Hindawi Publishing Corporation
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Volume 2012, Article ID 560682, 8pages
Protective Mechanisms of Green Tea Polyphenols in Skin
Patricia OyetakinWhite,1Heather Tribout,1and Elma Baron1, 2
1Department of Dermatology, University Hospitals Case Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106-5028, USA
2Department of Dermatology, Louis Stokes Cleveland Veterans Aﬀairs Medical Center, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
Correspondence should be addressed to Elma Baron, firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 9 February 2012; Accepted 25 April 2012
Academic Editor: Luciano Pirola
Copyright © 2012 Patricia OyetakinWhite et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly
Skin is frequently exposed to a variety of environmental, chemical, and genotoxic agents that contribute to disease and
carcinogenesis. Ultraviolet light (UVR) is the main external stress that leads to immunosuppresion, oxidative stress, premature
aging, and tumor formation. Scientists and health professionals emphasize the importance of prevention strategies to circumvent
such unfavorable outcomes. Plant polyphenols are a promising approach to disease prevention and treatment. Green tea is an
abundant source of plant polyphenols that exhibit signiﬁcant antioxidant, chemopreventive, and immunomodulatory eﬀects in
protecting the skin.
Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is a major environmental source
of damage to the skin. Its eﬀect on the skin’s biology
and immune system plays a major role in photoaging,
inﬂammation and carcinogenesis . Approximately 3.5
million skin cancers are diagnosed annually in the United
States and the incidence of nonmelanoma (NMSC) increased
dramatically from 1996 to 2006 . The morbidity and
economic burden of this malignancy is signiﬁcant as the
estimated total direct costs for treatment of NMSC and
melanoma are $1.5 billion and $249 million, respectively [3,
4]. Sun avoidance, regular use of sunscreen, and protective
clothing are the recommended methods of preventing UVR-
induced damage but patient compliance is a major challenge.
For example, a recent study by Buller and colleagues surveyed
4837 adult skiers and snowboarders about their sunscreen
use and reapplication. Only 4.4% of adults were compliant
with the recommended guidelines of applying sunscreen up
to 30 minutes before sun exposure and reapplication every
2hours. Therefore there is a need to identify additional
photoprotection strategies to engage the community at-large
about the importance and beneﬁts of sun protection.
In the last few decades there has been a dramatic increase
in the use of plant and herbal supplements as people are
seeking diﬀerent methods of disease prevention . Green
tea consumption has become a popular trend in western
cultures as its beneﬁcial eﬀects in human disease have shown
promising results. Scientists searching for alternatives to
preventing and treating disease have recognized its powerful
beneﬁcial eﬀects in many organ systems. Green tea extracts
were found to be eﬀective at suppressing environmentally
induced breast cancer , inhibiting T lymphocyte expan-
sion in autoimmune diseases , and suppressing inﬂam-
matory responses in coronary vessels in rodent experiments
. Favorable results have also been demonstrated in skin
disease and carcinogenesis. Recent in vitro and in vivo animal
and human skin studies also showed its anti-inﬂammatory,
antioxidant, photoprotective, and chemopreventative eﬀects
after topical application and oral consumption [10–14]. This
review will discuss the chemical properties of green tea
that make it eﬀective in skin biology and immunology and
how its mechanisms of action play a role in antioxidant,
photoprotective and chemopreventative functions in the
Polyphenols are naturally occurring chemicals derived from
plants, fruits, nuts, and vegetables. They have been proven to
2Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
(a) (−)-Epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG)
(b) (−)-Epigallocatechin (EGC)
(c) (−)-Epicatechin (EC)
(d) (−)-Epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG)
Figure 1: Structure of green tea polyphenols.
have many beneﬁcial health beneﬁts. Being widely abundant
and relatively inexpensive, the use of polyphenols is highly
attractive to researchers as a strategy for a cost-eﬀective
alternative to current pharmacologic therapeutics . Tea
is an important dietary source of plant polyphenols and next
to water it is the second most commonly consumed beverage
in the world. It is produced mainly from a single plant species
Camellia sinensis. The tea plant originated in Southeast Asia
over 4,000 years ago and is currently produced in over 35
countries with China, India, Sri Lanka, and Kenya generating
three-quarters of the world’s production. The six diﬀerent
types of tea (white, yellow, green, oolong, black, and post fer-
mented teas) are categorized based on the wilting and enzy-
matic oxidization that takes place during processing .
There are three main types of polyphenols (ﬂavonoids,
stilbenes, and lignans) that are classiﬁed by the num-
ber of phenol rings they contain and the binding
properties of the ring structures. The phenol rings
are comprised of phenyl and hydroxyl group struc-
tures that possess anti-inﬂammatory, immunomodulatory
and antioxidant properties . Each class of polyphe-
nols can be further subclassiﬁed by the interactions of
their respective phenyl rings to carbon, oxygen, and
organic acid molecules . This creates the huge diver-
sity of polyphenol compounds that can be found in
many naturally occurring food products. Flavonoids are
divided into 6 subclasses: ﬂavonols, ﬂavones, isoﬂavones,
ﬂavanones, anthocyanidins, and ﬂavanols. Majority of
the green tea polyphenols (GTPPs) are monomeric ﬂa-
vanols called catechins. The four main catechin com-
pounds are (−)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), (−)-
epigallocatechin (EGC), (−)-epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG),
and (−)-epicatechin (EC) (Figure 1). EGCG is the most
abundant and extensively studied catechin with potent
therapeutic eﬀects in skin.
