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Chlorinated hydrocarbons in lichen and moss samples from the Antarctic Peninsula

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Abstract

The concentrations of some chlorinated hydrocarbon residues (HCB, HCH isomers, p,p'DDT and DDE, PCB congeners) in lichen and moss samples from the Antarctic Peninsula are reported and compared with available data from other parts of the world. The use of these materials as indicators of tropospheric contamination levels in Antarctica is discussed.
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... Their use as bioindicator for pesticide pollution is rising gradually (Lim et al. 2006;Tarcau et al. 2013). Moss and lichen was first time used by Bacci et al. (1986) for detection of OCPs Antarctic Peninsula. Successful use of lichen as a bioindicator for OCPs (Villeneuve et al. 1988) detection in Southern France and its correlation with detection of OCPs in industrial areas in Italy and Norway indicates its potential for monitoring of pesticide across the state. ...
... In old formulations of hexachlorocyclohexanes insecticides predominated with α-form, whereas recent, products dominated with γ-isomer (almost 90%). Mosses collected from Antarctica in 1985 (Bacci et al. 1986) indicates the recent arrival of hexachlorocyclohexanes pesticides as it predominance with γ-form. Whereas mosses collected from Antarctica in 1988 and 1999 indicates the old arrival of hexachlorocyclohexanes as αforms were higher than γ-form (Borghini et al. 2005;Focardi et al. 1991). ...
... p,p 0 -DDE and p,p 0 -DDT ratio with value more than 1 indicates the aged DDT, wheras value less than 1 indicates the fresh inputs. p, p 0 -DDE/p,p 0 -DDT ratio is always more than 1 in the mosses collected from Antarctica which can be correlated with fact of banning of DDTs since 1980s for both production and uses (Bacci et al. 1986;Borghini et al. 2005;Cabrerizo et al. 2012). However, a value less than 1 in the mosses collected from some parts of Sinagpore indicates the continous deposits of DDTs though it has been banned in Singapore in 1985 (Lim et al. 2006). ...
Book
This book reviews advanced techniques for the determination of pesticide residues, with focus on extraction, detectors and cleaning protocols. Chapters also discuss pesticide occurrence, toxicity and remediation.
... Their use as bioindicator for pesticide pollution is rising gradually (Lim et al. 2006;Yang et al. 2013;Tarcau et al. 2013). Moss and lichen was first time used by Bacci et al. (1986) for detection of OCPs Antarctic Peninsula. Successful use of lichen as a bioindicator for OCPs (Villeneuve et al. 1988) detection in Southern France and its correlation with detection of OCPs in industrial areas in Italy and Norway indicates its potential for monitoring of pesticide across the state. ...
... In old formulations of hexachlorocyclohexanes insecticides predominated with α-form, whereas recent, products dominated with γ-isomer (almost 90%). Mosses collected from Antarctica in 1985 (Bacci et al. 1986) indicates the recent arrival of hexachlorocyclohexanes pesticides as it predominance with γ-form. Whereas mosses collected from Antarctica in 1988 and 1999 indicates the old arrival of hexachlorocyclohexanes as αforms were higher than γ-form (Borghini et al. 2005;Focardi et al. 1991). ...
... p,p 0 -DDE and p,p 0 -DDT ratio with value more than 1 indicates the aged DDT, wheras value less than 1 indicates the fresh inputs. p, p 0 -DDE/p,p 0 -DDT ratio is always more than 1 in the mosses collected from Antarctica which can be correlated with fact of banning of DDTs since 1980s for both production and uses (Bacci et al. 1986;Borghini et al. 2005;Cabrerizo et al. 2012). However, a value less than 1 in the mosses collected from some parts of Sinagpore indicates the continous deposits of DDTs though it has been banned in Singapore in 1985 (Lim et al. 2006). ...
Chapter
Reducing the economic losses caused by pests, and for improving crop yields, use of pesticides in agriculture is imperative. The continuous use of pesticides in the environment is of great concern as some of them are highly persistant and causes harmful impact on non-target organisms. So, monitoring of them is utmost important for management of pesticide pollution. Among the different monitoring tools for pesticide pollution, use of bioindicator using living organism or its part or group of organisms becoming the technique of choice as this is an inexpensive, specific and easy to handle method. Moreover, number of living organisms could accumulate the pesticides and thus helps in indicating the environmental pesticides pollution.
