasting between 1 to 3 months.
Article
The responses of various age-groups of psoriatic patients to a four-week period of climatotherapy at the Dead-Sea was compared in three separate studies. In the first study, plaque clearance following climatotherapy was evaluated in a group of 688 psoriatics, as a function of age, sex and duration of the disease. Neither the age of the patient when treated, nor the duration of the disease, appeared to influence the degree of plaque clearance. However, when the age at onset of the disease was evaluated as the comparative parameter-a decrease in the rate of response with increasing patients' age was recorded. In the second study, the type and incidence of side effects after climatotherapy was studied in 502 patients aged over 65, and in more than 4,500 younger psoriatics. There was no difference in the type and frequency of side effects between the two age-groups. The most frequent side effects were: slight sun burn (8.2%), sun allergy (5.0%), common cold (3.4%), leg oedema (2.0%), diarrhea (1.4%) and herpes simplex (0.8%). In all cases the side-effects disappeared within a few days. In the third study, the reduction in the diastolic and systolic blood pressures in a group of 1,142 hypertensive psoriatics was evaluated as a function of time. It was demonstrated that while there was no significant age-dependent difference in lowering their diastolic blood pressure throughout the study, differences in lowering systolic measurements between the younger (< 40 y) and older (> 65 y) hypertensive patients were highly significant. On the basis of these studies we conclude that psoriatics aged 65 and over benefit from climatotherapy at the Dead-Sea no less than younger patients, and that, irrespective of age, high blood pressure is not a contraindication for this treatment in psoriatic patients at the Dead-Sea.
Article
Wyoming montmorillonite (Volclay) with different charges were produced by Li-incorporation and the interlayer cations were replaced by tetramethyl ammonium. Their XRD pattern showed a regular sequence of expanded and collapsed interlayers. The regularly interstratified structure corresponds to a regularity of Reichweite R = 1. The expanded part of the interlayers was calculated by comparing XRD pattern with simulations using NEWMOD software. The calculations of the cation exchange capacity CEC for the expanded interlayer part gives a constant value of 65 +/- 2 mmol/100 g fully swellable montmorillonite. This value is denoted as the lower CEC limit of montmorillonite. We propose a model which considers montmorillonite to be a stacked two-dimensional polyelectrolyte. The model propose that interlayers of the stack collapse spontaneously by cation shifting into the neighboring interlayers, if the charge density of a montmorillonite has a value below the lower CEC value. The shifted cations of the collapsed interlayer increase the charge density in the neighboring interlayers and prevent their collapse. A regularly interstratified structure arises with the sequence expanded/collapsed/expanded interlayer, which can be observed by XRD. The behavior of low charged montmorillonite is explained with the properties of a two-dimensional polyelectrolyte. Below the critical layer charge, the Van der Waals forces dominate over electrostatic repulsive forces and the interlayers collapse. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.
Article
Background About 21% of the patients coming yearly to the DMZ Clinic at the Dead Sea for climatotherapy suffer from atopic dermatitis. This is a common, chronic, and relapsing disease which necessitates drug treatment (topical corticosteroids, antimicrobials, antihistamines, or immunomodulators), phototherapy, or climatotherapy. Objective and methods As the improvement in the condition of patients after 4 weeks of climatotherapy at the Dead Sea is remarkable, we undertook to evaluate the demographic factors that have the strongest impact on this beneficial effect, in adults and children. The major factors studied were: gender, previous medical history, previous stays at the Dead Sea, skin type, skin involvement, age, and duration of treatment. Results A retrospective study of 1718 patients revealed that previous treatments at the Dead Sea and stays longer than 4 weeks caused a clearance greater than 95%, the length of sun exposure was no longer than 5 h daily, and there was no impact of the percentage of skin involvement on the clearance of patients staying more than 4 weeks. Conclusions Climatotherapy of atopic dermatitis at the Dead Sea is a highly effective modality for treating this disease. It is also a highly cost-effective method, as the patients take no medications and experience no side-effects. Successful climatotherapy of atopic dermatitis requires strict medical supervision throughout the whole length of the patient’s stay on shore. Introduction
The Dead Sea: depositional processes and environments of evaporates
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