3. Skin Damaging Effects of Ultraviolet Light
Sunlight is an important source of energy to sustain life.
However, except for vitamin D synthesis, it has several
harmful eﬀects to the skin. Solar UVR can be divided into
three categories based on wavelength: UVA (320–400 nm),
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 3
UVB (280–320 nm), and UVC (<280 nm). High energy short
wavelength UVC (<280 nm) and a portion of UVB (280–
295 nm) are absorbed by the ozone layer and atmosphere;
therefore it does not reach the Earth’s surface where it is
capable of causing extreme damage to DNA and biomolec-
ular molecules . Longer wavelength UVB (295–320 nm)
makes up only 5–10% of atmospheric UVR but it has been
implicated in a variety of skin diseases, nonmelanoma and
melanoma skin cancers. DNA is a chromophore for UVB
and this direct interaction produces cyclobutane pyrimidine
dimers (CPD) and pyrimidine-pyrimidone (6–4) mutagenic
photoproducts that lead to tumor initiation and tumor pro-
motion [20–22]. UVB also has indirect detrimental eﬀects
on the skin’s immune system, oxidative stress responses, and
UVA radiation is far more abundant (90%) and pene-
trates much deeper into the epidermis and dermis of the
skin. It is weakly absorbed by DNA but reacts with other
nonDNA chromophores that lead to the formation of ROS
which damage DNA, proteins, and lipids in the skin [24–
26]. Singlet molecular oxygen produced by UVA targets
DNA base guanine producing 8-oxo-7,8-dihydroguanine (8-
odHG) which is an important marker of oxidative stress [27,
28]. With the increased use of high-intensity UVA tanning
booths and UVB-absorbing sunscreens, human exposure
to UVA has become a public health concern . UVA-
induced mutagenesis is still an area of debate; however, it
is clear it plays a signiﬁcant role in producing bipyrimidine
photoproducts that have genotoxic eﬀects . In vivo
human studies have also demonstrated the immunosuppres-
sive eﬀects of UVA and its increasing role in carcinogenesis
. In order to avoid potential mutations, UVR-induced
DNA lesions are repaired by nucleotide excision repair
(NER) and base excision repair (BER) mechanisms before
DNA replication occurs. Additionally, stress signals created
by UVR trigger protective signaling responses in the cell
membrane, nucleus, and mitochondria that lead to cell cycle
arrest or apoptosis [32–34]. Chronic and excessive UVR
exposure overwhelms and depletes these cutaneous defense
mechanisms. Therefore, compounds with antioxidant and
cell repair potential are promising additions to our sun
4. Oral Consumption and Topical
Application of GTPP
Human and animal studies using both topical and oral
preparations of GTPP have shown signiﬁcant protective
eﬀects against UV-induced skin damage and immunosup-
pression. As an external organ system, skin allows for direct
pharmacological intervention with topical products. This
mode of delivery also minimizes the potential for systemic
toxicity. Topical application of EGCG in a hydrophilic
ointment demonstrated better photoprotective properties
versus oral consumption in mice . In this in vivo study,
topical application provided signiﬁcantly greater beneﬁt
against UVB irradiation-induced depletion of antioxidant
enzymes and signaling protein phosphorylation. These pho-
toprotective functions of GTPP may be mediated through
interactions with inﬂammatory signaling molecules. Upon
UVR exposure Interleukin-12 (IL-12) is known to enhance
NER enzyme activity in keratinocytes . Meeran et al.
proposed an IL-12-dependent mechanism of DNA repair
by topically applied EGCG . In this study, UV-induced
suppression of CHS responses was maintained in IL-12
knockout mice in comparison to wild type mice. Subcuta-
neous injection with IL-12 three hours prior to UV exposure
in the IL-12 knockout mice diminished the amount of CPD
positive cells produced in contrast to the untreated group.
Earlier studies using topical and orally consumed GTPP in
mice decreased UVR-induced carcinogenesis, by inhibiting
the activity of chemical tumor initiators and promoters [38–
Recent studies by Katiyar et al. demonstrated a dose-
dependent decrease in UVR-induced immunosuppression
via contact hypersensitivity response (CHS) to 2, 4-
dinitroﬂuorobenzene in mice that were fed puriﬁed GTE
. This decrease in immunosuppression was persistent
4 weeks after resumption of a normal liquid diet in the
animals. The authors further demonstrated that GTPs in
drinking water of UV-irradiated mice reduced the migration
of CPD positive cells to lymph nodes and improved the
NER mechanisms. Similar results were seen in adult human
subjects that ingested 7.5 mg of pure (commercially avail-
able) green tea brewed in 540 mL of boiling water. There
was a signiﬁcant decrease in UVR-induced DNA damage
ofperipheralwhitebloodcells[42,43]. Human studies
using topically applied GTPP prior to exposure with 2-MED
of SSR demonstrated a decrease in SSR-induced erythema,
DNA damage, Langerhans cell damage, and production of 8-
OHdG in healthy human subjects [44,45].