... Toxic responses to these chemicals, however, have been widely reported in research based on experiments with primarily temperate species under standard test conditions (Bengtson Nash, 2011). It provides the basis for risk assessment for Platt and Mackie, 1980;Subramanian et al., 1983;Bacci et al., 1986;Risebrough et al., 1990;Focardi et al., 1991;Larsson et al., 1992;Caricchia et al., 1995;Kennicutt et al., 1995;Bicego et al., 1996;Fuoco et al., 1996;Inomata et al., 1996;Sen Gupta et al., 1996;Court et al., 1997;Kallenborn et al., 1998;Aislabie et al., 1999;Mazzera et al., 1999;Montone et al., 2001;Corsolini et al., 2002a;Corsolini et al., 2002b;Crockett and White, 2003;Negoita et al., 2003;Montone et al., 2003;Weber and Goerke, 2003;Borghini et al., 2005;Gambaro et al., 2005;Montone et al., 2005;Bustnes et al., 2006;Corsolini et al., 2006;Kim et al., 2006;Negri et al., 2006;Nemirovskaya, 2006;Corsolini et al., 2007;Curtosi et al., 2007;Krahn et al., 2007;Borghesi et al., 2008;Choi et al., 2008;Cincinelli et al., 2008;Geisz et al., 2008;Klánová et al., 2008;Curtosi et al., 2009;Fuoco et al., 2009;Schiavone et al., 2009a;Schiavone et al., 2009b;Stortini et al., 2009;Taniguchi et al., 2009;Yogui and Sericano, 2009;Cipro et al., 2010;Martins et al., 2010;Park et al., 2010;Corsolini et al., 2011;Van den Brink et al., 2011;Cabrerizo et al., 2012;Fuoco et al., 2012;Li et al., 2012;Trumble et al., 2012;Cabrerizo et al., 2013;Kallenborn et al., 2013;Zhang et al., 2013;Cabrerizo et al., 2014;Lana et al., 2014;Dauner et al., 2015;Jara-Carrasco et al., 2015;Vecchiato et al., 2015;Alexander et al., 2017;Mello et al., 2016;Pongpiachan et al., 2017; the basic maps of Antarctica have been obtained from British Antarctic Survey Geodata Portal, http://add.antarctica.ac.uk/repository/). high latitude environments. ...
... In contrast, concentrations of these compounds in mosses and lichens from the western part of Antarctica range from 0.002 to 40 ng/g dw. Microalgae, hair grass, pearl-wort, and green algae are also excellent bioindicators of air pollution of Antarctica (Park et al., 2010;Bacci et al., 1986;Negoita et al., 2003;Cabrerizo et al., 2012;Borghini et al., 2005;Focardi et al., 1991;Montone et al., 2001). ...
Article
This article presents a review of information related to the influence of potential permafrost degradation on the environmental fate of chemical species which are released and stored, classified as potential influence in future Antarctic environment. Considering all data regarding climate change prediction, this topic may prove important issue for the future state of the Antarctic environment. A detailed survey on soil and permafrost data permitted the assumption that this medium may constitute a sink for organic and inorganic pollution (especially for persistent organic pollution, POPs, and heavy metals). The analysis of the environmental fate and potential consequences of the presence of pollutants for the existence of the Antarctic fauna leads to a conclusion that they may cause numerous negative effects (e.g. Endocrine disruptions, DNA damage, cancerogenicity). In the case of temperature increase and enhanced remobilisation processes, this effect may be even stronger, and may disturb natural balance in the environment. Therefore, regular research on the environmental fate of pollution is required, especially in terms of processes of remobilisation from the permafrost reserves.
