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Analysis of the occupational, consumer and environmental exposure to engineered nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors

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Abstract

Abstract Humans and the environment can come into contact with nanomaterials through a wide range of applications during all stages of the life cycle of nanoproducts. The aim of this commentary is to present an assessment of the potential for exposure and thus identify possible environmental, health and safety (EHS) issues for nanomaterials used in 10 technology sectors. We analysed all life cycle stages with regard to potential for exposure of workers, consumers/patients, and the environment. A wide variety of nanomaterials are used of which many have negligible potential for exposure, while others have medium or even high potential for exposure. Based on the likelihood of exposure, it appears that in general most attention should be paid to the agrifood, chemistry/materials, textiles and health sectors; and less to the information and communication technology (ICT), security and energy sectors. Toxicity and exposure are both important; however, the EHS impact of nanomaterials is always dependent on their particular use.

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... L'agroalimentaire fait également la part belle aux nanomatériaux pour « améliorer » la nourriture industrielle, comme additifs alimentaires (colorant, stabilisant, etc.), ou encore pour la « sécurité alimentaire » avec leurs pouvoirs antimicrobiens (Eleftheriadou et al. 2017). D'autres pistes d'utilisations de nanomatériaux en vue d'applications environnementales sont à l'étude pour la purification de l'air, le traitement des eaux usées et potables, ou encore la remédiation des sols et eaux souterraines (Araujo et al. 2015 ;Nowack et al. 2013 ;Shipley et al. 2011 ;Westerhoff et al. 2015). ...
... Manufactured nanoparticles emerge as a potential contaminant for the environment due to a broad and increasing use over the last few years (Nowack et al., 2013). Nanoparticles are expected to reach aquatic ecosystems through several pathways such as surface runoffs of dry or wet depositions . ...
Thesis
En raison d’une utilisation croissante et massive, les nanoparticules manufacturées apparaissentcomme de potentiels contaminants émergents pour l’environnement, incluant notammentles écosystèmes aquatiques. Alors que le transfert trophique semble constituer unevoie d’exposition majeure pour les organismes, une connaissance lacunaire dans la littératurescientifique persiste, résultant pour partie des difficultés expérimentales inhérentes àce type d’exposition. Pour ce travail en conditions contrôlées de laboratoire, les nanoparticulesd’or (sphériques, 10 nm, fonctionnalisées aux PEG-amines), stables en solution, ontété choisies pour l’étude du transfert trophique et des impacts toxiques sur des organismesaquatiques. Ce continuum trophique considère la base des réseaux trophiques (biofilms naturels,algues), des niveaux intermédiaires (poissons brouteurs, bivalves suspensivores), jusqu’auxorganismes de haut de chaînes trophiques, avec l’anguille européenne. Avec des expositionsréalisées à de relatives faibles doses, ce travail tend à la représentativité environnementale.Des approches méthodologiques intégratives des niveaux subcellulaire à tissulaire(RT-qPCR, séquençage haut-débit, histologie) ont permis d’évaluer les impacts toxiques.Les résultats indiquent une importante capacité de rétention des nanoparticules par les biofilmsnaturels. À la suite d’une exposition de 21 jours, les dosages d’or révèlent un transfertdes biofilms aux poissons brouteurs, avec une distribution de l’or dans tous les organes. Deplus, ce transfert est associé à une réponse inflammatoire au regard des lésions histologiquesobservés dans les foies, rates et muscles des poissons exposés. Une chaîne alimentaire « naturelle» à trois maillons trophiques, impliquant algues - bivalves - anguilles européennes,atteste d’un transfert significatif jusqu’au poisson prédateur. Enfin, l’analyse du transcriptome,par une approche de séquençage haut-débit, des foies et cerveaux d’anguilles exposéesaux nanoparticules par nourriture enrichie, a permis de mettre en évidence une réponseconjointe à ces deux organes dans des processus biologiques associés au système immunitaireet sa régulation, dont des récepteurs NOD-like impliqués dans l’inflammasome.L’ensemble des résultats expérimentaux interpellent quant aux effets délétères à long-termequ’engendreraient les nanoparticules sur les écosystèmes aquatiques, illustrant par ailleursla propension de ces contaminants à être transférés dans les chaînes trophiques.
... As with any other (biodegradable) material, CNCs have a life-cycle [31,32] which, as shown in Figure 1, is initiated with the growth and harvesting of the natural raw material (the most viable source for commercial use at this point appears to be wood, although for research purposes many other sources are being used, including cotton [6,33,34], banana stems [8], and tunicates) [7,35] and continues with its isolation, the modification and integration into a material system (e.g., compounding with a polymer), and further processing in order to create a final 'product', which, eventually, is placed on the market. The life-cycle continues thereafter with further processing prior to disposal, which may occur through biodegradation or incineration. ...
... Throughout this life-cycle, there is the possibility of exposure to humans, eventually after nanocellulose is released from the product and through a number of environments and scenarios. In each of these there are different modes of human exposure, which include the respiratory tract (inhalation), skin contact, eye contact, ingestion and possible interaction with the bloodstream (i.e., via direct injection through medical application, or via translocation from the lung following inhalation [32,36]) resulting in possible secondary organ exposure, i.e., liver, heart, brain, and/or kidney. product formation, vi. ...
Article
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Cellulose nanocrystals exhibit an interesting combination of mechanical properties and physical characteristics, which make them potentially useful for a wide range of consumer applications. However, as the usage of these bio-based nanofibers increases, a greater understanding of human exposure addressing their potential health issues should be gained. The aim of this perspective is to highlight how knowledge obtained from studying the biological impact of other nanomaterials can provide a basis for future research strategies to deduce the possible human health risks posed by cellulose nanocrystals.
... The safe use of medically applied materials is specially governed by the Pharmaceutical Affairs Act. In contrast, when nanomaterials are contained in commercial products and used in such a way that the consumer is not exposed, safety issues are related to the occurrence of adverse effects resulting from industrial/ occupational exposure (Abbott and Maynard 2010;Lee et al. 2011;Koivisto et al. 2012;Nowack et al. 2013), particularly during production/manufacturing and analysis. ...
... If nanomaterials in commercial products are in a form in which the consumer may also be exposed, it will be necessary to implement a risk assessment that considers that possibility (Abbott and Maynard 2010;Chen et al. 2010;Nowack et al. 2013). ...
Chapter
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Recent studies have elucidated some hazardous properties of fine and ultrafine (nano-sized) substances and particles. Thus, to avoid the risks associated with these small particles, especially for nanoparticles (NPs), research aims to reduce NP exposure and examine the relationship between the physicochemical characteristics of NPs and their hazards. The engineering of less hazardous nanomaterials for industrial use has also been a focus. Due to the emergence of hazard concerns and the accumulation of basic research data regarding the potential health effects of NPs, action has been taken to regulate the usage of engineered nanomaterials. Recent discussions on policies for nanomaterial risk evaluation, management and governance have concentrated on problems to be solved. In order to reduce their associated risks, a method to assess the level of the adverse effects of NPs, including engineered nanomaterials, has been a major focus of current research efforts, as has the design and implementation of a risk assessment and management scheme. The present chapter will describe the problems that will need to be resolved in order to establish a nanomaterial risk management program and summarize the current status of these issues to consider effective risk prevention measures that could be implemented in the future. Finally, the issue of communication techniques for risk information, when uncertainty and unsolved problems remain, is discussed.
... Consumers might be exposed during normal use of CNT/CNFcontaining products when mechanical, thermal, and biochemical interactions lead to product degradation. Environmental conditions of CNT/CNF composites uses influence the release potential; weathering is affected by moisture, salinity, pressure, temperature and light radiation, and will vary in marine or fresh water environments , or with altitude and biogeochemical conditions of exposure (Nowack et al., 2013 ). For example, CNT/polymer composite building will be subject to weathering stresses, and less to mechanical stresses. ...
