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An Introduction to Functional Grammar

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... In the last part of the analysis, collocates have been categorised in terms of transitivity (Halliday 1994;Halliday and Matthiessen 2014) and semantic agency (Darics and Koller 2019). This step was useful in clarifying the interpersonal dynamics through which NPCs are characterised and the discourse strategies that trigger character attachment. ...
... WMatrix does automatic semantic annotation using the built-in UCREL Semantic Analysis System (USAS), which assigns major semantic domains to each word in the data. According to Halliday's (1994) and Halliday and Matthiessen's (2014) theoretical framework, verbal processes can be classified into three main categories: (1) material, which involves the sphere of doing bodily, physically, materially; (2) mental, which relates to sensing emotionally, intellectually, sensorily; (3) relational, which relates to attributes and identity. Three further minor process types have also been codified: (4) verbal, which relates to saying and communicating; (5) behavioural, which involves physiological and psychological behaviour; and (6) existential, which represents states of being and happening (Halliday 1978). ...
... In the light of Halliday's (1994) and Halliday and Matthiessen's (2014) theoretical framework on transitivity, the so-obtained lists of key collocates suggest relevant differences in terms of underlying process types. In order to categorise the collocates of 'I' and 'you' obtained from the AC corpus according to the type of process identified, an automatic tool for the identification of semantic fields, Wmatrix and its semantic tagger (Rayson 2003) have been used. ...
Article
Dialogic interaction is a distinctive feature of Animal Crossing, a social simulation video game developed by Nintendo, yet, little attention has been paid to it from a discourse analytical perspective. This paper aims to explore how AC characters are characterised through language and which discourse strategies are applied to engage players. The analysis, based on a corpus of dialogues transcribed by fans of the game, relies on corpus-linguistics methodologies and can be framed within the context of ludolinguistics. The study shows that emotive language is used to create an active interaction between player and non-player characters (NPCs). Even though NPCs are minimally characterized in terms of gender, age, or social status, the collocational analysis of “I” and “you” highlights two opposite personalities interacting in the dialogues: type A, lexically represented as extroverted, dynamic, and active, and type B, represented as kind, hesitant, and passive.
... (1) Since there are six types of processes according to Halliday (1994) as stated in Deterding & Poedjosoedarmo (2001), what types of processes that are used in the slogan? ...
... Halliday. The term 'systemic' refers to the view of language as "a network of systems, or interrelated sets of options of making meaning," while 'functional' refers to the view that language is as it is because of what it has evolved to do (Halliday, 1994). ...
... Processes are linguistically stated by verbal groups; participants are expressed by noun phrases & pronouns; and, circumstances are expressed by adverbials. According toHalliday (1994) as stated inDeterding & Poedjosoedarmo (2001), processes have six types which are as follows. Behavioral: Psychological and physiological behavior If we want to examine what kind of process owned by a statement, we can analyze the interaction between its items and particularly the meaning of its process which are realized by verbal groups. ...
Article
Penelitian ini menganalisis gaya bahasa dari dua puluh slogan kampanye politik pemilihan kepala daerah langsung (Pilkada) di Indonesia, berdasarkan pendekatan tata bahasa fungsional sistemik, dengan fokus pada metafungsi transitivitas. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui jenis proses yang digunakan dalam slogan, dan menemukan proses yang paling banyak digunakan. Dalam melakukan penelitian ini, penulis menggunakan pendekatan deskriptif & kualitatif. Untuk menganalisis data, penulis menggunakan empat teknik yaitu teknik introspeksi, teknik bagi unsur langsung, teknik perluas dan probe untuk menganalisis transitivitas dari data berdasarkan pendekatan dari Lise Fontaine. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ada dua jenis proses yang digunakan dalam slogan yaitu proses material & relasional. Selanjutnya, hasil penelitian juga menunjukkan bahwa proses material adalah proses yang paling banyak digunakan, dan proses relasional adalah proses yang paling sedikit digunakan. Kata kunci: proses, stilistika, tata bahasa fungsional sistemik, transitivitas
... This paper describes and evaluates the choice of grammatical metaphors in academic writing in Spanish (L1), and Portuguese as foreign language (FL) by Chilean students in a Translation program, and analyzes how grammatical metaphors are built and what implications they generate (Halliday, 1994). We discuss the concept of advanced literacy and biliteracy, i.e., academic writing in two or more languages (Hornberger, 2003;. ...
... Un aspecto de la escritura académica fuertemente relacionado con los discursos científicos y sus características de condensación y abstracción es la metáfora gramatical. Dicho recurso posibilita la variación en la expresión del significado (Halliday, 1994) y genera en el texto un "efecto de mayor densidad léxica e informacional y propician el distanciamiento entre el autor y su interlocutor" (Rottava & Santos, 2018, p. 57), tal como se observa en los géneros que circulan en la academia. Por consiguiente, su comprensión y su producción por parte de los estudiantes suele ser un desafío, considerando que estos patrones se alejan, y mucho, de los patrones de lenguaje con los cuales realizaban tareas de escritura en etapas de escolarización previas y en contextos de desarrollo de LE, incluso en la educación terciaria. ...
... Las metáforas gramaticales son definidas como una relación no congruente entre las categorías semántica y léxico-gramatical (Halliday, 1994). En una relación congruente, nombres y cosas se materializan por medio de frases nominales; acciones, por medio de verbos y las circunstancias y relaciones lógicas por medio de conjunciones y adverbios (Pinuer, Oteíza & Delgado, 2019). ...
