Bioactive constituents in Prunus africana: Geographical variation throughout Africa and associations with environmental and genetic parameters

Kenyatta University, P.O. Box 43844, Nairobi, Kenya.
Phytochemistry (Impact Factor: 2.55). 07/2012; 83:70-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2012.06.001
Source: PubMed


Prunus africana - an evergreen tree found in Afromontane forests - is used in traditional medicine to cure benign prostate hyperplasia. Different bioactive constituents derived from bark extracts from 20 tree populations sampled throughout the species' natural range in Africa were studied by means of GC-MSD. The average concentration [mg/kgw/w] in increasing order was: lauric acid (18), myristic acid (22), n-docosanol (25), ferulic acid (49), β-sitostenone (198), β-sitosterol (490), and ursolic acid (743). The concentrations of many bark constituents were significantly correlated and concentration of n-docosanol was highly significantly correlated with all other analytes. Estimates of variance components revealed the highest variation among populations for ursolic acid (66%) and the lowest for β-sitosterol (20%). In general, environmental parameters recorded (temperature, precipitation, altitude) for the samples sites were not correlated with the concentration of most constituents; however, concentration of ferulic acid was significantly correlated with annual precipitation. Because the concentration of compounds in bark extracts may be affected by tree size, the diameter of sampled plants at 1.3m tree height (as proxy of age) was recorded. The only relationship with tree diameter was a negative correlation with ursolic acid. Under the assumption that genetically less variable populations have less variable concentrations of bark compounds, correlations between variation parameters of the concentration and the respective genetic composition based on chloroplast and nuclear DNA markers were assessed. Only variation of β-sitosterol concentration was significantly correlated with haplotypic diversity. The fixation index (F(IS)) was positively correlated with the variation in concentration of ferulic acid. Principal Components Analysis (PCA) indicated a weak geographic pattern. Mantel tests, however, revealed associations between the geographic patterns of bioactive constituents and the phylogenetic relationship among the populations sampled. This suggests an independent evolution of bark metabolism within different phylogeographical lineages, and the molecular phylogeographic pattern is partly reflected in the variation in concentration of bark constituents. The results have important implications for the design of strategies for the sustainable use and conservation of this important African tree species.

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Available from: Vivienne L. Williams
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    • "Ursolic acid and uvaol are ursane-type pentacyclic triterpenes widely distributed in different plant parts of medicinal and food species[28,29]. These compounds have been identified in several species of the genus Prunus3031323334, and particularly our working group isolated ursolic acid from the leaves of P. serotina[25]. According to the total weight obtained, the percentages of ursolic acid and uvaol are approximately 0.04% and 0.02%, respectively. "
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    ABSTRACT: The present research aimed to isolate the non-polar secondary metabolites that produce the vasodilator effects induced by the dichloromethane extract of Prunus serotina (P. serotina) fruits and to determine whether the NO/cGMP and the H₂S/KATP channel pathways are involved in their mechanism of action. A bioactivity-directed fractionation of the dichloromethane extract of P. serotina fruits led to the isolation of ursolic acid and uvaol as the main non-polar vasodilator compounds. These compounds showed significant relaxant effect on rat aortic rings in an endothelium- and concentration-dependent manner, which was inhibited by NG-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME), dl-propargylglycine (PAG) and glibenclamide (Gli). Additionally, both triterpenes increased NO and H₂S production in aortic tissue. Molecular docking studies showed that ursolic acid and uvaol are able to bind to endothelial NOS and CSE with high affinity for residues that form the oligomeric interface of both enzymes. These results suggest that the vasodilator effect produced by ursolic acid and uvaol contained in P. serotina fruits, involves activation of the NO/cGMP and H₂S/KATP channel pathways, possibly through direct activation of NOS and CSE.
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    • "During the last century, most of the Afromontane forests have been cleared and only a very small proportion of the original vegetation remains (Teketay and Granström 1995). Besides timber and numerous traditional medicinal uses of this species, its bark extracts are commercially used to treat benign prostatic hyperplasia (Kadu et al. 2012, and references therein). Bark is especially exploited in Cameroon and Madagascar (Cunningham and Mbenkum 1993; Cunningham et al. 1997). "
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    ABSTRACT: We studied the genetic pattern of 21 Ethiopian populations of Prunus africana by using six nuclear and five plastid microsatellites. In total, 89 alleles were found in the nuclear and 16 haplotypes in the plastid genome. High levels of diversity both in cpSSRs (h T = 0.703) and nSSR (H T = 0.725) were detected. Genetic differentiation among populations at the nuclear and plastid level was moderate (F ST = 0.122 vs. G ST = 0.478). While Ethiopian populations harbored the highest plastid haplotype diversity throughout Africa, the level of nuclear diversity was lower than in the remaining part of the species’ range. Ten of the observed 16 plastid haplotypes were unique to Ethiopia, suggesting an isolated plastid evolution. Remarkably, all plastid haplotypes found in Ethiopia belonged to one single lineage, while other populations from East Africa and Madagascar contain haplotypes from up to four more divergent lineages. This suggests that in contrast to previous expectations, the Horn of Africa is a hot spot of plastid diversity but not the ancestral origin for present populations of P. africana. The ratio between pollen to seed flow was estimated to be 7.1, indicating predominant gene flow by pollen. The exhaustive pollen flow also facilitated gene exchange with West African nuclear lineages probably in the early Holocene. The Ethiopian rift formed a genetic barrier resulting in population differentiation east and west of the rift; however, it was less effective in disrupting gene flow than the Eastern Rift in more southern parts of the East African range.
    Full-text · Article · Dec 2015 · Tree Genetics & Genomes
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    • "Prunus africana (Hook.f.) Kalman commonly known as Pygeum, is a large tree which grows in the afromontane forests between 1500 and 3000 m asl (Betti and Ambara, 2013). It is mainly used for the healing properties of its bark extracts, against benign prostatic hyperplasia (Kadu et al., 2012). Global demand of P. africana's bark is estimated at more than 4000 t per year for a value of finished goods estimated at U.S. $220 million (Cunningham et al., 2002) and one of the main sources of supply to satisfy this demand consists of Cameroon natural populations (Nsawir and Ingram, 2007). "

    Full-text · Article · Aug 2015 · AFRICAN JOURNAL OF BIOTECHNOLOGY
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