... If the composite product was used in an application that involved washing with water, release into wastewater is possible resulting in either a land or aquatic pathway (Gottschalk et al., 2009). For workers at waste treatment and recycling facilities, potential occupational exposure is noteworthy, particularly if there are release of CNT/CNF structures (shredding, abrasion) and poor occupational hygiene practices for waste and by-products disposal (Nowack et al., 2013). ...
... 5−8 This widespread use of AgNPs represents a significant exposure risk to humans and the environment, both in the volume of use and through diverse routes of exposure. 9 Thus, not surprisingly, AgNPs are the most studied nanoparticles in terms of their toxic effects. Despite this growing body of knowledge dedicated to evaluating AgNP toxicity, the underlying intracellular mechanisms by which AgNPs cause overall toxicity are not yet well-characterized, especially in whole organisms. ...
... This was measured before the shift before processes at workplaces were initiated. The highest concentrations of nanoparticles are usually recorded in facilities where metals are treated under very high temperatures such as iron and steel works or welding shops [13,14]. ...
... An array of metal oxide nanoparticle products exists in the market due to the globalization of various segments including biomedical and healthcare products, car productions, aerospace, and aviation industries, paint manufacturing, fine to bulk chemical industries, batteries, as well as their applications in information and communication technologies (Gajewicz et al., 2012;Nowack et al., 2013;Pathakoti et al., 2018Pathakoti et al., , 2019. According to a recent report from Research and Markets, the possible global nanoparticle drug market may reach over US$ 200 Billion by 2024, which represents approximately 10% of growth as per compound annual growth rate (CAGR) (Global Nanoparticle Drug Delivery Market, Dosage, Price andClinical Pipeline Outlook, 2024, 2020). ...
Article
The toxic effect of eight metal oxide nanoparticles (MONPs) on Escherichia coli was experimentally evaluated following standard bioassay protocols. The obtained cytotoxicity ranking of these studied MONPs is Er2O3, Gd2O3, CeO2, Co2O3, Mn2O3, Co3O4, Fe3O4/WO3 (in descending order). The computed EC50 values from experimental data suggested that Er2O3 and Gd2O3 were the most acutely toxic MONPs to E. coli. To identify the mechanism of toxicity of these 8 MONPs along with 17 other MONPs from our previous study, we employed seven classifications and machine learning (ML) algorithms including linear discriminant analysis (LDA), naïve bayes (NB), multinomial logistic regression (MLogitR), sequential minimal optimization (SMO), AdaBoost, J48, and random forest (RF). We also employed 1st and 2nd generation periodic table descriptors developed by us (without any sophisticated computing facilities) along with experimentally analyzed Zeta-potential, to model the cytotoxicity of these MONPs. Based on qualitative validation metrics, the LDA model appeared to be the best among the 7 tested models. The core environment of metal defined by the ratio of the number of core electrons to the number of valence electrons and the electronegativity count of oxygen showed a positive impact on toxicity. The identified properties were important for understanding the mechanisms of nanotoxicity and for predicting the potential environmental risk associated with MONPs exposure. The developed models can be utilized for environmental risk assessment of any untested MONP to E. coli, thereby providing a scientific basis for the design and preparation of safe nanomaterials.
... Manufactured nanoparticles (NPs) have emerged as potential environmental contaminants because of their broad and increasing use over the last few years (Nowack et al. 2012;Jeevanandam et al. 2018). They are expected to reach aquatic ecosystems through several pathways such as surface runoff of dry or wet depositions (Baalousha et al. 2016). ...
Article
Nanometric revolution is underway, promising technical innovations in a wide range of applications, leading to a potential boost in environmental discharges. Nanoparticle propensity to be transferred throughout trophic chains and to generate toxicity was mainly assessed in primary consumers while a lack of knowledge for higher trophic levels persists. This study focused on a predatory fish, the European eel Anguilla anguilla exposed to gold nanoparticles (AuNP, 10 nm, PEG-coated) for 21 days at three concentration levels in food: 0 (NP0), 1 (NP1) and 10 (NP10) mg Au.kg-1. Transfer was assessed by gold quantification in eel tissues and transcriptomic responses in the liver and brain were revealed by a high-throughput RNA-sequencing approach. Eels fed at NP10 presented an erratic feeding behaviour while gold quantification only indicated transfer to intestine and kidney of NP1 exposed eels. RNA-Sequencing was performed in NP0 and NP1 eels. A total of 258 genes and 156 genes were significantly differentially transcribed in response to AuNP trophic exposure in the liver and brain, respectively. Enrichment analysis highlighted modifications in the immune system-related processes in the liver. In addition, results pointed out a shared response of both organs regarding 13 genes, most of them being involved in immune functions. This finding may shed light into the mode of action and toxicity of AuNP in fish.
... The latter should prevent or inhibit the growth of bacteria in foods [23,24]. Its properties lead to an increase in the use of anthropogenic silica nanoparticles in various environments of the agro-industrial and food sectors that affect humans and the environment [25]. ...
... Engineered nanomaterials (ENM) are synthesised particles with at least one dimension in the size range 1-100 nm, whose peculiar properties allow novel applications in many sectors, such as energy, electronics, health, chemistry, materials, textiles (Hulla et al., 2015;Nowack et al., 2012). In the last 30 years, the nanotechnology field has been following an exponential trend of development , and has been recognized as one of the Key Enabling Technologies of the 21st century (Tegart, 2004). ...
Article
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In line with the 3R concept, nanotoxicology is shifting from a phenomenological to a mechanistic approach based on in vitro and in silico methods, with a consequent reduction in animal testing. Risk Assessment (RA) and Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodologies, which traditionally rely on in vivo toxicity studies, will not be able to keep up with the pace of development of new nanomaterials unless they adapt to use this new type of data. While tools and models are already available and show a great potential for future use in RA and LCA, currently none is able alone to quantitatively assess human hazards (i.e. calculate chronic NOAEL or ED50 values). By highlighting which models and approaches can be used in a quantitative way with the available knowledge and data, we propose an integrated pathway for the use of in vitro data in RA and LCA. Starting with the characterization of nanoparticles' properties, the pathway then investigates how to select relevant in vitro human data, and how to bridge in vitro dose-response relationships to in vivo effects. If verified, this approach would allow RA and LCA to stir up the development of nanotoxicology by giving indications about the data and quality requirements needed in risk methodologies.
... The lung is considered an important portal of entry into the human body for aerosolised toxicants smaller than 10 μm (Maynard and Kuempel, 2005;Arora et al., 2012;Nowack et al., 2012;Müller et al., 2011). Therefore, the possible effects of inhaled toxicants are of great interest in hazard and risk assessment studies. ...
Article
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Positive controls are an important feature in experimental studies as they show the responsiveness of the model under investigation. An often applied reagent for a pro-inflammatory stimulus is the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which has been shown to induce a cytokine release by various cell cultures. The effect of LPS in monocultures of 16HBE14o-, a bronchial cell line, and of A549, an alveolar cell line, were compared in submerged and air-liquid interface cultures, as well as in co-cultures of the two epithelial cells with monocyte-derived macrophages and dendritic cells. The protein and mRNA levels of the two most relevant pro-inflammatory mediators, Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF) and Interleukin 8 (CXCL8), were measured after 4 h and 24 h exposure. 16HBE14o- cells alone as well as in co-cultures are non-responsive to an LPS stimulus, but an already increased basal expression of both pro-inflammatory mediators after prolonged time in culture was observed. In contrary, A549 in monocultures showed increased CXCL8 production at the gene and protein level after LPS exposure, while TNF-levels were below detection limit. In A549 co-cultured with immune cells both mediators were upregulated. This study shows the importance of a careful evaluation of the culture system used, including the application of positive controls. In addition, the use of co-cultures with immune cells more adequately reflects the inflammatory response upon exposure to toxicants.