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Este artículo describe y evalua la elección de metáforas gramaticales en la escritura académica en español (L1) y en portugués como lengua extranjera (LE) de estudiantes chilenos de pregrado en Traducción con el fin de analizar cómo construyen y qué implicaciones generan las metáforas gramaticales (Halliday, 1994) en sus textos. Se discuten los conceptos de literacidad y biliteracidad avanzada en la escritura académica en dos o más lenguas (Hornberger, 2003; 2013). Estos conceptos se vinculan con las metáforas gramaticales, un recurso para la variación en la expresión del significado, típico de registros académicos y/o científicos. Los análisis consideran pares de producciones (L1 y LE), de los cuales cada par es el trabajo de un único autor. Se presentan seis ejemplos que explicitan la presencia de metáforas gramaticales y se compara sus efectos en las referidas lenguas. Las conclusiones resaltan cómo las metáforas gramaticales se incorporan a los textos en L1 y LE en número y forma distintos, a la vez que su selección corresponde a un rasgo reconocido y replicable de la escritura académica.
... Systemic functional linguistics takes a socio-linguistic perspective to language and argues that language is a hierarchical system of meaning potential and can perform miscellaneous functions. As to the functions of language, M. A. K. Halliday (1994) puts forward three metafunctions: ideational, interpersonal, and textual. The process of producing or creating a text is a process of actualizing the meaning potential. ...
... The process of producing or creating a text is a process of actualizing the meaning potential. The textual metafunction refers to the fact that language has mechanisms to make any stretch of spoken or written discourse into a coherent and unified text (Halliday, 1994). Thematic structure reflects the common pattern of semantic origination of language in use. ...
... At the same time, the discourse-historical approach borrows in its framework of 'referential strategies' from the social actor model (Koller 2004;van Leeuwen 2005;etc.). In turn, the social actor model is presented as a grammar in the format of Halliday's functional network (Halliday 1994). We thus observe direct as well as indirect connections between the particular models. ...
... While different approaches can be mapped out according to the social theories they are influenced by they may equally be distinguished by the linguistic fields and models that provide for their text-analytical methodologies. One model that has turned particularly influential is Halliday's systemic functional grammar (Halliday 1994), implementing analytic formalizations in much of the early CDS and in critical linguistics in particular (Wodak 2011;Chilton 2005). It has thus helped early theories of discourse such as Laclau & Mouffe's DT or critical linguistics (Fowler et al. 1979;Fowler 1991;Hodge & Kress 1993), to retain their central role in the development of CDS. ...
Article
This paper gives a critical overview of analytical approaches dominating the field of discourse studies in the last three decades, from the perspective of their philosophical and formative bases: social constructionism and linguistics. It explores different conceptions of the theoretical nexus between these two bases leading to the emergence of three distinct yet complementary strands of thought (i–iii). The paper starts with poststructuralist views of discourse salient in (i) Laclau and Mouffe’s Discourse Theory. Laclau and Mouffe’s assumption that no discourse is a closed entity but rather transformed through contact with other discourses is taken as the introductory premise to present a large family of (ii) critical discourse studies, characterized as text-analytical practices explaining how discourse partakes in the production and negotiations of ideological meanings. Finally, the paper discusses (iii) three recent discourse analytical models: Discourse Space Theory, Critical Metaphor Analysis, and Legitimization-Proximization Model. These new theories make a further (and thus far final) step toward consolidation of the social-theoretical and linguistic bases in contemporary discourse studies. The empirical benefits of this consolidation are discussed in the last part of the paper, which includes a case study where the new models are used in the analysis of Polish anti-immigration discourse.
... Although CDA utilises elements of functional grammar inspired by Halliday (1985), and, more particularly, versions of modality and transitivity (Fairclough, 1989;Fowler, 1991), it is less concerned with detailed, linguistic analysis. Such disinterest in detailed linguistic analysis, according to Jeffries, results in a 'patchy' coverage of linguistic structures, and a lack of a clear, comprehensive toolkit for the analysis of texts (2010a, p. 6). ...
... Transitivity is a system which construes experiences through a set of process types and relates them to the participants and circumstances involved in the production of the clause. The concept of transitivity developed by Halliday (1985) and further developed by Simpson (1993) 'assigns lexical verbs to a number of different categories, according to the kind of process or state they appear to be describing' (Jeffries, 2010a, p. 40). The categories are classified 'according to whether they represent actions, speech, states of mind or simply states of being,' as material, verbalisation, mental and relational processes (Simpson, 1993, p. 88). ...
... Systemic Functional Grammar (Halliday 1985) posits three metafunctions of an utterance: experiential, textual and interpersonal. 1 The experiential (or ideational ) metafunction relates to the use of language to express propositions about the world, what we typically associate with semantic meaning. The textual metafunction relates to the use of language as a contextualized system, as something we do in response to the communicative circumstances in which we find ourselves. ...
... Instead, these findings suggest a richness and multifunctionality, where different expressive strategies profile different features of the complex discourse move. Though there are theories that already center this kind of multi-functionality, such as Halliday's (1985) Systemic Functional Grammar, I believe that other popular approaches to discourse structure can be modified, to the benefit of both the theories themselves and our broader understanding of multimodal compositionality. ...