5. Toxicity of GTPP
In general, GTPP has been shown to be well tolerated in
animal and human trials. Topical preparations have the
least harmful eﬀects with minor irritation being the most
signiﬁcant ﬁnding ; however, adverse eﬀects of oral
consumption have been demonstrated. In a 9-month chronic
study in fasting Beagle dogs, oral ingestion of green tea
extract capsules caused unexpected morbidity and mortality
(16 deaths out of 24 treated animals) in the treated versus
control group resulting in early termination of the study
group . Clinical signs of toxicity, weight loss were
observed as early by day 9 of this chronic study group
with fasting animals. Follow-up studies by the authors
demonstrated more favorable results when the green tea
capsules were administered in a fed state. Although the exact
mechanism of the toxicity was not determined, the authors
suggested gastrointestinal irritation, organ, and hematologic
evidence of immune-mediated hemolysis may have played a
role in the toxicity of ingesting a capsular form of the green
tea extracts. Studies by Isbrucker et al., where mice were fed
liquid and powered puriﬁed green tea extracts, did not show
any genotoxic eﬀects .
In vitro culture experiments by Navarro-Peran et al.
showed that EGCG inhibits the activity of dihydrofo-
late reductase (DHFR) which is an important enzyme
4Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
in nucleotide biosynthesis . The authors suggested
that this eﬀective inhibition provides evidence for EGCG’s
chemotherapeutic mechanism of action. Their results pro-
vide an interesting insight into the reported association of
maternal tea consumption and neural tube defects .
There are a limited number of published studies showing
this teratogenic eﬀect especially given the large amount of
tea consumed globally. Experiments evaluating reproductive
and developmental toxicity of EGCG in rats did not show
teratogenic eﬀects .
6. Antioxidant Activity of GTPP in Skin
The skin has a complex defense system to deal with harmful
environmental and chemical substances but excessive or
chronic exposure can overwhelm the system leading to
oxidative stress and oxidative damage. In cells, reactive oxy-
gen species (ROS) are formed during the energy-producing
process of reducing molecular oxygen to water. These are
superoxide radicals (O2
•−), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and
hydroxyl radical (•OH). An overproduction of ROS depletes
physiologic ROS-scavenging enzymes (superoxide dismu-
tase, and catalase) which cause damage to proteins, lipids,
and DNA  that contribute to skin diseases, immunosup-
pression, and development of skin cancer. GTPPs have been
shown to be eﬀective in curbing these harmful eﬀects because
their chemical structures can chelate metal ions and decrease
free radical damage to cellular structures [53,54].
Photoaging is caused by chronic UV exposure. In vitro
studies using cultured human skin ﬁbroblasts pretreated with
GTPP showed a decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-
induced ROS. In this study, the authors demonstrated
the ability of GTPP to improve ﬁbroblast cell shape and
absolute cell numbers when compared to control groups
. To assess the eﬀect of GTE on lipid peroxidation
(LPO), Jorge et al. conducted an in vitro assay using
liposomal phophatidylcholine structure. They demonstrated
a signiﬁcant decrease in the concentration of hydroperoxides
after a 3-hour reaction with an oxidative compound .
The inhibitory eﬀect of GTPP on hydrogen peroxide
formation and cell signaling is paramount to its antioxidant
properties. There are few in vivo human studies demonstrat-
ing this protective event. In 2001, Katiyar and colleagues
demonstrated this protective eﬀect in adult human volun-
teers exposed to a single dose of (4xMED) UV irradiation
prior to topical EGCG administration . These authors
conﬁrmed what is already known about EGCG inhibition
of UV-induced H2O2, NO and LPO production. They also
demonstrated blockage of UV-induced inﬁltration of ROS-
producing CD11b+cells and restoration of epidermal
antioxidant enzymes reduced glutathione, catalase, and
7. Mechanism of Action of GTPP
Mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs) are a group
of serine/threonine proteins that are involved in cellular
functions in the skin including cell growth, diﬀerentiation,
proliferation, and apoptosis . These proteins include
extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERK), c-Jun NH2-
terminal kinases (JNK), and p38. MAPK signaling cascades
and downstream eﬀectors are triggered in response to UVR-
induced oxidative and genotoxic stress. The activity of
GTPP is likely due to free radical scavenging activity that
prevents MAPK activation. Topical application of GTPP in
SKH-1 hairless mice showed inhibition of UVB-induced
phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 expression .