... D uring the past two decades, the incorporation of engineered nanomaterials (NMs) in consumer and in- dustrial applications has tremendously increased. 1 In fact, since 2006, the use of NMs in everyday products has more than quadrupled, subsequently raising public concerns re- garding their potential human health effects during the prod- ucts life cycle. 2 Among the variety of existing engineered NMs, the ex- traordinary properties of carbon nanotubes (CNTs), including remarkable tensile strength, thermal stability, and excellent electrical conductivity, have heightened worldwide commer- cial interest. ...
Article
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Introduction: The expanding use of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in various consumer and industrial products has raised concerns regarding the potential health risks following the inhalation of this nanomaterial. Recent studies indicate that MWCNT exposure can cause deleterious lung effects. Pulmonary fibrosis is one of the diseases associated with the inhalation of classical fiber-shaped materials (e.g., asbestos), and recently MWCNTs. Materials and Methods: Herein, the presented work investigated early signs of fibrosis in key human lung cell types implicated directly (fibroblasts) or indirectly (alveolar epithelial cells and macrophages) in the pathogenesis of lung fibrosis, upon acute (24 hours) and prolonged (96 hours) exposure to different concentrations (5-20 μg/mL) of long, rigid Mitsui-7 MWCNTs. These results were compared to those inflicted upon the same cell types following exposure to tangled nanofibers, that is, Nanocyl-7000, and a positive particle control, crystalline quartz (i.e., Min-U-Sil). Results: Mitsui-7 interacted with all cell types tested, in particular, single nanotubes were readily internalized by each cell type. Exposure to Mitsui-7 resulted in a proinflammatory response in macrophages at 24 hours (interleukin-1β release). However, only prolonged Mitsui-7 exposure induced a significant release of profibrotic mediators (transforming growth factor-β, platelet derived-growth factor, and osteopontin) in all tested cell cultures and concentrations, highlighting the importance of prolonged exposure studies in nanosafety assessment. This elevated release of profibrotic markers was not accompanied by an increased collagen production or cell proliferation in fibroblasts in the tested time frame. Conclusion: Overall, prolonged exposure to human-relevant CNT concentrations appears to be a highly suitable approach to predict profibrotic response in vitro. © Savvina Chortarea et al. 2018; Published by Mary Ann Liebert.
... However, whether this pathway is actually of importance depends on the applications of ENM that are currently on the market. In an analysis of possible exposure from various applica- tions, those with a direct release to the environment scored very high on an exposure scale, even if the release was unintended as in the case of abrasion of tires ( Nowack et al., 2013). One application with a very direct release to the environment is the use of CeO 2 in diesel fuels (Johnson and Park, 2012). ...
Article
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Exposure modeling is an important tool in the risk assessment process because it can provide information on predicted environmental concentrations (PEC values) even in the absence of analytical data. A suite of different models has been used in the last years to predict environmental flows and concentrations of engineered nanomaterials (ENM). These models can be separated into material flow models that track the flows of ENM from production and use to end-of-life processes and finally to the environment, and environmental fate models that describe the behavior within and the transfer between environmental compartments. This review presents the existing material flow and fate models for ENM and evaluates them within a regulatory context. The reliability of the models and their relevance to the regulatory process is discussed, knowledge gaps are identified and recommendations are made about the use of the models for regulation. Some of the available fate models for nanomaterials are built on concepts that are accepted by regulators for conventional chemicals, thus those nano-models are also likely accepted. A critical issue for all models is the missing validation of PEC values by analytical measurements; however, validation on a conceptual level is possible. It is recommended that the material flow models should also include information on the material characteristics, e.g. form, size distribution, and if the material has already been transformed because this constitutes very important input information for fate models.
... Conservative global market estimates for e.g., metal oxide nanomaterials added up to 270,000 tons in 2012, rising to 1,663,000 tons by 2020[14]. As a consequence, an exposure risk to ENMs may become a concern for the population[15,16]. Health effects of anthropogenic and naturally emitted UFP (ultrafine particles <100 nm) as well as ENMs are still under investigation, with regulatory concerns in air quality control[11]. ...
Article
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In spite of the still increasing number of engineered nanomaterial (ENM) applications, large knowledge gaps exist with respect to their environmental fate, especially after release into air. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge of emissions and behavior of airborne engineered nanomaterials. The whole ENM lifecycle is considered from the perspective of possible releases into the atmosphere. Although in general, emissions during use phase and end-of-life seem to play a minor role compared to entry into soil and water, accidental and continuous emissions into air can occur especially during production and some use cases such as spray application. Implications of ENMs on the atmosphere as e.g.; photo-catalytic properties or the production of reactive oxygen species are reviewed as well as the influence of physical processes and chemical reactions on the ENMs. Experimental studies and different modeling approaches regarding atmospheric transformation and removal are summarized. Some information exists especially for ENMs, but many issues can only be addressed by using data from ultrafine particles as a substitute and research on the specific implications of ENMs in the atmosphere is still needed.
... Furthermore, nanoparticles can be applied for biomedical applications (Schweiger et al. 2011) including drug delivery systems (Suh et al. 2009), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) (Li et al. 2013b), or hyperthermia of tumors (Gupta and Gupta 2005). However, discussion is still ongoing about the influence and risk of adding nanomaterials to the consumer products and their influence to the living organisms (Yah et al. 2012;Nowack et al. 2013;Nowack et al. 2014;Sun et al. 2014). N. von Goetz et al. (Goetz von et al. 2013) showed that Ag nanoparticles in the outdoor textiles can be much less toxic than orally administered in dietary supplements. ...
Article
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Engineered nanomaterials, especially metallic nanoparticles, are the most popular system applied in daily life products. The study of their biological and toxicity properties seems to be indispensable. In this paper, we present results of biological activity of Ag/Cu nanoparticles. These nanoparticles show more promising killing/inhibiting properties on Gram-negative bacteria than for Gram-positive ones. The Gram-negative bacteria show strong effect already at the concentration of 1 ppm after 15 min of incubation. Moreover, in vitro tests of toxicity made on normal human dermal fibroblast cultures showed that after 72 h of incubation with Ag/Cu nanoparticles, they are less toxic then Cu2O/CuO nanoparticles.
... Incorporation of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) into nanotechnology applications has reached far across numerous fields including industry, household products, commerce, and healthcare (Nowack et al., 2013;Pyrgiotakis et al., 2016). For example, current estimates place the nanotechnology industry with 6 million workers and a projected $3 trillion value by 2020 (Roco et al., 2010). ...
Article
With rapid development of novel nanotechnologies with incorporated engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), long-term and low dose ENM exposures in occupational settings is forecasted to occur with potential adverse outcomes to human health. A majority of ENM human health risk assessment efforts using in vivo and in vitro models have focused on acute and relatively short-term sub-chronic exposures with little attention paid to tumorigenic potential of ENMs. The current study screened sub-chronic exposures to human primary small airway epithelial cells (pSAECs) of two widely used nano-scaled metal oxides (NMOs), cerium oxide (nCeO2) and ferric oxide (nFe2O3), against multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), a known ENM tumor promoter. Advanced dosimetry modeling was employed to ascertain delivered vs. administered dose in all experimental conditions. Cells were continuously exposed in vitro to deposited doses of 0.18 µg/cm2 or 0.06 µg/cm2 of each NMO or MWCNT, respectively, over 6 and 10 weeks, while saline- and dispersant-only exposed cells served as passage controls. After 6 weeks exposure, cells were evaluated for changes in several cancer hallmarks, including proliferation, invasion, morphological transformation, and soft agar colony formation, as evidence for neoplastic transformation. nCeO2-exposed cells showed increased proliferative capacity, while nFe2O3- or MWCNT-exposed cells showed diminished or negligible change, respectively. At 10 weeks, nFe2O3- and MWCNT-exposed cells, but not nCeO2-exposed cells, displayed a neoplastic-like transformation phenotype with significant increased proliferation, invasion and soft agar colony formation ability compared to controls. Isolated nFe2O3 and MWCNT clones from individually collected soft agar colonies retained their respective neoplastic-like phenotypes. Interestingly, nFe2O3-exposed cells, but not MWCNT cells, exhibited immortalization and retention of the neoplastic phenotype after repeated passaging (12 – 30 passages) and after cryofreeze and thawing. Further evaluation using high content screening and protein expression analyses in acute exposure ENM studies vs. immortalized nFe2O3 cells, and isolated ENM clones, suggested that long-term exposure to the tested ENMs resulted in iron homeostasis disruption, an increase in the intracellular labile ferrous iron pool and subsequent reactive oxygen species generation, a well-established tumorigenesis promotor. In conclusion, sub-chronic exposure to pSAECs with a cancer hallmark screening battery can potentially serve as a Tier I neoplastic transformation screening model for proposed ENM tiered carcinogenesis risk assessment.