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This dissertation examines the capacity of interactive gesture to contribute to discourse structure independent of accompanying speech. The close relationship between gesture and speech in face-to-face interaction is, at this point, well-established and accepted, especially within gesture studies and certain linguistic frameworks (e.g. Embodied Construction Grammar and Embodied Conversation Analysis). However, the integration of gesture into formal linguistic theory more generally is still in its early stages of development. This is especially true for interactive gesture and formal theories of discourse structure. To the author’s knowledge, this dissertation serves as the first in-depth exploration of the ability to formalize a theory of interactive meaning in gesture using a predictive model.
... Halliday through the introduction of functional grammar based on the language model as sociosemiotics. Halliday (1994) mentioned that the structure begins with the one that gives the clause given information or called as Theme and afterward gives the clause new information that explain the whole clauses or called as Rheme. Theme is a part that stands as the core of the departure of a message, meanwhile, the rest of the message is called a Rheme. ...
... According to Halliday (1994), themes are classified into three types: ideational (topical), interpersonal and textual. Any, all, or none of these categories may be present in a clause. ...
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The aims of this study were to describe types of themes and thematic progression patterns found in students’ descriptive texts. This study was conducted by using descriptive qualitative design. The data were collected by using documentation and interview technique. The data were in the form of clauses from students’ descriptive texts at SMPN 1 Delitua. In this study, it was found that there were 267 clauses and 145 types of thematic progression patterns of 20 students’ descriptive texts. The first finding of this study indicate that Unmarked Simple Theme (UST) held the highest frequency of occurrence at 78%, followed by Unmarked Multiple Theme (UMT) at 11.5%, Marked Multiple Theme (MMT) at 7.5%, and Marked Simple Theme at 3%. The second finding of this study indicate that Constant Theme Progression (CTP) held the highest frequency of occurrence at 62.08%, followed by Simple Linear Progression (SLP) at 28.27%, Split Rheme Progression (SRP) at 6.9%, and Derived Hyper-Theme Progression (DTHP) at 2.75%.
... Mental processes are processes of sensing. This means that mental processes involve the clauses of feeling, thinking, and perceiving (Halliday, 1985). Furthermore, mental processes are concerned with our experience of the world of our own consciesness (Halliday and Matthiesen, 2004: 197). ...
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Mental processes are process of sensing and are realized by verbs of cognition, affection, perception, and volition. Those types of verbs are transitive verbs, which mean they need object. This means that there is someone who senses (Senser) and there is something that is sensed (Phenomenon). There are three types of phenomenon, Phenomenon of Thing, Phenomenon of Act and Phenomenon of Fact. These two participants—Senser and Phenomenon—always exist in the processes, whether explicitly or implicitly. However, some clauses that are mental processes do not include one of the participants, eitherSenser or Phenomenon. There is even some data that do not include both participants. Thus, the aim of this paper is to probe implicit participants that might exist in mental processes, using content analysis as a method. The result, Implicit Participants, namely Implicit Senser and Implicit Phenomenon, can be retrieved from sentence that comes before the mental processes. The mental processes were then paraphrased and deconstructed to form a complete mental processes that include both participants, Senser and Phenomenon.Keywords: Mental process, Senser, Phenomenon, implicit
... (Subdirector académico de la institución educativa [el énfasis es mío]) Desde la voz del subdirector, el padre de familia es un agente central en la construcción de una nueva subjetividad de la escuela: esta debe proveerle productos que se alineen con sus necesidades particulares. El uso de procesos materiales o verbos de acción (Halliday, 1985) -"el papá pide", "te hacen la comparación", "sacan y llevan a sus hijos"-y de aseveraciones categóricas ("queremos que sea así") a través del habla reportada nos permite reconocer a un padre que demanda a la escuela contenidos para obtener un beneficio concreto y que, ante el incumplimiento de esto, toma decisiones en función de lo que le conviene: "saca y lleva a sus hijos al colegio particular preuniversitario". Esta identidad se ve reforzada por la posición que asume el subdirector en relación con las deman-das del padre de familia: "buscamos satisfacer sus necesidades". ...
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En oposición al enfoque de implementación que señala que los diferentes actores educativos, en especial los maestros, ponen en práctica las políticas educativas siguiendo una visión lineal y vertical, numerosas investigaciones ofrecen evidencia de cómo estos se apropian de las macropolíticas en sus diferentes niveles de concreción curricular y las traducen y reinterpretan (Zavala, 2012; Castanheira et al., 2001; Unamuno, 2015). A partir de la teoría de la actuación de las políticas educativas (Ball, Maguire y Braun, 2012) y de los Nuevos Estudios de Literacidad (Brice Heath, 1983; Barton y Hamilton, 1998; Zavala, 2002; Zavala, Niño Murcia y Ames, 2004), en este artículo, analizo cómo dos maestros de un colegio público de Lambayeque hacen política en torno a la enseñanza de la lectura, desde sus realidades cotidianas y sus condiciones materiales y contextuales: mientras que uno de ellos propone una enseñanza de la lectura para aprobar el examen de admisión, el otro decide utilizar la lectura para desarrollar una visión crítica de la realidad social. Asimismo, doy cuenta de que, en la construcción de estas diferentes maneras de actuar en torno a la enseñanza de la lectura, se articulan relaciones complejas entre los actores institucionales, los discursos en torno al lenguaje y a su enseñanza en la escuela, y las prácticas y artefactos letrados que dan sentido a lo que para ellos significa leer en los últimos años de la educación secundaria.