... Descriptive statistics for PBDE and PCB concentrations in native, transplanted and control moss samples are presented in Tables 1, 2. Comparing our findings for PBDEs with those obtained in a relatively pollution-free region of Antarctica (Bacci et al., 1986;Bargagli et al., 2007;Yogui et al., 2011;Wu et al., 2014) and Svalbard (Zhu et al., 2015), both native and transplanted P. schreberi after 90 days of exposure contained higher ΣPBDE concentrations (Tables 1, 2) than mosses Andreaea regularis, Brachythecium sp., Bryum algens, Drepanocladus aduncus, Sanionia uncinata and Syntrichia princeps presented in Table 3. In addition, concentrations of BDE-28, −47, −99, −153, −154, −183 and −209 in Hylocomium splendens (Table 3) from background sites in Norway (Mariussen et al., 2008b) were lower in comparison with native and transplanted P. schreberi after 90 days of exposure but higher compared with the moss from the control site. ...
... Cabrerizo et al. (2012) presented the PCBs pattern in mosses as dominated by low molecular PCB congeners. According to Knulst et al. (1995) highly chlorinated PCB congeners are mostly accumulated by mosses but heavier congeners may better indicate the proximity of a point source than lighter Table 3 Concentrations of PBDE (pg g −1 ) in moss species presented by Bacci et al. (1986) congeners. Axelman and Broman (2001) report that, nevertheless, PCB concentrations have diminished because production halted in the 1970s, but highly chlorinated congeners such as PCB-153 and −180 may be persistent in the environment with annual rates of decrease of less than 1%. ...
Article
PBDEs and PCBs are toxic, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), and the use of PCBs is forbidden, but they are still present in many environments and biota. 90-day assays were conducted with the moss Pleurozium schreberi transplanted from an uncontaminated control site to ten sites (rural and urban) selected in one of the most polluted regions of Upper Silesia in Poland. Native P. schreberi mosses were collected from the same ten polluted sites. Concentrations of PBDEs (28, 47, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, 154, 183 and 209) and PCBs (28, 52, 101, 118, 138, 153, 180) were determined in all native and transplanted P. schreberi from all sites. Native P. schreberi contained the highest ΣPBDE and ΣPCB levels (63.6 ng g −1 and 4.47 pg g −1 , respectively) when collected in the vicinity of a steel smelter. After 90 days of the experiment native and transplanted P. schreberi contained the highest concentrations of the same BDE 209 congener (88–91% of total PBDEs in the native mosses and 85–90% of the total PBDE burden in the transplants). The native and transplanted mosses from the industrial sites after 90 days of exposure contained significantly higher concentrations of all the examined PBDE and PCB congeners (except for 153 and 180) than mosses from rural sites. PBDE and PCB values were higher in native than in transplanted mosses after 90 days of exposure in both rural and industrial sites.
... However, dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT) and its congeners have been detected in marine organisms in the Southern Ocean since 1966 [1] and the discovery in the late 1970s that chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), mainly produced and used in the Northern Hemisphere, were involved in the recurrent formation of the "ozone hole" over Antarctica [2,3], showed that this remote and isolated region is inextricably linked to global processes and the impact of persistent contaminants released on other continents [4][5][6]. Soon after DDT, many other persistent chemicals, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), were detected in the Antarctic environment and biota [7][8][9][10][11][12]. In the 1990s it was understood why many Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs), neither produced nor applied in Antarctica, can reach the polar regions. ...
Article
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Antarctica and the Southern Ocean are the most remote regions on Earth, and their quite pristine environmental conditions are increasingly threatened by local scientific, tourism and fishing activities and long-range transport of persistent anthropogenic contaminants from lower latitudes. Plastic debris has become one of the most pervasive and ubiquitous synthetic wastes in the global environment, and even at some coastal Antarctic sites it is the most common and enduring evidence of past and recent human activities. Despite the growing scientific interest in the occurrence of microplastics (MPs) in the Antarctic environment, the lack of standardized methodologies for the collection, analysis and assessment of sample contamination in the field and in the lab does not allow us to establish their bioavailability and potential impact. Overall, most of the Southern Ocean appears to be little-affected by plastic contamination, with the exception of some coastal marine ecosystems impacted by wastewater from scientific stations and tourist vessels or by local fishing activities. Microplastics have been detected in sediments, benthic organisms, Antarctic krill and fish, but there is no clear evidence of their transfer to seabirds and marine mammals. Therefore, we suggest directing future research towards standardization of methodologies, focusing attention on nanoplastics (which probably represent the greatest biological risks) and considering the interactions of MPs with macro- and microalgae (especially sea-ice algae) and the formation of epiplastic communities. In coastal ecosystems directly impacted by human activities, the combined exposure to paint chips, metals, persistent organic pollutants (POPs), contaminants of emerging interest (CEI) and pathogenic microorganisms represents a potential danger for marine organisms. Moreover, the Southern Ocean is very sensitive to water acidification and has shown a remarkable decrease in sea-ice formation in recent years. These climate-related stresses could reduce the resilience of Antarctic marine organisms, increasing the impact of anthropogenic contaminants and pathogenic microorganisms.