... Krumov et al. showed that Cd is associated to a protein fraction between 25 and 67 kDa which correspond to the theoretical molecular weight of CdS nanoparticles of 35 kDa coated with PC by size exclusion chromatography [83]. However, contingent to their types and concentrations, any nanoparticles can pose a risk to human health and to the environment [84]. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are used in large quantities by the cosmetic, food and textile industries. ...
... Nevertheless, this is very important as the release from applications in models should be consistent with the characteristics of the ENM and its type of incorporation into a product. Researchers in the exposure assessment field should strive to improve assessments of the release potential for today's ENM applications (Nowack et al., 2013a). There is a need for coherent evaluation of release across the whole spectrum of contemporary applications because that spectrum is set to expand significantly in the future. ...
... Krumov et al. showed that Cd is associated to a protein fraction between 25 and 67 kDa which correspond to the theoretical molecular weight of CdS nanoparticles of 35 kDa coated with PC by size exclusion chromatography [83]. However, contingent to their types and concentrations, any nanoparticles can pose a risk to human health and to the environment [84]. Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnONPs) are used in large quantities by the cosmetic, food and textile industries. ...
Research
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Chapter of Book. Agricultural and Biological Sciences "Abiotic and Biotic Stress in Plants - Recent Advances and Future Perspectives", book edited by Arun K. Shanker and Chitra Shanker, ISBN 978-953-51-2250-0, Published: February 17, 2016 under CC BY 3.0 license. © The Author(s).
... The most frequent functions of SAS as E551 usually are anticaking agent, antifoaming agent or flow aid in powdered food, but it is also used for other applications during the food processing such as clarifying/fining agent in the juice, oil and brewery sector or as flavour/aroma carrier [1]. This widespread use increases the possibility of the occurrence of anthropogenic silica nanoparticles (NPs) in various environmental compartments [2] [3] and the agrifood sector has been identified as one of the main exposure vectors for both humans and environment [4]. SAS is produced synthetically by either a vapour-phase process yielding pyrogenic (or fumed) SAS, or by a wet process yielding precipitated silica or silica gel. ...
Article
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Synthetic amorphous silica (SAS) has been used as food additive under the code E551 for decades and the agrifood sector is considered a main exposure vector for humans and environment. However, there is still a lack of detailed methodologies for the determination of SAS' particle size and concentration. This work presents the detection and characterisation of NPs in eleven different food-grade SAS samples, following a reasoned and detailed sequential methodology. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Multiangle Light Scattering (MALS), Asymmetric Flow-Field Flow Fractionation (AF4), Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICPMS) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) were used. The suitability and limitations, information derived from each type of analytical technique and implications related to current EC Regulation 1169/2011 on the provision of food information to consumers are deeply discussed. In general the z-average, AF4 hydrodynamic diameters and root mean square (rms) radii measured were in good agreement. AF4-ICPMS coupling and pre channel calibration with silica NPs standards allowed the reliable detection of NPs below 100nm for ten of eleven samples (AF4 diameters between 20.6 and 39.8nm) and to quantify the mass concentration in seven different samples (at mgL−1 concentration level). TEM characterisation included the determination of the minimum detectable size and subsequent measurement of the equivalent circle diameter (ECD) of primary particles and small aggregates, which were between 10.3 and 20.3nm. Because of the dynamic size application range is limited by the minimum detectable size, all the techniques in this work can be used only as positive tests.
... However, the exposure and subsequent effects associated with nanomaterials due to the use of actual consumer products and/ or contact with the associated waste presents unknown health and environmental risks (Bradford et al. 2009;Keenan et al. 2009), which were virtually ignored through the first decade of the twenty-first century . At the same time, a great variety of nanotechnology-based consumer products are available in the market (Bekker et al. 2013;Gruère 2012;Nowack et al. 2012). The understanding of the potential for exposure to nanomaterials from such products and the resulting health effects are critical for the development of any safety regulations and guidelines (Drobne 2007;Frater et al. 2006;Schmid et al. 2009;Segal 2004;VanCalster 2006;Warheit et al. 2007), in order to properly regulate nanoproducts. ...
... The knowledge about the products that contain ENMs can be used in a life cycle perspective to evaluate the potential for release [5]. Such an evaluation has been performed by Nowack et al. [20] to assess the exposure potential from ten technology sectors for workers, consumers, and the environment. The exposure was rated with four levels from "unlikely" over "low" and "medium" to "high." ...
Chapter
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The aim of this chapter is to evaluate what information is needed in order to quantify the flows of ENM to the environment by reviewing the current state of knowledge. The life cycle thinking forms the basis of the evaluation. The first step in release assessment is the knowledge about the production and use of ENM. Data on production are crucial for the assessment, because they determine the maximal amount that could potentially be released. The different life cycles of products containing the ENM are determining the release potential. The knowledge about the product distribution is therefore key to release estimation. The three important life cycle steps that need to be considered are production/manufacturing, the use phase, and the end of life (EoL) treatment. Release during production and manufacturing to the environment may occur because large amounts of pure material are handled. During the use and EoL phase, experimental data from real-world release studies are preferred; however, in most cases release has been estimated or guessed based on standard knowledge about product use and behavior. The mass flows discussed in this chapter provide the input data to derive environmental concentrations needed for environmental risk assessment of ENM. The mass flows to the environment will also be needed for environmental fate models that are based on mechanistic description of the reactions and the behavior of the released ENM in environmental compartments such as water or soils.
... Nanomaterials are furthermore used in a wide range in paints and coatings, catalysts, solar and fuel cells, etc.(EC, 2012a) Table 7.1 Use of engineered nanomaterials takes place in, amongst others, the following sectors. (Gressler and al, 2012;Leppänen et al., 2012;Schlagenhauf et al., 2012;Nowack et al., 2013;Schutz and Morris, 2013) In the appendix, two figures are added that give an overview of the number of companies per sector in the Netherlands (Bekker et al., 2013). that produce or use nanomaterials, ...
Research
Innovation required in risk assessment of nanoparticles The currently existing models and techniques provide insufficient certainties in the assessment of the harmfulness of nanoparticles and nanomaterials to people and the environment. There are indications that some nanoparticles have harmful characteristics, but it is insufficiently clear why this is the case with these particular particles. Other nanoparticles do not give any reason for concern for the time being. This is the conclusion from an RIVM overview of the scientific knowledge about risk assessment concerning nanoparticles and nanomaterials and their applications. Nanoparticles are ultra-small particles with particular properties, providing unparalleled opportunities. They can strengthen materials and objects, improve the performance of solar cells or ensure drugs are targeted to a place in the body where they are needed. Promising properties As a result of these promising properties, major investments are made in nanotechnology and it is impossible to imagine life today without this technology. Nanoparticles have different properties and behave differently from the classic and larger building blocks in substances. New developments In order to assess the products that are currently being developed, risk assessment is carried out using the limited data available. In view of the pace of technological innovation, RIVM points out the necessity to pragmatically accelerate this risk assessment and invest in new approaches, such as safe innovation, in which the safety of a product is intrinsic to the innovative process. Reliable data about the behaviour of nanoparticles and nanomaterials, and knowledge to predict their properties, are of crucial importance for a risk assessment to be satisfactory in the long term. Additional attention is required for the next generations of nanomaterials – such as self-organising materials – because the development of knowledge about these particles and materials is still in its infancy.