... This paper focuses on meaning level to do a contextual interpretation of speech acts by means of pragmatic analysis techniques borrowing from Austin's (1962) Speech Acts Theory as reviewed by Searle (1996) to explicate how the illocutionary force and the potential perlocutionary effect of the illocutionary speech were leveraged by Facebook and Twitter users to achieve the desired hateful speech intention. Systemic Functional Grammar postulated by Halliday (1985) offered descriptive categories for analysing performative modality as a tool of understanding the aggressive attitudes/emotions and the stance of the hate speech author towards the objectified predicate of clauses. ...
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The increasing shift of human activities to online spaces in Kenya has resulted in the new behaviours among internet consumers. One such behaviour is the growing online public journalism phenomenon amid legal and regulatory gaps permeating expression of online hate speech rhetoric disguised as ‘politically correct talk’ which often goes unquestioned despite its injurious force and the potential to precipitate physical violence in the long run. To judge content as hateful, Kenya’s judicial processes rely the establishment of speech intention to hurt a legally protected entity. However, hate speech law enforcers lack skill and capacity to accurately determine the pragmatic force of hateful language. This article, which is a part of broad study that examined the discursive construction of online hate rhetoric, examines the injurious potential of online micro-speech acts and performative modality of selected Facebook posts and tweets constituting the day-to-day communicative practices online during the 2017 general election in Kenya. Working within forensic-based Computer Mediated Discourse Analysis (CMDA) framework, we analyse a purposive sample of 160 posts; FB (120) and Twitter (40) collected through online observation of Facebook groups and hashtags trending in Kenya between July and November 2017. The findings show how micro-speech acts and performative modality worked in service of aggressive ideology in the form of overt and covert appeals for collective prejudice against marked ethno-political out-groups. These insights are relevant for policy makers such as NCIC, KHR and CAK as well as the hate speech law enforcers especially National Police Service and prosecutors in understanding how certain commonsensical day to day online communicative practices yield pragmatic potential to propagate ideologically rooted culture of hate and violence in multi-ethnic cultural contexts such as Kenya.
... Halliday amechunguza dhamira na uteuzi wa msamiati ili kudhihirisha usawa uliopo kijinsia na kueleza kuwa lugha katika riwaya imetumika kumdunisha mwanamke hivi kwamba mwanamume amepewa nafasi ya juu zaidi katika kutekeleza majukumu mbali mbali huku mwanamke akisalia na uwezo mdogo wa kujikomboa au hata bila namna yoyote ya kumuwezesha kujikwamua (Halliday, 1985). Utafiti huu umetufaa katika uchanganuzi hakiki semi ili tuelewe namna lugha kwa ujumla inavyotumika kumsawiri mwanamke. ...
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Makala haya yalilenga kuchunguza itikadi inavyomsawiri mwanamke huku ikimpokonya uwezo wa kutekeleza majukumu sawa na mwanamume. Itikadi ndio huwaongoza watu namna wanavyotumia lugha na hivyo kudhihirisha mahusiano ya mamlaka. Usemi huu unadhibitisha hoja zinazowaongoza watunzi wa fasihi hivi kwamba lugha wanayotumia ndio hubainisha nafasi anayopewa mwanajamii. Suala hili liliwezeshwa kwa kuwepo na malengo mawili. Moja, kuchunguza utunzi na maudhui tawala katika nyimbo teule za taarab ili kubaini mafungamano ya masuala hayo na itikadi inayotawala. Pili, kuonyesha mahusiano ya uwezo kati ya mwanamke na mwanamume katika jamii kupitia nyimbo za taarab. Malengo haya yaliafikiwa kupitia uchanganuzi wa matumizi ya lugha katika nyimbo mbili teule za taarab ili kuonyesha usawiri wa mwanamke kwa kuzingatia itikadi na uwezo wa kijinsia. Nyimbo zilizochanganuliwa ni Daktari wa Mapenzi na VIP ambazo zimeimbwa na Mzee Yusuf akiwa na bendi ya Jahazi Modern Taarab nchini Tanzania.Vigezo vikuu vya uteuzi wa nyimbo hizi ni maudhui na lugha. Nadharia zilizotumika ni ufeministi wa Kiafrika inayorejelea masuala ya jinsia ya kike pamoja na Uchanganuzi Hakiki Usemi (UHU) itakayochunguza matumizi ya lugha. Data za makala haya zilikusanywa kwa kuchanganua nyimbo teule. Mtafiti alisikiza kanda ili kupata matini za kumfaa katika ukusanyaji data. Data iliyokusanywa ilifanyiwa unukuzi, kuainishwa, kupangwa, kuchanganuliwa na kufasiriwa kwa kuzingatia mihimili ya nadharia mbili zilizotumika katika utafiti huu. Data hiyo iliwasilishwa kwa njia ya maelezo.
... The bread is sliced easily by John. Linguist Halliday [14] divides the voice system into three types in English: active voice, passive voice and middle voice. The middle voice is the one between active one and passive Middle Construction Perspective one, which morphological likes the active voice while semantically likes the passive one. ...
... Consequentemente, algumas propostas de classificação foram formuladas por Halliday (1985), Lehmann (1988), Hopper e Traugott (2003), Verstraete (2007), entre outros, com a finalidade de superar as limitações que a abordagem gramatical estabelece. Especificamente no caso do português do Brasil (doravante "PB"), destacam-se trabalhos realizados por Decat (1993) acerca de análises de hipotaxe adverbial nessa língua, a partir de uma perspectiva discursivo-funcionalista. ...