These results were also seen in human dermal ﬁbroblasts
where EGCG inhibited the UVB-induced activation of these
downstream eﬀector pathways . Bae et al. also demon-
strated the attenuation of nuclear transcription factors c-
Jun, p53, and c-fos within 30 mins of UVB irradiation
of the cultured cells. UVB-generated hydrogen peroxide
stimulates membrane epidermal growth factor receptors
(EGFRs) that activate ERK proteins which contribute to
cell proliferation and diﬀerentiation that may be involved
in tumor promotion . Pretreatment of normal human
epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) with EGCG prior to UVB
exposure inhibited H2O2production and phosphorylation of
ERK1/2, JNK, and p38 proteins . Green tea extracts have
been implicated in immunoregulatory signaling functions.
Rodent experiments by Kim et al. demonstrated a dose-
dependent decrease in histamine production by peritoneal
mast cells incubated with GTPP . Further experiments by
these authors proposed that the altered histamine release was
due to a GTE-mediated decrease in cAMP and calcium levels
which led to a NFκB and p38 MAPK-dependent inhibition
of proinﬂammatory cytokines, TNF-αand IL-6. Tabl e 1 lists
the major cellular and molecular targets of GTPP on normal
8. Role of GTPP in Chemoprevention
Cancer remains the second leading cause of death in the
United States . Studies have shown that 30–40% of all
cases of cancers can be prevented by combining a healthy
diet, exercise, and maintaining a healthy body weight, and
more than 20% of all cases of cancer can be prevented
just by consuming an ample and varied amount of fruits
and vegetables [15,63]. EGCG has been shown to inhibit
tumor invasion and angiogenesis thereby preventing tumor
growth and metastasis . Dermatologists are considerably
interested in green tea polyphenols (GTPP) as preventative
products for skin cancer, as their use have shown promising
Skin cancer is the most common of all cancers; however
it is very preventable and curable if diagnosed early. Chronic
exposure to UVR is the key factor in initiating skin cancer.
UVB radiation induces both direct and indirect biologic
eﬀects, including multiple eﬀects on the immune system,
inducing oxidative stress, and damaging DNA, all in which
play an important role in the generation and maintenance of
neoplasms . In vitro and in vivo systems have both shown
the protective eﬀects from polyphenols on the biochemical
processes that are induced or mediated by UV radiation,
suggesting that routine use of polyphenols both topically and
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 5
Tab le 1: Summary of eﬀects of green tea polyphenols on skin.
GTPP protective eﬀect Cellular and/molecular response References
Inhibits UVB-induced MAPK activation and phosphorylation of ERK1/2, JNK
and p38. [51–54,57]
Attenuates nuclear transcription factors, c-Jun p53, and c-fos
Free radical scavenging activity
Inhibits NOS, H2O2production
Prevents UVB-induced depletion of antioxidant enzymes: catalase, glutathione
peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione
Inhibits UVB-induced LPO and protein oxidation
Prevents UV-induced depletion of CD1a + LC and APC Inhibits UV-
induced inﬁltration of monocytes, macrophages, neutrophils
Protects UVB-induced immunosuppression via IL-12 production
↓in histamine release by mast cells
Inhibits DNA damage.
Inhibits UV-induced CPD, 8-OHdG formation
DNA repair enzyme activation
Modulates transcriptions factors AP1, NFKB
Inhibits tumor growth, progression and angiogenesis
LC: langerhans cells; LPO: lipid peroxidase; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; NOS: nitric oxide synthase.
orally may provide eﬀective protection against UV radiation
and ultimately skin cancer .
Polyphenols are shown to possess anti-inﬂammatory,
immunomodulatory, and antioxidant properties . EGCG
and green tea extract are non-toxic for humans and have a
wide range of target organs making it signiﬁcantly diﬀerent
than the standard form of preventative cancer drugs. Not
only is EGCG widely distributed throughout the body, but
studies also show that multiple oral administrations causes a
synergistic eﬀect leading to higher concentrations of EGCG
in the cells. This eﬀect was ﬁrst seen in a study involving
mice, where 3H-EGCG was administered and measured in
the excretions. 24 hours after the intubation, radioactivity
was still found in multiple organs including the skin.
After multiple administrations of 3H-EGCG, radioactivity
increased 4–9 times in most organs, suggesting that routine
consumption or topical treatment may provide eﬃcient
protection against UV radiation in humans. These results
eventually led to a study in humans, where researchers looked
at green tea consumption and the average age of cancer
onset. Cancer onset of male patients consuming more than
10 cups of green tea was approximately 3.2 years later than
male patients who consumed less than 10 cups of green
tea per day, and cancer onset for women drinking more
results allowed researchers to determine the eﬀective cancer
preventative amount to be approximately 10 Japanese-size
cups (120 mL/cup) of green tea per day, which is equivalent
to about 2.5 g of green tea extract . Another study
observed that regular intake of EGCG increased the minimal
dose of radiation required to induce erythema, suggesting
that the EGCG is able to strengthen the skin’s tolerance by
inhibiting the UV-induced skin damage from the radiation
. From these ﬁndings it can be seen that orally consumed
EGCG has two diﬀerent mechanisms of action and can act
as both a chemopreventive and photochemopreventive drug;
it can protect the body by suppressing, slowing down, and
reversing the process of carcinogenesis, as well as protecting
the skin from damaging radiation caused by harmful UVB
As mentioned before, UVB radiation induces oxidative
stress and DNA damage, and also aﬀects the immune system.