... The types of products where engineered nanomaterials may be or are used include cosmetics and personal care products, nutritional supplements and drugs, household and industrial use chemicals and antiseptics, all of which may be in the form of liquids or powders and can be easily dispersed into the air. [6][7][8][9][10][11][12] Another category of nanotechnology-based products is solid products which cannot be dispersed, for example, electronics and equipment, structural materials, apparel, etc. ...
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This study provides quantitative assessment of inhalation exposure and deposited aerosol dose in the 14 nm to 20 µm particle size range based on the aerosol measurements conducted during realistic usage simulation of five nanotechnology-based and five regular spray products matching the nano-products by purpose of application. The products were also examined using transmission electron microscopy. For seven out of ten sprays, the highest inhalation exposure was observed for the coarse (2.5 – 10 µm) particles while being minimal or below the detection limit for the remaining three sprays. Nanosized aerosol particles (14 – 100 nm) were released, which resulted in low, but measurable inhalation exposures from all the investigated consumer sprays. Eight out of ten products produced high total deposited aerosol doses on the order of 101 – 103 ng/kg bw/application, ~85 – 88% of which were in the head airways and only <10% in the alveolar region and <8% in the tracheobronchial region. One nano and one regular spray produced substantially lower total deposited doses (by 2 – 4 orders of magnitude less), only ~52 – 64% of which were in the head while ~29 – 40% in the alveolar region. The electron microscopy data showed nanosized objects in some products not labeled as nanotechnology-based and conversely did not find nano-objects in some nano-sprays. We found no correlation between nano-object presence and abundance as per the electron microscopy and the determined inhalation exposures and deposited doses. The findings of this study and the reported quantitative exposure data will be valuable for the manufacturers of nanotechnology-based consumer sprays to minimize inhalation exposure from their products, as well as the regulators focusing on protecting the public health.
... Despite the potential commercial advantages, it has been recognized that exposure to ZnONPs may pose a risk to human health (Rohrs, 1957;Schilling et al., 2010) and to the environment (Colvin, 2003;Nowack et al., 2013). The harmful effects of ZnONPs are driven by their physicochemical properties (dissolution and formation rate, the morphology and chemical composition, surface reactivity, particle number) and the resulting physical damage caused by the aggregation and agglomeration of nanoparticles (Jiang et al., 2009;Bai et al., 2010;Zhang et al., 2010). ...
... Although the length and stiffness of CNTs clearly play a central role in CNT-associated biological effects (Donaldson et al., 2010;Murphy et al., 2011Murphy et al., , 2012, many CNT samples are bundled/ entangled and it is these that are most likely to be used (commonly within a polymer matrix; Robert et al., 2012) in their associated application(s) (Robertson, 2004). Therefore, in these forms, CNTs could (potentially) be exposed to humans during their life cycle (either through accidental or occupational exposure) (Donaldson et al., 2006;Nowack et al., 2012). ...
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To determine the potential inhalatory risk posed by carbon nanotubes (CNTs) a tier-based approach beginning with an in vitro assessment must be adopted. The purpose of this study therefore was to compare four commonly used in vitro systems of the human lung (human blood monocyte derived macrophages (MDM) and dendritic cells (MDDC), 16HBE14o- epithelial cells and a sophisticated triple cell co-culture model (TCC-C)) via assessment of the biological impact of different CNTs (single- and multi-walled CNTs (SWCNTs and MWCNTs)) over 24 hrs. No significant cytotoxicity was observed with any of the cell types tested, although a significant (p<0.05), dose-dependent increase in tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α following SWCNT and MWCNT exposure at concentrations up to 0.02 mg.mL(-1) to MDM, MDDC and the TCC-C was found. The concentration of TNF-α released by the MDM and MDDC was significantly higher (p<0.05) than the TCC-C. Significant increases (p<0.05) in interleukin (IL)-8 were also found for both 16HBE14o- epithelial cells and the TCC-C after SWCNTs and MWCNTs exposure up to 0.02 mg.mL(-1). The TCC-C however, elicited a significantly (p<0.05) higher IL-8 release than the epithelial cells. The oxidative potential of both SWCNTs and MWCNTs ([0.005-0.02 mg.mL(-1)]) measured by reduced glutathione (GSH) content showed a significant difference (p<0.05) between each monoculture and the TCC-C. It was concluded that since only the co-culture system could assess each endpoint adequately, that, in comparison to monoculture systems, multi-cellular systems that take into consideration important cell type-to-cell type interactions could be used as predictive in vitro screening tools for determining the potential deleterious effects associated with CNTs.
Chapter
In recent years, nanocellulose and its applications gain high attraction in both research and industrial areas due to its attractive properties such as excellent mechanical properties, high surface area, rich hydroxyl groups for modification, and natural properties with 100% environmental friendliness. This has inevitably lead to an increased release of nanocellulose into the environment. Though nanocellulose is largely regarded as non-toxic, knowledge gaps surrounding its impacts on the environment and human health still exist and data remains scarce. The present work provides a framework to determine health risks of nanocellulose exposure. The work will provide a helping hand for the regulatory agencies so that current guidelines can be modified to reduce the adverse effects of nanocellulose.
Chapter
The high volume use of carbon nanotubes (CNTs)in industrial, biomedical and consumer product sectors highlights the potential for environmental contamination and a need for generating reliable data on their fate, transport, and biotoxicity. Understanding such data is needed to better evaluate the environmental impacts and potential health effects of CNTs on relevant species. As aquatic systems are a reservoir for contaminants, assessing the potential adverse effects on aquatic organisms is of primaryconcern. CNT toxicity to aquatic species has mainly focused on outcomes that include mortality, growth, reproduction, and in some cases behavior with limited investigations that focus on mechanisms of action. While oxidativestress and genotoxicity are common mechanisms that have been probed, alternate and less traditional mechanisms have emerged. This chapter summarizes research studies that have explored the toxicity of CNTs to invertebrate and vertebrateaquatic species at various doses and through aqueous and dietary exposureroutes. A review of both traditional toxicity endpoints and unique mechanisms that include nutrient depletion, immune modulation, and a role for co‐contaminants will be described, along with identified gaps and future perspectives. Finally, the development of new horizon nanomaterials, such as hybrids of carbon and metal nanoparticles, will be introduced, highlighting new mechanisticchallenges in understanding toxicity pathways in aquatic species.
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Soil contamination refers to a decrease in soil quality because of the entry of heavy metals, petroleum compounds, and metalloids, which in turn will cause soil loss. Therefore the subject of soil contamination must be addressed urgently. Many methods have been used, including excavation and tillage, soil washing, ion exchange, oxidation reduction, incineration, solvent extraction, heat dissipation, reverse osmosis, encapsulation, and phytoremediation, to deal with soil contamination. However, many of them are less studied due to being time consuming, having high costs, with limited use area, harmful side effects, and low efficiency. Therefore they are not currently the best tool for addressing environmental pollution issues. At present, the quick advancement of nanotechnology and the widespread use of nanomaterials in soil remediation have opened a new path for soil remediation. Though nanoparticles have useful functions, there are concerns about what happens to the environment and ecosystems after they are released (environmental hazards). Hence, it is essential to assess the suitable risk assessment of such products along with appropriate risk-related measures.