Article
Considerando a emergência de estudos sobre o fenômeno da “insubordinação” (EVANS, 2007), este trabalho tem por finalidade descrever os usos de construções condicionais insubordinadas (CCI) encabeçadas por “se” com valor adversativo no português do Brasil, ainda não plenamente descritos nesta língua. Para tal, foi utilizada a abordagem funcionalista (NEVES, 2000, 2002) e a perspectiva teórica de autores como Sansiñena (2015), Schwenter (2016) e Montolío (1999). Os dados foram coletados em corpora de língua falada (Corpus do Português e Corpus C-Oral-Brasil) e analisados qualitativamente. Em termos formais, nessas construções emprega-se o do modo indicativo, motivado por seu estatuto factual. As CCIs adversativas são utilizadas em posição de réplica, por ocorrerem em contextos dialógicos. Pragmaticamente, são caracterizadas por apresentar um caráter de rispidez, decorrente da relação simétrica entre os interlocutores.
... Inscrevemos este artigo no âmbito dos estudos de multimodalidade de base sistêmico-funcional (HALLIDAY, 1985;HALLIDAY;MATTHIESSEN, 2014), visando discutir uma proposta de descrição de coesão entre elementos verbais e imagéticos em textos de redes sociais. Dada a constante emergência, transformação e renovação de possibilidades técnicas de composição de textos para redes sociais, compreendemos que o objeto de estudo -textos multimodais -é marcado por uma volatilidade constitutiva, o que exige uma constante revisitação tanto de teorizações e de metodologias quanto de categorias analíticas para lidar com novos textos. ...
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Neste artigo, temos como objetivo apresentar uma proposta de sistema de coesão verbo-imagética e verificar sua produtividade como um aparato descritivo prévio à análise da interação verbo-visual de textos de mídias digitais. A proposta alinha-se aos estudos de multimodalidade em Linguística Sistêmico-Funcional (HALLIDAY, 1985; HALLIDAY; MATTHIESSEN, 2014), assumindo como unidade de análise o sistema de transitividade (HALLIDAY; MATTHIESSEN, 2014; LAVID; ARÚS; ZAMORANO-MANSILLA, 2012; FUZER; CABRAL, 2014) e visando a fornecer subsídios para a compreensão detalhada das relações estruturais, processuais e instanciais entre elementos verbais e imagéticos com vistas à reconstrução de significado em textos de mídias digitais. A partir da análise de textos oriundos do YouTube e do Instagram, identificamos usos estratégicos de laços coesivos no que diz respeito à argumentação multimodal, ao fluxo informacional, à dinâmica das plataformas, bem como relações com metáforas multimodais.
... Fetzer (2018) follows this strategy, and describes discourse relation types by a set of continuity dimensions ('particularized features'), which include temporal and referential continuity, but also continuity of action. These dimensions are opera-tionalised in terms of Givón's coherence strands and Halliday's (1994) functional grammar. For example, Fetzer describes causal relations (the result and explanation types of SDRT) as continuous for dimensions of time, reference, topic, aspect, and lexical coherence, and contrast relations as discontinuous on at least one of these dimensions. ...
Article
Continuity and discontinuity (maintaining or shifting deictic centres across segments) are important aspects of discourse relations. Yet they have been attributed to these relations in very different ways. This calls for an analysis of individual instances of discourse relations with respect to their continuity dimensions. To this end, we operationalise Givón’s (1993) continuity dimensions ( time, space, reference, action, perspective, modality, and speech act ), decomposing them into distinctive features that allow a consistent and accurate classification of the continuity dimensions in discourse relation tokens. This inventory was applied to five representative relation types ( causal , contrastive , conditional , elaboration, and temporal ) from the RST Discourse Treebank ( Carlson & Marcu 2001 ). We found that relations can simultaneously be more continuous for some dimensions but more discontinuous for others. What is more, discourse relations typically vary widely in different continuity dimensions and thus cannot be described as fully continuous or discontinuous, neither on the level of the entire relation type nor for one of its particular dimensions. Using examples of causal , conditional, and contrastive relations, we also illustrate how the results of our analysis can be used to verify hypotheses about correlations between continuity and discourse relations.
... In other words, language and these elements have an inseverable relationship to get deep meaning in interaction with each other. The social semiotic structure is based on Halliday (1994) English Systemic Functional Grammar Tongue. The theorization by Halliday of language as a social semiotic with Interpersonal, Interpersonal component: Kress and van Leeuwen (2006: 116) express their opinion about it, that interpersonal metafunctions are a component that examines articulation and understanding or judgments about something that is seen in general (social meanings) when interacting directly or faces to face. ...
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This study discussed texts and images in Aquaman Movie using a multimodal discourse analysis by Kress and Van Leeuwen's (2006) theory. The objectives of this study are to find out how the texts and images modes are used in the movie and how is the meaning of the text related to the meaning of the image. This research used the descriptive qualitative method. The source of data in this study was taken from Aquaman Movie. The data was collected through downloading, reading the dialogue, watching, screenshotting, selecting and coding the data based on the theory Kress and Van Leeuwen (2006). The result found the text and image components are used to know and identify the meaning contained in the Aquaman movie, which aims to provide information to readers and viewers through the modes displayed in the movie. The texts and images mode explain each other’s meaning and show related and non-conflicting meanings so that, can be easily understood by the public. Keywords: Aquaman Movie, Images, Multimodal Discourse Analysis, Texts
... In Systemic Functional Linguistics, the resource for making meaning is language. Halliday in [1] commented that language contains a set of system in which the speaker can choose the ways of expressing meanings. Language is formed metafunctionally and it divided into three metafunction [2]. ...