... Despite being banned since the 1970s, DDT and its derivatives joined circulation in the world and maintained its existence due to its long half-life and environmental persistence [42]. Results of previous studies from the Antarctic Peninsula suggest that while the final degradation product of p,p -DDT (i.e., p,p -DDE) concentrations are increasing, p,p -DDT levels in fish tissue have been relatively decreasing since 1985 [41,[43][44][45] (Table 4). However, in the present study, p,p -DDT, and ∑DDT levels were measured as 4.70 ng/g dw and 34.3 ng/g dw, respectively, whereas their concentrations were found to be 2.14 ng/g lw and 9.95 ng/g lw, respectively, in the muscle tissue of N. coriiceps during 2008-2011 in the Antarctic Peninsula [41] (Table 4). ...
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Full-text available
Sediment, notothenioid fish, and moss samples were collected from the vicinity of Galindez Island, Antarctic Peninsula during the austral autumn of 2016 and 2017. Pesticide, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon (PAH), and dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyl (dl-PCB) concentrations were measured using High-Resolution Gas and Liquid Chromatography. Pollutant concentrations were below detection limits in sediment and moss samples. However, pesticides, PAH, and dl-PCB congeners were detected in the muscle tissue of fishes. Pesticide concentrations varied between 0.46 and 12.2 ng/g-dw, and Mecarbam was the dominant compound. Kresoxim-methyl, Mecarbam, Procymidone, Pyridaben, and Quinoxyfen were reported in the muscle tissue of the fishes, for the first time from the Antarctic. PCB-118, PCB-105, and PCB-156 were dominant dl-PCBs. The ∑12-dl-PCB concentration was 160,929 pg/g-dw, and WHO-TEQ-total dl-PCB was 8.30 pg/g-dw in Trematomus bernachii, over the consumable limit in fishes according to the European Commission. The PCB-126 concentration was 36 pg/g-dw in the muscle tissue of fish, the first reported from the Antarctic. Phenanthrene was the dominant PAH congener. The ∑16-PAH concentration was 22.5 ng/g-dw. PAH sources were local and petrogenic in the fishes, likely after long-term bioaccumulation. The flow rate is rather low around Galindez Island; accordingly, contaminant removal takes time and may demonstrate long-lasting effects including bioaccumulation in the marine food web.
... The mean concentration of HCB accumulated in L. lucidum leaves was 0.057 ± 0.010 ng g −1 dw, which is quite low compared to results reported for others cities like Beijing (2.3 ng g −1 dw in pine needles), a remote region from Slovenia (0.5-0.9 ng g −1 dw in pine needles), Germany (4.1 ng g −1 dw) Antarctica (0.30-2.2 ng g −1 dw in moss and lichens) and other European countries (1.4-30 ng g −1 dw in pine needles). The HCB levels measure in Córdoba city were more similar to those found in pine needles from Tenerife (0.01-0.59 ng g −1 dw) and other European locations (< 0.1 ng g −1 dw in mango leaves) (Bacci et al., 1986;Calamari et al., 1991Calamari et al., , 1994Wenzel et al., 1997;Weiss, 2001;Villa et al., 2003;Xu et al., 2004). It has been mentioned that levels of HCBs in air vegetation have a strong seasonal trend, highly dependant on temperature (Barber et al., 2005 and references therein). ...
