Asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy: evaluation of reagent strips in comparison to microbiological culture
Screening for asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy, the major risk factor for symptomatic urinary tract infection during pregnancy have been recommended. This cross sectional study was conducted to determine prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in Ibadan and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy and relative cost effectiveness of dipstick tests for nitrite and leucocyte esterase in comparison to laboratory culture. Two hundred and five patients, presenting for their first antenatal visit at the University College Hospital, Ibadan, participated in the study. Urine samples obtained from the participants were subjected to two tests; reagent dipstick test for nitrite and leucocyte esterase and routine laboratory culture, which is the gold standard for diagnosis. Main outcome measures were sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values of the reagent dipstick tests as well as likelihood ratios. The prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy with routine laboratory culture and using combined leucocyte esterase and nitrite strip tests were 10.7% and 11.7% respectively. Compared with laboratory culture, combined strip tests had sensitivity, specificity and negative predictive values of 50%, 92.9% and 93.9% respectively, indicating a statistically significant lower level of accuracy (P < 0.05). The corresponding likelihood ratios for positive and negative strip tests (LR+ and LR-) were 7 and 0.5 respectively. The study concludes that combined Leucocyte esterase-nitrite dipstick test is not sufficiently sensitive and specific to be used for routine screening of bacteriuria in pregnancy in place of laboratory culture, though may be more cost effective in low resource settings.
Available from: Nicole M Gilbert
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ABSTRACT: The urinary tract is a common site of infection in humans. During pregnancy, urinary tract infection (UTI) is associated with increased risks of maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, even when the infection is asymptomatic. By mapping available rates of UTI in pregnancy across different populations, we emphasize this as a problem of global significance. Many countries with high rates of preterm birth and neonatal mortality also have rates of UTI in pregnancy that exceed rates seen in more developed countries. A global analysis of the etiologies of UTI revealed familiar culprits as well as emerging threats. Screening and treatment of UTI have improved birth outcomes in several more developed countries and would likely improve maternal and neonatal health worldwide. However, challenges of implementation in resource-poor settings must be overcome. We review the nature of the barriers occurring at each step of the screening and treatment pipeline and highlight steps necessary to overcome these obstacles. It is our hope that the information compiled here will increase awareness of the global significance of UTI in maternal and neonatal health and embolden governments, nongovernmental organizations, and researchers to do their part to make urine screening and UTI treatment a reality for all pregnant women.
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ABSTRACT: Asymptomatic bacteriuria is a common finding. Inappropriate antimicrobial treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria has been identified as a major issue for antimicrobial stewardship programs. This review summarizes and evaluates recent studies which extend our knowledge of the occurrence, management, and outcomes of bacteriuria.
The reported prevalence of bacteriuria is higher in some developing countries than generally reported for developed countries, but reasons for this remain unclear. Clinical studies of young women, renal transplant patients, and patients undergoing minor nontraumatic urologic procedures confirm that treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria for these populations is not beneficial, and may be harmful. There is also no benefit for treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria prior to orthopedic surgery to decrease postoperative surgical site infection. Studies continue to report substantial inappropriate antimicrobial use for treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria.
Recent publications confirm that asymptomatic bacteriuria is benign in most patients. Management strategies for pregnant women with recurrent bacteriuria require further clarification. There is a continuing problem with inappropriate treatment of asymptomatic bacteriuria, and sustainable strategies to optimize antimicrobial use for this problem are needed.
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