Article
This article investigates the Interpersonal function in the speech by BTS at the 75th UN General Assembly. The objective is to find out the Mood types and to describe the Interpersonal function realized in BTS’ speech. Qualitative method is used in this study. The data were collected from the clauses in BTS’ speech at UNGA. Through this study, it is found that the Mood types in BTS’ speech at UNGA are Declarative mood (92,30%), Imperative mood (6,59%), and Interrogative mood (1,09%). The findings also revealed the dominant Mood types is Declarative which is used to share or to give information to the audience. For the Interpersonal function, it is realized through Mood structures which contains the Mood and Residue elements. Through Mood elements, it is found that there are Subject, Finite, and Mood Adjunct. While in Residue elements, there are Predicator, Complement, and Circumstantial Adjunct.
... The contemporary theories of language acquisition, on the other hand, include the following: social interaction theory that proposes "language occurs in a social context" (p. 32), or the relationship that exists between language and the social context (Halliday, 1994); active construction of a grammar theory suggests "children invent the rules of grammar themselves" (Bergmann et al. 2007, p. 316); and connectionist theory addresses how children associate words and sound with objects, and the role of the brain in language development (Freeman & Freeman, 2014). ...
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... Instructional material that includes texts and activities related to specific disciplines promotes student engagement and facilitates effective skills transfer more so than generic alternatives (Butler, 2013;Flowerdew, 2013;Goodier and Parkinson, 2005). Further theoretical justification is rooted in systemic functional linguistics, cognitive linguistics, and critical discourse analysis, which maintain that students' access to and membership in particular discourse communities is determined by the extent to which they have mastered specific linguistic characteristics, communicative practices, as well as field, genre and academic discourse knowledge associated with those communities (Butler, 2006;Carstens, 2009;Halliday, 1994). Thus, writing support that is embedded in students' subject areas enables them to develop skills that are specific to the language requirements of the discourses involved. ...
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This study attempted to address academics’ general concern about the steady decline in students’ academic writing abilities and the impact this has on students’ ability to demonstrate their learning and negotiate written tasks in their respective disciplines. The study focused on what can be done within a higher education institution in terms of academic writing instruction to develop the literacy abilities required to enable students to cope with the demands of tertiary studies within specific disciplines, as students progress from undergraduate to postgraduate work. Given the varied and specialised nature of academic discourses in different fields of study, a discipline-specific approach to writing instruction was adopted to facilitate students’ familiarity with the conventions of academic and discourse-specific writing, and develop their ability to produce effective and appropriate texts for their courses. A multistage evaluation design was used to measure the potential impact of the writing intervention, there results of which indicate an improvement in students’ academic literacy and writing abilities, as well as their ability to apply these abilities to writing in their subject area. Keywords: academic writing development, discipline-specific, course evaluation, higher education, postgraduate writing, writing centre
... The use of authentic data makes it distinctive from, for example, Chao's (1968) A Grammar of Spoken Chinese, which uses examples made up by the author that may not sound natural to native Chinese speakers. The grammar generated from authentic data in this set concerns its interaction with semantics, which was emphasized further by Halliday (1994) in his discussion of "natural" grammar. Additionally, based on the corpus, Wang regards discourse as the unit of analysis, which is echoed by Systemic Functional linguists (see Hu 1991). ...
... Visual images have begun to accompany texts more and more, adding greater cultural implications, subjectivity, polysemy, and new vistas of meaning associations to online discourse which can certainly be studied by using Multimodal Discourse Analysis (Kress, 2013). Kress and van Leeuwen (2006) argue that the basic principles of Halliday's (1986) systemic functional theory can be used as a basis to create a set of tools to describe and analyse the features of visual communication. There are some major differences between language and images, found at the meaning (first layer) and semiotic levels (Machin, 2016). ...
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The current study aims to explore the ideological representation of Vladimir Putin and Volodymyr Zelensky in BBC's online profiles to see how socio-political ideologies are embedded with the help of semiotic resources within images and their accompanying texts. These ideologically loaded media representations are a medium used to build social realities and political opinions of the public. The selected data, nine images and their captions alongside details, are analysed by adopting Machin's framework of multimodal analysis together with Fairclough's model of representation of social events and van Leeuwen's representation of social actors. The analysis rigorously focuses on the conscious choices of the BBC editors in terms of visual and linguistic features of the profiles and embedded structures of power relations which are represented as common-sense social constructs. The findings suggest that BBC's profiles are far from neutral and they have used discourse and semiotic resources to represent Putin as rigid, vastly powerful and a threat, whereas Zelensky is shown as amiable but dauntless in the face of war and political strife.
... Visual images have begun to accompany texts more and more, adding greater cultural implications, subjectivity, polysemy, and new vistas of meaning associations to online discourse which can certainly be studied by using Multimodal Discourse Analysis (Kress, 2013). Kress and van Leeuwen (2006) argue that the basic principles of Halliday's (1986) systemic functional theory can be used as a basis to create a set of tools to describe and analyse the features of visual communication. There are some major differences between language and images, found at the meaning (first layer) and semiotic levels (Machin, 2016). ...
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The current study aims to explore the ideological representation of Vladimir Putin and Volodymyr Zelensky in BBC's online profiles to see how socio-political ideologies are embedded with the help of semiotic resources within images and their accompanying texts. These ideologically loaded media representations are a medium used to build social realities and political opinions of the public. The selected data, nine images and their captions alongside details, are analysed by adopting Machin's framework of multimodal analysis together with Fairclough's model of representation of social events and van Leeuwen's representation of social actors. The analysis rigorously focuses on the conscious choices of the BBC editors in terms of visual and linguistic features of the profiles and embedded structures of power relations which are represented as common-sense social constructs. The findings suggest that BBC's profiles are far from neutral and they have used discourse and semiotic resources to represent Putin as rigid, vastly powerful and a threat, whereas Zelensky is shown as amiable but dauntless in the face of war and political strife.