In separate experiments, it has been shown that topical
treatments containing EGCG signiﬁcantly inhibits acute or
chronic UV irradiation-induced protein oxidation in the
skin of mice, suggesting that GTTP’s may be able to reduce
photo damage in the skin and prevent premature aging
[45,65,67]. Another study showed that the pretreatment of
mouse skin with EGCG inhibited UVB-induced inﬁltration
of leukocytes, speciﬁcally CD11b+cells in the skin which
mediate UV-induced immunosuppression. These inﬁltrating
leukocytes can be a potential source of H2O2and NO which
play important roles in initiating and promoting tumor cells.
Less damage to the epidermal structure of the mouse skin
was also observed with the topical application of EGCG
before being exposed to UVB light. The data collected
in this study demonstrated the potent preventative eﬀects
of topical EGCG in mice against UV radiation-induced
inﬁltration of leukocytes, suggesting that GTTP’s may have
preventative eﬀects against the development of skin cancer
in humans . Inﬂammatory responses are implicated in
skin disease, tumorigenesis, and tumor metastasis. EGCG
eﬀectively inhibited human melanoma cell culture growth by
decreasing IL-1βsecretion and NFκBactivity.
9. Concluding Remarks
As discussed in this paper, GTPPs have important antiox-
idant, immunomodulatory, and photoprotective functions.
6Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Their ability to modulate critical biochemical functions
through topical and oral formulations makes GTPPs a
promising candidate for chemoprevention and treatment of
disease. Future collaborative studies are needed to clarify
optimum dosing amounts that will provide therapeutic
Conﬂict of Interests
The authors declare no conﬂict of interests.
 J. Hildesheim and A. J. Fornace, “The dark side of light: the
damaging eﬀects of UV rays and the protective eﬀorts of MAP
kinase signaling in the epidermis,” DNA Repair, vol. 3, no. 6,
pp. 567–580, 2004.
 H. W. Rogers, M. A. Weinstock, A. R. Harris et al., “Incidence
estimate of nonmelanoma skin cancer in the United States,
2006,” Archives of Dermatology, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 283–287,
of skin diseases: 2004. A joint project of the American
Academy of Dermatology Association and the Society for
Investigative Dermatology,” Journal of the American Academy
of Dermatology, vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 490–500, 2006.
 A. M. Seidler, M. L. Pennie, E. Veledar, S. D. Culler, and S.
C. Chen, “Economic burden of melanoma in the elderly pop-
ulation: population-based analysis of the Surveillance, Epi-
demiology, and End Results (SEER)-medicare data,” Archives
of Dermatology, vol. 146, no. 3, pp. 249–256, 2010.
 D. B. Buller, P. A. Andersen, B. J. Walkosz et al., “Compliance
with sunscreen advice in a survey of adults engaged in outdoor
winter recreation at high-elevation ski areas,” Journal of the
American Academy of Dermatology, vol. 66, no. 1, pp. 63–70,
Anderson, and A. A. Mitchell, “Recent trends in use of herbal
and other natural products,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol.
165, no. 3, pp. 281–286, 2005.
 K. Rathore and H.-C. R. Wang, “Green tea catechin extract in
intervention of chronic breast cell carcinogenesis induced by
environmental carcinogens,” Molecular Carcinogenesis, vol. 51,
no. 3, pp. 280–289, 2012.
 D. Wu, J. Wang, M. Pae, and S. N. Meydani, “Green tea EGCG,
T cells, and T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases,” Molecular
Aspects of Medicine, vol. 33, no. 1, pp. 107–118, 2012.
 C. L. Shen, C. Samathanam, O. L. Tatum et al., “Green tea
polyphenols avert chronic inﬂammation-induced myocardial
ﬁbrosis of female rats,” Inﬂammation Research, vol. 60, no. 7,
pp. 665–672, 2011.
 J. I. Silverberg, J. Jagdeo, M. Patel, D. Siegel, and N. Brody,
“Green tea extract protects human skin ﬁbroblasts from
reactive oxygen species induced necrosis,” Journal of Drugs in
Dermatology, vol. 10, no. 10, pp. 1096–1101, 2011.
 D. S. Domingo, M. M. Camouse, A. H. Hsia et al., “Anti-
angiogenic eﬀects of epigallocatechin-3-gallate in human
skin,” International Journal of Clinical and Experimental
Pathology, vol. 3, no. 7, pp. 705–709, 2010.
 Y.-H. Hong, E. Y. Jung, K.-S. Shin et al., “Photoprotective
eﬀects of a formulation containing tannase-converted green
tea extract against UVB-induced oxidative stress in hairless
mice,” Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology, vol. 166, no. 1,
pp. 165–175, 2012.