Article
The increased use of polymer nanocomposites in different applications could lead to potential nanofiller release into different human and environmental compartments and consequently, increase the exposure of human and environmental species to nanomaterials. This study aims at determining how the inclusion of nanofillers with diverse chemical nature (SiO2, TiO2, ZnO, multiwalled carbon nanotubes and two nano-organoclays) in polyamide 6 composites influences the nanomaterial release during the use of these products. The different nanocomposites were exposed to accelerated ageing processes, simulating outdoor conditions, through irradiation with UV light under a combination of dry-wet cycles. Release monitoring consisted of nanocomposites characterisation, run-off waters collection and released materials quantification and characterisation. The study confirmed that the chemical surface nature of the nanofiller strongly impacts on polymer degradation, in some cases enhancing its protection and in others promoting polyamide hydrolysis and/or photo-degradation processes. Polymer degradation and nanomaterial-polymer compatibility are the main determinants for the release and consequent exposure to nanofillers.
Article
Gold nanorods (AuNRs) are promising nanoscale materials for several technological and biomedical applications. The physicochemical properties of AuNRs, including size, shape and surface features, are crucial factors affecting their cytotoxicity. In this study, we investigated the effects of different aspect ratios of AuNRs (1.90, 2.35, 3.25 and 3.50) at concentrations of 2 and 10 μg.mL⁻¹ on their cytotoxicity and cellular uptake in green algae Raphidocelis subcaptata. The experiment was performed in oligotrophic freshwater medium in a growth chamber with constant agitation of 80 rpm under controlled conditions (120 μEm⁻²s⁻¹ illumination; 12:12h light dark cycle and constant temperature of 22+2 ºC). The algal growth was monitored daily for 96 h via electronic absorbance scanning at 600-750 nm. Oxidative stress, cell viability and autofluorescence were evaluated using a flow cytometer. Oxidative stress quantified by loading cultures with the fluorescent dye 2’, 7’-dichlorofluorescein diacetate. To assess algal cell viability, propidium iodide was selected as the fluorescent probe. Our results indicated that the aspect ratio of AuNRs mediates their biological effects in green algae R. subcaptata. A positive correlation between oxidative stress and increase of aspect ratio was found at concentration of 10 μg.mL⁻¹. Higher cytotoxicity and mortality were observed for algae incubated with higher aspect ratios AuNRs (3.50). These findings may be useful to understand the impact of the AuNRs in aquatic environments, contributing to ecosystem management and nanomaterials regulation.
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Background/aim: Due to nanomaterials? potential benefits for diagnosis and treatment, they are widely used in medical applications and personal care products. Interaction of nanomaterials, which are very small in size, with tissue, cell and microenvironment, can reveal harmful effects that cannot be created with chemically identical and larger counterparts in biological organisms. In this review, a challenge for future medicine, nanotoxicity of nanomaterials is discussed. Method: A detailed review of related literature was performed and evaluated as per medical applications of nanomaterials their toxicity. Results and conclusion: Most authors state ?the only valid technology will be nanotechnology in the next era?; however, there is no consensus on the impact of this technology on humankind, environment and ecological balance. Studies dealing with the toxic effect of nanomaterials on human health have also varied with developing technology. Nanotoxicology studies such as in-vivo-like on 3D human organs, cells, advanced genetic studies, and -omic approaches begin to replace conventional methods. Nanotoxicity and adverse effects of nanomaterials in exposed producers, industry workers, and patients make nanomaterials a double-edged sword for future medicine. In order to control and tackle related risks, regulation and legislations should be implemented, and researchers have to conduct joint multidisciplinary studies in various fields of medical sciences, nanotechnology, nanomedicine, and biomedical engineering.
Article
Nanomaterials have been widely used in a wide range of manufactured products in order to improve / add new properties. Photocatalytic cement maintains clean and white wall fronts and also provide interesting air pollution-reducing properties due to photocatalytic activity of incorporated TiO2-NMs. However, despite these environmental benefits, there is evidence of the release of TiO2-NMs during cement use. Therefore, it is crucial to understand the parameters controlling TiO2-NMs release. Zêta potentials of TiO2-NMs were investigated from the unaltered core to the cement altered surface using simulated cement pore waters. The mineralogy and chemical composition of the altered layer were investigated using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and micro X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (micro-XRF). Finally, pore network morphology was fully analyzed using X-ray computed tomography at both micro and nano-scales (micro and nano-CT) and quantified using 3D morphological software (i-Morph). This study provides evidence that the TiO2-NMs release comes from a very thin “active surface layer” (thickness less than 20 µm) where both cement surface chemistry and the pore network appears to be favorable for the TiO2-NMs diffusion. The pore volume connected to the surface with a throat size ≥1016 nm appears to control and be used as a predictor for TiO2-NMs release.
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Environmental impact assessments of engineered nanomaterials can be hampered by the lack of data/information and thus delay the development of effective regulatory policies. To address this issue, a systematic approach (termed here “IANano”) was developed and demonstrated for assessing information availability for environmental impact assessment (EIA) of engineered nanomaterials. In IANano, following the typical EIA process, the required information elements for exposure and hazard potential assessments are classified based on major categories, sub-categories, and attributes. Scores for the different information attributes are then assigned, based on a selected scoring scale and weights, and aggregated up to the level of exposure and hazard potential information (EPI and hazard potential information [HPI], respectively), considering both available and unavailable information, via the Dempster-Shafer algorithm. The utility of IANano was demonstrated for several specific EIA scenarios for nano-TiO2, nano-Cu-CuO, and nano-ZnO. For the three nanomaterials, in each of the different EIA scenarios, the EPI scores were lower than the HPI scores, consistent with the more abundant information available for hazard attributes. For nano-TiO2, the exposure potential information (EPI) scores were in the range of 0.33–0.72 and higher by 60–50% and 42–46% relative to nano-Cu-CuO and nano-ZnO, respectively, for all EIA scenarios. For the scenario of direct release of engineered nanomaterials to the aquatic environment, the HPI scores for nano-Cu-CuO and nano-ZnO were greater by factors of 2.6 and 1.3, respectively, relative to the EPI scores. Results of the present study suggest that information screening, as illustrated via IANano, can be valuable for ranking the adequacy of the available information for conducting specific EIAs and for identifying information needs.
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Computational approaches have been suggested as an informative tool for risk assessment of nanomaterials. Nano (quantitative) structure-activity relationship, nano-(Q)SAR, models have been developed to predict toxicity of metal oxide (MOx) nanoparticles (NPs); however, the packing structure and cluster of nanoparticle have been included for the descriptor calculation in only two studies. This study proposed spherical cluster and hydroxyl metal coordination complex to calculate descriptors for development of nanoparticle cytotoxicity classification model. The model cluster was generated from metal (M) or MOx crystal structure to calculate physicochemical properties of M/MOx NPs and the hydroxyl metal coordination complex was used to calculate the properties of the metal cation in an aqueous environment. Data were collected for 2 M and 19 MOx NPs in human bronchial epithelial cell lines and murine myeloid cell lines at 100 μg/ml after 24 hours exposure. The model was developed with scaled HOMO energy of the model cluster and polarizability of the hydroxyl metal coordination complex, as reactivity of the particles and the cations explained cause of cytotoxic action by M/MOx NPs. As the developed model achieved 90.31% accuracy, the classification model in this work can be used for virtual screening of toxic action of M/MOx NPs.
Chapter
The first years in the twenty-first century have meant the inclusion of nanotechnology in most industrial sectors, from very specific sensors to construction materials. The increasing use of nanomaterials in consumer products has raised concerns about their potential risks for workers, consumers and the environment. In a comprehensive risk assessment or life cycle assessment, a life cycle schema is the starting point necessary to build up the exposure scenarios and study the processes and mechanisms driving to safety concerns. This book chapter describes the processes that usually occur at all the stages of the life cycle of the nano-enabled product, from the nanomaterial synthesis to the end-of-life of the products. Furthermore, release studies reported in literature related to these processes are briefly discussed.