... Visual images have begun to accompany texts more and more, adding greater cultural implications, subjectivity, polysemy, and new vistas of meaning associations to online discourse which can certainly be studied by using Multimodal Discourse Analysis (Kress, 2013). Kress and van Leeuwen (2006) argue that the basic principles of Halliday's (1986) systemic functional theory can be used as a basis to create a set of tools to describe and analyse the features of visual communication. There are some major differences between language and images, found at the meaning (first layer) and semiotic levels (Machin, 2016). ...
Article
The current study aims to explore the ideological representation of Vladimir Putin and Volodymyr Zelensky in BBC's online profiles to see how socio-political ideologies are embedded with the help of semiotic resources within images and their accompanying texts. These ideologically loaded media representations are a medium used to build social realities and political opinions of the public. The selected data, nine images and their captions alongside details, are analysed by adopting Machin's framework of multimodal analysis together with Fairclough's model of representation of social events and van Leeuwen's representation of social actors. The analysis rigorously focuses on the conscious choices of the BBC editors in terms of visual and linguistic features of the profiles and embedded structures of power relations which are represented as common-sense social constructs. The findings suggest that BBC's profiles are far from neutral and they have used discourse and semiotic resources to represent Putin as rigid, vastly powerful and a threat, whereas Zelensky is shown as amiable but dauntless in the face of war and political strife.
... The term "metadiscourse" dates back to the work of Zelling Harris in 1959 and refers to a way of understanding language in use, representing a writer's or speaker's attempts to direct a receiver's perception of a text (Vande Kopple, 2002). Throughout history, Halliday's (1985) division of language into three macro-functions-ideational, interpersonal, and textual-has been the essence of writer-reader interaction and the concept of metadiscourse. The textual function is concerned with how language is used to arrange the text, the ideational function is related to the propositional content, and the interpersonal function is concerned with how language is used to encode interaction and enable us to communicate with others (Ramoroka, 2017). ...
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In recent years, different scholars of both written and spoken academic discourses use various strategies to communicate effectively with their target audiences. In this regard, metadiscourse features and lexical bundles have been introduced as two closely influential techniques through which the speakers or writers frame and present findings, engage audiences, and guarantee their comprehension and acceptance as part of the discourse competence. Therefore, because of the similar functions of these two concepts, the present study was an attempt to investigate the most frequently used four-word bundle-driven stance and engagement metadiscourse marker types in spoken and written Medical Discourse (MD). Using frequency cut-off as the key criterion, four-word lexical bundles were extracted from spoken and written MD separately and the obtained results were classified functionally using Hyland's (2005) model. The results showed bundle-driven stance markers as the most frequently used functional types of written MD. On the other hand, spoken MDs were filled with engagement bundle-driven metadiscourse features. According to the Chi-Square results, the differences in stance and engagement metadiscourse bundles were statistically significant in the two corpora. This investigation equips medical students with the necessary skills to succeed in spoken and written MD.
... Alongside the growing body of research on the relationship between the writer and the reader came the recognition of the crucial role of metadiscourse, leading to various proposals of taxonomies (Crismore et al., 1993;Dafouz, 2003;Hyland, 2005a). These classifications are mostly based on Halliday's (1994) and Hyland's (2004) and Hyland and Tse's (2004) views of metadiscourse. After Zellig Harris's coinage of the term 'metadiscourse', in 1959, the earliest work on it came from Crismore (1989) and Vande Kopple (1985), who classified metadiscourse as textual and interpersonal, drawing on Lautamatti's (1978) work. ...
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A considerable amount of research has already established that academic writing is an interactive accomplishment, the success of which largely depends on appropriate writer‐reader relationship. Yet, the nature of this relationship has been the subject of few studies. Also scarce are the studies on how academic writers address the needs of their readers and so, through elaboration, manage their interactions with them. Drawing on a corpus of 68 research articles (RAs) from the field of applied linguistics, this study explores how experienced writers (EWs) and novice writers (NWs) elaborate their ideas in their RAs to address their readers’ needs, and in so doing, manage their relations with them. Analysis of the corpus revealed that reformulation and exemplification, complex features of academic writing, serve important rhetorical functions. The results also show that these two groups of writers manage writer‐reader relationship differently, differing in the type, number, (un)even distribution, and use of code glosses. These results are discussed, and pedagogical implications are offered
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Classroom dialogue has been the focus of educationists’ attention for over 60 years (Myhill 2018), most recently manifest in the work of Alexander (2017); Edwards-Groves & Davidson (2017); Resnick, Michaels & O’Connor (2010) and Mercer, Dawes & Kleine Staarman (2009). In concert with this work, systemic functional linguists have developed useful tools for describing the character and quality of talk in classrooms (e.g. Christie, 2002; Hammond & Gibbons, 2005). However, despite such activity, the interaction patterns through which learners become constituted as more or less successful remain largely invisible to many teachers and students. This paper builds on recent work exploring the intersection of systemic functional linguistics (SFL) and dialogic pedagogy (Jones & Hammond, 2019). Here, we report on collaborative research from three different Australian classrooms in which teachers worked to enhance the quality of talk (Jones, Simpson & Thwaite, 2018). We draw on SFL (Halliday & Matthiessen, 1999), in particular, the systems of Speech Function (Eggins & Slade, 1997) and Exchange Structure (Martin & Rose, 2007), to illuminate how different pedagogic practices are enacted in the unfolding interactions between teachers and students. We argue that a functional linguistic approach makes visible, in a theoretically principled way, how micro-level adjustments to talk patterns can lead to more productive, dialogic classrooms.