Article
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Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have been banned in many countries including Argentina after enforcing the Stockholm Convention in 2014, while other emerging semi-volatile organic contaminants (SVOCs) are considered to enter the list due to their known environmental persistence and toxicity. However, there is still very little information regarding the distribution of these chemicals in the environment in developing countries. To address this issue, we employed leaves of Ligustrum lucidum Ait. as a passive monitor to estimate urban levels of polychlorinated biphenyls, brominated flame retardants and hexachlorobenzene (PCBs, BFRs, and HCB, respectively) considering three different land use areas in Córdoba city (Argentina). We found higher PCB values in urban and industrial areas, which could be attributed to local emission sources as well as a long-range transport of lightweight compound. BFRs were more abundant in the urban areas indicating that their main emission source is the volatilization from polymeric materials. HCB, on the other hand, was equally distributed at the three sampling areas. Overall, POP and SVOC levels were similar or even lower than some other urban environments and even comparable with remote places elsewhere.
... The use of lichens to monitor POPs seems to have started in the 1960's, when Villeneuve and Holm (1984) analysed organochlorinated pesticides, notably HCH, DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), DDD (dichlorodipheny ldichloroethane), DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), and other POPs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the lichen Cladonia alpestris collected in the northern part of Sweden over a 10-year period (from 1961 to 1972). In the following years, a number of several lichens (Hypogymnia physodes, Cladonia rangiferina, Lecanora aspidophora, Umbilicaria propagulifera, Stereocaulon glabrum, Usnea sp., Usnea sulphurea and Usnea barbata) were used to monitor a variety of POPs, including HCH, DDT, DDD, DDE, PCBs, BHC (benzene hexachloride), toxaphene and PAHs in Norway (Carlberg, Ofstad & Drangsholt, 1983), Sweden (Thomas, Rühling & Simon, 1984), Antarctica (Bacci et al., 1986), New Zealand (Herrmann & Baumgartner, 1987, and France (Villeneuve, Fogelqvist & Cattini, 1988). These first studies forewarned of the long-range transport of POPs of anthropogenic origin and opened new perspectives for using lichens to biomonitor airborne compounds. ...
Chapter
Many air pollutants have adverse health effects and negative impact on the ecosystems. However, the regulatory documents require monitoring only for several pollutants: airborne particulate matter (PM), selected toxic elements (As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and Pb) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs, i.e., B[a]P). Better representativeness of the existing networks of the regulatory monitoring is one of the crucial aspects, which could improve air quality assessment. Despite good monitoring practice, current data collection about the level of air pollutants is incomplete. Expensive instrumental monitoring devices require a power supply and permanent maintenance. Thus, the gaps in data of air pollution exist on a local scale, especially under complex conditions of urban topography. Over the past several decades, active biomonitoring using mosses has been investigated as a valuable tool for assessment of air pollution. The mostly used moss bag method involves exposure of moss material within mesh bags at the sampling sites of interest. Moss bags allow high spatial, frequent, and integrated collection of multiple air pollutants, and in a much more cost-effective way than instrumental measurements do. This chapter addresses the state of the art in the field of active moss biomonitoring related to methodological steps of the method and its application for the assessment of airborne pollutants in urban areas. This chapter reviews the papers that refer to the progress made in the investigation of the method in the last ten years. Despite the numerous studies, the method still lacks standard procedure, but also the knowledge about the relation between pollutant concentrations in moss biomonitors and ambient air. Thus, particular moss species, performance parameters, and range of the method application must be established. Standardization of the method would be a crucial step towards its implementation in environmental policy.