Chapter
This chapter presents the current regulatory basis, as well as available guidance and recommendations for human health risk assessment of nanomaterials (NMs). It builds on the traditional risk assessment framework with main focus on the challenges and a view to future developments in hazard, exposure, and risk assessment/characterization. The global dimensions of Nanotechnology require international standardization, coordination, and harmonization that go beyond national regulations, and the main roles are played by the OECD and ISO. The detection of NMs in organs/biological tissues and studying their absorption, distribution deposition, and/or elimination is usually very challenging. International collaboration in research is one important part of Horizon 2020 and it is already one of the key activities of the NanoSafety Cluster. For the workplace, elaborate exposure measurements, including real-time particle monitoring, offline physicochemical analysis, and electron microscopy, are usually required to assess both the emission of NMs and potential exposure.
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Ultrafine particles are airborne particulates of less than 100 nm in aerodynamic diameter. Examples of ultrafine particles are diesel exhaust particles, products of cooking, heating and wood burning in indoor environments, and more recently, products generated through the use of nanotechnology. Studies have shown that ambient ultrafine particles have detrimental effects on both the cardiovascular and respiratory systems, including a higher incidence of atherosclerosis and the exacerbation rate of asthma. Ultrafine particles have been found to alter in vitro and in vivo responses of the immune system to allergens and may also play a role in allergen sensitization. The inflammatory properties of ultrafine particles may be mediated by a number of different mechanisms, including the ability to produce reactive oxygen species, leading to the generation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and airway inflammation. In addition, because of their small size, ultrafine particles also have unique distribution characteristics in the respiratory tree and circulation and may be able to alter cellular function in ways that circumvent normal signaling pathways. Additionally, ultrafine particles can penetrate intracellularly and potentially cause DNA damage. The recent advances in nanotechnology, while opening up new opportunities for the advancement of technology and medicine, could also lead to unforeseen adverse health effects in exposed humans. Further research is needed to clarify the safety of nanoscale particles, as well as the elucidation of the possible beneficial use of these particulates to treat disease.
Article
The incorporation of small amounts of nanofillers in polymeric matrices has enabled new applications in several industrial sectors. The nanofillers dispersion can be improved by modifying the nanomaterials (NMs) surface or pre-dispersing them to enhance compatibility. This study evaluates the effect of these compatibilization strategies on migration/release of the nanofiller and transformation of polyamide-6 (PA6), a thermoplastic polymer widely used in industry during simulated outdoors use. Two nanocomposites (NCs) containing SiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) with different surface properties and two MWCNT NCs obtained by different addition methods were produced and characterized, before and after accelerated wet aging conditions. Octyl-modified SiO2 NPs, though initially more aggregated than uncoated SiO2 NPs, reduced PA6 hydrolysis and, consequently, NM release. Although no clear differences in dispersion were observed between the two types of MWCNT NCs (masterbatch vs. direct addition) after manufacture, the use of MWCNT masterbatch reduced PA6 degradation during aging, preventing MWCNT accumulation on the surface and further release or potential exposure by direct contact. The amounts of NM released were lower for MWCNT (36 and 108 mg/m2) than for SiO2NP (167 and 730 mg/m2), being lower in those samples where the NC was designed to improve the nanofiller-matrix interaction. Hence, this study shows that optimal compatibilization between NM-matrix can improve NC performance, reducing polymer degradation and exposure and/or release of the nanofiller.
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Engineered nanomaterials have been a focus of intense interest since the late 1990s, but in their simplest form they are just one example of an increasing array of advanced materials currently being researched, developed, and incorporated into a diverse range of products. These represent increasingly complex "designer materials" that are enabling the development of novel products and providing new solutions to the many pressing challenges that individuals, and society as a whole, are facing. However, their novelty raises important questions surrounding potential short- and long-term health and environmental impact. Without systematic approaches to addressing the potential health and environmental risks presented by advanced materials more generally, there is a danger of unforeseen impacts from naïve development and use at one end of the spectrum, and lost opportunities through over-cautious development driven by fear of unknown risks at the other. Rather, approaches are needed that guide the responsible use of advanced materials that minimize potential risks, while enabling the social, environmental, and economic benefits to be fully realized. © 2014 Matthew S. Hull and Diana M. Bowman Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Chapter
Nanomaterials release quantification and characterization is crucial for risk assessment studies, and experimental simulation studies provide the most concrete basis for estimating the release of nanomaterials in any stage of its life cycle. Nanomaterials are used in a broad range of applications, in different forms (embedded, as coatings, suspended, etc.) and with different size ranges. With all these variables, the number of scenarios where release of nanomaterials could occur is huge. In this chapter, we aim to review use-phase release scenarios that are usually considered in the literature, as well as the results of such studies and the protocols used for product ageing and for nanomaterial quantification and characterization. Finally, we point out the gaps in nanomaterials release studies and identify future research needs.
Article
Exposure assessment is a critical step in the toolbox of the occupation health and safety risk management strategy. It is even more relevant in the case of new contaminants as engineered nanomaterials since it allows identifying sectors of activity and tasks where efforts are needed in order to minimize risks for health and safety. This chapter starts with a review of possible situations of workplace exposures to nanomaterials. It follows with a description of methods available for assessing occupational exposures to nanomaterials. Results of studies and measurements of workplace exposure in production, downstream manipulation, use as input material or tool for further processing, and at end of life are then presented. They showed in some instances the release of free nanoparticles, which may induce potential risks for workers. In general, good work practices were found to be efficient for reducing risk of exposure to nanomaterials. This chapter also describes strategies and tools proposed to reduce occupational exposure to engineered nanomaterials, and discusses the challenges faced by professionals and researchers involved in. It ends with a list of international initiatives and future trends in that domain.
Article
One sector where the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) is supposed to offer novel or improved functionalities is the construction industry. During the renovation or demolition of buildings, ENMs contained in former construction materials will enter recycling systems or become construction waste. Currently, information about ENM flows in these processes is insufficient. The potential for the release of ENMs from this waste into the environment is unknown, as are the environmental impacts. To evaluate whether there is currently any nano-relevant construction and demolition waste (C&DW) originating from buildings, we evaluated the sources and flows of ENMs in C&DW and identified their potential exposure pathways. A survey of business representatives of Swiss companies in this sector found that ENMs are mainly used in paints and cement. The most frequently used ENMs in the Swiss housing construction industry are nano-TiO2, nano-SiO2, nano-ZnO, and nano-Ag. Using a bottom-up, semi-quantitative approach, we estimated the flows of ENMs contained in paints along the product's life cycle from buildings to recycling and landfill. The flows of ENMs are determined by their associated flows of building materials. We estimated an annual amount of ENMs used in paints of 14t of TiO2, 12t of SiO2, 5t of ZnO, and 0.2t of Ag. The majority of ENMs contained in paints in Switzerland enter recycling systems (23t/y), a smaller amount is disposed directly in landfills (7t/y), and a tiny fraction of ENM waste is incinerated (0.01t/y). Our results allow a qualitative determination of the potential release of ENMs into technical or environmental compartments, with the highest potential release expected during recycling. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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An assessment of the influence of water nanosilver suspension was made at a concentration of 10 mg·L1 on biological material (i.e., vegetative mycelium and conidia of Isaria fumosorosea entomopathogen) on a background of the silver nitrate ionic form used. Conidia of I. fumosorosea treated with silver nitrate for more than 168 h were completely deactivated. The application of nanosilver on Isaria hyphae resulted in a quantitative limitation of mycelium growth and its weaker sporulation after culturing compared to the control. The pathogenicity of a conidial suspension obtained from such culturing toward test insects did not diverge from that observed in the standard culture. No obvious toxic effects of nanosilver were observed on I. fumosorosea conidia. Isaria conidia, after exposure to nanosilver over a period between 1 and 800 h, initially demonstrated weaker vegetative mycelium formation in culture on solid medium and, as a consequence, this mycelium often sporulated in a poorer manner. In one case, there was a significant stimulation of the sporulation process for nanosilver treatment before culture for 168 h. Concurrently, conidial suspensions obtained from the culture after exposure of over 168 h to nanosilver exhibited enhanced pathogenicity toward test insects, which may be considered a beneficial phenomenon in terms of the function played by Isaria in the whole environment. The reaction of conidia with nanosilver indicates the deactivation of conidia cells in suspensions and a possibility of selection in increased pathogenicity.