 T. Singh and S. K. Katiyar, “Green tea catechins reduce
invasive potential of human melanoma cells by targeting COX-
2, PGE2receptors and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition,”
PLoS ONE, vol. 6, no. 10, Article ID e25224, 2011.
 J. D. Liu, S. H. Chen, C. L. Lin, S. H. Tsai, and Y. C. Liang,
“Inhibition of melanoma growth and metastasis by combi-
nation with (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate and dacarbazine in
mice,” Journal of Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 83, no. 4, pp. 631–
 A. R. M. R. Amin, O. Kucuk, F. R. Khuri, and D. M. Shin,
“Perspectives for cancer prevention with natural compounds,”
Journal of Clinical Oncology, vol. 27, no. 16, pp. 2712–2725,
 H. N. Graham, “Green tea composition, consumption, and
polyphenol chemistry,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 21, no. 3, pp.
“Polyphenols and health: what compounds are involved?”
Nutrition, Metabolism and Cardiovascular Diseases, vol. 20, no.
1, pp. 1–6, 2010.
 C. Manach, A. Scalbert, C. Morand, C. R´
esy, and L.
enez, “Polyphenols: food sources and bioavailability,”
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 79, no. 5, pp. 727–
 F. R. De Gruijl, “Skin cancer and solar UV radiation,” European
Journal of Cancer, vol. 35, no. 14, pp. 2003–2009, 1999.
 D. L. Mitchell, “The relative cytotoxicity of (6-4) pho-
toproducts and cyclobutane dimers in mammalian cells,”
Photochemistry and Photobiology, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 51–57,
 G. A. Garinis, J. R. Mitchell, M. J. Moorhouse et al., “Tran-
scriptome analysis reveals cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers as
a major source of UV-induced DNA breaks,” The EMBO
Journal, vol. 24, no. 22, pp. 3952–3962, 2005.
 L. Wang, V. S. Shirure, M. M. Burdick, and S. Wu, “UVB-
irradiation regulates VLA-4-mediated melanoma cell adhe-
sion to endothelial VCAM-1 under ﬂow conditions,” Molec-
ular Carcinogenesis, vol. 50, no. 1, pp. 58–65, 2011.
 S. L. Walker and A. R. Young, “An action spectrum (290-320
nm) for TNFαprotein in human skin in vivo suggests that
basal-layer epidermal DNA is the chromophore,” Proceedings
of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of
America, vol. 104, no. 48, pp. 19051–19054, 2007.
 E. Sage, P.-M. Girard, and S. Francesconi, “Unravelling UVA-
induced mutagenesis,” Photochemical and Photobiological Sci-
ences, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 74–80, 2012.
 T. M. R¨
unger and U. P. Kappes, “Mechanisms of mutation
formation with long-wave ultraviolet light (UVA),” Photoder-
matology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine,vol.24,no.1,
pp. 2–10, 2008.
 F. R. De Gruijl, “Photocarcinogenesis: UVA vs. UVB radia-
tion,” Skin Pharmacology and Applied Skin Physiology, vol. 15,
no. 5, pp. 316–320, 2002.
 J. Cadet, T. Douki, J. L. Ravanat, and P. Di Mascio, “Sensitized
formation of oxidatively generated damage to cellular DNA
by UVA radiation,” Photochemical and Photobiological Sciences,
vol. 8, no. 7, pp. 903–911, 2009.
 J. Cadet and T. Douki, “Oxidatively generated damage to
DNA by UVA radiation in cells and human skin,” Journal of
Investigative Dermatology, vol. 131, no. 5, pp. 1005–1007, 2011.
M. Spencer, and R. Bhushan, “Adverse eﬀects of ultraviolet
Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity 7
radiation from the use of indoor tanning equipment: time to
ban the tan,” Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology,
vol. 64, no. 5, pp. 893–902, 2011.
 T. Douki, A. Reynaud-Angelin, J. Cadet, and E. Sage,
“Bipyrimidine photoproducts rather than oxidative lesions are
the main type of DNA damage involved in the genotoxic eﬀect
of solar UVA radiation,” Biochemistry, vol. 42, no. 30, pp.
 E. D. Baron, A. Fourtanier, D. Compan, C. Medaisko, K. D.
Cooper, and S. R. Stevens, “High ultraviolet A protection
aﬀords greater immune protection conﬁrming that ultraviolet
A contributes to photoimmunosuppression in humans,” Jour-
nal of Investigative Dermatology, vol. 121, no. 4, pp. 869–875,
 N. Pustiˇ
sek and M. ˇ
Situm, “Uv-radiation, apoptosis and skin,”
 R. P. Rastogi, K. A. Richa, M. B. Tyagi, and R. P. Sinha, “Molec-
ular mechanisms of ultraviolet radiation-induced DNA dam-
age and repair,” Journal of Nucleic Acids, vol. 2010, Article ID
592980, 32 pages, 2010.