... The use of lichens to monitor POPs seems to have started in the 1960's, when Villeneuve and Holm (1984) analysed organochlorinated pesticides, notably HCH, DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane), DDD (dichlorodipheny ldichloroethane), DDE (dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene), and other POPs, such as polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the lichen Cladonia alpestris collected in the northern part of Sweden over a 10-year period (from 1961 to 1972). In the following years, a number of several lichens (Hypogymnia physodes, Cladonia rangiferina, Lecanora aspidophora, Umbilicaria propagulifera, Stereocaulon glabrum, Usnea sp., Usnea sulphurea and Usnea barbata) were used to monitor a variety of POPs, including HCH, DDT, DDD, DDE, PCBs, BHC (benzene hexachloride), toxaphene and PAHs in Norway (Carlberg, Ofstad & Drangsholt, 1983), Sweden (Thomas, Rühling & Simon, 1984), Antarctica (Bacci et al., 1986), New Zealand (Herrmann & Baumgartner, 1987, and France (Villeneuve, Fogelqvist & Cattini, 1988). These first studies forewarned of the long-range transport of POPs of anthropogenic origin and opened new perspectives for using lichens to biomonitor airborne compounds. ...
Chapter
Lichens, symbiosis of fungi and algae and/or cyanobacteria, have been considered outstanding accumulators of atmospheric persistent organic pollutants (POPs). While the alga seems to play an active role in uptake of gas phase compounds, the fungus seems to play a more passive role acting as an accumulator of particle-bound compounds. This dual behaviour is very helpful, as it may work as a 2-in-1 tool to monitor airborne POPs. Attempting to understand the processes involved in the air-to-lichen transfer of POPs, the concentrations in lichens have been related to the ones measured by means of active and passive air samplers. Understanding how POPs reach lichens’ surface, how they enter into the lichen thallus, where inside the lichens they accumulate and how concentrations in lichens relate to levels in air, is the first step to accurately understand the usage of lichens to monitor atmospheric POPs. In this chapter we explore the state-of-the-art of these aspects, as well as providing an overview of the main studies using lichens as biomonitors of POPs, including how lichens have been used for source apportionment.
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Surface sediments were collected from Prydz Bay, Antarctica to investigate the distribution patterns, origins, annual fluxes, and trends of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in the marginal sea of polar areas. The concentrations of OCPs ranged from 0.80 to 7.90 ng/g dry weight, with dichlorodiphenytrichloroethanes (DDTs) as the main components. Levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) and DDTs in sediment from Prydz Bay were comparable to the majority of marine sediment worldwide. The distributions of OCPs were characterized by a distinct “quasi-concentric circle” pattern, which has significantly positive relationship with total organic carbon (TOC) of sediment and controlled by the local hydrodynamic conditions and sources of organic matter. Source apportionment demonstrated that HCHs and chlordanes in Prydz Bay were mainly derived from the long range atmospheric transport (LRAT) of these compounds from off regions. However, current inputs of DDT-based compounds and lindane are suggested to exist either as a result of the LART from the neighbouring countries or re-emission from melting glacier. The annual sedimentary fluxes of OCPs were 0.007 to 7.12 pg/cm²/yr, about one to three orders of magnitude lower than some data from the Arctic areas. Based on a rough calculation of r-HCH, only 0.3–1.5% of the air-seawater net deposition would be buried in sediment, implying a long active lifetime of OCPs in Antarctica. We preliminarily indicate an increase of OCP contamination in Antarctic environment afterwards when considering the possible occurrence of “fresh” sources and low proportion of sedimentary sink.
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The composition of seven technical PCB-mixtures (Aroclor [Monsanto, USA] und Clophen A [Bayer, FRG]) has been investigated by high-resolution thin-film glass capillary gas chromatography with electron-capture detector. Methylpolysiloxane (SE 30) and purified Apiezon L have been used as liquid phases. Identification of the single PCB components has been performed by comparison of their retention indices with those of polychlorinated biphenyls defined by synthesis or with values calculated from retention index increments. For marking the individual PCB compounds a systematic numbering has been used.Die Zusammensetzung sieben technischer Gemische polychlorierter Biphenyle (PCB) mit unterschiedlichem Chlorierungsgrad (Aroclor- [Monsanto, USA] und Clophen A- [Bayer, Bundesrepublik Deutschland]-Typen) wurde mit hochauflsender Gas-Chromatographie mit Elektroneneinfang-Detektion in Dnnfilm-Glascapillaren mit Methylpolysiloxan (SE 30) und gereinigtem Apiezon L als flssiger Phase untersucht. Die Identifizierung der Einzelkomponenten erfolgte durch chromatographischen Vergleich mit definierten Referenzsubstanzen oder Vergleich der aus Inkrementen berechneten Retentionsindices. Fr die Kennzeichnung der Einzelkomponenten wird eine systematische Numerierung entsprechend der Substituentenbezifferung verwendet.