Article
This literature review assesses the current state of knowledge about inhalation exposure to airborne, engineered nanoparticles in the indoor environment. We present principal exposure scenarios in indoor environments, complemented by analysis of the published literature and of an inventory of nanotechnology-enhanced consumer products. Of all products listed in the inventory, 10.8% (194 products) present the potential for aerosolization of nanomaterials and subsequent inhalation exposure during use or misuse. Among those, silver-containing products are the most prevalent (68 products). Roughly 50% of products would release wet aerosols and 50% would potentially release dry aerosols. Approximately 14% are cleaning products that can be broadly used in public indoor environments, where building occupants may be exposed. While a variety of nanomaterial compositions have been investigated in the limited number of published release and exposure studies, we identified a need for studies investigating nanofibers (beyond carbon nanotubes), nanofilms, nanoplatelets, and other emerging nanomaterials such as ceria and their nanocomposites. Finally, we provide recommendations for future research to advance the understanding of exposure to airborne nanomaterials indoors, such as studies into indoor chemistry of nanomaterials, better nanomaterial reporting and labeling in consumer products, and safer design of nanomaterial-containing consumer products.
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Cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) exhibit advantageous chemical and mechanical properties that render them attractive for a wide range of applications. During the life-cycle of CNC containing materials the nanocrystals could be released and become airborne, posing a potential inhalatory exposure risk towards humans. Absent reliable and dose-controlled models that mimic this exposure in situ is a central issue in gaining an insight into the CNC-lung interaction. Here, an Air Liquid Interface Cell Exposure system (ALICE), previously designed for studies of spherical nanoparticles, was used for the first time to establish a realistic physiological exposure test method for inhaled fiber shaped nano-objects; in this case, CNCs isolated from cotton. Applying a microscopy based approach the spatially homogenous deposition of CNCs was demonstrated as a prerequisite of the functioning of the ALICE. Furthermore, reliability and controllability of the system to nebulise high aspect ratio nanomaterials (HARN, e.g. CNCs) was shown. This opens the potential to thoroughly investigate the inhalatory risk of CNCs in vitro using a realistic exposure system.
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The increasing consumption of products containing nanomaterials that can be currently observed and forecasts of new developments and applications fan the fear of individuals and organizations regarding new risks to health. Considering experiences gained from previous technology developments, such fears are not completely unfounded. But are they really justified? And is it justified, moreover, to speak of "nanotoxicology" as a new discipline? This Review seeks to cast light on the phenomena that may occur as nanoobjects interact with cells, tissues, and organisms. Furthermore, we will demonstrate that the many data made available on the biological effects of nanomaterials do not always come from studies that can be considered reliable. We will point out the aspect of reliability with specific examples from the literature and will not address specific (nano)materials. In particular, inadequate methods will be described together with recommendations how to avoid this in the future, thereby contributing to a sustainable improvement of the available data.
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A review of current and projected nanotechnology-derived food ingredients, food additives and food contact materials is presented in relation to potential implications for consumer safety and regulatory controls. Nanotechnology applications are expected to bring a range of benefits to the food sector, including new tastes, textures and sensations, less use of fat, enhanced absorption of nutrients, improved packaging, traceability and security of food products. The review has shown that nanotechnology-derived food and health food products are set to grow worldwide and, moreover, a variety of food ingredients, additives, carriers for nutrients/supplements and food contact materials is already available in some countries. The current level of applications in the European food sector is at an elementary stage; however, it is widely expected that more and more products will be available in the EU over the coming years. The toxicological nature of hazard, likelihood of exposure and risk to consumers from nanotechnology-derived food/food packaging are largely unknown and this review highlights major gaps in knowledge that require further research. A number of uncertainties and gaps in relevant regulatory frameworks have also been identified and ways of addressing them proposed.
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The emerging literature on the ecotoxicity of nanoparticles and nanomaterials is summarised, then the fundamental physico-chemistry that governs particle behaviour is explained in an ecotoxicological context. Techniques for measuring nanoparticles in various biological and chemical matrices are also outlined. The emerging ecotoxicological literature shows toxic effects on fish and invertebrates, often at low mg l(-1) concentrations of nanoparticles. However, data on bacteria, plants, and terrestrial species are particularly lacking at present. Initial data suggest that at least some manufactured nanoparticles may interact with other contaminants, influencing their ecotoxicity. Particle behaviour is influenced by particle size, shape, surface charge, and the presence of other materials in the environment. Nanoparticles tend to aggregate in hard water and seawater, and are greatly influenced by the specific type of organic matter or other natural particles (colloids) present in freshwater. The state of dispersion will alter ecotoxicity, but many abiotic factors that influence this, such as pH, salinity, and the presence of organic matter remain to be systematically investigated as part of ecotoxicological studies. Concentrations of manufactured nanoparticles have rarely been measured in the environment to date. Various techniques are available to characterise nanoparticles for exposure and dosimetry, although each of these methods has advantages and disadvantages for the ecotoxicologist. We conclude with a consideration of implications for environmental risk assessment of manufactured nanoparticles.
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Exposure assessment is crucial for risk assessment for nanomaterials. We propose a framework to aid exposure assessment in consumer products. We determined the location of the nanomaterials and the chemical identify of the 580 products listed in the inventory maintained by the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, of which 37% used nanoparticles suspended in liquids, whereas <1% contained "free airborne nanoparticles". C(60) is currently only used as suspended nanoparticles in liquids and nanosilver is used more as surface bound nanoparticles than as particles suspended in liquids. Based on the location of the nanostructure we were able to further group the products into categories of: (1) expected, (2) possible, and (3) no expected exposure. Most products fall into the category of expected exposure, but we were not able to complete a quantitative exposure assessment mainly due to the lack of information on the concentration of the nanomaterial in the products--a problem that regulators and industry will have to address if we are to have realistic exposure assessment in the future. To illustrate the workability of our procedure, we applied it to four product scenarios using the best estimates available and/or worst-case assumptions. Using the best estimates available and/or worst-case assumptions we estimated the consumer exposure to be 26, 15, and 44 microg kg(-1) bw year(-1) for a facial lotion, a fluid product, and a spray product containing nanoparticles, respectively. The application of sun lotion containing 2% nanoparticles result in an exposure of 56.7 mg kg(-1) bw d(-1) for a 2-year-old child, if the amounts applied correspond to the European Commission recommendations on use of sunscreen.
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Whilst the global players in industry are rapidly moving forward to take advantage of the new opportunities and prospects offered by nanotechnologies, it is imperative that such developments take place in a safe and sustainable manner. The increasing use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) in consumer products has raised certain concerns over their safety to human health and the environment. There are currently a number of major uncertainties and knowledge gaps in regard to behavior, chemical and biological interactions and toxicological properties of ENMs. As dealing with these uncertainties will require the generation of new basic knowledge, it is unlikely that they will be resolved in the immediate future. One has to consider the whole life cycle of nanoproducts to ensure that possible impacts can be systematically discovered. For example, life cycle assessment (LCA) - a formalized life cycle concept - may be used to assess the relative environmental sustainability performance of nanoproducts in comparison with their conventional equivalents. Other less formalized life cycle concepts in the framework of prospective technology assessment may uncover further detailed and prospective knowledge for human and environmental exposure to ENMs during the life cycle of nanoproducts. They systematically reveal impacts such as cross product contamination or dissipation of scarce materials among others. The combination of different life cycle concepts with the evolving knowledge from toxicology and risk assessment can mitigate uncertainties and can provide an early basis for informed decision making by the industry and regulators.
Nanotoxicology Downloaded from informahealthcare.com by University of Calgary on 09
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  •  B Available
  • Nowack
Supplementary material available online  B. Nowack et al. Nanotoxicology Downloaded from informahealthcare.com by University of Calgary on 09/16/13 For personal use only.