 S. Courdavault, C. Baudouin, M. Charveron et al., “Repair of
the three main types of bipyrimidine DNA photoproducts in
human keratinocytes exposed to UVB and UVA radiations,”
DNA Repair, vol. 4, no. 7, pp. 836–844, 2005.
 P. K. Vayalil, C. A. Elments, and S. K. Katiyar, “Treatment
of green tea polyphenols in hydrophilic cream prevents
UVB-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins, depletion of
antioxidant enzymes and phosphorylation of MAPK proteins
in SKH-1 hairless mouse skin,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 24, no. 5,
pp. 927–936, 2003.
 A. Schwarz, S. St¨
ander, M. Berneburg et al., “Interleukin-12
suppresses ultraviolet radiation-induced apoptosis by induc-
ing DNA repair,” Nature Cell Biology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 26–31,
 S. M. Meeran, S. K. Mantena, and S. K. Katiyar, “Prevention
of ultraviolet radiation—induced immunosuppression by (-)-
epigallocatechin-3-gallate in mice is mediated through inter-
leukin 12-dependent DNA repair,” Clinical Cancer Research,
vol. 12, no. 7, part 1, pp. 2272–2280, 2006.
“Protection against ultraviolet B radiation-induced photo-
carcinogenesis in hairless mice by green tea polyphenols,”
Carcinogenesis, vol. 12, no. 8, pp. 1527–1530, 1991.
 W. A. Khan, Z. Y. Wang, M. Athar, D. R. Bickers, and H.
Mukhtar, “Inhibition of the skin tumorigenicity of (±)-7β,8α-
by tannic acid, green tea polyphenols and quercetin in Sencar
mice,” Cancer Letters, vol. 42, no. 1-2, pp. 7–12, 1988.
 Z. Y. Wang, W. A. Khan, D. R. Bickers, and H. Mukhtar,
“Protection against polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-induced
skin tumor initiation in mice by green tea polyphenols,”
Carcinogenesis, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 411–415, 1989.
 S. K. Katiyar, M. Vaid, H. Van Steeg, and S. M. Meeran, “Green
tea polyphenols prevent uv-induced immunosuppression by
rapid repair of DNA damage and enhancement of nucleotide
excision repair genes,” Cancer Prevention Research, vol. 3, no.
2, pp. 179–189, 2010.
 H. Malhomme de la Roche, S. Seagrove, A. Mehta, P.
Divekar, S. Campbell, and A. Curnow, “Using natural dietary
sources of antioxidants to protect against ultraviolet and
visible radiation-induced DNA damage: an investigation of
human green tea ingestion,” Journal of Photochemistry and
Photobiology B, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 169–173, 2010.
 N. Morley, T. Cliﬀord, L. Salter, S. Campbell, D. Gould, and
A. Curnow, “The green tea polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin
gallate and green tea can protect human cellular DNA from
ultraviolet and visible radiation-induced damage,” Photoder-
matology Photoimmunology and Photomedicine,vol.21,no.1,
pp. 15–22, 2005.
 C. A. Elmets, D. Singh, K. Tubesing, M. Matsui, S. Katiyar, and
H. Mukhtar, “Cutaneous photoprotection from ultraviolet
injury by green tea polyphenols,” Journal of the American
Academy of Dermatology, vol. 44, no. 3, pp. 425–432, 2001.
 M. M. Camouse, D. S. Domingo, F. R. Swain et al., “Topical
application of green and white tea extracts provides protection
from solar-simulated ultraviolet light in human skin,” Experi-
mental Dermatology, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 522–526, 2009.
 R. A. Isbrucker, J. A. Edwards, E. Wolz, A. Davidovich, and
J. Bausch, “Safety studies on epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)
preparations. Part 2: dermal, acute and short-term toxicity
studies,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 636–
 I. M. Kapetanovic, J. A. Crowell, R. Krishnaraj, A. Zakharov,
M. Lindeblad, and A. Lyubimov, “Exposure and toxicity
of green tea polyphenols in fasted and non-fasted dogs,”
Tox i c o lo g y , vol. 260, no. 1–3, pp. 28–36, 2009.
 R. A. Isbrucker, J. Bausch, J. A. Edwards, and E. Wolz, “Safety
studies on epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG) preparations. Part
1: genotoxicity,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 44, no. 5,
pp. 626–635, 2006.
 E. Navarro-Per´
an, J. Cabezas-Herrera, F. Garc´
C. Durrant, R. N. F. Thorneley, and J. N. Rodr´
“The antifolate activity of tea catechins,” Cancer Research, vol.
65, no. 6, pp. 2059–2064, 2005.
 A. Correa, A. Stolley, and Y. Liu, “Prenatal tea consumption
and risks of anencephaly and spina biﬁda,” Annals of Epidemi-
ology, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 476–477, 2000.
 R. A. Isbrucker, J. A. Edwards, E. Wolz, A. Davidovich, and
J. Bausch, “Safety studies on epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG)
preparations. Part 3: teratogenicity and reproductive toxicity
studies in rats,” Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol. 44, no. 5,
pp. 651–661, 2006.