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PAH, PCB and trace metals which originate in the urban and industrial environment, show distinctly higher concentrations in the centre of the town. Towards the edge of the area, PAH concentrations decrease more rapidly than do the PDB levels. Probably PAHs are mainly transported adsorbed on air-borne dust, whereas the greater part of the PCBs is distributed in the gas phase. The chlorinated pesticides reveal no distribution trends as they are emitted from diffuse sources in agriculture and forestry.-from Authors
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The whole-body burdens and concentrations of ΣDDT (the sum of p,p'-DDE and p,p'-DDT) and PCBs in the Weddell seal, Leptonychotes weddelli, caught near Syowa Station, Antarctica, were determined by detailed biometric measurements of their organs and tissues and analyses of ΣDDT and PCBs in them. The concentration levels of ΣDDT and PCBs in Weddell seals were much lower than those in various species of marine mammals from other oceans. The low levels may be attributable to the low concentration of these chemicals in the food of Weddell seals and in the sea water under antarctic fast ice. However, the concentration ratio of ΣDDT between the food organisms of seals and sea water under antarctic fast ice was higher than those of other ocean ecosystems.
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Levels of some chlorinated hydrocarbons in foliage from the Italian peninsula and other countries of the world are reported. The use of plant leaves in monitoring and for a prediction of potential environmental distribution of persistent hydrophobic pollutants is discussed.
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This document is a review of the existing technical literature regarding the physical and biological properties of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and their interaction with the environment. It is intended to be used when evaluating PCB-contaminated soil and the effects of specific environmental conditions on PCB degradation. PCBs are a class of chlorinated aromatic compounds with 209 possible structural arrangements. The composition of PCBs in the environment changes over time due to various physiochemical and biological properties and processes: vapor pressure, solubility, octanol-water partitioning, adsorption, and biodegradation. As the number of chlorine atoms increases, both vapor pressure and water solubility decrease, while adsorption and the octanol-water partitioning coefficient increase. Dechlorination of PCBs occurs primarily through aerobic and anaerobic microbial degradation. Aerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate less-chlorinated PCBs, while anaerobic bacteria preferentially dechlorinate more highly chlorinated PCBs. The less-chlorinated PCB congeners are less persistent in the environment due to volatilization, solubility, and aerobic biodegradation, while the more-chlorinated PCBs are more persistent in the environment due to adsorption. The composition of an original PCB mixture in the environment can be expected to change due to a combination of processes described above. Any attempt to determine the source of PCBs or Aroclors identified in an environment sample must be approached with caution to avoid inaccurate conclusions.
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The air pollution of two major Colombian cities (Medellin and Cali) has been examined by means of 66 samples of the epiphyte Tillandsia recurvata L., which acts as a biofilter. After performing heavy metals (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr), pesticides (BHCs, HCB, dieldrine, endrine, DDTs), PCBs, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH: FA, BaP, IcdP, BghiP) analyses, the results proved the utility of this inconspicuous plant to determine the airborne contamination of both inorganic and organic trace substances. Using principal component analysis, 10 classes of independent pollution sources could be discriminated for both regions: (1) Zn and the PAH, (2) BHCs, endrine and DDTs, (3) Ni and Cr, and (4) to (10) the other contaminants, which resulted to be more or less independent from each other. By means of cluster analysis, 6 to 8 pollutional groups were clustered for heavy metals, pesticides, and PAH separately. The topographic and industrial features of the Cali and Medellin areas are discussed in relation to the regional means of heavy metals, pesticides, and PAH content. While Cali is distinctive of high levels of Pb, Cu, BaP, and pesticides, Medellin is more severely polluted by Zn, Cd, Ni, Cr, FA, and IcdP. In comparison to the southern U.S. and Central Europe, both conglomeration areas appear to be heavily polluted by Zn, Cu, Ni, Cr, and DDTs.