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Chapter
Writing has gained greater attention in today’s increasingly text oriented world. Technological advances have not only led to the emergence of new digital genres and new writing skills, but also provided new opportunities for learning to write in a second/foreign language. Thus, this chapter aims to discuss how genre-based writing (GBW) mediated through technology can create invaluable opportunities for second language (L2) writers to have knowledge and practice of writing within different genres in- as well as out-of-the class. In this respect, the chapter begins with a brief discussion on the GBW including the concept of genre, sociocultural theories of learning underlying GBW, benefits and challenges of integrating GBW in L2 writing, and the teaching-learning cycle as a teaching methodology that might be used in L2 writing classes. Then, the chapter provides practical suggestions with regard to the integration of several technological tools through GBW tasks and concludes with a sample task which illustrates the stages and procedures in a writing class following a genre-based approach to digital storytelling.KeywordsGenre-based writingL2 writingTechnology for language writing
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Language is viewed as a tool of communication that includes greetings, requests, threats, commands, thanks, swearing, and so on. Oath is considered a fundamental component of the language that individuals use every day and a linguistic phenomenon that exists in most languages for the same purpose in various structures. The current study intends to examine oath structures and, by demonstrating how they are constructed to communicate meaning, determine the semantic elements of the chosen oaths in terms of language metafunctions and register variables. The study uses a qualitative and quantitative mixed research technique to evaluate and describe four oaths. It has been determined that positive declarative phrases in the present and future constructions are present in English oaths. Furthermore, English oaths show a thematic style that emphasizes the oath's speaker.
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Language is viewed as a tool of communication that includes greetings, requests, threats, commands, thanks, swearing, and so on. Oath is considered a fundamental component of the language that individuals use every day and a linguistic phenomenon that exists in most languages for the same purpose in various structures. The current study intends to examine oath structures and, by demonstrating how they are constructed to communicate meaning, determine the semantic elements of the chosen oaths in terms of language metafunctions and register variables. The study uses a qualitative and quantitative mixed research technique to evaluate and describe four oaths. It has been determined that positive declarative phrases in the present and future constructions are present in English oaths. Furthermore, English oaths show a thematic style that emphasizes the oath's speaker.
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Science texts have the potential to influence how people make decisions. In recent years, there has been an increased demand for research that helps illuminate how individuals read science texts. Educators seek to develop ways of supporting students as strong readers of science texts. Neuroimaging technology can be an important tool used to understand how individuals read science texts. This technology can inform how educators develop pedagogy; however, it can be difficult to determine how to apply neuroscience technology to educational environments in appropriate ways. One pathway forward is to develop interdisciplinary research collaborations between neuroimaging researchers and science educators. The intersection of neuroscience and education research may allow the technology of neuroimaging to be used in meaningful ways within education. Interdisciplinary partnerships between neuroscience and education can be strengthened by examining study design. When researchers collaborate across the fields of neuroscience and education, flaws in study design can be corrected before research begins. This article presents several factors to consider when designing research that connects neuroimaging and disciplinary literacy in science. By reflecting on the recommendations presented in this article, neuroimaging scientists and science educators may be able to create study designs that have significant implications for classroom settings.
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Chapter
The study of argumentation in context has led to the investigation of persuasive strategies that may be regarded as (proto)typical of specific practices and genres. Combining argumentative analysis with genre theory, this chapter aims to explore one aspect of the persuasive process that parallels argumentation proper, belonging to the realm of ethical means of proof: the construction of discursive identities.After introducing genre as a pragmatic notion and its relation to persuasion, three theoretical aspects will be examined: the selection of the audience and the construction of agreement; strategies of enunciation and pronominal choices; the exploitation of metaphors and myths.These aspects of persuasive discourse will be investigated in two institutionalised genres of political communication in the US: the Presidential Announcement and the Victory Speech, choosing former US President Barak Obama as a case study. The aim of the research is to explore how the arguer constructs his ethical identity in the different generic contexts, constructing at the same time that of his audience. As is often the case in political discourse, beside the leader and his/her followers, the Enemy is brought on stage as a third fundamental character, thus completing a triad that is considered crucial in the narrative of contemporary political myths.
Chapter
Synonymy is a very common phenomenon in our daily speech and can be defined, in most cases, not as identity but as similarity of meaning. Speakers of historical-natural languages are perfectly able to recognize the commonality of meaning shared by two words, and their ability to replace words of similar meaning in the same proposition is not based exclusively on linguistic factors. Substitutability is also based on non-linguistic factors such as the speakers’ differences and individual fluctuations related to their experiences and on context of reference. In this paper, we will use synonymy as an experimentum crucis to demonstrate that knowledge of the conventional meaning of expressions alone is not sufficient to determine the proposition expressed. The traditional distinction between semantics and pragmatics is re-examined and the fundamental role that context plays in synonymy is highlighted. We discuss how looking at semantic content through a more pragmatic lens can serve to broaden existing concepts of meaning and conditions of truth and shed new light on the way in which linguistic expressions are understood and used by speakers.
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