 M. Ott, V. Gogvadze, S. Orrenius, and B. Zhivotovsky,
“Mitochondria, oxidative stress and cell death,” Apoptosis, vol.
12, no. 5, pp. 913–922, 2007.
 C. S. Yang, J. D. Lambert, and S. Sang, “Antioxidative and
anti-carcinogenic activities of tea polyphenols,” Archives of
Tox i c o lo g y , vol. 83, no. 1, pp. 11–21, 2009.
 H. Wei, Q. Ca, R. Rahn, X. Zhang, Y. Wang, and M. Lebwohl,
“DNA structural integrity and base composition aﬀect ultravi-
olet light-induced oxidative DNA damage,” Biochemistry, vol.
37, no. 18, pp. 6485–6490, 1998.
 A. T. S. Jorge, K. F. Arroteia, J. C. Lago, V. M. De S´
Gesztesi, and P. L. Moreira, “A new potent natural antioxidant
mixture provides global protection against oxidative skin cell
damage,” International Journal of Cosmetic Science, vol. 33, no.
2, pp. 113–119, 2011.
 S. K. Katiyar, F. Afaq, A. Perez, and H. Mukhtar, “Green tea
polyphenol (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment of human
skin inhibits ultraviolet radiation-induced oxidative stress,”
Carcinogenesis, vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 287–294, 2001.
 V. Muthusamy and T. J. Piva, “The UV response of the skin:
a review of the MAPK, NFκB and TNFαsignal transduction
pathways,” Archives of Dermatological Research, vol. 302, no. 1,
pp. 5–17, 2010.
 F. Afaq, N. Ahmad, and H. Mukhtar, “Suppression of
UVB-induced phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein
8Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
kinases and nuclear factor kappa B by green tea polyphenol
in SKH-1 hairless mice,” Oncogene, vol. 22, no. 58, pp. 9254–
 J. Y. Bae, J. S. Choi, Y. J. Choi et al., “(-)Epigallocatechin gallate
hampers collagen destruction and collagenase activation in
ultraviolet-B-irradiated human dermal ﬁbroblasts: involve-
ment of mitogen-activated protein kinase,” Food and Chemical
Tox i c o lo g y , vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 1298–1307, 2008.
 D. Peus, A. Meves, R. A. Vasa, A. Beyerle, T. O’Brien, and M. R.
Pittelkow, “H2O2is required for UVB-induced EGF receptor
and downstream signaling pathway activation,” Free Radical
Biology and Medicine, vol. 27, no. 11-12, pp. 1197–1202, 1999.
 S. K. Katiyar, F. Afaq, K. Azizuddin, and H. Mukhtar,
“Inhibition of UVB-induced oxidative stress-mediated phos-
phorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling
pathways in cultured human epidermal keratinocytes by green
tea polyphenol ( - )-epigallocatechin-3-gallate,” Tox i c ol o g y a nd
Applied Pharmacology, vol. 176, no. 2, pp. 110–117, 2001.
 S. H. Kim, C. D. Jun, K. Suk et al., “Gallic acid inhibits
histamine release and pro-inﬂammatory cytokine production
in mast cells,” Tox ic olo gi cal Sci ences , vol. 91, no. 1, pp. 123–131,
 M. J. Glade, “Food, nutrition, and the prevention of cancer:
a global perspective,” Nutrition, vol. 15, no. 6, pp. 523–526,
 Y. D. Jung and L. M. Ellis, “Inhibition of tumour invasion
and angiogenesis by epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a major
component of green tea,” International Journal of Experimental
Pathology, vol. 82, no. 6, pp. 309–316, 2001.
 J. A. Nichols and S. K. Katiyar, “Skin photoprotection
by natural polyphenols: anti-inﬂammatory, antioxidant and
DNA repair mechanisms,” Archives of Dermatological Research,
vol. 302, no. 2, pp. 71–83, 2010.
 H. Fujiki, “Green tea: health beneﬁts as cancer preventive for
humans,” Chemical Record, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 119–132, 2005.
 S. K. Katiyar, A. Perez, and H. Mukhtar, “Green tea polyphenol
treatment to human skin prevents formation of ultraviolet
light B-induced pyrimidine dimers in DNA,” Clinical Cancer
Research, vol. 6, no. 10, pp. 3864–3869, 2000.
 S. K. Katiyar and H. Mukhtar, “Green tea polyphenol (-)-
epigallocatechin-3-gallate treatment to mouse skin prevents
UVB-induced inﬁltration of leukocytes, depletion of antigen-
presenting cells, and oxidative stress,” JournalofLeukocyte
Biology, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 719–726, 2001.
 L. Z. Ellis, W. Liu, Y. Luo et al., “Green tea polyphenol
epigallocatechin-3-gallate suppresses melanoma growth by
inhibiting inﬂammasome and IL-1beta secretion,” Biochemical
and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 414, no. 3, pp.